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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.

1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY The need to increase productivity and efficiency in the work place or any organization has led to increasing academic interest in the area of motivation over the years. Scholars have been keenly interested in knowing what factors are responsible for stimulating the will to work. Thus motivation has become an issue of concern for both scholars and practitioners of personnel management. Every organization either in the private or public sector is goal oriented and all efforts are geared towards the successful attainment of those goals and objectives.

Therefore, for any organization to record any degree of meaningful success in the pursuit of its goals and aspirations, it must have the ability to create values (motivation) enough to compensate for the burdens imposed upon the staff. Such value or motivators can come in the form of good training policies, facilities or incentives such as fringe benefit, promotion, status symbol etc so as to satisfy the needs of the staff for enhanced performance (Obisi, 1996).

It has been shown, argued and proven that unless individual staff are motivated to make sufficient use of the potentials found in them during the employment process they may not achieve the level of performance that is desired from them (Morris, 1998). For a staff to be motivated, he or she has to perceive that his or her needs and wants are being met. Thus the satisfaction of the staff represents an indispensable dimension of the motivational process. A satisfied individual would certainly contribute positively to the realization of the organizational goals and objectives while a dissatisfied staff may only not contribute but can even act in such a way that the realization of such goals and objectives could be completely destroyed. This underlines the importance of staff satisfaction to the organisation. Motivation is said to be the core of management of human resources. The management of men and women is a challenging task. No two persons have the same qualities, feelings and behaviour. The nature of man is very complex. It is not easy to take care of human beings with such varying characteristics and qualities.

Without motivation, organisation would not last long. Human resources must be activated, trained, developed and above all motivated in order to realize individual and organizational goals. An individual who has ability, skills and knowledge would not do much without motivation. However, an individual with skills, knowledge and ability with added motivation is a sure way to success (Ajiola, 2002). The performance of a worker does not depend largely on his ability, intelligence, skills and knowledge but on the motivation which he has. If we do not motivate a worker, he would not as such be a problem solver (Abbegleen, 2001). It is generally acclaimed that incentives such as good pay, good condition of service, provision of decent

accommodation, opportunity for staff training etc. motivate employees in order to increase their productive capacity. In view of the above, therefore, incentives are regarded as the major factor which motivates employees to exhibit better performance. However, it is not a matter of course to motivate an individual staff because the success of any motivational effect solely depends on the extent to which the motivation meets the needs of the individual employee.

Finally, the test for management of either private or public organisations therefore is to determine the valued needs and motivators that will make an employee react according to the organizational desires to increase

productivity. The impact of employee motivation on the banking industry using the Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Maiduguri as a case study will therefore form the basis of this study.

1.2

STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM Personnel management, motivation and productivity are areas that have occupied the minds of management in Nigeria especially in the private sector. Managers and scholars alike have wondered at the poor attitude to work of employees in the work place. With the rise of new ideas of management and motivation, one expects to see that these ideas are applied and the employees motivated to maximum productivity. However, the opposite has always seemed to be the case. One notices in many public and private organisations the

non-challant and sluggish attitude to work by the employees, and wonders where the problem lies. Union Bank Plc, Maiduguri is not an exception to the above problem. Employees of the organisation only perform their duties as much as will enable them to keep their jobs. Despite the fact that the organisation is meeting the needs for which it is created the employees seem not to be happy and have not utilized their full potential and skills. It is against this backdrop that this study examines the impact of employee motivation on the organization.

1.3

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The general objective of the study is to examine the impact of motivation on productivity in Union Bank Plc. The specific objectives are to: (1) (2) examine what motivates employees in Union Bank Plc. examine the impact of motivation on employee performance in in Union Bank Plc. (3) identify the problems of motivation in in Union Bank Plc.

(4)

recommend

ways

of

enhancing

motivation

and

employee performance in Union Bank Plc.

1.4

RESEARCH QUESTIONS Based on the objectives of the study, the following questions are formulated: (1) What are the motivational factors of employees in Union Bank Plc.? (2) What is the impact of motivation on employee performance in Union Bank Plc.? (3) What are the problems of motivation of employees in Union Bank Plc.? (4) How can motivation and employee performance be enhanced in Union Bank Plc.?

1.5

RESEARCH HYPOTHSES

The central hypotheses guiding this study are:


(1)

Ho:

There is no relationship between and performance in

employee motivation the banking industry.


(2)

Ho: Jobs in the banking industry have not provided motivation for its employees.

1.6

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The need for the study arises from the realization that the pivotal asset of any organisation is the employees. Without them the very survival of the organisation could be an impossibility. Such an important asset needs to be motivated to make them contribute their best to move the organisation forward. Thus, a study of this nature is a step in the right direction. The study possesses some academic value and could be of interest to both researchers and students, managers in the banking industry and the general public. To the researchers and students, it will be a contribution to knowledge and literature on the topic and a guide for further study. To managers of organizations and the banking industry, the study will help identify motivational

factors of employees, their problems and suggestions on how to motivate and enhance their performance. To the general public, the study will be an eye opener on the impact of employee motivation on the banking industry.

1.7

SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study essentially concentrates on motivation. Emphasis will be on the impact of employee motivation on the banking industry. The study is limited to Union Bank Plc, Maiduguri.

1.8

DEFINITION OF TERMS This section clarifies concepts within the context of this

research. These concepts are as follows: Motivation: The state or condition of being induced to do something. Employee: This refers to managerial, secretarial, technical and other personnel in an organization. Impact: This is concerned with the effect that motivation has on employees of the organization in relation to their performance. REFERENCES

Abbegleen, H. (2001) Principles of Management: A Modern

Approach. (Seventh Edition) John Willey and Sons,


London. Ajilola, E. (2002) How to Motivate the Nigerian Workers in

Management in Nigeria Journal. Vol. 2, No. 6. PP.157192 Morris, V. (1998) Motivation and Morale in Industry. Norton and Co., New York. Obisi, C. (1996) Personnel Management. Jackbod Enterprises, Ibadan.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter is dedicated to the review of relevant literature for the study. Consequently, the works of scholars and authors on the concept, objectives, techniques, complexity of motivation, management policies and theories of motivation will be reviewed.

