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Chng 10: Phn on v nh v Li ni u Th trng bao gm nhng ngi mua vi s khc bit nhau khng im ny th cng im khc.

c. H c th khc nhau v nhu cu, ti lc, a im, quan im mua v thi quen mua. Bi ngi mua u c nhng nhu cu v c mun khng ai ging ai. Th nn vic tip cn v thu ht mi khch hng trong th trng bng mt phng cch nh nhau l khng th. Vic phn on th trng lm c s xy dng chin lc th trng v tha mn nhu cu ca khch hng mt cch tt nht l iu tt yu m cc cng ty ni chung u phi thc hin. Sau , cng ty c th tip cn th trng bng vic nh v c li th cnh tranh, dn dt cng ty hng n v tr cn phi chim lnh trong cc phn khc chn. I. Phn on th trng 1. Khi nim phn on th trng Phn on th trng l vic chia th trng thnh cc nhm ring bit vi nhng ngi mua c nhu cu, c trng v cch c x khc nhau. H i hi nhng sn phm hay chin lc marketing mix ring bit. 2. Cc bc phn on th trng Nhu cu v mong mun ca khch hng l khc nhau v mi th trng li c nhng khch hng tim nng ring, chnh v vy m ngi bn phi xc nh cc chin lc marketing ph hp cho tng loi khch hng m h nhm ti. Phn on th trng c th c tin hnh cc cp chnh sau: Mass marketing Mass marketing l hot ng s dng cng mt loi sn phm, hot ng xc tin v knh phn phi cho tt c cc khch hng. Cc quan im truyn thng cho rng Mass marketing gp phn to ra th trng tim nng rng ln, vi chi ph thp, gi c thp v li nhun bin cao. Tuy nhin hin nay Mass marketing kh tin hnh hn bi nhiu yu t khc nhau nh v tr th trng, nhu cu khch hng, tng lp x hi,. Segmenting markets

Segmenting markets ci tin hn cc quan im ca Mass marketing. Cc doanh nghip s quan tm hn ti mt hoc mt s phn on. u im: Doanh nghip tip cn th trng hiu qu hn, tp trung hn vo sn phm, dch v, knh phn phi,v ng thi s lng i th cnh tranh ti phn on y s gim i. Niche marketing hay Segment marketing Niche marketing hng s quan tm ca doanh nghip vo mt hoc mt s phn on th trng i din, thng l rt nh v c rt t cnh tranh. u im: To c hi cho cc cng ty nh cnh tranh bng cch da vo cc u th c bit ca h. c xem l tiu chun v cn c p dng thc hin. Micromarketing Mt chin lc marketing m cc cng ty thit k chng trnh marketing ca h cho ph hp vi cc phn on c trng. Micromarketing bao gm: Local marketing u im: Gip cng ty thm nhp vo th trng hiu qu, p ng nhu cu ca i b phn cc nh bn l v duy tr s a dng ca sn phm. Nhc im: Gia tng sn xut v chi ph do tnh kinh t theo quy m gim, gy ra cc vn hu cn trong cng ty. Individual marketing Thit k cc sn phm, chng trnh marketing ph hp vi nhu cu v s thch ca cc c nhn c th. 3. Cc loi phn on th trng Phn on th trng ngi tiu dng C nhiu cch phn on th trng. Nh marketing phi th vi cc tiu ch phn khc khc nhau trong s phi hp no tm ra cch nhn tt nht v th trng. Cc tiu ch c th l a l, dn s, tm l hc hoc cch th x s Phn on theo a l (geographic segmentation) Vic phn khc theo a l i hi phi chia th trng thnh nhng n v a l, chng hn nh quc gia, min, tiu bang, ht hoc khu ngoi . Doanh nghip c th
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quyt nh hot ng ti mt hay mt vi khu vc a l, hay hot ng trn khp cc vng nhng phi ch n s khc ba a l trong nhu cu v c mun. Mt trong nhng doanh nghip p dng thnh cng cch phn on ny phi k n nh my sn xut thuc dit cn trng Raid ca S.C. Johnson & Son. Nh tng th phn ca cng ty ln ti 18 khu vc v tng tng thi phn 5% 1 nm. Phn on theo nhn khu hc (demographic segmentation) Vic phn khc theo nhn khu hc bao gm vic phn chia th trng thnh nhng nhm da trn cc bin s nh tui, gii tnh, qui m gia nh, vng i ca gia nh, thu nhp, ngh nghip, hc vn, tn gio, chng tc, v quc tch. Cc yu t nhn khu hc l nhng c s ph bin nht trong vic phn khc cc nhm khch tiu dng. L do l nhu cu v c mun ca ngi tiu th, mc dng ca h thng bin thin cht ch theo cc bin s nhn khu hc. Mt l do na l cc bin s ny d o lng hn cc bin s khc. Mi quan h gia a l v nhn khu hc Phng php phn khc th trng kt hp gia a l v nhn khu hc ang ngy cng tr nn ph bin. Ln u c pht trin bi nhm phn tch th trng CACI, cch phn loi dn c cc khu dn c (ACORN A Classification of Residential Neighborhoods) s dng 40 bin t d liu iu tra dn s nhm dn c n cc khu vc. Phn on theo tm l hc Phn khc th trng theo tm l hc l cch phn chia ngi tiu dng thnh nhng nhm da trn tng lp x hi, phong cch sng hay tnh cch c nhn. Nhng ngi cng phn khc th trng theo nhn khu hc li c tm l khc nhau. - Tng lp x hi Tng lp x hi c nh hng ln n hnh vi tiu dng ca khch hng. Nhiu cng ty thit k nhng sn phm hay dch v dnh ring cho mt tng lp x hi c bit. - Phong cch sng

