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# Concept Maps Class X

Real Numbers Polynomials Linear equations in two variables Quadratic equation Airthmetic Progression Similar Triangles Height & Distance Tengent Coordinate Geometry Trignometry Construction Area related to circle Surface area & volume Probability Statistics

## Real Numbers Real Numbers

1,1/2,7/5...
Rational Numbers

p,
Irrational Numbers

89

....

-3

3 22 ! 5

10 3

Definition

H.C.F. (p,q,r) =

## (p ! q ! r ) ! L.C.M.(p, q, r ) L.C.M.(p, q) ! L.C.M.(q, r ) ! L.C.M.(p, r )

Polynomials Polynomials
2

## Replace 'x' with 'k' P(k)

Factor theorem

Degree of polynomial

## Highest power of x in polynomial

If P(k) = 0
Dividend = divisor quotient + remainder

b a

1 root

2 roots

1 root

No roots

3 roots

Y'

Y'

Y'

Y'

Y'

## Linear equation in two variables

a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 Equation of a straight line ..(1) ..(2) Equations reducible to a pair of linear equations
& # # % # # \$

## ) a2 + b 2 * 0 # # ax + by + c = 0 ( a * 0,b * 0 # a, b, c are real nos. # '

Methods to solve
2 3 5 4 + , 13, " , "2 x y x y

Let Solution (x,y) point lying on straight line. Y y = 2x 4 Algebric method Graphical method Intersecting 2 X' 0 -4 Y' Parallel (No intersection)
a1 b1 c1 , * - No solution a2 b2 c 2 a1 b1 * a2 b2

1 1 , p, , q x y

2p + 3q = 13 5p 4q = 2

## (intersect at 1 point) X Coincident (Coincide)

a1 b1 c1 , , - Infinite a 2 b2 c 2

solution

## (inconsistent) Cross multiplication method y x 1 b1 a1 c1 b1 b2 a2 c2

x y 1 , , b1c 2 " b2c1 c1a2 " a1c 2 a1b2 " a2b1 x, b1c 2 " b2c1 a1b2 " a2b1 y, a2c1 " a1c 2 a1b2 " a2b1

Substitution method
" c1 " b1y x, {Substitute in ( 2)} a1 " a2c1 " a2b1y + a1b 2 y , " c 2a1

Elimination method Multiply b2 in (1) & b1 in (2) a1b2x + b1b2y + c1 b2 = 0 ..(3) b1 a2x + b2b1y + c2b1 = 0 ..(4) (3) -(4) .... (a1b2-b1a2)x + (c1b2-c2b1) = 0
x, b1c 2 " b2c1 a1b2 " a2b1 y, a2c1 " a1c 2 a1b2 " a2b1

b2

x,

y,

Methods to solve

. ,

/,

Roots
X' 0 X

## (b2 4ac 0 real roots)

Standard form
Y'
2

ax + bx + c = 0 ;
2

ax +bx + c = 0 ; a 0 p(x) = 0

## "where p(x) is polynomial of degree 2" e.g. (x + 2)3 = x3 4 x2 + 4x + 2 = 0 (after simplification)

If a and b are the roots of the above equation then : aa2 + ba + c = 0 ab2 + bb + c = 0
"b

X'

Y' Y

\a+ b = c a ab =
a
X' 0 X

APPLICATIONS :
Dis tan ce Time
Y'

1. Speed =

## 2. Area of figures 3. Flow rate time = volume of water 4. Number or ages

Airthmetic Progression
Note : Taken 3 terms in A.P. : (a d), a, (a + d) Taken 5 terms in A.P. : (a 2d), (a d), a, (a + d), (a + 2d) Properties

Terms Numbers in the series are called Terms. Common difference Common difference 'd' can be zero, positive, negative. a2 a1 = a3 a2 = a4 a3 = a5 a4 = an-an-1 = d. 5 2 = 8 5 = 11 8 = 14 11 = 17 14 = 3.

Tn = a + (n1) d.

