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ch21

ch21

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. It took a long time before people recognized the connection between fossils and living organisms. True False

2. The science of deciphering the history of life from the fossil record is called archeology. True False

3. Minerals replaced the wood in trees over a very long period making petrified wood. True False

4. The principle of uniformity requires you to believe that the geologic features you see today were formed in the past by the same processes we observe today. True False

5. Faults, folds, and igneous intrusions are always younger than the rock layers in which they are found. True False

6. Index fossils are fossils of distinctive plant or animal species that lived in a specific location for a long time. True False

7. Fossils are generally best preserved in metamorphic rock layers. True False

8. Estimations of the age of Earth based on its present rate of cooling from a molten mass yielded times that are close to current estimates. True False

9. Lack of fossils in Pre-Cambrian rocks means that very little life existed in this era. True False

10. Reptiles were the dominant life form in the Mesozoic Era. True False

11. The oldest fossils are about how many years old? A. 4.5 billion years B. 3.5 billion years C. 250 million years D. 10,000 years

12. Which of the following is not a common way for fossils to form? A. preservation of skeletal remains B. preservation of an organism's shape C. preservation of signs of activity D. preservation of soft parts by entombment in amber

13. The diagram below illustrates which of the following principles? A. principle of uniformity B. principle of superposition C. principle of original horizontality D. principle of cross-cutting

14. The fossilization process by which the original material is dissolved and new materials added is called A. replacement. B. carbonization. C. mineralization. D. replication.

15. A road cut shows layers of sedimentary rock that are uptilted. From this observation one could conclude that the rocks A. have been subjected to deformational stress. B. were formed by deposition of sediment on a sloping surface. C. were formed on land instead of under water. D. None of the above.

16. Correlating and relative dating of rock units is made possible by application of the principle of A. cross-cutting relationships. B. faunal succession. C. superposition. D. All of the above.

17. Which is likely to be the oldest rock in the formation? A. sandstone B. shale C. limestone D. basalt

18. Which of the following descriptions of this formation is most likely? A. The limestone and shale layers were deposited on the slope of a mountain. B. The basalt is crystallized magma that nearly reached the sandstone layer. C. The limestone and shale layers were eroded long before the sandstone was deposited. D. All of these descriptions are possible.

19. Evidence for the presence of an unconformity in the formation below is given by A. the uptilting of the beds in layer 1. B. the erosion that must have taken place at the boundary of 1 and 2. C. the new sediment type deposited at the boundary of 2 and 3. D. All of these are example of unconformities.

20. Fossils are useful for all of the following except A. correlating rocks in one location with those in another. B. determining the former environment of a region. C. determining the former climate of a region. D. determining the exact age of Earth.

21. To serve as a geologic clock, a process must A. have been operating since the beginning of Earth. B. be uniform (or at least subject to averaging). C. be capable of being measured. D. All of the above.

22. Which of the following statements about the granite in center of the formation below is false? A. The granite is a crystallized intrusion of magma. B. The granite formed after the sedimentary layers were deposited. C. The intrusion of the magma probably produced some metamorphism in the D. sedimentary layers. E. The sedimentary layers formed later, burying the granite outcrop.

23. The process that has yielded the most accurate estimate of the age of Earth is measurement of A. the rate of sedimentation. B. the radioactive decay of elements in minerals. C. rate of increase of salinity of the oceans. D. the rate of the cooling of Earth from a molten mass.

24. The Geologic Time Scale defines eras in terms of A. major worldwide extinctions of life on Earth. B. reversals in Earth's magnetic field. C. the beginning of the radioactive decay of elements in minerals. D. major plate tectonic events.

25. You would expect to find fossils that most closely resembled current life forms in rocks from which era? A. Precambrian B. Paleozoic C. Mesozoic D. Cenozoic

26. If you were hunting dinosaur fossils, you would be examining rocks from which era? A. Precambrian B. Paleozoic C. Mesozoic D. Cenozoic

27. The Cenozoic is known as the Age of the A. Mammals. B. Dinosaurs. C. Amphibians. D. Algae.

28. Correlation and relative dating through the use of index fossils is limited because A. index fossils are extremely rare. B. many sedimentary layers do not contain index fossils at all. C. index fossils appeared for too short a time in the geologic record to be very helpful. D. index fossils are rarely found in other than sedimentary rocks.