R rng phong cch sng c nh hng ln n s quan tm khch hng dnh cho sn phm, ng thi chnh nhng sn phm phn nh nh phong cch sng ca bn thn ngi tiu dng. - Tnh cch Chin lc phn khc th trng da vo tnh cch thng c p dng trong cc ngnh m phm, thuc l v bo him. Phn on theo ng x Phn khc th trng theo ng x chia ngi tiu dng thnh nhng nhm da trn thi , trnh hc vn. Nhiu nh nghin cu cho rng cn c theo hnh vi ng x l im khi u tt nht xy dng phn khc th trng. Phn on th trng kinh doanh Nhiu cng ty s dng cc bin s ging nhau phn on th trng, chng hn nh theo: - a l - Li ch mun c - Loi khch hng Ngoi ra, cn c cc bin s khc: - Ngnh ngh
- Quy m cng ty

- Mc s dng - Tnh trng trung thnh

- Phng thc mua - Cc yu t tnh hung


- c trng bn thn

- c trng nghip v khch hng hoc khu vc a l.

Trong ngnh chn, cng ty c th phn khc nh hn na da vo quy m Bn trong quy m khch hng hay mt ngnh trng im no , cng ty c th phn khc theo phng thc v tiu chun mua hng. Phn on th trng quc t V cc quc gia trn th gii khc nhau v cu trc kinh t, vn ha, chnh tr nn cc cng ty cn nhm th trng quc t thnh cc phn khc c nhu cu v cch x s mua khc hn nhau. Cc cng ty c th s dng mt hay phi hp nhiu bin s nh theo: - V tr a l
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- Yu t kinh t

