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ch19

ch19

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. The principle of uniformity states that past geologic processes were very much similar to those of the present. True False

2. Stress is the adjustment a rock makes when it is subjected to a strain. True False

3. In general, rocks are better able to handle compressional stress than tensional stress. True False

4. In general, an arch-shaped fold in sedimentary rock layers is called an anticline. True False

5. Deeply buried rocks tend to break when subject to stress forming faults or joints. True False

6. In a "normal" fault, the hanging wall moves downward relative to the foot wall. True False

7. The transverse (or S-waves) travel through Earth's crust more rapidly than do the compressional (or Pwaves). True False

8. Most earthquakes originate deep below the crust because the pressures there are enormous. True False

9. Each higher number on the Richter scale represents a 10-fold increase in the amount of ground movement in an earthquake. True False

10. Sills are formations of lava that cool on Earth's surface in giant sheets. True False

11. People have found the Principle of Uniformity difficult to accept because they A. couldn't believe that Earth was over 4 billion years old. B. believed that geologic features were the result of catastrophic events. C. couldn't accept the idea that mountains and canyons could be the result of slow, uniform changes. D. All of the above.

12. Which of the following is not a feature of diastrophism? A. stress and strain B. metamorphism C. faulting D. folding

13. What is the name given to the force which tends to pull rocks apart? A. compressive stress B. tensional stress C. shear stress D. fracture strain

14. The way a given rock responds to a stress depends on A. its temperature. B. how slowly or quickly the stress is applied. C. the confining pressure on the rock. D. All of the above.

15. When subjected to stress, rocks at great depths and high temperature tend to undergo A. plastic strain. B. elastic strain. C. fracture or rupture. D. no change due to the great pressure.

16. A rock that experiences plastic strain in response to stress A. returns to its original shape when the stress is relieved. B. cannot return to its original shape when the stress is relieved. C. cracks or fractures. D. fails to reach its elastic limit.

17. An arch-shaped fold resulting from plastic deformation is called A. an anticline. B. a syncline. C. a plunging fold. D. an isoclinal fold.

18. The chief difference between a joint and a fault is that A. a joint results from shear stress. B. jointing takes place at much greater depths than faulting. C. jointing involves breaking without relative displacement. D. faults are vertical cracks, whereas joints are horizontal.

19. Seismic waves are produced when rocks A. undergo plastic deformation. B. are exposed to compressional stress. C. rupture or break under stress. D. fold to form synclines or anticlines.

20. Which of the following is unlikely to result from tensional stress? A. normal fault B. reverse fault C. a graben D. a horst

21. When the hanging wall slips downward toward the foot wall, the fault is called A. normal. B. reverse. C. thrust. D. a horst.

22. Which of the following statements about earthquakes is false? A. Earthquakes usually occur along the boundaries between plates. B. The difference in the time between the arrival of S and P waves give a clue to the location of an earthquake. C. Most earthquakes occur within the depth of the continental crust. D. The location of the focus of an earthquake can be pinpointed by seismic readings from two stations.

23. If you are inside a building when an earthquake occurs, the best strategy is to A. leave the building at once. B. lie down in the middle of a room. C. seek protection under a table or desk. D. take the elevator to the basement.

24. The point of initial rock movement along a fault during an earthquake is called the A. epicenter. B. focus. C. strike. D. fault zone.

25. Compared to an earthquake of magnitude 5, an earthquake of magnitude 7 A. releases about 10 times as much energy. B. produces 20 times as much ground movement. C. releases about 60 times as much energy. D. produces 100 times as much ground movement.

26. Seismic sea waves A. are more properly called tsunamis than tidal waves. B. travel at speeds approaching 55 mph. C. break upon the shore rapidly. D. All of the above.

27. Which of the mountain-building processes is most responsible for the features of the Rocky Mountains? A. compressional folding B. faulting and upthrust C. volcanic intrusions D. None of the above.