2.1

CONCEPT/DEFINITION OF MOTIVATION The word motivation is derived from a Latin word

movere, meaning to move. In its simplest term, the term may be defined as the state or condition of being induced to do something. Essentially, motivation involves individual needs and the extent to which they are met by the organisation or the extent to which the worker perceive that his or her needs are met by the organisation. According to Campbell and Pitchard( 1976:34),

motivation has to do with a set of independent/dependent variable relationship that explains the direction, skills and understanding of the task and constraints operating in the

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environment. Motivation also refers to the underlying psychological state that impels or causes behaviour. A motive generally is a need, want or desire which operates within the individual which makes him to exhibit certain behaviour. Glueck (1980:114), defines motivation as the process or factors (motives) that influence people to act. He went further to state that psychologists view motivation as the process and channeling of behaviour into a specific course. He also sees it as a general term applying to the entire class of desires, drives, needs, wishes and similar forces. Writing in the Nigerian Institute of Management, Ajilola (1976:22), defined motivation as a process of stimulating people to action to achieve organizational task as well as a process of stimulating oneself to action to gratify a felt need. Victor Vroom sees motivation as a process governing choices made by persons or lower organisations among alternative forms or voluntary activity (Vroom, 1964:75). Motivation is the process of creating organizational conditions which will impel staffs to strive to attain company

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goals (Hodgetts, 1979:9). According to Morns (1953:21), motivation represents an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium, causing the individual to move in a goal directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium by satisfying the need. Lillis (1958:35), defines motivation as the stimulating of any emotion or desire operating upon ones will and prompting or driving it into action. Steers and Poster (1979) presents a model of the process of motivation as follows: Fig. 2:1 Model of the Process of Motivation
Behaviour Action Incentive Goal

Inner state and disequilibrium, needs, desires or expectancy accompanied by participation

Modification Inner State

Source: Steers and Porter (1976:103) This model implies that individuals have desired needs within them that leads to the development of behaviour aimed at meeting their goals or needs. A feedback is

12

necessary in order to assess whether the behaviour is producing the desired goals or if there is the need for modification. From the above, one observes that motivation is something that originates from the inner state of an individual. Motivation can also arise from the socio-economic environment. This implies that factors within the socioeconomic environment trigger off a desire to achieve a certain goal in order to meet the expected goals. Motivation is an exchange between individual and the socio-economic environment. The environment gives the individual set of value preferences from which the goals to which his desires are expressed and the individual gives to the social environment by conforming to its norms through his behaviour (Dublin, 1974:44).

2.2

OBJECTIVES/IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION Motivation is simply the will to achieve. It was

discovered that since organisations are made up of people, it

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was not enough to get the right kind of people and place them in the right kind of job. That is in itself not enough to facilitate efficiency and effectiveness because man is a behavioural animal propelled by his behaviour and as such his behaviour has to be channeled to a productive one. It is obvious that human behaviour is complex and therefore not a simple matter. Man in organisation exit in a system where there are interactions and interdependencies of interaction and in the context of all this, man needs to be motivated. People need to be tuned and stimulated before they will put in their best. The major objectives of motivation is to provide opportunities for personal need fulfillment for each staff in such a way that will encourage him to put in his best towards the accomplishment of organizational goals and objectives. Generally, an staff is motivated by opportunities to achieve and satisfy unfulfilled needs. Within the individual staff there exist some desires which needs fulfillment. To fulfill these unsatisfied needs and desires become forces that initiate or incite action. When a staff sees an opportunity to

14

achieve what is important to him, he gets attracted to that opportunity. The perceived opportunity is referred to as incentive. Performance is regarded as a behaviour which is directed towards a task or goal accomplishment while motivation on the other hand is the core stone that provides incentive for the staffs to work hard which intimately brings about productivity thus making the anticipation of the organisation a reality. How do you identify a motivated person? A motivated person can be identified through the extent of his commitment to the organisation that he belongs. According to Abbegleen (1974) a motivated person could be identified through the following: (3) If the person is ready to defend the organisation anywhere? (4) One prefers the organisation he belongs to any related one. (5) He is ready to spend the rest of his working life in the organisation to which belongs.

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(6)

One with expressing satisfaction and contentment with the internal workings of the organisation which he belongs.

(7)

One who is likely to have no intra-organizational conflict with those up, below and horizontal level of the organisation.

(8)

He that is ready to willingly contribute his effort towards the success of the organisation to which he belong (Abbegleen, 1974:415).

2.3

STEPS/TECHNIQUES IN MOTIVATING

EMPLOYEES

There are two kinds of motivation: positive and negative motivation. If people work due to fear and reasons of punishment and reprimand, it is negative motivation. On the other hand, if people work willingly and without coercion, it is positive motivation. Motivation can also be internal or intrinsic, external or extrinsic. The feeling of being

recognized, praised for a job well-done and participation in whatever we do can be called internal or intrinsic motivation while external or extrinsic motivation concerns such

16

motivations like money, retirement benefits, health insurance and compensation (Obisi, 1997:306). According to Michael (1975:179) there are four steps to be followed in motivating the staffs. They are: (1) Sizing up issues requiring motivation: is not a straight-jacketed affair.

Motivation

Organisations must make sure that the areas they are applying motivation is actually where it is needed. Certain staffs may want their organisations to help them to further their education which will enhance their career while some may want something else. Organisations must take care of these varying

expectations in their approach towards motivation.

(2)

Preparing a set of motivating tools:

The next step would be to understand those tools which would actually motivate the people. There are items or tools which may motivate the executives more than the other rank and file.

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(3)

Selecting and Applying Motivators:

Tools and items selected as motivators must be applied at the right time for it to be useful. Bonus during celebration is ideal. Staff vacation during children vacation period would enable the whole family to travel on a holiday. (4) Getting Feedback:

The feedback of what we are doing to motivate people must be obtained to enable organisations make for reexaminations and find out usefulness of what they are doing. There are various incentives and techniques which organisations can use in motivating their staffs. These techniques or incentives may be divided into two, namely financial or Monetary and non-financial or non-monetary incentives. With reference to financial Incentives, some individuals are ready and willing to define motivation as money. Most people are motivated by money. Under financial motivation may come such things as compensation; business, leave allowances, other financial benefits and

18

remunerations. Monetary reward as a motivator is high in developing economies due to very low quality of life which they are facing. Non-financial or non-monetary incentives give personal satisfaction to the individual. It is a reward which gives inner joy to the individual but cannot be measured and quantified in terms of money. Non-financial motivation include job Security, more responsibility and authority, sense of

belonging and recognition, job enrichment, job loading, pride, praise, prestige and status. Others are participation and delegation, acceptance, communality and competition, better quality of work life both on and off the job, opportunity for growth and promotion, and job rotation.

2.4

ORGANISATIONAL POLICIES THAT ENHANCES EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION For motivational tools to succeed, it must be dynamic.