- Yu t chnh tr & lut php

- Yu t vn ha

Ngoi ra, nhiu cng ty cn s dng s phn khc lin th trng, ngha l: Hnh thnh cc phn khc ngi tiu th c nhu cu v hnh vi mua ging nhau mc d h ang sng trn nhiu nc khc nhau. 4. Phn on a bin ngu nhin Hu ht cc cng ty u kt hp cc cch phn on th trng trong chin lc marketing ca mnh. y c mt s cch kt hp cc phn on Phn on a bin ngu nhin n gin Nhiu cng ty phn on th trng bng cch kt hp 2 hay nhiu c im. V d, trong th trng x phng tm, ngi ta chn hai bin l gii tnh v tui phn on th trng. Nhng c im ny thng n gin, c th, d tm hiu Phn on a bin ngu nhin phc tp Vi loi phn on ny, ta s dng nhng c im phc tp nghing v tm l, phong cch sng ca khch hng v s kt hp cng a dng hn. Phn on th trng chia thnh nhiu bc Vic phn on th trng theo nhiu cp : cp v m, ta da vo cc c im a l, quy m doanh nghip, c cu t chc cp vi m th a dng hn vi mc tiu cng ty, th trng ngch, s cnh tranh, li th cnh tranh, m rng k hoch, nhu cu c nhn, loi cng vic thc hin, loi khch hng i khi phn on cn c th t ba hay nhiu cp . 5. Pht trin phn on th trng Pht trin vic phn on th trng, ta cn tin hnh nh sau; - Nghin cu cht lng - Nghin cu nh lng - Phn tch - Xc nhn - H s Yu cu ca phn on c hiu qu
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+ Tnh o lng c: o lng v quy m, sc mua v chn dung ca cc phn khc. + Tnh tip cn c: Ngha l ta c th thm nhp v phc v phn khc th trng c hiu qu. + Tnh quan trng: Cc phn khc th trng phi ln ng phc v. Mt phn khc phi l mt nhm c s ng nht trong chng mc no v c gi tr ng theo ui bng nhng chng trnh marketing ph hp. 6 Th trng mc tiu Phn on th trng cho thy c hi phn khc th trng ca cng ty. Ngy nay cc cng ty buc phi nh gi cc phn on khc nhau v quyt nh bao nhiu v ci no t c mc tiu. Khi , chng ta s xem lm th no cc cng ty nh gi v la chn phn on mc tiu. nh gi phn on th trng nh gi phn on th trng khc nhau, cng ty phi xem xt hai kha cnh: s hp dn ca phn on th trng v s ph hp ca cng ty. S hp dn ca phn on th trng u tin cc cng ty phi thu thp v phn tch d liu v gi tr doanh thu hin hnh, t l tng trng bn hng d kin v li nhun cho mi phn on khc nhau. Cn ch n cc phn on vi kch thc v c im tng trng. Mt s cng ty s nhm vo phn on vi doanh s hin ln, t l tng trng cao v li nhun bin cao. Tuy nhin, phn on pht trin nhanh nht, ln nht lun lun khng phi l iu hp dn nht vi cc cng ty. Nhng cng ty nh hn c th thy rng h thiu k nng v ngun lc cn thit phc v cho phn on ln hn hoc l cc phn on ny qu cnh tranh. Vi ngha tuyt i, cc cng ty nh vy c th la chn phn on nh hn v km hp dn nhng c kh nng mang li hn cho h. Mt phn on c th c tng trng v kch thc nh mong mun. Cc cng ty phi xem xt mt vi yu t cu trc quan trng m nh hng n s hp dn phn khc lu di. V d cng ty nn nh gi i th cnh tranh hin ti v tim tng. Mt phn on km hp dn nu nh n c cha nhiu i th cnh tranh mnh m v hung d. Sc mnh tng i ca ngi mua cng nh hng n sc hp dn phn khc. Nu ngi
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mua trong mt phn on c lc lng mnh hoc tng kh nng tha thun vi ngi bn, h s c gng buc gi xung, nhu cu cht lng hoc dch v cao hn v khin cho cc i th cnh tranh vi nhau hn. Tt c nhng hnh ng ny s lm gim li nhun ca ngi bn. Cui cng sc hp dn ca phn on ph thuc vo sc mnh tng i ca nh cung cp. Mt phn on s km hp dn nu nh cc nh cung cp nguyn liu, thit b, lao ng v cc dch v trong phn on l mnh tng gi hoc gim cht lng hay s lng hng ha v dch v t hng. Cc nh cung cp c xu hng tr nn mnh m khi h ang ln v c ch , khi rt t sn phm thay th tn ti hoc khi sn phm c cung cp l mt u vo quan trng. Sc mnh kinh doanh Ngay khi c mt phn on c kch thc, tng trng v c cu trc hp dn, cng ty phi xem xt mc tiu v ngun lc cho phn on . Loi b mt s phn on hp dn nhanh chng l tt nht, bi v chng khng khp vi mc tiu lu di ca cng ty. Mc d bn thn cc phn on l hp dn nhng chng c th chuyn s ch tm v nng lng ca cng ty ra khi cc mc tiu chnh. y c th l mt s la chn km t mt quan im mi trng, chnh tr hoc trch nhim x hi. Ngay c cc cng ty ln mnh cng thy kh khn khi tin trin trong th trng ni m h bt u yu. RTZ l cng ty khai thc khong sn ln nht th gii nhng khi n bt u kinh doanh ha cht v du kh vi s lng ln, n nhn ra n khng th cnh tranh c. Trc khi kinh doanh mt phn on, cng ty ny cn xem xt v tr hin ti ca mnh ti th trng. Th phn ngy cng tng ca mt cng ty cho thy sc mnh, trong khi , th phn gim cho thy im yu m vic thm nhp vo phn khc mi c th khng gip . Nu mt phn on s dng kh nng tip th ca mt cng ty th n s ph hp vi th mnh ca cng ty . Nu khng, cc phn on s tn km pht trin. La chn phn on th trng Khi mt phn on ph hp vi th mnh ca cng ty, cng ty ny phi quyt nh xem liu n c cc k nng v ngun lc cn thit hay khng thnh cng trong phn on . Mi phn on c yu cu thnh cng nht nh. Nu cng ty thiu v khng th d dng c c nhng im mnh cn thit thnh cng th khng nn thm nhp
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vo phn on ny. Thm ch nu cng ty s hu nhng im mnh cn thit, n cn phi s dng k nng v ngun lc tt hn nhng i th cnh tranh thc s ginh chin thng trong phn on th trng. Cc cng ty ch nn thm nhp vo phn on m n c th cung cp gi tr cao hn v ginh c li th hn i th cnh tranh. 7. Chin lc phn on th trng Marketing cha phn ha Marketing mix Th trng

