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Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.

in) 1
By
Dr. Rajiv Tiwari
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati 781039
Under AICTE Sponsored QIP Short Term Course on
Theory & Practice of Rotor Dynamics
(15-19 Dec 2008)
IIT Guwahati
DYNAMIC BALANCING OF ROTORS
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 2
Introduction
The unbalance in rotors will not only cause rotor vibrations, but also transmit
rotating forces to bearings and to the foundation structure.
The force thus transmitted may cause damage to machine parts and its
foundation. If the transmitted force is large enough, it might affect even the
neighboring machines and structures.
Thus, it is necessary to remove the unbalance of a rotor, to as large an
extend as possible, for its smooth running. The residual unbalance
estimation in rotor-bearing system is an age-old problem.
From the state of the art of the unbalance estimation, the unbalance can be
obtained with fairly good accuracy [1-5].
Now the trend in the unbalance estimation is to reduce the number of test
runs required, especially for the application of large turbo generators where
the downtime is very expensive [6,7].
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 3
Static balancing:
Single plane balancing
Dynamic balancing :
(i) Two plane balancing: For rigid rotors only.
(ii) Flexible rotor balancing : If the shaft deflects, and the
deflection changes with speed, as it does in the vicinity of
critical speeds .
) (
cr
<
) (
cr
>
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 4
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 5
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 6
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 7
Balancing of a flexible rotor
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 8
Basic Principles of Static Rigid Rotor Balancing
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 9
Basic Principles of Couple Rigid Rotor Balancing
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 10
Basic Principles of Dynamic Rigid Rotor Balancing
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 11
Balancing of Rigid Rotor
Cradle balancing machine :
The rotor is placed in the bearings of a cradle as shown in Fig.
1.
Figure 1 Craddle balancing machine
+
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 12
The cradle is placed on two springs and can be fulcrum about F
1
or F
2
to
form a simple vibrating system.
Two fulcrum can be located at two chosen balance planes (i.e. I and II),
where the correction mass to be added.
The rotor can be driven by a motor through a belt pulley arrangement.
If the spring system is such that the natural frequency of the system is in the
range of motor speed, the phase angle or the location of the unbalance
mass in either plane can be determined as follows.
Fulcrum the cradle in plane I, by fixing F
1
and releasing F
2
. Run the rotor to
resonance, observing the maximum amplitude to the right of fulcrum F
2
.
This vibration is due to all the unbalance in plane II, since the unbalance in
plane I has no moment about F
1
.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 13
Use a trial mass at a chosen location and determine the amplitude of
vibration.
Figure 2 Plot of vibration amplitudes versus trial mass locations
Make a plot of this amplitude for different location of the same trial mass
(see Fig. 2). The trial mass for correction is added at the location where the
amplitude of vibration is minimum.
Increase or decrease the trial mass at the same locations, until the desired
level of balance is achieved. Similar procedure can be repeated by Fixing F
2
and releasing F
1
. This procedure is tedious and sometimes may be time
consuming.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 14
A procedure to determine the correction mass and location can be laid
down as follows, based on four observations of amplitude :
(i) without any addition to the rotor
(ii) with a trial mass at = 0
(iii) with a trial mass at 180and
(iv) with same trial mass at = 90, where is measured from a
conveniently chosen location.
This procedure has to be repeated for two cases (e.g. when fulcruming at F
1
and then for F
2
).
(1) Let OA is the amplitude measured with trial run
(2) OB is the amplitude measured in trial run by addition of a trial mass W
t
at 0(arbitrary chosen location on rotor).
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 15
Hence the vector AB will represent the effect of trial mass W
t
.
(At this stage we do not know the location of vector OA on the rotor).
(3) OC is the vibration measured in the trial run with the trial mass at 180.
So we will have AB = AC with 180phase difference between them.
(Hence AC vector is also the effect of trial mass W
t
so the magnitudes AB =
AC and phase will be 180).
However we know only OA, OB & OC from test run (1), (2) & (3)
respectively & conditions AB = AC with 180phase.
From these information we have to construct or locate points O, A, B & C on
a plane.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 16
Construction Procedure :
Figure 3 Construction procedure
D
A
B
O
E
C
E
~90
0

