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# Concept Maps Class VIII

Rational Numbers Linear Equation in one variable Compound Interest Square and Square Roots Cube and Cube Roots Mensuration Direct and Inverse Variation Percentage & It's Application Alzebric Expression Exponents Quadrilaterals Algebraic Identities Statistics Probability Solid Shapes

Rational Numbers

## Operation on rational Number

5 7 3 & 2# Sol. + \$' ! 7 % 5" Stondard form A rational number is said to be in standard form ( b ) if a and b are integers having no common factor other then 1, and b is positive. Ex. Standard form of 24 is 8
-15 5 a

3 2 15 ' 14 1 ' ( ( 7 5 35 35

## Rational No. Between two Rational No.

Q Insert 5 rational number between 3 and 5 8 6 Sol. LCM of 8, 6 is 24
3 = 3 3 = 9 , 5 = 5 4 = 20 8 8 3 24 6 6 4 24 10 11 12 13 14 5 , , 5 rational no.be between 3 and 6 are 24 ,24 ,24 24 24 8

## 5 2 1 & 3 # 1 3 2 ) 15 17 Sol. ' \$ ' ! ( ) ( ( 5 % 2" 5 2 10 10

3. Multiplication3 1 Ex. Multiply from

## 5 2 3 2 6 Sol. ' * ( ' 5 7 35

4. Division 3 5 Ex. Divide from

Rational Numbers
a b
5 ,1 , -3 7 8

## 2 4 3 5 3 4 6 Sol. + ' ( * (' 2 4 2 '5 5

Ex.

Graphical Representation
Q. Represent
O O

27 4 A'

an number line

Important Points
A 27

27 4

## Multiplicative inverse of a is Multiplicative identity is 1 Additive identify is 0.

1 a

Mark point A and divide OA into four equal part then OA' will represents 27
4

Additive inverse of a is-a Absolute value of a number is it's numerical value (value without sign)

in above table a, b, c are rational number

## RULES FOR SOLVING

We can add or Subtract same number on both side x+7=8 x + 7- 7 = 8 - 7 x=1 We can multiply or divide both side by non zero number 3x = 6 3x 6 3 =3 x=2 Kept the variable on one side and constant on other side 3x + 7 = 2x + 10 3x - 2x =10 - 7 x=3

SOLUTION
Value of variable which satisfy equation x = 3 is Solution of 3x + 1 = 10 because 3 (3) + 1=10 9 + 1 = 10 10 = 10

## LINEAR EQUATION IN ONE VARIABLE

A linear equation which has only one variable is called linear equation in one variable. For example : x + 3 = 5. SOME PROBLEM Solve: 3x - 5 = 3
2x +1 7 x 3x + 1 2 5 x 3x + 1 2 5 5(x) 2 (3x +1) =6 10 5x 2 (3x)2 (1) =6 10 5x 6x2 6 = 10

Solve:

2x +1 7 = 3x - 5 3 By cross Multiplication 3(2x+1) = 7 (3x-5) 3 (2x) + 3 (1) = 7 (3x) - 7 (5) 6x + 3 = 21x -35 21x 6x = 3 +35 15x = 38 x = 38/15

English word
More than, exceeds older than, less than, decreaed, younger than times, of, product Divided by, quotient,per, for What, how many,etc. + x (or some other variable)

Mathematical meaning

x 2 = 60 x = 62

## APPLICATION Age Money Geometry Fraction

Dr. of fraction is 5 more than Nr Nr.=x , Dr.=x +5 Fraction = x x+5 No. of 2 Rs. Coin is 3 times the No.of 5 Rs. Coin No. of 5 Rs.Coin = x, No. of 3 Rs. Coin = 3x Total money = 5 (x) + 2 (3x) Length of Rectangle is 5 less than twice the breadth. b=x l = 2x-5 My present age = x yr. after 2 yr. my age will be (x+2) yr. before 3 yr. my age was (x-3) yr.

Compound Interest
In SI. the interest is calculated on principal, for all years, so interest is same for all years. When interest is calculated QLY
R/4# & A ( P \$1 ) ! 100 " %
T*4

In CI, the interest is calculated an amount of the previous year so interest is different for all years.