Motivational techniques which are not flexible are dangerous and counter productive. Organisations must and should not forget that a satisfied need is no longer a motivator of

19

behaviour. Environmental and organizational and even individual changes should not be forgotten while organizing and implementing motivational tools, hence the urgency to be flexible, dynamic and not rigid in applying motivational tools. Organisations need to take the following suggestions. Staffs should be taken into confidence when applying motivational tools, subordinates should be respected and honoured, workers must be properly equipped before being assigned to a job, the right man must be placed and matched on the right job, and face to face meeting between superiors and subordinates must be regularly organized to explain strengths and weaknesses and feedback taken. In addition, personal and demoralizing influences should be avoided because they attempt to disrupt the creative potential of the individual which is a disaster to both the individual and the organisation. Individuals must be prepared for change. The greatest fear in the world of management is not the fear of the unknown but the fear of change. Due to stiff competition, change is inevitable and when individuals are not prepared well in advance for such

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changes, it becomes difficult to adjust. It is necessary that organisation renews itself everyday in order to remain competitive. Similarly, human resources development systems must be properly utilized. Training and development, selection, job rotation, job analysis, job enrichment, job evaluation, performance appraisal, merit rating etc. if properly utilized would to a greater extent revitalize the workforce. Also, workers should be allowed to be their own boss, positive motivational tools should be part of the culture of the organisation. Delegating responsibility and retaining

authority cannot motivate the workforce. Authority and responsibility should be delegated. Finally, merit and hard work must be rewarded adequately. Rewards based on personal influences

demoralize the workforce. In any organisation where rewards are likely to be misplaced, where a spirited man is not as such respected and admired, motivational tools cannot bear fruit. It is a problem on advancement in an organisation where merit plays second fiddle because of personal influences. Organisations will do well if they avoid demoralizing influences in designing and implementing motivational tools (Aghidigbe, 2001:15-19).

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2.5

MANAGERIAL

ASSUMPTIONS

AND

THEIR

EFFECTS ON EMPLOYEES Douglas McGregor (1960) stated that The human side of enterprise is all of a piece and the assumption management holds about controlling its human resources determine the whole character of the enterprise. These assumptions determines also the quality of its successive generations of management (McGregor, 1960:vi-vii). McGregor presented two opposite sets of assumptions that he thought were implicit in most approaches to supervision. These two sets of assumptions, which he called Theory X and Theory Y can be regarded as the extremes or boundaries on a spectrum or range of assumptions. Theory X and Y is based on McGregors assumption that the behaviour of people is strongly influenced by their beliefs. The bulk of current managerial principles, according to McGregor had been directly derived from the first set of assumptions, theory X. These assumptions are to quote McGregor:

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(1)

The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he can.

(2)

Because of this human characteristic of dislike of work, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed or threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort towards the achievement of

organizational objectives. (3) The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition and wants security above all (McGregor, 1960:33-34). Theory X provides explanation for some behaviour patterns in Industry or the work place. But are these inherent human traits or are they learned through

experience in organisation? This view clearly dictates that motivation will be primarily through fear and that managers will be required to maintain close surveillance of their subordinates if the organizational objectives of security are to be obtained.

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The

accumulation

of

knowledge

about

human

behaviour from many specialized fields has led to further research regarding the validity of conventional managerial assumptions. From these data, McGregor derived a new set of assumption which he called Theory Y. According to McGregor: (1) The expenditure of physical and mental efforts in

work is as natural as play or rest. The average human being does not inherently dislike work. Depending upon controllable conditions, work may be a source of satisfaction (and will be voluntarily performed) or a source of punishment (and will be avoided if possible). (2) External control and the threat of punishment are

not only means of bringing about efforts towards organizational objectives. Man will exercise self-

direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which he is committed. (3) Commitment to objectives is a result of the

rewards associated with their achievement. The most significant of such rewards e.g. the satisfaction of ego

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and self-actualization needs, can be direct products of efforts directed towards organisation objectives. (4) The average human learns under proper conditions not only to accept but to seek responsibility. Avoidance of responsibility, lack of ambition and emphasis on security are generally consequences of experience, not inherent human characteristics. (5) The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in the solution of organized problems is widely, not narrowly distributed in the population. (6) Under conditions of modern industrial life, the

intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only partially utilized (McGregor, 1960:47-48). Theory Y emphasizes managerial leadership through motivation and by permitting subordinates to experience personal satisfaction as they contribute to the achievement of the objectives. These assumptions, McGregor felt, provide a better explanation of human nature and therefore

25

indicated the need for a different managerial strategy in dealing with people. McGregor analyzed how the acceptance of Theory X as the basis for running an organisation would workout. The relationship of this theory to the organizational structure is that if Theory X is applied, tall structures which encourage close controls would be the most appropriate form. But, on the other hand as McGregor presupposes that Theory Y depicts the nature of humans, the flat structure which has given a great deal of responsibility to subordinate will be more effective than a tall structure. Likert (1967) in his contribution to the theory of organizations holds the view that supervisors with the best record of performance are among those who focus more, on the human aspects of their subordinates problems and on building effective work group for goal attainment. Likert maintained that management approach that is participative (Democratic) and characterized by the manager being supportive through the use of decision making and group method of supervision, produces a better

26

organizational climate and better results in terms of productivity, costs, absences, and turn-over. The essential concepts of Likerts and McGregor's contributions to the theory of organization rest squarely on the assumption that in contrast to the classical views, there must be supportive relationship of the group to each other if the organisation is to be effective.

2.6

COMPLEXITY IMPLICATION FOR MANAGERS

OF

MOTIVATION

AND

It is important to note that motivation is responsible for variation in human behaviour in organisations (or the work place). Motivation is complex and individualized as what motivates one person may be different from what motivates another person. What motivates generally are wide ranging e.g. wages, job security, less restrictive working condition, sympathy, understanding, being involved or opportunity to contribute in decision making, feeling that someone or management is concerned about your welfare or

27

wellbeing,

having

feedback

on

your

performance,

appreciation and recognition for work done no matter how significant or insignificant the work may be. Thus the question that is often been raised by managers are: Why do people do what they do? What can be done to encourage people? What are the possible ways to encourage efficient and effective performance by the staff? These and many other questions which are related to the above might appear to be simple but at closer look, the truth is that the answers do not come easily as expected. Why? No one single answer would suffice in explaining why the answers to these questions are not easy. First, this is an area that deals with human behaviour within an

organizational setting. Human being we know is a complex animal. An enquiry into their behaviour and reasons for certain actions or indication's would certainly also prove us with complex, varied and at times conflicting answers. Secondly and closely related to the above are individual differences. Factors responsible for the motivation of individuals may differ from place to place and from person to person. Thirdly motivational factors are also difficult to

28

determine because of the unending nature of individual wants. The recognition of a particular need and attempt to satisfy it, one would think would greatly motivate the worker but most often than not, the output realized do not allude to this because once one need is met, others emerge. Fourthly basic needs take effect as motivators on different level depending on the individual.