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 17


Erect a line OAD equal to 2OA. With O as the center and OB & OC as radii
and D as center and OC & OB as radii draw arcs to intersect at B & C (point
B and C we will be obtained by above construction). .
Draw a circle with BC as diameter and A as center. Construct the
parallelogram OBDC.
Now AB represent 0

position (i.e. reference line) and AC 180

position on
the rotor (AO is actual unbalance). The angular measurement may be
clockwise or CCW and is determined from the fourth observation.
The observation could be either OE or OE (+90

or 90

). If the value
observed is in the vicinity of OE, then the angle to be measured CCW.
However it will be CW if OE is the reading observed in test (the fourth run
also checks the validity of the linearity used in the balancing procedure).
The magnitude of trial mass W
t
is proportional to AB.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 18
The unbalance OA can be obtained accordingly in the mass term. The
location of unbalance is and the direction from figure (i.e. CW or
CCW).
The test is repeated by making the cradle fulcrum bed at F
II
and
measurements are made in plane I.
This procedure is very time consuming and also restricts the mass and size
of the rotor.
Modern balancing machines use amplitude and phase measurement in two
planes for balancing a rotor.
Machines are either soft support or hard support machines.
OAB
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 19
Figure 4
0
0
90
0
E B
O
Location of fourth
measurement for
trial mass at 90
0
(ccw dir. +ve)
90
0
0
0
270
0
180
0
+ve
Unbalance position
at shaft location,
(ccw direction +ve)
A
Location of
fourth
measurement for
trial mass at 90
0
(cw dir. +ve)
90
0
0
0
270
0
180
0
+ve
Unbalance
position at
shaft location
(ccw dir. +ve)
0
0
270
0
E
B
O
Location of fourth
measurement for
trial mass at 270
0
(ccw dir. +ve)
90
0
0
0
270
0
180
0
+ve
Unbalance position
at shaft location,
(ccw direction +ve)
Location of
fourth
measurement for
trial mass at 270
0
(cw dir. +ve)
90
0
0
0
270
0
180
0
+ve
Unbalance
position at
shaft location
(ccw dir. +ve)
E 90
0
0
0
B
O
270
0
E
B
O
0
0
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 20
Example 3.1 In the balancing process we make the following observations:
(i) a
o
= amplitude of vibration of the unbalanced rotor as is
(ii) a
1
= amplitude with an additional one-unit correction at the location 0 deg and
(iii) a
2
= same as a
1
but now at 180 deg.
The ideal rotor, unbalanced only with a unit unbalance (and thus not containing the
residual unbalance), will have certain amplitude, which we cannot measure.
Call that amplitude x. Let the unknown location of the original unbalance be .
Solve x and in terms of and showthat in this answer there is an ambiguity sign.
Thus four runs are necessary to solve the problem completely.
Answer: Measurements are
(i) amplitude of vibration with residual unbalance
(ii) amplitude with unit trial mass at an angle of
(iii) amplitude with unit trial mass at an angle of
(iv) x = amplitude with 1 at an angle of and without residual imbalance
(i.e. ), and
R
U
0
0
0
180
0
0
0
R
U =
0
OA a =
1
AB a =
2
AC a =
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 21
Figure 3.5 shows variation parameters involved in the present problem. From OAB
, we have
2 2 2
0 1
0
cos
2
a OB a
a OB

+
=
(A)
and
( )
2 2 2
0 2
0
cos
2
a OC a
a OC

+
=
(B)
Since
OB OC =
, we have
2 2 2
0 2
cos
2
0
a OB a
a OB

+
=
(C)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 22
0
a
B
A
C
x
x
D
Figure .5 Geometrical constructions for
determination of unbalance
Reference
line
2
a
1
a
0

