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AGGREGATE SHAPE TEST (FLAKINESS INDEX & ELONGATION INDEX) GROUP 5 SECTION 7

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

The particles shape of aggregates is determined by the percentages of flaky and
elongation particles. Flaky and elongation particles are considered undesirable as they
cause weakness of the pavement. Rounded aggregates are preferred in cement
concrete pavements as the workability of concrete improves. Regular shapes of particles
are desirable for granular base course due to increased stability desired from better
interlocking. When the shape of aggregates deviates more from the spherical shape, as
in the case of angular, flaky and elongation aggregate the void content increase and
hence the grain size distribution of the aggregates has to be suitable altered in order to
obtain minimum voids in the dry mix on the maximum density.

2.0 OBJECTIVE

To determine the flakiness and elongation indices of the given aggregate sample

3.0 FLAKINESS INDEX

Aggregate particles are classified as flaky when they have a thickness (smallest
dimension) of less than 0.6 of their mean sieve size. The flakiness index of an aggregate
sample is found by separating the flaky particles and expressing their mass as a
percentage of the mass of the sample tested. This test is not applicable to aggregate
passing 6.30mm sieve and retained as 63.0mm sieve.

4.0 ELONGATION INDEX

Aggregate particles are classified as elongation when they have a length (greatest
dimension) of more than 1.8 of their mean sieve size. The elongation index is found by
separating the elongation particles and expressing their mess as a percentage of the
mass of sample tested. The test is not applicable to material passing 6.30 mm sieve or
retained on 50 mm sieve.




AGGREGATE SHAPE TEST (FLAKINESS INDEX & ELONGATION INDEX) GROUP 5 SECTION 7
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4.1 Equipments Flakiness Index and Elongation Index

1. Metal thickness gauge








2. Test sieve








3. Trays








4. Metal length gauge







AGGREGATE SHAPE TEST (FLAKINESS INDEX & ELONGATION INDEX) GROUP 5 SECTION 7
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4.2 Procedure Flakiness Index

1. The sieve sample with sieves mentioned in Table 7.1. Weight each of the individual
size fractions (w
1
, w
2
, w
3
) retained on these sieve, other than the 63.0 mm sieve and
store them in separate trays marked with their size.

2. Gauge each fraction from the respective slots in the thickness gauge weigh pieces
which pass through the slots (x
1
, x
2
, x
3
)


4.2.1 Calculations and Results.
100
......
.....
Index Flakiness
3 2 1
3 2 1

+ +
+ + +
=
w w w
x x x

Where:
x
1
, x
2
, x
3
are the weight of the fractions passing from the thickness gauge w1,
w2, w3 are the weight of the original sample retained as the corresponding
sieve

4.3 Procedure Elongation Index

1. Sieve the sample with sieve mentioned in weight each of the individual size fractions
(w
1
, w
2
, w
3
). Retained on these sieves other than the 50.0 mm sieve.

2. Gauge each fraction as follows, select the length gauge appropriate to the single
fraction under test and gauge each particle separately by hand. Elongated particles
are those whose greatest dimension prevents them from passing through the gauge.
Weigh each fraction which doesnt pass through the gauge (y
1
, y
2
, y
3
)


4.3.1 Calculations and Results.
100
......
.....
Index Elongation
3 2 1
3 2 1

+ +
+ + +
=
w w w
y y y


Where:
y
1
, y
2
, y
3
weight of the fractions not passing through the length gauge w1, w2,
w3, are the weight of the original sample on the corresponding sieve.
AGGREGATE SHAPE TEST (FLAKINESS INDEX & ELONGATION INDEX) GROUP 5 SECTION 7
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Table 2 data for Determination of Flakiness Index
Aggregate Size Fraction Width of slot in
thickness
Gauge or special
sieve
Minimum mass for
subdivision
BS test sieve nominal aperture size
100% passing 100% passing
mm
63.0
50.0
37.5
28.0
20.0
14.0
10.0
mm
50.0
37.5
28.0
20.0
14.0
10.0
6.3
mm
33.9 0.3
26.3 0.3
19.7 0.3
14.4 0.15
10.2 0.15
7.2 0.1
4.9 0.1
kg
50
35
15
5
2
1
0.5
This dimension is equal to 0.6 times the mean test sieve size

Table 3 data for Determination of Elongation Index
Aggregate Size Fraction Width of slot in
thickness
Gauge or special
sieve
Minimum mass for
subdivision
BS test sieve nominal aperture size
100% passing 100% passing
mm
50.0
37.5
28.0
20.0
14.0
10.0
mm
37.5
28.0
20.0
14.0
10.0
6.3
mm
78.7 0.3
59.0 0.3
43.2 0.15
30.6 0.15
21.6 0.2
14.7 0.2
kg
35
15
5
2
1
0.5
This dimension is equal to 1.8 times the mean test size.