2.7

THEORIES

OF

MOTIVATION

AND

THEIR

CONTRIBUTIONS As stated earlier, factors responsible for the motivation of individual may differ from place to place and from person to person. This, therefore, cripples attempt to allocate a single unifying theory of motivation thus, the field of motivation is flooded with theories each having its unique argument, merit and demerit. The presence of various theories of motivation, though a positive development for the academic sector, complicates the problem of managers. All these theories are concerned with one thing (motivation), why people in work place act as they do and how those in management positions can change

29

their actions. We shall now proceed to examine some theories of motivation.

MASLOW HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY One theory of human motivation that probably has had the greatest impact on studies concerned with motivation in organisation was that of Abraham Maslow, an American psychologist. Abraham Maslow in a classic paper published in 1943 outlined the elements of an overall theory of motivation. Maslow arranged human needs in a hierarchical manner comprising of five levels. It was his contention that once a particular level of need was satisfied, it no longer served to motivate leading to the next level need that has to be activated in order to motivate the individual. The five levels in the need hierarchy propounded by Maslow in brief are the following: (i) Psychological Needs Maslow included in this group the need for water, food, air, rest etc. The psychological needs occupy the most basic level in the hierarchy and is usually taken as the starting point in his motivational theory .The essential or

30

distinguishing feature of this level of need is that it is concerned with the maintenance of the body i.e. that they are required to keep the body in a state of equilibrium. According to the theory, once these basic needs are satisfied, they are no longer motivated. For examples, a thirsty man will strive for a cup of water held out in front of him. However, after he drinks to his satisfaction, he will not strive for another. what can now therefore act as a motivator to him is not the basic need for water but some higher level needs. On the other hand, if these needs (psychological) are not satisfied and man is then dominated by the psychological needs all other needs may become inactive.

(ii)

Safety Needs As outlined by Maslow, this constitutes the second

level in the hierarchy of needs. It is also important to state that the safety needs are also roughly equivalent to the security needs. It is also worthy to note that safety as used here is both in the physical and psychological sense and would actually act as a motivator to the worker when the

31

first and most basic level of need (psychological) has been relatively well gratified. The psychological security consists of the various security measure adult take, such as tenure position, saving, all sorts of insurance, etc. while the physical security consists of stability, protection, freedom from fear, law and order etc. This level of need is considered very important when viewed against the background that most people would not want to work in an environment that holds out for them physical or psychological hazards. An atmosphere free from these hazards would certainly encourage the worker to put in his or her best. (iii) Belongingness and Love Needs This is the third level of need and it becomes very prominent when the first two levels have been satisfied. Man as social animal wants to relate with others either at home or in the workplace. Such relationship especially in the workplace must be affectionate if the worker is to be motivated to put in his or her best. Any good establishment must satisfy this need if it is to survive. (iv) The Esteem Needs

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This need is the fourth in Maslows hierarchy of needs and it represents the ego need. Self-esteem needs can be classified into two categories, normally. (a) The desire for strength, for achievement, for

adequacy, for mastery and competence, for confidence in the face of the world and for independence and freedom. (b) The desire for reputation and recognition,

attention, importance, dignity or appreciation.

(v)

Need for Self Actualization This is at the apex in Maslows hierarchy of need and it

refers to a persons desire for self-fulfillment. Every individual in the workplace has a model or what he or she wants to become and for Maslow, the realization of this model represents the apex in the hierarchy of needs. Thus, it represents the culmination of all the lower, intermediate and higher needs of human (Maslow, 1954:7779).

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HERZBERG TWO FACTOR THEORY OF MOTIVATION Herzberg (1950) and his associates developed the work of Maslow and formulated a theory of work motivation commonly referred to as the hygiene theory of motivation. His idea was to discover what motivates staffs and to ascertain what they actually want in their work. According to Herzberg, intrinsic factors tend to give job satisfaction while extrinsic factors tend to give job

dissatisfaction. The intrinsic and extrinsic factors may be divided into two which he code-named motivators and hygiene factors. The motivators are the factors which determine or increase job satisfaction like: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Recognition Achievement Work itself Responsibility Individual growth

According to Herzberg the above points are the factors which could bring about job satisfaction but even if the

34

above

situations

are

absent,

they

would

not

cause

dissatisfaction because they are extra provision which encourages or boosts motivation. He called them satisfiers On the other hand, there are situations or conditions which Herzberg states would cause dissatisfaction if they are not present and these are situations relating to

organizational administration and policies like: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) The Salary Superior-subordinate relationships Job security General working condition Supervision above conditions are called hygiene or

maintenance factors because they are extrinsic to job. They do not provide motivation if they are adequate. However, if they are not in place, they cause dissatisfaction. Herzberg cautions that the factors leading to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job

dissatisfaction. Therefore, a manager seeks to eliminate factors that can create job dissatisfaction; he can bring about peace, but not necessarily motivation. He would be

35

placating his subordinates rather than motivating them. It is necessary that the satisfiers or motivators be emphasized upon.

EQUITY THEORY OF WORK MOTIVATION The basic arguments of this theory of motivation which largely emerged to deal with social comparison processes, is that the major determinant of job action of performance and satisfaction is the result of the degree of equity or inequity that an individual perceives in work situations. The degree of equity is explained in terms of a ratio of an individuals input to outcomes as compared with a similar ration for a colleague or a relevant other. Though contributors to this theory are many and each having his or her own approach, Adams work, which he carried out in 1963, has come to be regarded as a highly developed model of the social comparison of equity theory. A good number of factors distinguish the equity theory from other theories previously discussed. One major distinguishing feature of equity theory is that is places much emphasis on individuals perception of

36

others and also group influences. In contrast, the need theory is based on the individual, evaluating possible factors that energize the individual to work towards the realization of organizational goals and objectives. Furthermore, the equity theory does not focus on the identification of specific factors of motivation but this is a primary endeavour of the need theory. The equity theory just attempts to provide us with a general framework for understanding the processes by which behaviour is

energized and sustained. Finally, equity theory perceives of motivation as conditions on comparative basis and not as the result of actual set of circumstances. This model has a great implication for management in that management has to be fair as much as possible.

ACHIEVEMENT THEORY OF MOTIVATION McCelland, in his Achievement Theory, agrees with Maslow and Herzberg that certain needs or motives such as recognition, esteem and even achievement can surely motivate people. In his achievement theory, he discovered

37

three motives which if well applied would actually motivate people. These needs are: (1) (2) (3) The need for power The need for application or close relationship The need for achievement

McCelland (1953) argues that every motive or need is a learned one and only two are innate, namely striving for pleasure and seeking to avoid displeasure or pain. All other motives are required. These two factors are the opposite ends of a continuum. One end is an approach to the expectation of pleasure and satisfaction and the other is negative avoidance of pain or displeasure. According to McCelland, high achievers do not like to achieve by chance. They would also not like to take the hostile terrain rather they would follow the middle path which is not hazardous or very competitive. He grades the motives or needs thus: (a) (b) An achiever could be a successful entrepreneur The need for application should come from a

socialite who want friendship and affiliation (c) While the need for power brings out good

leadership in the person.