Depreciation As the time passes the valve of object depreciate is called depreciation. R # & A ( P\$1 ' ! 100 " %
T

When interest in calculdted HLY & R/2# A ( P\$1 ) ! % 100 " When Time Period is in fraction
Ex. T ( 2 3 yr 4
2\$ T* 2

## 3 # *R! 4 \$1 ) ! 100 ! \$ \$ ! % " &

Compound Interest
R # & A ( P\$1 ) ! % 100 "
T

CI = A P

R # & Then population of town after T year is P\$1 ) ! % 100 " P Then population of town before T year in T R # & \$1 ) ! % 100 "

## When Rate of interest is different for diff. year

T2 R1 # 1& & R ! \$1 ) 2 # ........ A ( P \$1 ) ! \$ 100 ! % 100 " % " T

Q. In what time a sum fo 1000 become 1331 at 10% P.A at CI. Sol. A = 1331, P =1000, R = 10% P. A.
R # & A ( P\$1 ) ! 100 " %
T

## Q. If CI -SI = 50 for 2 yr at R= 10% P.A. find P Sol. SI (

PRT P * 10 * 2 P ( ( 100 100 5
T 2 2

Q. If a money become double in 5 yr. In what time it will become 8 times. Sol. A ( 2P, T ( 5 yr.
R # & , A ( P \$1 ) ! % 100 " R # & 2P ( P \$1 ) ! % 100 " R # & 1/ 5 \$1 ) !( 2 % 100 "
5 T

10 # & 1331 ( 1000\$1 ) ! 100 " % 1331 & 11 # (\$ ! 1000 %10 "
3

R # & & 10 # &11 # 121 A ( P\$1) P ! ( P\$1) ! ( P\$ ! ( 100 " 100 " % % %10 " 100

T

## 121P 21 P CI ( A ' P ( 'P ( 100 100

CI - SI = 50
2 1P P ' ( 50 100 5

## & 11 # & 11 # \$ ! ( \$ ! - T ( 3 yr. %10 " %10 "

P ( 50 - P ( 5000 100

T - T ( 15 yr. 5

## Square and Square Roots

Perfect Square
A natural no. is perfect sq. if it is sq. some natural no. 36 is perfect sq because it is the me sq. of 6

Squre Root
Squre root of no x, in that no whose square is x Ex. Sq. root of 64 is 8 become 8 = 64. 64 = 8
2

## Properties of perfect square

No. ending with 2,37,8 never be a perfect square No. ending with odd no of zero never be a perfect sq. diff of square of two consecutive natural no. is equal 2 2 to their sum. (n+1) n = (n+1) + (n) 2 2 2 Pythogorean triplet (x,y,z) if z = x + y

Sol.

## Long Division method.

Q. find sq. root 58081 Square by diagonal method. 2 25 2 5 2 5 0 6 0 4 1 0 2 5 2 5 \ 25 = 625
2

## Square and Square Roots

When a number is multiplied with it self Square of 7 is 7 7 = 49.

1 0

## 241 58081 4 180 176 481 481 58081 = 241 2 2 44 +4 481

Successive subtraction
Square by column method 2 to find 25 , take a = 2, b = 5 a
2

## Squre root of fraction

ab= a b a a = b b Ex. Ex. 529 529 23 = = 841 841 29 36 49 = 36 49 = 6 7 = 42

We successive subtract odd no from the given no. till we get zero. The number of time we subtract is the square root of the no. Ex. 16 16 1 = 15 15 3 = 2 12 5 = 7 7 7 = 0 so 16 = 4

2ab 2 2 5 20 +2 22

4 +2 6 25 = 625
2

25

## Cube and Cube Roots

Perfect cube
A natural no. is said to be a perfect cube if it is the cube of same natural no.

Cube roots
The cube root of a no. is x that no whose cube gives x. Ex. Cube root of 8 is 2 because 23 = 8 3 8 =2

Properties of perfect cube (i) Cube of even no is even. (ii) Cube of odd no. is odd (iii) Cube of negative no is negative. (iv) The sum of the cube of first n natural no. is equal to the squre of their sum. 13 + 23 + 33 + .... + n3 = (1 + 2 + 3 + .... n)2 (v) Cubes of the numbers ending in digits 1, 4, 5, 6 and 9 are the number ending in the same digit. Cubes of numbers ending in digit 2 ends in 8, and cube of numbers ending in digit 8 ends in 2. The cubes of the numbers ending in digits 3 and 7 ends in 7 and 3 respectively.