## a3 a1 + 2d = 5 3rd Term . . an a1 + (n1)d = 74 25th Term

Arithmetic Progressions

Sum of n Terms
st

## Sum of 1 n terms of an A.P. Sn Sn= a1 + a2 + a3 + .... + an- 1 + an.

n(n + 1) Sn = 2 n n

## e.g. Sum of first 7! 8 , 28 7 natural nos.

2

Sn= 2 [2a + (n-1)d] = 2 [a1 + an]. e.g. 25 S25 = 2 [2(2) + (25-1)3] = 950

RESULTS

## mth term from end

(n m + 1)th term

Find A.P. whose n term is given ? a1, a2, a3,..... an-1, an. form an A.P. e.g. 2, 5, 8, 11, ..... up to 25 terms.

th

## Find Tn when Sn is given

Tn = Sn Sn-1 e.g. Sn = n2 + 2n \ Tn = 2n + 1

Condition of an A.P.

## Similar Triangles Similar Triangles Criteria

Q A Means 'Same shape' e.g. All circles are similar. All squares are similar.

If Ds are similar
Then :

## R B C Q AA criterion : If A = P and B = Q then DABC ~ DPQR.

Area theorem
A

Pythagoras theorem
B P

R B C

R B C A D C

AB AC BC , , PQ PR QR

and

If DABC ~ DPQR :
Area( 6 ABC) 5 AB 2 5 AC 2 5 BC 2 ,3 0 ,3 0 ,3 0 Area( 6 PQR ) 4 PQ 1 4 PR 1 4 QR 1
2 2 2

## SSS criterion : If PQ , PR , QR then DABC ~ DPQR

AB AC BC

DABC is right angled D (B = 90) DABC ~ DBDC ~ DADB : BD2 = AD BC. BC2 = CD AC. AB2 = CA AD. AB2 + BC2 = AC2 P.Th.

A = P B = Q C = R

AD AE , DB EC

AB BC

## B NOTE : DABC ~ DPQR doesn't mean DABC ~ DQPR.

Converse of B.P.T. :
B = Q then DABC ~ DPQR
If AD AE , DB EC

then

DE | | BC.

## Heights & Distance

C A Height of tower BC = AB tan q (given AB & q) Horizontal

Elevation
Horizontal A q B

Applications

## Height of tower AB = tan q BC (given a & BC) a

Depression
C B a = Angle of Depression

q = Angle of elevation

Definition : Angle formed by the line of sight with the horizontal when the point is above the horizontal.

## @ Navigation @ Land surveys @ Buildings @ Optics @ Statics @ Crystallography

Definition :

Angle formed by the line of sight with the horizontal when the point is below the horizontal.

e.g. e.g.
Height of tower

AB =

## b a Height of tower AB ! tan / (tan . " tan / )

PD = (given CD, a, b) b a

(given AB, a, b) b

e.g.
Height of tower (tan / " tan . ) ! AB tan .

BD =

(given AB, a, b) a a b

Tengent
NO TANGENT ONE TANGENT

QT= 1/2 QR

P P

O
In DPQR PQ=PR, hence PQR = PRQ = 1/2 (180 q) Since OQR = 90, OQR = OQP PQR OQR = 90 (90 1/2q) =1/2q 2 OQR = QPR.

## tangents from external are * Length ofpoint to a circlean equal .

R
In DOQP & ORP = OQ = OR (radii), OP = OP \ DOQP 7 DORP PQ = PR

AND

## &QPR + QOR = 180 QPO = RPO QOP = ROP

TANGENT

P
Tangent

Coordinate Geometry

Distance formula y
P (x1,y1)

Q (x2,y2)

Section formula y
B (x2,y2) C

Area of Triangle y
(x2,y2) B A (x,y) C(x3,y3)

## T (x2,y1) (x,y) A (x1,y1) Q

R (x1,O)

S (x2,O)

Coordinates of P(xxy) = RS = (x2x1) = PT SQ = y2 ; ST = y1 ; QT = (y2 y1) Applying Pythagoras in DPTQ PQ2 = PT2 + QT2 = (x2 x1)2 + (y2 y1)2
( x 2 " x1)2 + ( y 2 " y1)2

x m { m m ++ m x
1 2 1 2 2 1

, m1y 2 + m2 y1
m1 + m2

{ {

## Area = 1/2 base Altitude

(m : n externally) PQ =

## Application of distance formula

Verifying triangle formations A(x1,y1), B(x2,y2), C(x3,y3) Find AB,BC,CA using distance formula Check if AB + BC > CA BC + CA > AB AB + CA > BC If yes, it is triangle, check for right D using pythagoras therom If no, it is not a D

