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Lecture notes on Unconventional machining process

The working principle of USM:

In USM, a tool of desired shape vibrates at an ultrasonic frequency (19 25 KHz) with an amplitude of around 15 50 um over the working piece. Generally the tool is pressed down word with a feed force F, between the tool and work piece. The machining zone is flooded with the abrasive slurry. As tool vibrates over the work piece, the abrasive particles acts as the indenters intend both the work piece and the tool, which would erode the base material, the machining process takes place. The factors affecting the MRR: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Grain size Abrasive material Abrasive grain size Work piece impact hardness. Concentration of slurry Amplitude of vibration Frequency of vibration.

The types of transducers: 1) Magnetostriction effect 2) Piezo electric effect 3) Electro strive effect The types of concentrators: 1) Cone type 2) Exponential type 3) Stepped type What is the purpose of concentrators? The main purpose of concentrators is to increase multi fold of the amplitude of the vibration obtained from the transducers.

Different feed mechanism: 1) gravity feed mechanism 2) spring loaded feed mechanism 3) Pneumatic or hydraulic feed mechanism. Applications: Used for machining hard & brittle metallic alloys, semiconductors, glass, ceramic, carbide etc.. Limitations: 1) Low MRR. 2) High tool wear 3) Low depth of hole.

Abrasive jet machining


Working principle of AJM: In AJM process, high speed stream of abrasive particles mixed with air or gas are injected through a nozzle, thus hitting the work piece directly. The material removal is happening by the repetitive impact of the abrasive mix. Due to repetitive impact of the abrasive small chips of material gets loosened and a fresh surface is exposed.

Schematic diagram of Abrasive jet machining process:

The machine consists of the following parts; 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Abrasive mix tank. Nozzle. Hopper. Compressor. Vibrating device.

Different types of gases: 1) Nitrogen 2) CO2 3) Compressed air.

Abrasive particles: 1) 2) 3) 4) Aluminum oxide. Silicon carbide. Glass powder. Sodium bi carbonate.

Nozzle material: 1) Tungsten carbide (life: 12 20 hrs). 2) Ceramic (300 hrs). Working arrangement of AJM (fig.3) The abrasive material feed rate is controlled by a vibrating mechanism and coprocessor. To control the size and shape, either work piece or nozzle is moved by a cam mechanism or pantograph mechanism The gas is pressurized by a compressor The pressure of gas will be from 2kg/ cm to 8kg/ cm. The abrasive is fed into the m/c through a hopper to the mixing chamber. The mixture is fed into the nozzle with a velocity of 300m/ sec. The tank is supported by a vibrating mechanism to control the flow of the mixture.

Applications: The AJM is generally used for machining: 1) Hard & brittle materials. 2) Non metallic material like glass, ceramics, mica, semicondectors and quartz., 3) Can also be used for cutting Diamond, using diamond slurry. Process parameters which affect the MRR: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Mass flow rate. Abrasive grain size. Gas pressure. Velocity of abrasive mixture. Mixing ratio. Nozzle tip clearance( standoff distance -SOD )

Explanation of each category: 1`.Mass flow rate: 2. Abrasive grain size Abrasive size Al.oxide 2, 10, 20, 50 microns. Silicon carbide 25, 50 Glass powder 0.3, 0.6 Dolomite 200 grit size.

3. Gas pressure: The MRR increases with gas pressure.

4) velocity of abrasive material: The MRR increases with the velocity of slurry.

5. Mixing ratio: Mixing ratio = mass flow rate of abrasive / mass flow rate of gas. 6. Nozzle tip clearance: The clearance between the nozzle and the work piece has influence on the dia. of the hole, its shape, size and also the MRR.

Advantages of AJM: This process is useful for cutting all materials even diamond. There is no heat generation, hence no thermal stress. Very thin material can be machined. Since there is no material contact, no vibration on the component. Low initial investment. It can be used for any intricate shapes.

Disadvantages of AJM: MRR is low Soft materials cannot be machined. Nozzle wear is high. Abrasive material cannot be reused. There is a danger of abrasive getting embedded on the work piece.

Water jet machining process


The working principle of WJM: The working process is similar to that of AJM, where no abrasive material is used. A pump or intensifier is used to increase the pressure and the fluid is stored in an accumulator. This fluid is then passed through a nozzle which increases the velocity. This facility is provided to convert the kinetic energy into pressure energy. When this induced stress exceeds the ultimate limit the work piece material flakes out and new surface is exposed. This process continues till the machining is completed. Construction and working of WJM: The schematic diagram of WJM is as shown below.

It consists of a pump, accumulator, control valve, regulating chamber and nozzle etc. A pump or intensifier is used to raise the pressure of water to the range of 1500 to 4000 N/mm.

Since the cutting action may not be continuous, the accumulator is used to store the water and also it helps in eliminating the pulsation. Nozzle is used to increase the velocity of the water jet. In order to withstand the nozzle is made up of sintered diamond, tungsten carbide or synthetic sapphire. The exit diameter of the nozzle is in the range of 0.05 to 0.35mm. And the exit velocity of the water jet from the nozzle varies up to 920 m/sec. A regulating chamber is incorporated in the line to control the flow of water jet to the nozzle. Factors which decides the MRR in WJM: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) SOD (Standoff distance). Geometry & surface finish. Wear rate of nozzle. Velocity of the jet. Force applied. The force is proportional to M & V Where M = Mass flow rate of fluid & V = Velocity of the jet.

Standoff distance (SOD):

Geometry & surface finish depends on: 1) Nozzle design 2)Jet velocity 3)Cutting speed 4) Depth of cut 5) Properties of the material machined. Wear rate of nozzle depends on: 1) 2) 3) 4) Hardness of the nozzle Pressure of the jet Velocity of the jet Nozzle design

Advantages of WJM: 1) water is used hence it is safe 2) Low operating cost 3) Low maintenance cost 4) Work area remains clean 5) No thermal stress. Disadvantages of WJM: 1) Initial cost is high 2) Difficult to machine hard material. 3) Noisy operations. Applications: This process is convenient for cutting relatively soft materials like: 1) Paper board 2) Plastic 3) Wood 4) Rubber 5) Leather 6) Fiber glass It can be used to cut intricate contours.