29. The Rocky Mountains A. were uplifted about the time the dinosaurs died out. B. are older than the Appalachian Mountains. C. formed when Pangaea began to break up. D. are more than 200 million years old.

30. The dominant life forms in the Cambrian period were A. dinosaurs. B. amphibians. C. trilobites and brachiopods. D. algae and bacteria.

ch21 Key

1. It took a long time before people recognized the connection between fossils and living organisms. TRUE

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 21.01 Tillery - Chapter 21 #1 Topic: Geologic Time

2. The science of deciphering the history of life from the fossil record is called archeology. FALSE

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 21.01 Tillery - Chapter 21 #2 Topic: Geologic Time

3. Minerals replaced the wood in trees over a very long period making petrified wood. TRUE

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 21.01 Tillery - Chapter 21 #3 Topic: Geologic Time

4. The principle of uniformity requires you to believe that the geologic features you see today were formed in the past by the same processes we observe today. TRUE

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 21.02 Tillery - Chapter 21 #4 Topic: Geologic Time

5. Faults, folds, and igneous intrusions are always younger than the rock layers in which they are found. TRUE

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 21.02 Tillery - Chapter 21 #5 Topic: Geologic Time

6. Index fossils are fossils of distinctive plant or animal species that lived in a specific location for a long time. FALSE

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 21.02 Tillery - Chapter 21 #6 Topic: Geologic Time

7. Fossils are generally best preserved in metamorphic rock layers. FALSE

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 21.01 Tillery - Chapter 21 #7 Topic: Geologic Time

8. Estimations of the age of Earth based on its present rate of cooling from a molten mass yielded times that are close to current estimates. FALSE

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 21.03 Tillery - Chapter 21 #8 Topic: Geologic Time

9. Lack of fossils in Pre-Cambrian rocks means that very little life existed in this era. FALSE

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 21.03 Tillery - Chapter 21 #9 Topic: Geologic Time

10. Reptiles were the dominant life form in the Mesozoic Era. TRUE

Blooms Level: 2. Understand Section: 21.03 Tillery - Chapter 21 #10 Topic: Geologic Time

11. The oldest fossils are about how many years old? A. 4.5 billion years B. 3.5 billion years C. 250 million years D. 10,000 years

Blooms Level: 2. Understand Section: 21.01 Tillery - Chapter 21 #11 Topic: Geologic Time

12. Which of the following is not a common way for fossils to form? A. preservation of skeletal remains B. preservation of an organism's shape C. preservation of signs of activity D. preservation of soft parts by entombment in amber

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 21.01 Tillery - Chapter 21 #12 Topic: Geologic Time

13. The diagram below illustrates which of the following principles? A. principle of uniformity B. principle of superposition C. principle of original horizontality D. principle of cross-cutting

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 21.02 Tillery - Chapter 21 #13 Topic: Geologic Time

14. The fossilization process by which the original material is dissolved and new materials added is called A. replacement. B. carbonization. C. mineralization. D. replication.

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 21.01 Tillery - Chapter 21 #14 Topic: Geologic Time

15. A road cut shows layers of sedimentary rock that are uptilted. From this observation one could conclude that the rocks A. have been subjected to deformational stress. B. were formed by deposition of sediment on a sloping surface. C. were formed on land instead of under water. D. None of the above.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 21.02 Tillery - Chapter 21 #15 Topic: Geologic Time

16. Correlating and relative dating of rock units is made possible by application of the principle of A. cross-cutting relationships. B. faunal succession. C. superposition. D. All of the above.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 21.02 Tillery - Chapter 21 #16 Topic: Geologic Time

Tillery - Chapter 21

17. Which is likely to be the oldest rock in the formation? A. sandstone B. shale C. limestone D. basalt

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 21.02 Tillery - Chapter 21 #17 Topic: Geologic Time