Theo ui th trng bng mt mt hng Mt sn phm v mt chng trnh tip th hng ti i a s khch mua. Trng cy vo kiu phn phi hng lot,trn lan. To mt hnh nh ho hng trong ngh cng chng.

u im : tit kim chi ph.

Marketing phn ha Marketing mix 1 Marketing mix 2 Marketing mix 3

Khc th trng 1 Khc th trng 2 Khc th trng 3

Hot ng trong nhiu khc th trng,v tung ra mi khc tuyn nhng cng

hin khc nhau. u im : doanh s cao hn tip th khng phn bit, tuy nhin n cng lm tng thm nhiu chi ph. Marketing tp trung Marketing mix Khc th trng 1 Khc th trng 2 Khc t trng 3
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Cng ty thay v theo ui 1 phn nh chim c trong mt th trng ln th

nn theo ui chim ly mt phn ln ca 1 hay vi tiu th trng. Marketing tp trung c th gp nhiu bt trc hn thng l. Khu vc th trng c th b mt trng. La chn chin lc bao ph c th trng Phi da trn cc cn c sau - Ngun lc cng ty: nu ngun lc cng ty cn hn ch th marketing tp trung l thch hp nht - Tnh ng nht ca sn phm + Sn phm ng nht: marketing cha phn ha + Sn phm khng ng nht: marketing cha phn ha hay tp trung - Mc thm nin ca sn phm + Sn phm ang trong giai don u ca chu k sng: marketing cha phn ha hay tp trung + Tn ti lu trn tr trng: marketing phn ha. - Tnh ng nht ca th trng: nu khch hng ng nht th nn p dng marketing cha phn ha. - Cc chin lc marketing ca i th cnh tranh + Phn khc su: ta nn s dng marketing phn ha hay tp trung. + Marketing cha phn ha: ta c th chim li th bng marketing phn ha hay tp trung. 8. Chin lc ct li Chin lc ct li l ni m th mnh ca cng ty gp g vi c hi ca th trng. N gm hai phn: th nht l xc nh nhm khch hng m cng ty c li th khc bit, th hai l ghi du n trong tm tr khch hng. 9. S khc bit th trng khc bit S khc bit v sn phm: Cc doanh nghip c th cnh tranh vi nhau qua cc hnh thc khc bit v sn phm. Ty tng mc ch v li th cnh tranh ca mi doanh nghip m c nhng chin lc cnh tranh v sn phm nh cht lng, c im, thit k, mu m, kiu dng, s ci tin, tin cy
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S khc bit v dch v: Bn cnh s khc bit v sn phm, cc doanh nghip cng c th to ra mt li th cnh tranh v s khc bit ca dch v km theo sn phm . Chng hn nh v tc chuyn giao hng, cc khch hng sn sng tr vi mt mc ph cao hn nu nh h thc s tin cy vi dch v chuyn hng ca doanh nghip. Ngoi ra cn c cc dch v nh dch v ci t v sa cha, dch v hng dn s dng sn phm S khc bit v nhn s: Cc doanh nghip c th t c li th cnh tranh thng qua vic thu v hun luyn nhn vin ca mnh tt hn cc i th cnh tranh. Nhn vin cng to ra sc ht nht nh i vi khch hng vi nhng kin thc v k nng ring bit nh thi lch s, nh nhn, tn trng khch hng, hiu khch hng v nhy bn trong vic gii quyt cc vn pht sinh lin quan n khch hng. S khc bit v hnh nh: Khch hng c th nhn bit c s khc nhau gia hai loi sn phm tng t nhau nh vo hnh nh nhn hiu ca mi