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Design of Concrete Mix by Indian Standard Method

Design Stipulations
1 2 3 4 5 Characteristic Compressive Strength required in the field at 28 days Maximum size of Aggregate Degree of workability Degree of quality control Type of exposure 30 MPa 20 mm 0.8 C.F. Good Severe

Test data for materials


1 2 3 4 5 Specific gravity of cement Compressive strength of cement at 7 days Specific gravity of coarse aggregates Specific gravity of fine aggregates Water absorption: Coarse aggregate Fine aggregate 6 Free (surface) moisture: Coarse aggregate Fine aggregate 7 Sand confirming grade zone 3.15 2.60 2.60 0.50% 1.00% 0.0% 2.0% 3

Design Procedure
Step 1
ft =

Target mean strength of concrete


fck+ tS Target mean strength of concrete S 6.0 39.9 0.50 0.45 0.60 0.45

Step 2

Selection of water cement ratio


Free water cement ratio as per Fig. 1

Maximum free water cement ratio as per Table 5 IS 456


Free water cement ratio as per Fig. 2 Water Cement Ratio

Step 3

Selection of water and sand content


Water content per cubic metre of concrete Sand content as percentage of total aggregate by absolute volume Adjustment of values in water content and sand percentage Water content Sand confirming zone I, II or IV 0 Increase or decrease in C.F. by 0.1 0 Increase or decrease in w/c by 0.05 0 Total 0 Required sand content as percentage of total aggregate by absolute volume Required water content 186 35

Sand Percent -1.5 0 -2.00 -3.5

31.5% 186

Step 4

Determination of cement content

Water-cement ratio Water Cement

0.45 186.0 413.33333

Step 5

Determination of coarse and fine aggregate contents


Volume of entrapped air Absolute volume of fresh concrete Total mass of fine aggregate Total mass of coarse aggregate The mix proportion then becomes: Water 186.0 0.45 Cement 413 1 Fine Coarse Aggregate Aggregate 543 1180 1.313 2.856 0.02 0.98 543 1180

Step 6 i ii iii iv 1 2

Actual quantities required for the mix per bag of cement


Cement 50 kg Sand 65.7 kg Coarse aggregate 142.8 kg Water Quantity of water 22.5 litres Extra quantity of water to be added for absorption in case of CA 0.71 litres 3 Quantity of water to be deducted for moisture present in sand 1.31 litres 4 Actual quantity of water required to be added Actual quantity of sand required after allowing for mass of free moisture Actual quantity of CA required

21.90

66.98 142.08

Therefore the actual quantities of different constituents required for one bag mix are Water Cement Sand Coarse Aggregate 21.90 50.00 66.98 142.08

Table 1 : Suggested values of Standard Deviation Grade of Concrete 3 4 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Standard deviation for different degree of control in N/mm2 Very Good Good Fair 2.0 2.3 3.3 2.5 3.5 4.5 3.6 4.6 5.6 4.3 5.3 6.3 5.0 6.0 7.0 5.3 6.3 7.3 5.6 6.6 7.6 6.0 7.0 8.0 6.4 7.4 8.4 6.7 7.7 8.7 6.8 7.8 8.8

0.005

litre kg/m3

kg/m3 kg/m3

litres

kg kg

kg kg kg kg

Degree of Workability 0.7 0.8 0.9 Exposure Condition Mild Moderate Severe Very severe Extreme

Table 7 : Minimum Cement Content, Maximum Water-Cem with Normal Weight Aggrega Sl. No. Exposure Minimum Cement Content kg/m3 220 240 250 260 280 Plain Concrete

1 2 3 4 5

Mild Moderate Severe Very severe Extreme

Table 3 : Approximate air content Nominal maximum Entrapped air, as percentage of size of aggregate mm volume of concrete 10 3.0 20 40 2.0 1.0

Table 4 : Approximate Sand and Water Contents per cubic m of Concrete for grades upto M35 Nominal maximum size of aggregate 10 20 40

Water content 208 186 165

< M35 186 35

> M35 180 25

um Cement Content, Maximum Water-Cement Ratio and Minimum Grade of Concrete for Different Exposure with Normal Weight Aggregates of 20 mm Nominal maximum Size Plain Concrete Maximum Free Minimum Water-Cement Grade of Ratio Concrete 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.45 0.40 M 15 M 20 M 20 M 25 Plain Concrete Minimum Maximum Free Minimum Cement Water-Cement Grade of Ratio Concrete Content kg/m3 300 0.55 M 20 300 0.50 M 25 320 0.45 M 30 340 0.45 M 35 360 0.40 M 40

1 2 3 4

mate Sand and Water Contents per cubic metre f Concrete for grades upto M35

Table 5 : Approximate Sand and Water Contents per cubic metre of Concrete for grades above M35 Nominal maximum size of aggregate 10 20

Sand as percent 40 35 30

Water content 200 180

Sand as percent 28 25

Design Mix of High Strength Concrete by ACI Method using Portland Cement and Fly Ash
Design Stipulations
1 3 4 5 Specified Compressive Strength Required at 28 days HRWR to be used or not (YES=1, NO=0) Basis of design (FE=Field Experience, LTB=Laboratory Trial batches) Sample standard deviation S 9000 yes LTB 1 psi

psi

Test data for materials


1 Specific gravity of cement 2 Properties of Course aggregate (i) Bulk specific gravity (based on oven dry) (ii) Dry rodded unit weight (DRUW) (iii) Water absorption (iv) Grading (v) Maximum size of course aggregate 3 Properties of Fine aggregate (i) Bulk specific gravity (Based on oven dry) (ii) Dry rodded unit weight (DRUW) (iii) Water absorption (iv) Grading (v) Fineness modulus 4 Fractional volume of 5 Void percent in sand 6 7 8 9 Density of water at 40 C Type of fly ash used Bulk specific gravity of fly ash Moisture content at field (i) Course aggregate (ii) Fine aggregate 3.15 2.76 101.00 lb/ft3 0.70 % As per ASTM C33 1/2 from table 4.3.2 2.59 103.00 lb/ft3 1.10 % As per ASTM C33 2.90 35.00 62.40 lb/ft3 ASTM Class C 2.64 0.50 6.40 percent percent