## Cube root by prime factorization

3 216 Ex. ' 512 = 3 125
3 3

## Cube & Cube roots

The cube of no. is obtained when no. is multiplied by itself 3 times. Cube of x is x x x

2 2 2 3 3 3

5* 5* 5 8 = 5 3 216 = 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 = 2 3 = 6

216 108 54 27 3 3

' 512
3

125

3

## Cube root by pattern

Cube by column method 3 to find 25 , take a = 2, b = 5 a
3

3a b
2

3ab

## 3 2 5 3 252 60 +16 76 150 +12 162

8 +7 15
3

125

We have to successively subtract 1,7,19,37,61,91 ............... from number till we get zero. The no of time we subtract give the cube root. Ex. 3 64 64 1 = 63 63 7 = 56 56 19 = 37 37 37 = 0 So 3 64 = 4

25 = 15625

Mensuration
Rhombus a a a a

Basic Geometrical figures Triangle Rectangle 1 Area = 2 base Height A = l b, P = 2(l + b) Eq. D = 3 side2 Square
4

Cuboid
T.S.A. = 2(lb+bh+hl) L.S.A. = 2h(l + b) V= lbh
l h b

Area =

1 2

## Circle Area = pr2 circumference = 2pr

Cube
L.S.A. = 4a2 T.S.A. = 6a2 V= a2
a a a

d1d2
d2

Perimeter = 4a
2 a2 = 4 + 4 2 d1

Mensuration Cylinder
C.S.A. = 2prh T.S.A. = 2pr (h+r) V=pr2h
h r

Trapezium a h b

Plane Figures
Figure having two dimensions are called plane figures. Ex. Square, Rectangle, Circle, Triangle etc.

Solid Figures
Figure having three dimensions are called solid figures. Ex. Cube, Cuboid, Cylinder, etc.

Area =

1 2

(a+b)h

Quadrilateral D h1 h2 A 1 B D 13 A C

## Problem of Plane Figures Q. Find the area of trapezium

15 25 C 13 B

Problem of solid Figures Q. A cube of 9 cm edge is immersed completely in a rectangular vessel contaning water. If the dimension of the base are 15 cm and 12 cm find rise is water level in the vessel. Sol.
After emerging cube Initial level 15 12 9 cm x

Area = 2 (AE)(h1+h2)

Sol.Draw CE ||AD \ AECD is || cm D C 15 EC = AD = 13 13 13 h 13 AE = DC = 15 E B A 25 F \ BE = AB AE = 25 15 1 = 10 EF = FP = 2 EB = 5 In DCFB h = 132 52 = 12 1 ar trap. ABCD = 2 (25 + 15)12 = 240 sq. unit

9* 9* 9 15 * 20

= 4.05 cm

## Direct and Inverse Variation

1 m

1 6

1 8

N1 cos t 1 ( N2 cos t 2

5 60 7 * 60 ( - cos t 2 ( ( 84 R s. 7 cos t 2 5

24 Days. 7

1 1 3)4 7 ) ( ( 8 6 24 24

Speed (

## dista nce time

total dis tan ce total time

Avg. speed (

km / h. (

5 m / sec . 18

m1 d2 10 d2 10 * 6 ( ( - d2 ( ( 20 days. m2 d1 3 6 3

1 8

1 10
( 1 1 ' 8 10

5' 4 1 ( 40 40

L ) 125 5

## Profit & Loss

Profit = SP CP P r ofit % ( SP ' C P * 100 CP

Ex. Sol.

A man sold an article at 450 and having a loss of 10% in order to gain 20% at what price should be sold. Initially SP = 450 loss = 10%

Problem on percentage
Ex. In 800 student 25% are girls, find the number of boys Sol. Boys percentage = (10025)% = 75% No. of boys = 75 of total student 75 ( * 800 ( 600 100 Ex. Ram salary is decreased by 20% and then increased by 20% find % change in his salary Sol. Let has salary is Rs. 100 His salary after 20% decrease = 100 20% of 100 = 100 20 = 80 Now when his salary increased by 20% it become = 80 + 20% of 80 = 80 +16 = 96 So Ram income is decreased by (100 96) = 4%

## &100 ' loss% # SP ( \$ !CP 100 % "

&100 ' 10 # 450 ( \$ !CP % 100 " CP ( Now 450 * 100 ( 500 90 CP = 500 gain = 20%

Profit & Loss are Calculated on CP. &100 ) gain% # SP ( \$ !CP 100 % "