On equating equations (A) and (C), we get


2 2 2 2 2 2
0 0 2 0 1
2 cos ( ) ( ) a OB a OB a a OB a = + = +
which gives
2 2 2 2
0 1 2
2 2 ( ) a OB a a + +
(D)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 23
OB x = , since
OB
(or
OC
) are effect of trial mass of unit magnitude.
Hence equation (D) gives
2 2 2 2
1 2 0
( ) / 2 x a a a = +
or
1 2 2 2
1 2 0
2
( ) x a a a = +
Equations (A) and (C) gives (noting that
OC OB x = = ),
2 2 2
0 0 2
2 cos x a x a a = +
2 2 2
0 0 1
2 cos x a x a a = +
and
On equating equations (F) and (G), we get
2 2
1 2 0
cos ( ) / 2 a a a x = +
(E)
(F)
(G)
(H)
Equation (E) gives the magnitude of the unbalance and equation (H) gives the
magnitude of the phase angle, the direction or sense of the phase cannot be
obtained from only above measurements.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 24
Example 3.2. A short rotor or flywheel has to be balanced. Observations of
the vibration at one of the bearings are made in four runs as follows:
Run 1; rotor as is amplitude 6.0 m
Run 2; with 5gm. at 0 deg. amplitude 5.0 m
Run 3; with 5 gm. at 180 deg. amplitude 10.0 m
Run 4; with 5gm. at 90 deg. amplitude 10.5 m
Find the weight and location of the correction. Take the trial and balancing
masses at the same radius.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 25
Answer:
O
A
D
B
C
OA = AD = 6 cm
DB =10 cm
OB = 5 cm
OE = 10.5 cm
AB = 6.3 cm
Imbalance position
= angle BAO
= 71 deg. CCW

E
R
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

lin
e
AB = 6.3 cm 5 gm
Hence, the residual imbalance is given as
OA = AD = 6 cm 4.762 gm
Figure 3.6 shows the geometrical construction of the present problem with lengths
of various arcs. From this the net effect of the imbalance is given as
Figure 3.6 Geometrical constructions
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 26
AB is the reference line. The fourth observation is intersecting at E, hence angle to be
measured in the CW direction (i.e.
BAE ). Hence, the unbalance position is given as
BA0 = 71
0
CCW direction.
The unbalance magnitude and phase can be also obtained from equations (E) and
(H), we have
1 2 2 2
1 2 0
2
( ) 4.09 gm x a a a = + =
and
2 2
1 2 0
cos ( ) / 2 0.6065 a a a x = + =
52.8deg =
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 27
(7)
Definition of Influence coefficients
(i) Only force F1 (ii) Only force F2
y11 = displacement at station 1 due to y12 =
force F1 at station1 = y22 =
y21 = displacement at station 2 due to
force F1 at station1 =
1
F
1
y
11
y
21
2 1
F
2
y
12
y
22
2
1 11
F
1 21
F
2 12
F
2 12
F
The Influence Coefficient Method
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 28
(iii) When both F1 and F2 are present
Figure 7
Influence coefficients can be obtained by experimentation or by strength of
formulae i.e.
F
2
y
1
y
2
F
1
1 11 12 11 1 12 2
2 21 22 21 1 22 2
1 11 12 1
2 21 22 2
y y y F F
y y y F F
y F
or
y F




= + = +
= + = +
(
=
` `
(
) )
1 1 2 1
1 1 2 1
1 1
, .
y y
e t c
F F
= =
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 29
The Influence Coefficient Method
R
a b L
1