Design Procedure Slump used Required average strength used Fractional Volume of oven-dry rodded course aggregate Dry weight of course aggregate per yd of concrete First estimate of mixing water Void content in fine aggregate Mixing water adjustment Total mixing water required per yd of concrete Entrapped air content (i) Maximum w/c+p for concretes made without HRWR (ii) Maximum w/c+p for concretes made with HRWR Weight of cementitious material per yd3 of concrete
3 3

1 to 2 10400 0.68 1854.36 295 36.00 8.00 303 2 NA 0.32 946.875

psi lb lb % 3 lb/yd of concrete lb %

lb

Proportion basic mixture with cement only


946.88 Cement content per yd3 The volume per yd3 of all material except sand are as follows: Cement 4.82 Course aggregate 10.77 Water Air Total Volume Required volume of sand per yd3 of concrete Weight of sand per yd3 of concrete Cement Sand, Dry Course aggregate, dry Water (including 3 oz/cwt retarding admixture) Cement Sand Course agg 1.00 1.03 1.96 4.86 0.54 20.98 6.02 972.91 946.88 972.91 1854.36 303.00 w/c ratio 0.32 lb ft3 ft3 ft3 ft3 ft3 ft3 lb lb lb lb lb

Proportion companion mixtures using cement and fly ash Companion mixture #1 Companion mixture #2 Companion mixture #3 Companion mixture #4 20 25 30 35 percent percent percent percent

Calculation of the weight of fly ash and Cement Companion Mixture 1 2 3 4 Cement 757.50 710.16 662.81 615.47 Fly ash 189.38 236.72 284.06 331.41 Total, lb 946.88 946.88 946.88 946.88

The volume of cement fly ash and total cementitius material for each companion mxture Companion Mixture 1 2 3 4 Cement 3.85 3.61 3.37 3.13 Fly ash 1.15 1.44 1.72 2.01 Total, ft3 5.00 5.05 5.10 5.14

Calcualtion of volume of fine aggregate for all companion mixture Volume (per cubic yard of concrete. Ft3) Componenet Mix 1 Mix 2 Mix 3 Mix 4 Cementitius mat 5.00 5.05 5.10 5.14 Coarse agg water* air 10.77 4.86 0.54 10.77 4.86 0.54 10.77 4.86 0.54 10.77 4.86 0.54

ft3 ft3 ft3 ft3 ft3

Total volume

21.17

21.21

21.26 5.74

21.31 5.69

ft ft

3 3

Fine aggregate 5.83 5.79 * including 2.5 oz/cwt retarding mixture

The mix proportion per yd3 of concrete for each companion mixture are as follows Component Cement Fly ash Sand, dry Coarse agg, dry
water (including 2.5 oz/cwt retarding mixture

Mix 1 757.50 189.38 942.83 1854.36 303.00

Mix 2 710.16 236.72 935.31 1854.36 303.00

Mix 3 662.81 284.06 927.79 1854.36 303.00

Mix 4 615.47 331.41 920.27 1854.36 303.00

lb lb lb lb lb

Mix Proportion Calculating the batch mix based on field moisture content

Component Cement Fly ash Sand, dry Coarse agg, dry water

Basic mixture Companion mix 1 Companion mix 2 Companion mix 3 Companion mix 4 Dry wt batch wt Dry wt batch wt Dry wt batch wt Dry wt batch wt Dry wt batch wt 946.88 946.88 757.50 757.50 710.16 710.16 662.81 662.81 615.47 615.47 189.38 189.38 236.72 236.72 284.06 284.06 331.41 331.41 972.91 1035.17 942.83 1003.17 935.31 995.17 927.79 987.16 920.27 979.16 1854.36 1863.63 1854.36 1863.63 1854.36 1863.63 1854.36 1863.63 1854.36 1863.63 303.00 233.13 303.00 245.25 303.00 248.28 303.00 251.31 303.00 254.34

Component
Foundation

Exposure Condition Performance requirement


Severe Resistance to sulphate

Plinth Column Column Slab, Beams Shear Wall Prestress Concrete

Severe Inner Mild Outer Moderate Mild Mild Moderate Tensile Strength, Elastic Deformation, Shrinkage, Creep, Thermal Expansion

Slump required: 50 to 100 mm at placing point Total quantity of fine: cement + fine agg. (Passing 250 micron sieve) should be in between 350 to 5 2) The use of admixtures to be made to make a suitable slump and not compromise on W/C ratio 3) the coarse aggregate should preferably be 20 mm down strictly. 4) the coarse aggregate should preferably be processed through Vertical shaft impactor. 5) use of fly ash be made as cement replacement if OPC is used.

Concrete Grade
For height 90 to 200m M40

Cement requirement

Aggregate requirement

M50 M50-M70 M50-M70 M30-M50 M50-M70

OPC, Portland slag cement, Portland pozzolana cement, Sulphate resisting Portland cement OPC OPC OPC OPC OPC Light weight

ieve) should be in between 350 to 500 kg/m3 nd not compromise on W/C ratio

Vertical shaft impactor.

Other requirements
Superplasticizer for high slump

Max w/c ratio 0.5 Min. Cement Content 300 kg/m3 Max Cement content 530 kg/m3