## & 100 ' Loss % SP ( \$ 100 %

# !CP "

& 100 ) gain% # So the New SP ( \$ ! CP 100 % " & 100 ) 20 # ( \$ ! 500 % 100 " ( Rs. 600

## Percentage and its Application

x x% ( 100 25 1 Ex 25 % ( ( 100 4

Discount
Discount = MP SP
D is c o u n t ( MP ' SP * 100 MP

## % increase and Decrease

% increase ( increase * 100 original value decrease * 100 original value

Tax is always calculated on the price at which article is sold.
& 100 ) tax % # SP W ith tax ( \$ ! SP 100 % "

SP (

## 100 ' Discount% * MP 100

% decrease (

Ex. An article marks Rs 600 and a discount of 20% is given find selling price of it. Sol. MP = 600 Discount % = 20 &100 ' discount% # SP ( \$ !MP 100 % " 100 ' 20 # & ( \$ ! * 600 ( 480 Rs. % 100 "

Q.

The cost of article in shop is Rs. 60 The sales tax was 5% find bill amount Sol. SP = 60 , tax% = 5 &100 ) 5 # SP With tax ( \$ ! * 60 ( 63 % 100 "

Alzebric Expression
Algebraic Exp. : 9x2 3xy + 5
Term 9x
2

## Like & Unlike terms

Like term having same algebraic factor.. Ex. 3xy, 5xy 3xy = 3 p y 5xy = 5 x y Unlike term having diff. algebraic factor. Ex. 4x2y = 4 x x y 2xy = 2 x y.

Degree
Highest power of the variable in a term. 2 Ex 3x + x + 1 deg 2 2 ex. x'y'z' + x + 1 deg 3 * if term contain more than one variable we have to add the power of all variable.

3yx 9 x x Factors

3 x y Factor

Numerical coefficient is -3

Division
Ex. Divide. 3 2 15x + 12x + 21x by 3x Sol. 15 x 3 ) 12 x 2 ) 21x 3x 15 x 3 12 x 2 21x ( ) ) 3x 3x 3x = 5x + 4x + 7
2

In 3x y

Coefficient of y is -3x
2

Coefficient of x is -3y

Algebraic Expression
Multiplication
Ex. Multiply (x + y) (x + y xy) 2 2 2 2 Sol. x(x +y xy) +y (x +y xy) 3 2 2 3 2 x + xy x y + y xy 3 3 =x y
2 2

When the remainder is zero the divisor is called a factor of the dividend..

## Types of Algebraic Exp

Acording to the No. of terms . Monomial Single term Binomial Trinomial Multinomial Two term

2xy We can add & Subtract only the like terms. Ex. Add 5ab , 4ab = 5ab + 4ab = (5+4) ab = 9ab Ex Subtract of 7xy from 2xy Sol. 2xy 7xy = (2 7) xy = 5xy.

Ex1 x + y

## 2x 3 is a factor of 2x x 3x 2x + a if, a 3 = 0 Hence, a = 3.

Exponents

Laws of exponent
&a # &a # &a # \$ ! x\$ ! (\$ ! % b " %b " %b "
n
m n m) n

(ii) \$ b ! % "

&a #

## &a # &a # +\$ ! (\$ ! %b " %b "

n n

m' n

Scientific notation or standard form ex. speed of light = 300000000 m/s is written in standard form as 8 = 3 10 m/s

## &a c # &a # &c # (iv) \$ b x d ! ( \$ b ! x\$ d ! % " % " % "

4 (a / b) 1 ( a / b )n 0 ( (v) 3 (c / d)n 2 (c / d) /

## & # & # (vi) \$ b ! ( \$ a ! % " % "

'n

(vii) \$ ! ( 1

&a # %b "

Exponents
a a a = a3, read as a raised
to power 3 where a is base 3 is exponent

## Q. find x Q. find x 2x1 If 24 = 625 Sol. (52)2x1 = 54 54x2 = 54 \ 4x 2 = 4 4x = 6

3 x= 6 = 2 4
& # & # If \$ 7 ! * \$ 9 ! ( \$ y ! \$ ! % " % " % "
6 6

&x #

Q. Simplify

14

35 * 10 5 * 125 5 7 * 65 5 5 3 * 10 * 125 57 * 65
3 5 * ( 2 * 5 ) 5 * 5 3 5 7 * (2 * 3 ) 5