1
L
1
L
2

2
R
1

1
R
1
R
2

aR

bR
Trial mass T
L
L
1

aL
L
3

bL
R
1
R
3

3
Figure 5 Bearing measurements and influence coefficients for a rigid rotor
L
No trial mass
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 30
In soft support machines, the resonant frequency of the rotor support
system is low and the rotor runs at a speed above the resonance of the
support system. Vibratory amplitudes are measured, which are then
converted to forces.
In hard support system, the support natural frequency is very high and they
measure the rotor unbalance forces directly, independent of rotor mass and
configuration.
The balancing procedure is based on influence coefficient measurement.
We choose two convenient planes L and R for trial mass and two
measurement planes a and b (can be chosen as bearing locations).
Let L1 and R1 be the initial readings of vibration levels (displacement,
velocity or acceleration) measured with phase angle
1
and
1
respectively.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 31
Figure 6
Signal from station a shaft
Spike due to
notch in the
shaft surface
reference signal
Phase = 0 with respect to notch
T t
1
t
2
Phase lead = radians
Phase lag = radians
T
t
1
2
T
t
2
2
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 32
The phase angles are measured with the same reference during the test
and their relative locations with respect to rotor is initially known.
In the second run, place a trial mass T
R
at a convenient location in plane R
and let the observations be L
2
and R
2
with phase
2
and
2
respectively in
the a & b planes.
The difference between R
2
and R
1
will be the effect of trial mass in right
plane R on the measurement made in plane b. We can denote this as an
influence coefficient
(1)
where represent vector since displacement has magnitude and phase
information. Similarly
(2)
We remove the trial mass from plane R and place in plane L and repeat
the test to obtain the measured values
bR

R bR
T R R

/ ) (
1 2
=
R aR
T L L

/ ) (
1 2
=
L
T

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 33


(3,4)
With the help of equations (1) to (4), we can obtain influence coefficient
experimentally.
Let the correct balance masses be and . Since the original
unbalance response is R1 and L1 as measured in right and left planes,
we can write
(5)
Correction masses will produce vibration equal and opposite to the
vibration due to unbalance masses. Hence,
(6)
These can be calculated either by a graphical method or analytical
method of vectors (complex algebra) i.e.
3 1 3 1
( ) / ( ) /
bL L aL L
R R T and L L T = =


R
W

L
W

1 1
and
R bR L bL R aR L aL
R W W L W W = + = +


)
`

=
)
`

L
R
aL aR
bL bR
W
W
L
R



1
1
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 34
which gives
1
1
where ( )
a b d b
ad cb
c d c a

( (
= =
( (


1 1 1 1
. . . .
. . . .
bL aL aR bR
R L
bR aL aR bL bR aL aR bL
L R R L
W and W



= =




Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 35
Experimental set-up for influence coefficient method of balancing
Figure 8 Experimental set-up for influence coefficient method of balancing
Charge
Amplifier
Vibration
meter
Phase
meter
Accelerometer
Measurement
Plane a
Measurement
Plane b
Phase mark
on shaft
L R
Photo electric
Probe
Accelerometer (or
proximity probes
on the shaft near
to the bearing)

Oscilloscope
Hardware or virtual instrumentation
Photo sensitive mark
Photo electric probe
Maximum
displacement
location
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 36
Example 3.3 A rigid rotor machine is exhibiting vibration problems caused by imbalance.
The machine is symmetric about its center-line. A trial balance mass of 0.3 kg is sited at
end 1 at an angle of 300 relative to some reference position; this causes changes in
vibration vectors of 50 m at 610 at end 1 and 42 m at 1300 at end 2.
Determine the influence coefficients for use in balancing the machine, and calculate the
balance mass required at each end of the machine if the measured imbalance vibrations
are 30 m at 2300 at end 1 and 70 m at 3300 at end 2.
Solution: Given data are
Trial mass in plane 1:
1
0
0.3 kg at 30 phase
R
T =
, which can be written as
( )
1
0.3(cos30 j sin30) 0.2598 j 0.15 Kg
R
T = + = +
Displacement in plane 1:
0
2
50 m at 61 phase R = , which can be written as
( )
2
24.2404 j 43.73 R = +
m
Displacement in plane 2:
0
2
42 m at 130 phase L =
, which can be written as
( )
2
26.997 j 32.173 L = +
m
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 37
Measured responses due to residual imbalances are
In plane 1:
0
1
30m at 230 phase R =
( )
1
19.2836 j 22.98 R = +
m
In plane 2:
0
1
70m at 330 phase L =
( )
1
60.621 j 35 L = +
m
We have, influence coefficients as
1
6
2 1
11
-
(48.8919 j 51.63766) 10
bR
R
R R
T