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According to McCelland, achievement motive is a desire to perform in terms of a standard of excellence or to be successful in competitive situations. High achievers do things better than others. Accomplishing a task satisfies them much, hence motivation. According to this theory, people do not thread on the path which is thorny especially when less gain would accrue to them. However, if a path would enable us to achieve or realize our goal, we would love to work harder towards that path to achieve our goal. In his contribution, Georgopolous et al (1957) wrote that if a worker sees high productivity as a path leading to the attainment of one of more of his personal goals, he will like to be a high producer. Conversely, if he seeks low productivity as a path to the achievement of his goals, he will opt to be a low producer.

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REFERENCES Abbegleen, H. (1974) Principles of Management: A Modern

Approach. John Willey and Sons, London.


Ajilola, E. (1975) How to Motivate the Nigerian Workers in

Management in Nigeria Journal October Vol. 2, No. 6.


Campbell, J.P. and Pitchard R.D. (1976) Motivation Theory:

Industrial and Organizational Psychology. McGraw Hill


Books, New York. Dublin, R. (1974) Human Relations in Administration. Prentice Hall, Englewood, New Jersey. Georgopolous, B.S. et al (1957) A Path-Goal Approach to Productivity Journal of Applied Psychology Vol. 3, No. 4.

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Glueck, W.F. (1950) Management. The Dryden Press, Hindale, Illinois. Herzberg, F. (1959) The Motivation to Work (2nd Edition). John Willey and Sons, New York. Hodgetts, R. (1977) Introduction to Business. Wesley Publishing Company, Addison. Lillis, G.C. (1958) The Satisfaction Performance Controversy

Business Horizons. October Vol. 1 No. 16.


Maduabrun, C.D. (1988) Motivation of Nigerian Civil Servants: A Historical Overview in the Quarterly Journal of

Administration Vol. 22, No. 1.


Maslow, A.H. (1954) Motivation and Personality, Harper and Row, New York. McCelland, D. (1953) Achievement Motive. Appleton Century Inc. New York. McGregor, D. (1960) The Human Side of Enterprise. McGraw Hill, New York. Michael, K.B. (1975) Introduction to Behavioural Science for

Business.Willey Eastern New Delhi.


Morris, V. (1953) Motivation and Morale in Industry. Norton and Co., New York. Obisi, C. (1996) Personnel Management. Jackbod Enterprises, Ibadan. Steers, R.M. and Porter, L.W. (1979) Motivation and Work

Behaviour. McGraw Hill Book, New York.

41

Vroom, V.A. (1964) Work and Motivation. John Willey and Sons, New York.

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 3.1 INTRODUCTION Survey research is defined as the systematic gathering of information from a sample of respondents for the purpose of understanding and predicting some aspects of the behaviour of the population of interest. The process and method used in data collection is referred to as methodology (Tull and Abaum, 1973:3).

42

3.2

SOURCES OF DATA Materials used for the study are gathered from both primary and secondary sources.

3.2.1

Primary Source Primary data is information sourced by the researcher himself. The information is gathered for a specific purpose or research work. It is therefore more valid and authentic though very costly, time consuming and energy sapping. Questionnaire and personal interview are the primary data used in this study.

3.2.1.1

Questionnaire Questionnaire is a set of questions printed and

administered on respondents. It is simply a formalized approach of asking someone for information. All questions and the answers to the questions would provide data for arriving at a conclusion. The questions as much as possible would motivate the respondent to provide the necessary information (Croach, 1985:64). In this study, questionnaire

43

was prepared and distributed to the staff of Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Maiduguri.

3.2.1.2

Personal Interview Personal interview implies a face-to-face conversation

between the interviewer and the respondent of the interviewee. The interviewer asks questions and records the respondents answer either while the interview is in progress or immediately afterwards. Personal interview despite its cost is very fast in terms of response and the researcher can influence the interview environment and seek clarification where necessary. Also information gathered through personal interview is

unadulterated, given it an edge over questionnaire which may be answered with biased mind by the respondent (Walter, 1976:112). For this study, personal interview with the Head of Operations and five staff of Union Bank of Nigeria Plc,, Maiduguri were conducted.

44

3.2.2

Secondary Sources Secondary source of data are data that are developed for some purpose other than helping to solve the problem at hand. The researcher is not involved in gathering secondary data. That is to say secondary data has been in existence before the problem that is to be solved arose. Secondary data might have originated from the need to keep proper accounts of an organisation, research work, conference meetings etc. Secondary data is therefore not expensive and quick to get. Adequate care must be taken however, before using secondary data. The relevance of the information in terms of how it fits the requirements of the problem at hand has to be ascertained. The accuracy of the information in terms of this unit of measurement must be assessed. Also the source of data has to be known to be able to verify its authenticity (Baker, 1991:156). For the study, secondary data consists of published books, journals, seminar and conference proceedings as well as unpublished materials.

45

3.3

POPULATION A population is a group of persons, organisation or objects about which information is desired. The population of this study consists of the staff of Union Bank of Nigeria Plc,, Maiduguri.

3.4

SAMPLE SIZE Sample according to Robert et al (1960:114-115) is a group of elements selected from a population. By definition the number of elements in a sample is less than or at most equal to the number in the population. It is usually not possible to study the whole population of a researchers area of study at the same time. As a result, information from a portion of the population is gathered by taking a sample of elements. On the basis of the information gathered from the elements, drawn conclusions about the larger groups are deduced. In this study a sample size of fifty (50) was used. This was in order to allow for more coverage of the study area and to ensure precision in drawing conclusions.

46

3.5

SAMPLING METHOD In this study, simple random sampling was employed. Questionnaires were distributed randomly to the

respondents. Here each population elements has a known and equal chance of being selected.

3.6

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION Copies of questionnaire were distributed to the respondents at their places of work personally by the researcher. They were asked to fill the required information at their convenience. A covering letter was attached to each questionnaire assuring the respondents of strict

confidentiality of their comments and responses.

3.7

METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS Data collected were analyzed by the use of tables, figures and percentages to summarize the responses of the respondents.

47

REFERENCES Baker, J.M. (1991) Research for Marketing. Macmillan Educational Ltd., London. Robert, D. et al (1969) Marketing Research and Information

Systems: Text and Cases. McGraw Hill Inc. New York.


Tull, A. and Abaum, F. (1973) Research and Development for

Managers. Withan Heinemann Ltd. London.


Walter, B.W. (1976) Marketing Research: Methods and Cases. Harper and Row Publishers, New York.

48

CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 4.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter deals with the presentation and analysis of data based on the impact of employee motivation on the Banking industry: A case study of Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Maiduguri. A total of 25 questionnaires were distributed among respondents (staff of Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Maiduguri) and only 23 were filled and received.