Sol.
&x # &2 # &14 # Sol. \$ 7 ! * \$ 9 ! ( \$ y ! \$ ! % " % " % "
6 6 6

14 # &2 * \$ ! 9 " %7

&x ( \$ \$y %

# ! ! "

3 5 * 2 5 * 5 5 * 5 3 5 7 * 3 5 * 2 5
5+5 5+5 5+3+7

& 4 # \$ ! % 9 "
,

& x # ! ( \$ \$ y ! % "
( 4 9

=2
0 0 5

3 = 2 3 5 = 3125

x y

Property of parallelogram Opposite angle are equal Opposite sides are equal Diagonal bisect each other Diagonal divide parallelogram in to two congruent triangle.

gm

gm

Q. ABCD is || find all angle of || Sol. C = A = 50 D \ C = 50 as AB||CD 50 \ A + D = 180 A 50+D = 180 D=130 B = D = 130 \ B = 130 Angle sum property sum of all interior angle of quadrilateral is 360 Q. Angle of Quadrilateral are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3 : 4 find angle Sol. Let angle are x, 2x, 3x, 4x x + 2x + 3x + 4x = 360 10x = 360 x = 36 So, angle are 36, 2 36 3 36, 4 36 i.e. 36, 72, 108, 144

gm

Q. If ABCD is || find x,y Sol. In ||gm diagonal bisect each other C D \ OA = OC x5=7 x =12 and OB = OD 15 = x + y B 15 = 12 + y A y=3

## A quadrilateral is four sided closed figure.

Polygon Sum of interior angle = (n 2)180 Sum of exterior angle = 360 For Regular polygon (n ! 2)180 Each Interior angle =

Each Interior angle =

360 n

C D

A B

||gm

||gm

||gm

## with all side equal *diagonal bisect each other at 90

with all side equal and all angle 90 *Length of diagonal are equal *Diagonal bisect at 90

Algebraic Identities

Identities
2 2 2

## 1. (a + b) = a + 2ab + b 2 2 2 2. (a b) = a 2ab + b 3. (a + b) (a b)2 = a2 b2 Factorization

The process of finding two or more expression whose product is the given expression is called factorization. Problem Based on Identity
2

Q. Expand (2x 5y) Sol.(2x 5y)2 2 2 = (2x) 2(2x)(5y) + (5y) 2 2 = 4x 20xy + 25y

I. Factorization by taking out the common facto r. 3 2 2 Ex. 8x y 4yx = 4xy(2x y 1) Ex. 2(x + 3) + 2(x + 3) = (x + 3) = (x + 3) (x + 2)

Algebraic Identities
107 2 ! 103 2 210 2 2 (107 " 103 )(107 ! 103 ) 107 ! 103 Sol. = 210 210 210 # 4 = =4 210 Q. Find the value of 1 1 = 3 find x2 + 2 x x An identity is an equality, which is true for all values of the variables.

## II. Factorization by grouping. Ex. ax + by + ay + bx = ax + ay + bx + by = a(x +y) + b(x + y) = (x + y)(a + b)

III. Factorization the difference of two squares. 2 2 a b = (a + b) (a b) Ex. 9x2 16y2 = (3x)2 (4y)2 = (3x 4y) (3x + 4y)

Q. If x +

Sol. x +

1 =3 x
2

## 1& ) 2 'x " \$ x %= 3 (

IV. Factorization of quadratic trinomial 2 Ex. Factorize x + 9x + 18 2 2 Sol. x + 9x + 18 = x + 6x+ 3x + 18 = x(x + 6) + 3(x + 6) = (x + 6) (x + 3) Ex. Factorize 9x2 22x + 8 2 2 Sol. 9x 22x + 8 = 9x 18x 4x + 8 = 9x(x 2) 4(x 2) = (x 2) (9x 4)

1 1 =9 + x x2 1 2 x +2+ 2 =9 x
2

x + 2x

1
2

x +

x2

=92=7

Frequency distribution table In a survey of 20 families, each family is found to have the following number of children : 1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 3, 3, 4, 1, 1, 4, 4, 2, 2, 3, 1, 5, 1, 1, 2 Make a frequency distribution table. Sol.Arrange in ascending order. 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 5.
Number of children 1 2 3 4 5 Tally Marks No. of families 6 6 4 3 1 20