= = = +
m/kg
and
1
6
2 1
12
-
(92.3559 j 69.1995) 10
aR
R
L L
T


= = = m/kg
It is given that machine is symmetric about centreline.
21 12 22 11
and = =
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 38
Measurements, influence coefficients and correction mass are related as
1 11 12
1 21 22
R
L
R w
L w

(
=
` `
(

) )
which can be simplified as
{ } { }
1 12 1 22 1 21 1 11
1 1
and
R L
w L R w R L = =

with
( )
2 2 6
11 12 12 22 11 12
468.066 j 16907.73 10

= = = + (m/kg)2
which gives the balancing mass and its angular position as
3 3 -3 0
R
3.3519 10 j 7.123 10 7.893 10 kg at 295 w

= +
and
3 3 -3 0
L
3.90356 10 j 2.7136 10 4.7541 10 kg at -35 w

=
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 39
Balancing of Flexible Rotors :
As long as the rotor experiences no deformations i.e. it remains as a rigid
rotor, the balancing procedure discussed earlier is effective.
Once the rotor bends while approaching a critical speed, the bend center
line whirls around and additional centrifugal forces are set-up and the rigid
rotor balancing becomes ineffective. (sometimes rigid rotor balancing
worsens bending mode whirl amplitude).
Two different techniques are generally employed
(i) Modal balancing technique. Bishop, Gladwell & Parkinson and
(ii) Influence coefficient method. Tessarrik, Badgley and Rieger.
Modal balancing method
A practical procedure to balance the rotor by model correction, masses
equal in number to the flexible mode shapes, N, known as N-plane method.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 40
Run the rotor in a suitable hard bearing balancing machine, to a safe speed
approaching the first critical speed and record the bearing vibrations or
forces.
Choose an appropriate location for the trial mass.
For first critical speed, this should be roughly in the middle for a
symmetrical rotor in its axial distribution of mass. Record the readings at
the same speed as before.
Using the above two readings, the correct mass and location can be
determined. (single plane balancing). With this correction mass, it should be
possible to run the rotor through the first critical speed without appreciable
vibration.
Next, run the rotor to a safe speed approaching the second critical speed, if
the operating speed is near the second critical or above the second critical
speed.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 41
Figure 9
Note the readings. Add a pair of trial masses 180 apart in two planes
without a affecting the first mode. (in fact if we try to balance one particular
mode it will not affect balancing of other modes).
Note the readings at the same speed near the second critical speed.
Two readings can be used to determined the correction mass required.
1 2 Rigid body modes
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 42
Similarly higher modes can be balanced i.e. up to N
th
mode can be
balanced by N balancing planes. Instead of N plane correction,
Kellenberger suggested that the rotor should be corrected in N+2 planes,
so as not to disturb the rigid body balancing.
Modal Balancing (formulations)
Figure 10
Assume that all unbalance is distributed only in the x-y plane.
Let the rotor speed be and the deflection of the rotor be y(x).
x
z
y
bearing axis
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 43
The deflection y(x) can be written in terms of summation of mode shapes as
(8)
where is the mode shape in the i
th
mode and
i
is unknown constant.
The deflection y(x) can be measured experimentally.
For example for simply supported end conditions the mode shapes are
I Mode II Mode
i
th
Mode

= ) ( ) ( x Y x y
i i

) (x Y
i
l
x
x y

sin ) (
1
=
l
x
x y
2
sin ) (
2
=
l
x i
x y
i

sin ) ( =
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 44
For other end conditions mode shapes can be obtained by free vibration
analysis. Modal series for eccentricity can also be written as
(9)
It can be written in terms of mode summation since the y(x) is the result of
a(x). The main objective is to find out for the eccentricity distribution to be
known.
Multiplying (8) by the mass per unit length m(x) and the mode shape
and integrate from 0 to 1.
(10)
noting the orthogonality condition of mode shapes
(11)