28. The Sierra Nevada in California is a classic example of A. compressional folding. B. faulting and upthrust. C. volcanic intrusions. D. None of the above.

29. The Columbia Plateau in Washington, Idaho, and Oregon A. is a vast volcanic neck. B. resulted from the upthrust of sedimentary rock beds. C. is made of many layers of basalt. D. is a huge granite dome.

30. The main volcanic mountains are those associated with A. synclines. B. granitic intrusions. C. diverging plate boundaries. D. plates sliding past one another.

ch19 Key

1. The principle of uniformity states that past geologic processes were very much similar to those of the present. TRUE

Blooms Level: 2. Understand Section: 19.01 Tillery - Chapter 19 #1 Topic: Geologic Time

2. Stress is the adjustment a rock makes when it is subjected to a strain. FALSE

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 19.02 Tillery - Chapter 19 #2 Topic: Deformation

3. In general, rocks are better able to handle compressional stress than tensional stress. TRUE

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 19.02 Tillery - Chapter 19 #3 Topic: Deformation

4. In general, an arch-shaped fold in sedimentary rock layers is called an anticline. TRUE

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 19.02 Tillery - Chapter 19 #4 Topic: Deformation

5. Deeply buried rocks tend to break when subject to stress forming faults or joints. FALSE

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 19.02 Tillery - Chapter 19 #5 Topic: Deformation

6. In a "normal" fault, the hanging wall moves downward relative to the foot wall. TRUE

Blooms Level: 2. Understand Section: 19.02 Tillery - Chapter 19 #6 Topic: Deformation

7. The transverse (or S-waves) travel through Earth's crust more rapidly than do the compressional (or Pwaves). FALSE

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 19.03 Tillery - Chapter 19 #7 Topic: Earthquakes

8. Most earthquakes originate deep below the crust because the pressures there are enormous. FALSE

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 19.03 Tillery - Chapter 19 #8 Topic: Earthquakes

9. Each higher number on the Richter scale represents a 10-fold increase in the amount of ground movement in an earthquake. TRUE

Blooms Level: 2. Understand Section: 19.03 Tillery - Chapter 19 #9 Topic: Earthquakes

10. Sills are formations of lava that cool on Earth's surface in giant sheets. FALSE

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 19.04 Tillery - Chapter 19 #10 Topic: Volcanoes and Volcanic Hazards

11. People have found the Principle of Uniformity difficult to accept because they A. couldn't believe that Earth was over 4 billion years old. B. believed that geologic features were the result of catastrophic events. C. couldn't accept the idea that mountains and canyons could be the result of slow, uniform changes. D. All of the above.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 19.01 Tillery - Chapter 19 #11 Topic: Geologic Time

12. Which of the following is not a feature of diastrophism? A. stress and strain B. metamorphism C. faulting D. folding

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 19.02 Tillery - Chapter 19 #12 Topic: Deformation

13. What is the name given to the force which tends to pull rocks apart? A. compressive stress B. tensional stress C. shear stress D. fracture strain

Blooms Level: 2. Understand Section: 19.02 Tillery - Chapter 19 #13 Topic: Deformation

14. The way a given rock responds to a stress depends on A. its temperature. B. how slowly or quickly the stress is applied. C. the confining pressure on the rock. D. All of the above.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 19.02 Tillery - Chapter 19 #14 Topic: Deformation

15. When subjected to stress, rocks at great depths and high temperature tend to undergo A. plastic strain. B. elastic strain. C. fracture or rupture. D. no change due to the great pressure.

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 19.02 Tillery - Chapter 19 #15 Topic: Deformation

16. A rock that experiences plastic strain in response to stress A. returns to its original shape when the stress is relieved. B. cannot return to its original shape when the stress is relieved. C. cracks or fractures. D. fails to reach its elastic limit.

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 19.02 Tillery - Chapter 19 #16 Topic: Deformation

17. An arch-shaped fold resulting from plastic deformation is called A. an anticline. B. a syncline. C. a plunging fold. D. an isoclinal fold.