cng ty. Hnh nh nhn hiu (logo) mang mt biu tng c trng cho sn phm hay doanh nghip , n truyn ti nhng thng ip hay li ch ca sn phm m lm cho khch hng rt d nhn bit. S khc bit v nh v gi tr: Khch hng lun chn cho mnh nhng sn phm hoc dch v c gi tr ln nht. Do , cc nh Marketing cn phi bit c nhng li ch chnh ca sn phm hay dch v m mnh cung cp lm ni bt ln nhng yu t nu h mun c th cnh tranh c vi cc i th khc. II. Chin lc nh v 1. nh v sn phm nh v sn phm l cch ngi tiu dng xc nh nn sn phm da vo cc thuc tnh quan trng ni m sn phm ang ng trong suy ngh ca ngi tiu dng so vi cc sn phm cnh tranh. V tr ca mt sn phm l mt phc hp nhng n tng, khi nim v cm gic m ngi tiu dng ang c i vi sn phm so vi cc sn phm cnh tranh khc v c th b tc ng bi cc nh lm marketing. 2. Chin lc nh v Cc nh marketing c th i theo mt trong s cc chin lc nh v sau:
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- nh v sn phm da vo thuc tnh sn phm (product attributes); - nh v sn phm da vo nhu cu chng p ng hay li ch chng mang li (benefits); - nh v sn phm theo dp s dng (usage occasions);
- nh v sn phm theo tng lp ngi dng (classes of users);

- nh v sn phm bng cch i snh trc tip vi mt i th cnh tranh (against a competitor); - nh v sn phm theo th khc hn vi i th cnh tranh (away from competitors); - nh v sn phm theo nhng sn phm khc nhau (product classes). 3. La chn v tin hnh chin lc nh v Cng vic nh v bao gm 3 bc: nhn din li th cnh tranh c th c, xc nh li th cnh tranh ng n, truyn t v tin hnh chin lc nh v chn. Nhn din li th cnh tranh c th c - D bit ha bng sn phm - D bit ha bng dch v - D bit ha bng nhn s - D bit ha bng hnh nh Xc nh li th cnh tranh ng n
- Cn qung co bao nhiu ci khc bit + Mt s cng ty trin khai mt ngh bn duy nht (unique selling proposition-

USP) cho mi nhn hiu v bm chc vo .


+

Nu c 2 hay nhiu cng ty u tuyn b l mnh gii thuc tnh ging

y nh vy, th h nn nh v mnh da vo nhiu yu t to khc bit. Tuy nhin, cc cng ty gia tng s lng tuyn b cho nhn hiu ca mnh, nn trnh 3 li lm:
+ + +

nh v cha n ni n chn (underpositioning) nh v qu l (overpositioning) nh v rc ri (confused positioning)

- Nn qung co khc bit c gi tr trong chng mc p ng mt s tiu chun: 11

+ Quan trng + Ring bit + Tuyt vi hn + C th thng i c

+ C tnh cht c quyn + C th mua c + C li

Truyn t v tin hnh chin lc nh v chn Mt cng ty mun c c v tr cht lng cao th phi thit k phi thc tip th vi:
+ + + +

Sn phm: sn xut c cht lng cao Gi c: ra mc gi cao Phn phi: thng qua cc i l cht lng cao Xc tin v h tr kinh doanh: qung co bng cc phng tin truyn

thng cao cp. Khi xy dng c ch ng theo mong mun, cng ty phi bit theo di cht ch v thch nghi ch ng theo thi gian, p ng kp thi nhng thay i trong nhu cu ngi tiu dng v chin lc ca i th cnh tranh.

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