## Draw the bar graph for the given table.

Histogram Bar-Chart
Draw a histogram of the following frequency distribution. IX 50 X 35
Class (Age in years) No. of students
Y

## Class No. of Students 60 50 40 30 20 10

VI 40

VII 20

VIII 55

05 72

5 10 103

10 1 5 15 20 50 25

## Scale : 1 unit : 10 Students

125 100 75 50 25 0 X

I I IIII III I
Total

VI VII Class

VIII

IX

10 15 20

## Class interval (Age in year)

Group frequency distribution table The marks obtained by 40 students of class VIII in an examination are given below : 18, 8, 12, 6, 8, 16, 12, 5, 23, 2, 16, 23, 2, 10, 12, 9, 7, 6, 5, 3, 5, 13, 21, 13, 15, 20, 24, 1, 7, 21, 16, 13, 18, 23, 7, 3, 18, 17, 16, 4. Present the data in the form of a frequency distribution using the same class size, one such class being 15 20 (where 20 is not included). Sol. The frequency distribution is as given below :

Statistics
It is defined as the science of collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of numerical data.

Pie-chart
Central angle for a variable =
Frequency of the variable 360 Total of frequencie s

The main source of energy is used by each house in a street is listed below :
Source of Energy Electricity No. of houses 20 Solar 10 Gas 12 Oil 6

## Represent the above data by a pie chart

11 7 9 7

Some definitions
Data is defined as information in numerical facts. Range Is defined as the difference between maximum and minimum value of observation. Frequency is defined as the number of times an observation occur. Sol.

## Source of energy Electricity Solar Gas Oil

Number of houses 20 10 12 6

Central angle
20 # 360 * 150 48
Electricity

For class 10-15, 10 is lower limit,15 is upper limit Class mark = UL " LL = 10 " 15 = 12.5 2 2 Class size = UL LL = 15 10 = 5

## 150 Solar 75 45 90 Oil Gas

Probability
Sample Space
Collection of all possible out comes eg : In a throw of a die S. S. = (1,2,3,4,5,6)

Outcome Experiment
Different possibilities which can occur eg : In tossing a coin outcome are Head and Tail Any kind of activity eg : Tossing a coin

Probability
A subset of sample space associated with a random experiment is called an event. e.g. : getting six in a throw of a die

Event

Deals with the measurement of uncertainty of the occurrence of some event in terms of percent or ratio

A bag contains 5 red balls, 8 white balls, 4 green balls and 7 blackballs. If one ball is drawn at random, then probability that it is : 7 24 4 1 * (b) Green P(G) = 24 6 (a) Black i.e. P(B) = (c) P(Not red) = 1P (Red) * 1 ! 5 24 ! 5 19 * * 24 24 24

## Equally likely outcomes

There is equal uncertainty of each outcome of an experiment

When a coin is tossed Total number of outcomes = 2 ie. T,H 1 Probability of getting head P(H) = 2 1 Probability of getting tail P(T) = 2

## Number of outcomes in favour of A Total num ber of possible outcom es

When P(A) = 0, then A is called as impossible event e.g. Probability of getting a number greater than 7

0 <

P (A) < 1

When P(A) = 1, then A is called as sure event e.g. Probability of getting Tuesday after Monday

Solid Shapes
Types of Solids (a) Prism : A solid whose base and top are identical polygons and side faces are rectangles, is called prism. Objects that occupy space and have three dimensions [length, breath and heigh or depth]

Solid Shapes

## NETS 2 - D Representation of a 3- D figure Solids Nets

(b) Pyramid : A solid whose base is any polygon and side faces are triangles, all of which meets at the top to form a vertex is called a pyramid. Figures shows a pentagonal pyramid.

Polyhedron A solid which is made up of polygonal regions called faces is called a polyhedron. (a) Convex polyhedrons :The idea of convex polyhedrons comes from convex polygon. A convex polyhedron is one whose all faces are convex polygons. (b) Regular polyhedron : A polyhedron is regular if all its faces are regular polygons and same number of faces meet at each vertex.

(c) Sphere : Sphere is a solid whose every point is equidistant from a fixed point. Figure shows the sphere.

## View of 3-D Shapes

Top

Euler's formula V+FE=2 Vertex Face Edges eg : For Triangular pyramid V=4;E=6;F=4 \ 4+4-6=2 Vertex Front view Edge Side view (from right) Top view
Side Front

Object