Blooms Level: 2. Understand Section: 19.02 Tillery - Chapter 19 #17 Topic: Deformation

18. The chief difference between a joint and a fault is that A. a joint results from shear stress. B. jointing takes place at much greater depths than faulting. C. jointing involves breaking without relative displacement. D. faults are vertical cracks, whereas joints are horizontal.

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 19.02 Tillery - Chapter 19 #18 Topic: Deformation

19. Seismic waves are produced when rocks A. undergo plastic deformation. B. are exposed to compressional stress. C. rupture or break under stress. D. fold to form synclines or anticlines.

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 19.03 Tillery - Chapter 19 #19 Topic: Earthquakes

20. Which of the following is unlikely to result from tensional stress? A. normal fault B. reverse fault C. a graben D. a horst

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 19.02 Tillery - Chapter 19 #20 Topic: Deformation

21. When the hanging wall slips downward toward the foot wall, the fault is called A. normal. B. reverse. C. thrust. D. a horst.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 19.02 Tillery - Chapter 19 #21 Topic: Deformation

22. Which of the following statements about earthquakes is false? A. Earthquakes usually occur along the boundaries between plates. B. The difference in the time between the arrival of S and P waves give a clue to the location of an earthquake. C. Most earthquakes occur within the depth of the continental crust. D. The location of the focus of an earthquake can be pinpointed by seismic readings from two stations.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 19.03 Tillery - Chapter 19 #22 Topic: Earthquakes

23. If you are inside a building when an earthquake occurs, the best strategy is to A. leave the building at once. B. lie down in the middle of a room. C. seek protection under a table or desk. D. take the elevator to the basement.

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 19.03 Tillery - Chapter 19 #23 Topic: Earthquakes

24. The point of initial rock movement along a fault during an earthquake is called the A. epicenter. B. focus. C. strike. D. fault zone.

Blooms Level: 2. Understand Section: 19.03 Tillery - Chapter 19 #24 Topic: Earthquakes

25. Compared to an earthquake of magnitude 5, an earthquake of magnitude 7 A. releases about 10 times as much energy. B. produces 20 times as much ground movement. C. releases about 60 times as much energy. D. produces 100 times as much ground movement.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 19.03 Tillery - Chapter 19 #25 Topic: Earthquakes

26. Seismic sea waves A. are more properly called tsunamis than tidal waves. B. travel at speeds approaching 55 mph. C. break upon the shore rapidly. D. All of the above.

Blooms Level: 2. Understand Section: 19.03 Tillery - Chapter 19 #26 Topic: Earthquakes

27. Which of the mountain-building processes is most responsible for the features of the Rocky Mountains? A. compressional folding B. faulting and upthrust C. volcanic intrusions D. None of the above.

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 19.04 Tillery - Chapter 19 #27 Topic: Deformation

28. The Sierra Nevada in California is a classic example of A. compressional folding. B. faulting and upthrust. C. volcanic intrusions. D. None of the above.

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 19.04 Tillery - Chapter 19 #28 Topic: Deformation

29. The Columbia Plateau in Washington, Idaho, and Oregon A. is a vast volcanic neck. B. resulted from the upthrust of sedimentary rock beds. C. is made of many layers of basalt. D. is a huge granite dome.

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 19.04 Tillery - Chapter 19 #29 Topic: Volcanoes and Volcanic Hazards

30. The main volcanic mountains are those associated with A. synclines. B. granitic intrusions. C. diverging plate boundaries. D. plates sliding past one another.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 19.04 Tillery - Chapter 19 #30 Topic: Volcanoes and Volcanic Hazards

ch19 Summary
Category Blooms Level: 2. Understand Blooms Level: 3. Apply Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 19.01 Section: 19.02 Section: 19.03 Section: 19.04 Tillery - Chapter 19 Topic: Deformation Topic: Earthquakes Topic: Geologic Time Topic: Volcanoes and Volcanic Hazards # of Questions 7 15 8 2 14 9 5 30 16 9 2 3