AGGREGATE SHAPE TEST (FLAKINESS INDEX & ELONGATION INDEX) GROUP 5 SECTION 7
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5.0 RESULT AND DATA ANALYSIS

i). FLAKINESS INDEX

Passing
sieve (mm)
Retained
sieve (mm)
Sample
(gm)
Passing
(gm)
Retained
(gm)
Flakiness
Index

28

20

5000

357

4643
14 . 7
100
5000
357
=



20

14

2000

623

1387
15 . 31
100
2000
623
=



14

10

1000

198

802
8 . 19
100
1000
198
=



10

6.3

500

120

380
24
100
500
120
=


TOTAL 8500 1298



% 27 . 15
100
8500
1298
100
......
.....
Index Flakiness
3 2 1
3 2 1
=

+ +
+ + +
=
w w w
x x x













AGGREGATE SHAPE TEST (FLAKINESS INDEX & ELONGATION INDEX) GROUP 5 SECTION 7
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ii). ELONGATION INDEX

Passing
sieve (mm)
Retained
sieve (mm)
Sample
(gm)
Passing
(gm)
Retained
(gm)
Flakiness
Index

28

20

5000

5000

0
0
100
5000
0
=



20

14

2000

1889

111
55 . 5
100
2000
111
=



14

10

1000

949

51
1 . 11
100
1000
51
=



10

6.3

500

429

71
2 . 14
100
500
71
=


TOTAL 8500 233


% 74 . 2
100
8500
233
100
......
.....
Index Elongation
3 2 1
3 2 1
=

+ +
+ + +
=
w w w
x x x
















AGGREGATE SHAPE TEST (FLAKINESS INDEX & ELONGATION INDEX) GROUP 5 SECTION 7
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6.0 DISCUSSION

The Flakiness Index is the mass of particles in that aggregate expressed as a
percentage of the total mass of that aggregate which will pass the slot or slots of specified
width for the appropriate size fraction. While elongation index test is used to determine the
quantity of aggregate particles that are elongated instead of cubicle in shape. The particles
are classified as flaky or elongated particles according to the rather arbitrary assumption that
are particles is flaky if its flaky is loss than 0.6 times the sieve size and that a particle is
elongated if its long is greater than 1.8 times the sieve size.
In this experiment, flakiness index was used as independent variables and other
properties such as gradation are kept constant as far as their properties met the specification
required for the asphalt mixture. According to British Standard Institution (BSI-812, 1975)
classifies aggregate into six classes that are rounded, irregular, angular, flaky and elongated
and elongated. The rounded, irregular and angular for special purpose are group into the
category an equidimensional or cuboidal. The aggregate are flaky, elongated, flaky and
elongated or equal dimension are determined by the ratio of the shortest, the largest and
average diameter of the particles.
From the experiment, firstly we separate aggregate sample by sieving into different
size fraction, each falling within a narrow size function is essentially a single-size aggregate.
The sieve size rage are (20 40) mm, (14 10) mm and (10 6.3) mm.
From the data experiment, we made the calculation and discussed by the all group
member. When this experiment is doing, we make some experimental error such as when
sieving process is being take place. For examples, the aggregate may not trough sieve by
machine and some of aggregate we shake manually by hand. Besides, the error do occur
when the weighing the amount of aggregate that we need. The careless attitudes that we
gauge the particles separating by hand. Maybe we pass the particles to the wrong gauge. It
is because we have separate too many particles in the short time.










AGGREGATE SHAPE TEST (FLAKINESS INDEX & ELONGATION INDEX) GROUP 5 SECTION 7
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7.0 CONCLUSION

Based on the objective for this experiment is to identify the flakiness and elongation
index of the given aggregate samples, we indentified the flakiness and elongation is not
influence each other. We get the value for the flakiness index is 15.27% and for the
elongation index is 2.74%. We get so much different compare both of the two values.
Aggregate particles are classified as flaky when they have a thickness (smallest
dimension) of less than 0.6 of their mean sieve size. The flakiness index of an aggregate
sample is found by separating the flaky particles and expressing their mass as a percentage
of the mass of the sample tested. From the experiment, the mean flakiness index is 31.15
(sieve 20mm) and flakiness index is 15.27%. So we get 0.49 < 0.6. We can classify the
sample as the flaky sample.
Aggregate particles are classified as elongation when they have a length (greatest
dimension) of more than 1.8 of their mean sieve size. The elongation index is found by
separating the elongation particles and expressing their mess as a percentage of the mass
of sample tested. From the experiment, the mean 14.2 (sieve 10mm) and elongation index is
2.74%. So we get 5.18 > 1.8. We can classify the sample as the elongation sample.
As a conclusion, the sample that we tested are flaky and elongation, which is there
are not suitable to use in parameter design. This will cause the increase of void in the mix. If
we use in highway construction, we must doing more compaction to ensure that the void
meet the prescribe specification.
















AGGREGATE SHAPE TEST (FLAKINESS INDEX & ELONGATION INDEX) GROUP 5 SECTION 7
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8.0 REFERENCES

i. British Standards Methods of determination of particle shape BS 812, Part 105, 1989.

ii. Kenneth N. derucher and George P .Korfiatis, Material for civil and highway
engineers, Prentice Hall, NJ 2nd edition,1988.


iii. Harold N. Attkins, Highway materials, soils and concretes, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall,
1990


9.0 APPENDIX
1. Apparatus








2. During Experiment


Figure 1 : Digital Mass Figure 2 : Shape Test
Apparatus
Figure 3 : Measure
Flakiness And Elongation
Figure 4 : Measure The
Mass Passing And Retained
Aggregate