18. Which of the following descriptions of this formation is most likely? A. The limestone and shale layers were deposited on the slope of a mountain. B. The basalt is crystallized magma that nearly reached the sandstone layer. C. The limestone and shale layers were eroded long before the sandstone was deposited. D. All of these descriptions are possible.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 21.02 Tillery - Chapter 21 #18 Topic: Geologic Time

19. Evidence for the presence of an unconformity in the formation below is given by A. the uptilting of the beds in layer 1. B. the erosion that must have taken place at the boundary of 1 and 2. C. the new sediment type deposited at the boundary of 2 and 3. D. All of these are example of unconformities.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 21.02 Tillery - Chapter 21 #19 Topic: Geologic Time

20. Fossils are useful for all of the following except A. correlating rocks in one location with those in another. B. determining the former environment of a region. C. determining the former climate of a region. D. determining the exact age of Earth.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 21.02 Tillery - Chapter 21 #20 Topic: Geologic Time

21. To serve as a geologic clock, a process must A. have been operating since the beginning of Earth. B. be uniform (or at least subject to averaging). C. be capable of being measured. D. All of the above.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 21.03 Tillery - Chapter 21 #21 Topic: Geologic Time

22. Which of the following statements about the granite in center of the formation below is false? A. The granite is a crystallized intrusion of magma. B. The granite formed after the sedimentary layers were deposited. C. The intrusion of the magma probably produced some metamorphism in the D. sedimentary layers. E. The sedimentary layers formed later, burying the granite outcrop.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 21.02 Tillery - Chapter 21 #22 Topic: Geologic Time

23. The process that has yielded the most accurate estimate of the age of Earth is measurement of A. the rate of sedimentation. B. the radioactive decay of elements in minerals. C. rate of increase of salinity of the oceans. D. the rate of the cooling of Earth from a molten mass.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 21.03 Tillery - Chapter 21 #23 Topic: Geologic Time

24. The Geologic Time Scale defines eras in terms of A. major worldwide extinctions of life on Earth. B. reversals in Earth's magnetic field. C. the beginning of the radioactive decay of elements in minerals. D. major plate tectonic events.

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 21.03 Tillery - Chapter 21 #24 Topic: Geologic Time

25. You would expect to find fossils that most closely resembled current life forms in rocks from which era? A. Precambrian B. Paleozoic C. Mesozoic D. Cenozoic

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 21.03 Tillery - Chapter 21 #25 Topic: Geologic Time

26. If you were hunting dinosaur fossils, you would be examining rocks from which era? A. Precambrian B. Paleozoic C. Mesozoic D. Cenozoic

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 21.03 Tillery - Chapter 21 #26 Topic: Geologic Time

27. The Cenozoic is known as the Age of the A. Mammals. B. Dinosaurs. C. Amphibians. D. Algae.

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 21.03 Tillery - Chapter 21 #27 Topic: Geologic Time

28. Correlation and relative dating through the use of index fossils is limited because A. index fossils are extremely rare. B. many sedimentary layers do not contain index fossils at all. C. index fossils appeared for too short a time in the geologic record to be very helpful. D. index fossils are rarely found in other than sedimentary rocks.

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 21.02 Tillery - Chapter 21 #28 Topic: Geologic Time

29. The Rocky Mountains A. were uplifted about the time the dinosaurs died out. B. are older than the Appalachian Mountains. C. formed when Pangaea began to break up. D. are more than 200 million years old.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 21.03 Tillery - Chapter 21 #29 Topic: Geologic Time

30. The dominant life forms in the Cambrian period were A. dinosaurs. B. amphibians. C. trilobites and brachiopods. D. algae and bacteria.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 21.03 Tillery - Chapter 21 #30 Topic: Geologic Time

ch21 Summary
Category Blooms Level: 2. Understand Blooms Level: 3. Apply Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 21.01 Section: 21.02 Section: 21.03 Tillery - Chapter 21 Topic: Geologic Time # of Questions 2 13 15 7 12 11 31 30