=
i
i i
x Y x a ) ( ) (
( )
j
Y x
} }

(

=
l l
j
i
i i j
dx x Y x Y x m x Y x y x m
0 0
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
0
( ) ( ) ( ) 0
l
i j
m x Y x Y x dx for all i j =
}
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 45
Equation (10) gives
(12)
which can be written as
(13)
with the generalized mass in j
th
mode is given as
The generalized mass can be obtained by knowing can
be obtained by free vibration analysis and theoretically speaking can be
found by experiment.
} } }
= =
l
j j
l
j j
l
j
dx x Y x m dx x Y x m dx x Y x y x m
0
2
0
2
0
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
( )
}
=
l
j
j
j
dx x Y x y x m
M
0
) ( ) (
1

( )
j
M =
}
=
l
j i
dx x Y x m M
0
2
) ( ) (
j
M ( )and ( ); ( )
j j
m x Y x Y x
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 46
Governing equation for shaft motion is
(14)
where is the rotor speed. On substituting for y(x) and a(x) from equation
(8) and (9), we get
(15)
Noting the orthogonality condition and multiply both sides by and
integrate over the length of shaft, the left hand side of equation (15) gives
On performing integration by parts, we get
[ ] [ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
2
x a x y x m x y x EI
dx
d
+ =


{ }
(
(

+
)
`

=
(
(

)
`



) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
2
x Y x Y x m x Y x EI
dx
d
i i
i
i i
i
i i

) (x Y
i
}

(
(


l
j
i
i i
dx x Y x Y x EI
dx
d
0
2
2
) ( ) ( ) (
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 47
First term vanishes (since it is zero for all boundary conditions), on taking
again integration by parts of the second term, we get
First term again vanishes for all boundary conditions. On noting the
orthogonality condition equation (11), we get
(16)
where the generalized stiffness in j
th
mode is defined as
{ } [ ] dx x Y x Y x EI
dx
d
x Y x EI
dx
d
x Y
j
l
i
i i
l
i i j
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
0
0

(
(


}


{ } [ ] dx x Y x Y x EI x Y x EI x Y
l
j
i
i i
l
i i j
}

(
(

0
0
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
[ ]
j j
l
j j
K dx x Y x EI =

=
}
0
2
) ( ) (
[ ] dx x Y x EI K
l
j j
}
=
0
2
) ( ) (
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 48
From right hand side of equation (15), noting equation (8) and (9), we have
(17)
Therefore form (15), noting equations (16) and (17), we have
which can be rearranged as
(18)
Once is obtained, then distribution of eccentricity a(x) can be found from
equation (9). Equation (18) requires m(x), y(x), .
The m(x) can be accurately found out, y(x) is difficult to obtained, is
obtained by eigen analysis and is natural frequency in i
th
mode =
which can be obtained by eigen value analysis.
( )
j j j
M +
2
( )
j j j j j
M K + =
2
) (
/
2
2
j
j j
j
M K


=
j

( ) /
j j j j
Y x and p K M =
( )
j
Y x
j
p
K
j
M
j
| |
|
|
\ .
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 49
p
x
q
z
Influence coefficient method
Figure 11
Figure 12
2
1 2
1 2
F
1
F
1
21

11

1
p <<
21

11

1
p
11

21


p
2
Rigid shaft
Flexible shaft
Measuring planes
Balancing planes
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 50
Choose p number of balancing planes (where mass can be added or chip
off) where p > 2, q number is the measuring planes, generally it is two i.e. at
bearing planes.
Let the unbalance in each of the balancing planes be
where is the vibration measurement at the measuring plane.
Measurements are taken at number of speeds.
On writing equation (19) for each of the speeds
p
U U U


, , ,
2 1

(
(
(
(
(

p
qp q
p
p
q
U
U
U
v
v
v

2
1
1
2 22 21
1 12 11
2
1


(19)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 51
(20)
Once the influence coefficients are known for all speeds equation (20)
can be used to obtained unbalances :
(21)
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 2 1
1 1 1 1
2 2 1 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
1 2
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 1
2 2 2 2
1 2
1 1 1 1 2 1
1 2 1 2 2 2
p
p
q q q q p
p
q q q q p
n n n n
p
n n n n
p
n
q
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
