49

Data collected were analyzed by the use of tables, figures and percentages while the chi-square statistical tool was used to test the hypotheses formulated.

4.2

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS Table 1: Sex

Responses Male Female Total Source: Field Work, 2012

Frequency 16 7 23

Percentage 69.6 30.4 100

Table 1 shows that 16 (69.6%) of the respondents are male, while 7 (30.4%) are female. This means that both sexes are well represented in the study.

Table 2: Age Responses 20 30 years 31 40 years 41 50 years 51 years above Total Source: Field Work, 2012 Frequency 6 13 4 0 23 Percentage 26.1 56.5 17.4 0 100

50

Table 2 indicates that 6(26.1%) of the respondents are within the range of 20 30 years, 13 (56.5%) are within the range of 31 40 years, while 4 (17.4%) are within the age range of 41 50 years. This means that the majority of the respondents are adults.

Table 3: Job Specification Responses Manager Marketer Customer Care staff Clearing Representative Cashier Operations staff Total Source: Field Work, 2012 Frequency 2 5 4 3 4 5 23 Percentage 8.7 21.7 17.4 13.1 17.4 21.7 100

From table 3, it can be seen that 2 (8.7%) of the respondents are Managers, 5 (21.7%) are Marketers, 4 (17.4%)

51

are Customer Care staff, 3 (13.1%) are Clearing Representatives, 4 (17.4%) are cashiers and 5 (21.7%) are Operations staff. The revelation from the table is that all categories of staff are represented in the study.

Table 4: Educational Qualification Responses Primary School SSCE/GCE OND/HND B.Sc./B.A. Higher Degree Professional Total Source: Field Work, 2012 Frequency 0 0 11 7 3 2 23 Percentage 0 0 47.8 30.4 13.1 8.7 100

From table 4, we can discover that 11 (47.8%) of the respondents are OND/HND holders, 7 (30.4%) are degree holders, 3 (13.1%) are higher degree holders and 2 (8.7%) possess professional qualifications. This implies that all the respondents have one form of educational qualification or the other.

52

Table 5: Duration of Service in the Organisation Responses 1 5 years 6 10 years 11 20 years Total Source: Field Work, 2012 Frequency 6 13 4 23 Percentage 26.1 56.5 17.4 100

Table 5 reveals that 6 (26.1%) of the respondents have worked for 1 5 years in the service of the Organization, 13 (56.5%) have worked for 6 10 years and 4 (17.4%) have worked for 11 20 years. The deduction from this table is that majority of the respondents have worked for considerable number of years in the service of the Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Maiduguri and should give adequate information on the subject matter of motivation and employee performance in the organization.

53

Table 6: Involvement in the decision making process in the Organization Responses Yes No Sometimes Total Source: Field Work, 2012 Frequency 5 15 3 23 Percentage 21.7 65.2 13.1 100

Table 6 reveals that 5 (21.7%) of the respondents are involved in the decision making process in their

units/department/organisation, 15 (65.2%) are not and 3 (13.1%) are sometimes involved. This means that majority of the respondents are not involved in the decision making process of their unit/department/organisation. During the interview session, it was revealed that most of the decisions are made by the Headquarters and the branches are to comply.

54

Table 7: Training opportunities for advancement Responses Yes No Total Source: Field Work, 2012 Frequency 6 17 23 Percentage 26.1 73.9 100

Table 7 affirms that 6 (36.1%) of the respondents say there are training and development opportunities for them to advance their career while 17 (73.9%) say there are no training and development opportunities for them to perform optimally and advance their career. Judging from the responses of the majority, we can conclude that there are no training and development opportunities for staff to advance their career. In the interview conducted it was stated that training and induction programme for new employees are rushed and training for old staff have been suspended. This might be attributed to the impact of the economic melt down and the attendant crises in the banking industry.

Table 8: Relationship between superior and subordinate Responses Frequency Percentage

55

Cordial Very cordial Not very cordial Not cordial Total Source: Field Work, 2012

13 5 3 2 23

56.5 21.7 13.1 8.7 100

From table 8 we discover that 13 (56.5%) and 5 (21.7%) of the respondents say the relationship between them and their superiors is cordial and very cordial respectively, while 3 (13.1%) and 2 (8.7%) of the respondents say the relationship between them and their superiors is not very cordial and not cordial respectively. This affirms that there is cordial relationship between staff and their superiors and that the relationship in the work place is not that of master-servant relationship.

Table 9: Initiative or discretion in the discharge of duty Responses Yes No Frequency 11 8 Percentage 47.8 34.8

56

Sometimes Total Source: Field Work, 2012

4 23

17.4 100

Table 9 shows that 11 (47.8%) of the respondents say they are allowed to use their discretion in the discharge of their duties, 8 (34.8%) say they are not allowed and 4 (17.47%) say they are sometimes allowed to use their discretion. It is therefore clear that majority of the staff are allowed to use their initiative or discretion in the discharge of their duties. The interview session confirms that staff initiative or discretion in the discharge of their duties are allowed if it falls within the mode of operation of the Bank, helps in achieving organizational goals and does not negate the culture and ethics of banking.

Table 10: Provision of medical care for staff in the Organization Responses Excellent Good Fair Frequency 14 6 3 Percentage 60.8 26.1 13.1

57

Bad Total Source: Field Work, 2012

0 23

0 100

Table 10 indicates that 14 (60.8%) of the respondents assess the provision of medical care for staff as excellent, 6 (26.1%) say it is good and 3 (13.1%) say it is fair. Going by the response of the majority we can say that the provision of medical care for the staff of the Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Maiduguri is excellent. Provision of health care for employees is very important. This is because staff performance is determined by their health status. A work force that is productive will surely be productive.

Table 11: Provision of housing for staff in the Organization Responses Excellent Good Fair Bad Total Source: Field Work, 2012 Frequency 5 15 3 0 23 Percentage 21.7 65.2 13.1 0 100

58

Table 11 shows that 5 (21.7%) of the respondents assess the provision of housing for staff in the Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Maiduguri as excellent, 15 (65.2%) assess it as good, and 3

(13.1%) fair. This indicates that the Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Maiduguri has done well in the provision of housing for its staff. The interview session revealed that despite the fact that the Bank does not have its own accommodation for staff, the housing policy of the Bank in terms of housing allowance is favourable.

Table 12: Motivation at work Responses Fringe benefit Commendation Work setting Promotion Less supervision Challenging job All of the above Total Source: Field Work, 2012 Frequency 1 3 2 3 1 2 11 23 Percentage 4.3 13.1 8.7 13.1 4.3 8.7 47.8 100

59

Table 12 reveals that 1 (4.3%) of the respondents say his motivational factor is fringe benefits, 3 (13.1%) say it is commendation for job well done, 2 (8.7%) say it is good work setting, 3 (13.1%) say it is promotion, 1 (4.3%) say it is less supervision and 2 (8.7%) say it is challenging job while 11 (47.8%) say all of the above. This affirms the fact that motivation is a complex issue and motivators are wide ranging. Thus workers motivational factors include fringe benefits, commendation for job well done, good working environment, promotion, less supervision and challenging job.

