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KILN (Kay, Lietz, Nabouls’) ‘SDI 2008 Hydrogen aff Inherency- Hydrogen is ready to be developed Hydrogen is a tomes Practical method to run cars; hydrogen hybrids here and fuel cells on Amory B. Lovins, CEO, Rocky Mountain Insti February 20080 fo oe Roky Mountain Institute, Twenty Hydrogen Myths 17 ‘Myth #6. We don’t have practical ways to run cars on gaseous hydrogen, so cars must continue to use liquid fuels. Turing wheels with electric motors has well-known advantages of torque, ruggedness, reliabil- ity, simplicity, controllability, quietness, and low cost. Heavy and costly batteries have limited battery-powered electric cars to small niche markets, although the miniature lithium batteries now used in cellphones are severalfold better than the batteries used in electric cars. But Califor- nia regulators’ initial focus on battery cars had a huge societal value because it greatly advanced electric drivesystems. The only question is where to get the electricity. Hybrid-electric cars now on the market from Honda and Toyota, and soon from virtually all automakers, make the elec- tricity with onboard engine-generators, or recover it from braking. These “hybrid-electric” de- signs provide all the advantages of electric propulsion without the disadvantages of batteries. Still better will be fuel cells — the most efficient (~50-70% from hydrogen to direct-current electricity), clean, and reliable known way to make electricity from fuel. Nearly all significant automakers now have major fuel-cell car development programs. Centralized hydrogen only temporary, cheaper more efficient de-centralized hydrogen on the way Amory B. Lovins, CEO, Rocky Mountain Institute, Twenty Hydrogen Myths 17 February 2005 p.9 Centralized hydrogen production has coevolved with centralized consumption by major indus- trial plants. Yet most future uses of hydrogen are not centralized; they'll serve millions of dis- persed customers. This dispersed pattern of usage calls for a different pattern of production, not so much in centralized plants as in small ones near the customers. This can often deliver cheaper hydrogen, because reformers and clectrolyzers, which both work well at a small scale, can make hydrogen delivery simpler or unnecessary: instead, they'll leverage the existing gas and electric- ity distribution grids, especially during off-peak periods when (by definition) they have excess capacity. Driven by the economics of supply and demand, the hydrozen industry will evolve or- ganically at many scales and for many uses — if it’s not unduly retrded by myths. ys we KLN (Kay, Lietz, Naboulsi) SDI 2008 Hydrogen aff Inherency- Hydrogen is ready to be developed Hydrogen technology ready to become main stream Amory B. Lovins, CEO, Rocky Mountain Institute, Twenty Hydrogen Myths 17 February 2005 p.7 ‘The oft-described technical obstacles to a hydrogen economy — storage, safety, and the cost of the hydrogen and its distribution infrastructure — have already been sufficiently resolved to support rapid deployment starting now. No technological breakthroughs are needed, although many will probably continue to occur. Until volume manufacturing of fuel cells starts in the next few years, even costly hand- made or pilot-produced versions can already compete in substantial entry markets. Automotive use of fuel cells can flourish many years sooner if automakers adopt re- cent advances in crashworthy, cost-competitive ultralight autobodies. If fuel cells prove difficult to commercialize or hydrogen’s benefits are desired sooner, there might even be a transitional role for hydrogen-fueled engine-hybrid vehicles. \Lle 10 KLN (kay, Lietz, Naboulsi) SDI 2008 Hydrogen aff Inherency- Hydrogen is the most abundant fuel Hydrogen is the most abundant fuel in the universe James Provenzano, President of Clean Air Now and Geoffer a clean-energy future, 2007 (p. 10) T ven now, billions of years since the Big ‘Bang, about 88 percent ofall the atoms in the universe are hydrogen atoms.* Hydrogen is the primary fuel that pow cers the stars, including our own sun, Inside a sar, temperatures on the order of 13 mil- lion degrees, combined with the awesome crushing forces of gravity, fuse hydrogen atoms, releasing massive quantiles of rad ant energy, hence the term fusion energy. (Our own sun converts about 600 milion tons of hydrogen per second into helium this way, and during the process around five million tons of star matter is converted to energy." Despite its incredible thirst for hydrogen atoms, our sun is expected to 0 on with business as usual for at least another four rive bilion years ry Holland, The hydrogen age : empowering \u+ an