=
`








)

{ }
1
2
3
1 2
[ ] { }
p
n n n
q q q p
U
U
o r U
U
U


(
(
(
(
(
(

(

(

(
=
`
(

(

(

(
)
(
(
(
(
(

] [
( ) } { ] [ ] [ } {
1
v U
T

=
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 52
Influence coefficient matrix can be obtained by attaching trial masses and
measuring displacements,
from equation (19), we get for a particular speed
(22)
On subtracting equation (22) from first q equation in equation (19), we get
(23)
Equation (23) gives
(24)

+
(
(
(
(
(
(

p
R
qp
q
q
p
p
q
U
U
T U
v
v
v

2
1
1 1
2
1
1
1
2
1
22
1
21
1
1
1
12
1
11
1
1
1
21
1
11


(
(
(
(
(
(

0
0
1 1
2
1
1
1
2
1
22
1
21
1
1
1
12
1
11
1 1
1
1
2
1
21
1
1
1
11

R
qp q q
p
p
q q
T
v v
v v
v v



,
1
1
1
11 1
11
R
T
v v


=
, ,
1
2
1
21 1
21

R
T
v v
=
R
q q
q
T
v v

1 1
1
1
1

=
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 53
Similarly by attaching a trial mass on plane 2 we get second
column of the influence coefficient matrix in equation (24), the
above analysis should be done at a constant speed.
Similarly we can find the influence coefficient-matrix for
different speeds.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 54
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 55
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 56
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 57
References
[1] W. Kellenburger 1972 Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, Journal of Engineering for Industry 94, 584-560. Should a
flexible rotor be balanced in N or N+2 planes?
[2] J. Drechsler 1980 Institution of Mechanical Engineers Conference on
Vibrations in Rotating Machinery, Cambridge, UK, 65-70. Processing
surplus information in computer aided balancing of large flexible rotors.
[3] P. Gnilka 1983 Journal of Vibration 90, 157-172. Modal balancing of
flexible rotors without test runs: an experimental investigation.
[4] J.M. Krodkiewski, J. Ding and N. Zhang 1994 Journal of Vibration 169,
685-698. Identification of unbalance change using a non-linear
mathematical model for rotor bearing systems.
[5] M.S. Darlow 1989, Springer Verlag, Balancing of High-Speed Machinery,
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 58
[6] S. Edwards, A.W. Lees and M.I. Friswell 2000 Journal of Sound and
Vibration, 232(5), 963-992. Experimental Identification of Excitation and
Support Parameters of a Flexible Rotor-Bearings-Foundation System from
a Single Run-Down.
[7] R. Tiwari, 2005, Mechanical System and Signal Processing, Conditioning
of Regression Matrices for Simultaneous Estimation of the Residual
Unbalance and Bearing Dynamic Parameters (in press).
[8] IS 5172 : 1969 Specification for Balancing Bench,
[9] IS 13274 : 1992/ISO 1925 : 1990 Mechanical vibration Balancing
Vocabulary.
[10] IS 13275 : 1992/ISO 2371 : 1974 Description and evaluation of field
balancing equipment.
[11] IS 13277 : 1992/ISO 2953 : 1985 Balancing machine - Description
and evaluation.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 59
[12] IS 13278 : 1999 /ISO 3719 : 1994 Mechanical Vibration - Symbols
for Balancing Machines and Associated Instrumentation.
[13] IS 13280 : 1992/ISO 5406 : 1980 Mechanical balancing of flexible
rotors.
[14] IS 14280 : 1995/ISO 8821 : 1989 Mechanical vibration - Balancing
- Shaft and fitment key convention.
[15] IS 14734 : 1999 /ISO 7475 : 1984 Balancing Machines -
Enclosures and Other Safety Measures.
[16] IS 14918 : 2001 Mechanical Vibration - Methods and Criteria for
the Mechanical Balancing of Flexible Rotors
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in) 60
Thank you