Table 13: Provision of enough motivation at work Responses Frequency Yes 14 No 9 Total 23 Source: Field Work, 2012 Percentage 61,9 39.1 100

From table 13, 14 (61.9%) of the respondents say their job provides enough motivation for them while 9 (39.1%) say their jobs does not provide enough motivation for them.

60

Table 14: Relationship between motivation and productivity Responses Yes No Total Source: Field Work, 2012 Frequency 16 7 23 Percentage 69.6 30.4 100

Table 14 shows that 16 (69.6%) of the respondents agree that there is relationship between motivation and productivity while 7 (30.4%) hold a contrary opinion.

Table 15: Rating of workers motivation in the Organization Responses Very good Good Fair Bad Total Source: Field Work, 2012 Frequency 8 4 11 0 23 Percentage 34.8 17.4 47.8 0 100

From table 15, we can see that 8 (34.8%) of the respondents rate workers motivation in the Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Maiduguri as very good, 4 (17.4%) rate it good, and 11

61

(47.8%) rate it fair. The table proves that workers motivation in the Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Maiduguri is fair.

Question

16: What in your opinion are the problems of motivation in the Organization?

This question was asked to seek the opinion of the respondents on what they felt were the problems of motivation in the Organization. In response, they highlighted job insecurity, lack of orientation and training of staff, delay in promotion, lack of increase in salary and compensation packages as problems of motivation in Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Maiduguri.

Question 17: What in your opinion could be done to enhance motivation and employee performance in the

Organization? In response to this question, the respondents proffered availability of job security, adequate orientation and regular training of staff, regular promotion of staff as and when due, introduction of awards to deserving workers, increase in salary and compensation packages, and introduction of more allowances.

62

4.3

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

Hypothesis 1 states that: H O : There is no relationship between employee motivation and performance in the banking industry.

Table

14:

Relationship

between

motivation

and

productivity Responses Male Female Total Yes 11 5 16 No 5 2 7 Total 16 7 23

CHI- SQUARE ( X 2 ) COMPUTATION O 11 5 5 2 E 11.1 4.9 4.9 2.1 O E - 0.10 0.10 0.10 - 0.10 (O E) 2 - 0.31 0.31 0.31 - 0.31
(O E )2 E

0.02 0.06 0.06 0.14 0.28 0.28

X2 =

63

Degree of Freedom

Df

= = = =

(c 1) (r 1) (2 1) (2 1) 1x1 1

Decision Rule

X2 at 1 df at 0.05 level of significance = 3.481


Since the X2 calculated value (0.28) is smaller than the critical (table) value (3.481), we accept the null hypothesis which states that there is no relationship between motivation and performance. Hypothesis 2 states that: H O : Jobs in the banking industry have not provided motivation for its employees.

Table 13: Provision of enough motivation at work Responses Male Female Total Yes 10 4 14 No 6 3 9 Total 16 7 23

CHI- SQUARE ( X 2 ) COMPUTATION

64

O 10 4 6 3

E 9.7 4.3 52.5 15.5

O E 0.30 - 0.30 - 0.30 0.30

(O E) 2 0.54 - 0.54 - 0.54 0.54

(O E )2 E

0.05 0.12 0.08 0.20 0.45 0.45

X2 =
Degree of Freedom

Df

= = = =

(c 1) (r 1) (2 1) (2 1) 1x1 1

Decision Rule

X2 at 1 df at 0.05 level of significance = 3.481


Since the X2 calculated value (0.45) is smaller than the critical (table) value (3.481), we accept the null hypothesis which states that jobs in the banking industry have not provided motivation for its employees.

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

65

5.1

SUMMARY The central focus of this study has been the Impact of employee motivation on the Banking industry: A case study of Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Maiduguri. We have attempted to look at the meaning, importance and complexity of motivation as well as its relationship to productivity in the work place. Motivation is said to be the core of management of human resources. It is defined as a process of stimulating people to action to achieve organisational task as well as a process of stimulating oneself to action to gratify a felt need. Motivation is complex and individualized and what motivates generally are wide ranging, which include wages, job security, less restrictive working condition, sympathy,

involvement in decision making, appreciation and recognition for work done. Thus, the continued survival and increased productivity of any organisation depends on the commitment and high morale of its workforce. This can only come through proper motivation to elicit the best from the workforce.

66

From the interpretation of the data analysis it shows that majority of the respondents are not involved in the decision making process of their units or departments. Most of the decisions are made by the Headquarters while the branches are to comply. There are inadequate orientation and training for staff for improved performance and advancing their career. In addition there is cordial

relationship between subordinates and superiors which makes for harmonious working environment. In the

discharge of duties, staff are allowed the use of their initiative or discretion as long as its within the context of the banks mode of operation, enhances the achievement of organizational goals and does not negate the culture and ethics of banking The study also revealed that workers assessed the provision of medical care as excellent and the provision of housing as good. Workers motivational factors were

identified as fringe benefit, commendation for a job well done, good work setting, promotion, less supervision and challenging job. This underscores the fact that motivation is

67

individualized and complex. However, workers motivation in the Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Maiduguri was rated fair. The testing of hypotheses formulated revealed that there is no relationship between motivation and employee performance, and jobs do not provide enough motivation for staff in the banking industry. The study identified job insecurity, lack of orientation and training of staff, delays in promotion, and lack of increase in salary and compensation packages as problems of employee motivation in the organization.

5.2

CONCLUSION Our delving into the study has enabled us to have a better understanding of the impact of employee motivation on the Banking Industry in Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Maiduguri. The importance of motivation on employee performance cannot be over emphasized. This is because motivation makes the workers conform to the goals of the organisation by putting in their best to increase

organisational productivity.

68

Motivation

is

characteristic

feature

of

any

organisation and as such should be accorded top priority since motivation and organisational growth are inseparable. The management of Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Maiduguri administration can be given a fair assessment in terms of motivating its staff for enhanced productivity, but a lot still need to be done. The problems of motivation identified in the study should be dealt with and workers needs and aspirations met. Motivation, it should be noted is a continuous and complex process, and must be based on situation and organisational climate. This means that management should find out what motivates its staff from time to time. Where motivational factors are provided, there is every tendency for high productivity. Any organisation which disregards the motivational problems of its staffs will ultimately decline and subsequently collapse. In view of the nature of the banking industry occasioned by the economic melt down, job insecurity and pressure associated with its kind of jobs, the

69

issue of employee motivation should be given the priority it deserves.

5.3

RECOMMENDATIONS In the light of the issues and problems raised in this study, the following recommendations are hereby made.
(1)

The management of the Union Bank of Nigeria

Plc, Maiduguri should introduce new allowances of various kinds to help the staff meet some of their needs. Also car, furniture and housing loan schemes should be introduced. (2) Salary is one of the important needs of workers

world over because their lives and those of their family and wards depend on it. In view of the harsh economic condition in the country, it is recommended that the organisation should increase the salary of its staff in order to meet up with the present economic realities in the nation.
(3)

Regular

promotion

as

and

when

due

is

recommended. The absence of promotion makes staffs

70

stagnant in one position without progress. Work itself is about progress and everybody likes to progress in life to attain personal goals in life. The present situation where staff that are due for promotion are not promoted does not augur well for productivity.
(4)

Commendation for job well done should be

practiced in the Organization. This can come in the form of payment of special bonus to staffs with outstanding performance in various departments

yearly. Where such bonuses are not possible, letters of commendation, gifts or hounourary awards should be given. (5) and The cordial relationship between subordinates superiors is Fora encouraging like and should of be year

strengthened. celebrations,

festivities, and

end

birthdays

marriage

ceremonies

should be used to enhance this relationship.


(6)

The issue of job insecurity is a big problem for

bank employees and it affects their performance. The management of the Bank should ensure that their

71

employees job should be secured. They should be allowed to stay on the job, gather experience and build their careers. (7) The compensation package for workers in the should be overhauled and made

organization

attractive. Even if an employee is relieved of his or her duty the compensation package should be such that the employee can go into any business to be self employed. (8) The orientation and training policy of the

organisation should also be looked into with a view of giving priority to orientation and training. There should be proper orientation for new employees and regular and periodic training and retraining of all categories of staff in the organization.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Abbegleen, H. (1974) Principles of Management: A Modern

Approach. John Willey and Sons, London.

72

Ajilola, E. (1975) How to Motivate the Nigerian Workers in

Management in Nigeria Journal October Vol. 2, No. 6.


Baker, J.M. (1991) Research for Marketing. Macmillan Educational Ltd., London. Campbell, J.P. and Pitchard R.D. (1976) Motivation Theory:

Industrial and Organizational Psychology. McGraw Hill


Books, New York. Dublin, R. (1974) Human Relations in Administration. Prentice Hall, Englewood, New Jersey. Georgopolous, B.S. et al (1957) A Path-Goal Approach to Productivity Journal of Applied Psychology Vol. 3, No. 4. Glueck, W.F. (1950) Management. The Dryden Press, Hindale, Illinois. Herzberg, F. (1959) The Motivation to Work (2nd Edition). John Willey and Sons, New York. Hodgetts, R. (1977) Introduction to Business. Wesley Publishing Company, Addison. Lillis, G.C. (1958) The Satisfaction Performance Controversy

Business Horizons. October Vol. 1 No. 16.


Maduabrun, C.D. (1988) Motivation of Nigerian Civil Servants: A Historical Overview in the Quarterly Journal of

Administration Vol. 22, No. 1.


Maslow, A.H. (1954) Motivation and Personality, Harper and Row, New York.

73

McCelland, D. (1953) Achievement Motive. Appleton Century Inc. New York. McGregor, D. (1960) The Human Side of Enterprise. McGraw Hill, New York. Michael, K.B. (1975) Introduction to Behavioural Science for

Business.Willey Eastern New Delhi.


Morris, V. (1953) Motivation and Morale in Industry. Norton and Co., New York. Obisi, C. (1996) Personnel Management. Jackbod Enterprises, Ibadan. Robert, D. et al (1969) Marketing Research and Information

Systems: Text and Cases. McGraw Hill Inc. New York.


Steers, R.M. and Porter, L.W. (1979) Motivation and Work

Behaviour. McGraw Hill Book, New York.


Tull, A. and Abaum, F. (1973) Research and Development for

Managers. Withan Heinemann Ltd. London.


Vroom, V.A. (1964) Work and Motivation. John Willey and Sons, New York. Walter, B.W. (1976) Marketing Research: Methods and Cases. Harper and Row Publishers, New York.

APPENDIX Department of Business Management,

74

University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State. Dear Respondent, I am conducting a project work in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelors degree in Business Management. This questionnaire is intended to collect necessary data on Impact of Employee Motivation on the Banking Industry: A Case Study of Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Maiduguri Please answer the questions to the best of your understanding and attach documents if available and necessary. Be assured that any information given about this study will be used strictly for the purpose of writing this project and will be kept confidential. Thank you for your cooperation. Yours faithfully,

Nenpin Luka 07/07/02 /136

75

INSTRUCTION : Please tick the appropriate box(es) comment where necessary. 1. Sex a. b. 2. Age a. b. c. d. 3. 20 30 years 31 40 years 41 50 years 51 and above [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Male Female [ ] [ ]

Job Specification a. b. c. d. e. f. Manager Marketer Customer Care staff Clearing Representatative Cashier Operations staff [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

4.

Highest Educational Qualification a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Primary School SSCE/GCE OND/HND B.Sc., B.A. Ph.D. Professional [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

M.Sc./MBA/MPA/MILR [ ]

76

5.

Duration of service in the organisation. a. b. c. 1 5 years 6 10 years 11 20 years [ ] [ ] [ ]

6.

Are you involved in the decision making process in your unit/ department/ organisation? a. b. c. Yes No [ ] [ ]

Sometimes [ ]

7.

Are there training and development opportunities to advance your career? a. b. Yes No [ ] [ ]

8.

What is the nature of relationship between you and your superiors? a. b. c. d. Cordial Very cordial Not cordial [ ] [ ] [ ]

Not very cordial [ ]

9.

Are you allowed to use your initiative or discretion in the discharge of your duty? a. b. c. Yes No [ ] [ ]

Sometimes [ ]

77

10.

How would you assess the provision of medical care for staff in the Organization? a. b. c. d. Excellent Good Fair Bad [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

11.

How would you assess the provision for housing for staff in the Organization? a. b. c. d. Excellent Good Fair Bad [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

12.

What motivates you at work? a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Fringe benefit Commendation Work Setting Promotion [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

Less Supervision [ ] Challenging job [ ] All of the above [ ]

13.

Does your job provide enough motivation for you? a. b. . Yes No [ ] [ ]

78

14.

Is there relationship between motivation and productivity? a. b. Yes No is [ ] [ ] your rating of workers motivation in the

15.

What

Organization? a. b. c. d. Very good [ ] Good Fair Bad [ ] [ ] [ ]

16.

What are the problems of motivation in the Organization?

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

17.

What in your opinion could be done to enhance motivation and productivity in the Organization? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

79