Verifying collinearity A(x1,y1), B(x2,y2), C(x3,y3) Find AB,BC,CA using distance formula If AB + BC = CA or BC + CA = AB or AB + CA = BC Then 3 pointare collinear

Verifying collinearity A(x1,y1), B(x2,y2), C(x3,y3), D(x4,y4) Find AB,BC,CD,DA using distance formula Find diagonals CA & BD Check with different properties of quadrilaterals

## Complimentry Angles Graphs T-ratios

BC P = AC H AB B AC H AB sin(90-A) = AC AB AB tan(90-A)= BC AB BC BC AB AC cosec(90-A)= AB AC

sinA =

cosecA = BC = P
AC H

cosA = AC secA =
BC AC

secA = AB
AC BC

cosA = AC = H
BC P = AB B

secA = AB = B cos(90-A) =
AB B = BC P BC AC

x'

" 38 2

"8

sec(90-A) =

cot(90-A) =
BC AB

"8 0 2

8 2

38 2

cotA =

tanA =

cosecA =

AC BC

sinA =

tanA =

y'

TAN

y C Interrelationship between T-ratios 1 cos ecA 1 sec A 1 cot A A of DABC = A of DAMP P BC MP sin A = = AC AP A Note ; M B The values of the trignometric ratios of an angle do not vary with the lengths of the sides of the triangle, if the angle remains the same. 1 0.5 0 0.5 -1 y' 8 2 8
38 2

28

cosA =

tanA =

sinA = T R I G O N O M E TRY

SIN

60 45 90 30 0 A 90 B
2 2 2

## AB + BC = AC Divide both sides by Identities

sin

0 0 4 4 0 4

1 4 3 4 1 3 4 1 4 3 3 1

2 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2

3 4 1 4 3 1 4 3 4 1
1 3

4 4 0 4

cos

## y 1 0.5 0 0.5 -1 y' 8 2 8

38 2

9
4 4

tan
AB2 AC2 AB
2

BC2 AC2

, 1 =sin A + cos A = 1
2 2

AC2 cosec BC
2

9
sec
4 4

BC2 1+

+ 1,

AC

2
2 2

9
0 4

28

2

BC2 AB2

cot

COS

Construction

## Triangle Scaling SCALING

Constructing Tangents
A

B B A 3 C 2 B

4

## Q A' A C' B1 C B2 B3 R B4 B5 x X Join A3C such that A3C is parallel to A5B X P O2 O1 A

B5 x

DABC ~ A'BC'
AB AC BC = = A' B A ' C' BC' 5 BC' BB 5 = = 3 BC BB 3

## DAA3C ~ DAA5B hence

AC 3 AA 3 = = A 3 A 5 CB 2

1. Join PO1 and bisect it (at O2) 2. Scaling down 3/4 A B3C'||B4C C'A'||CA B B1 B2 C B3 B x
4

A A' C B1 C B2 B3 B4 x

2. O2 as centre & O1O2 as radius , draw a circle 3. 2 circles intersect at Q & R A 4. Join PQ & PR (Tangents) , Y A A1 A2

Alternate-Method
B B2 Y B1 B Join A3B2 A3 X DAA3C ~ DBB2C
AA 3 AC 3 = = BB2 BC 2

B2 3 A1 A2 A3 2

B1 B

DABC ~ A'BC'
A ' B A ' C' BC' 3 = = = AC BC 4 AB

## Area related to circle

Sector of a circle

2 units

## Q Major sector e.g. e.g. q = 60 r = 3m A B

2

Area = pR
q r r Generally sector implies minor sector B A

C Sol.

P r + r + r + r = length of square 4r = ; r = 1/2 Area of shaded reg. = Area of square Area of 4 circles 2 = (22) 4 8 ( 1 )
4

Length of sector
: 2pR 360

## Area of sector : AOBP = pR2 360 e.g.

60 p 32 360 38 m 2

AB = e.g. AB =

: 2p 3 360 pm

AOBP =

=4p Note: For rotating wheel 2pRn = speed Time = Distance covered n = number of rotations A 2 units I B

e.g.

## Area of segment (APB) = Area of sector (AOB) Area of DAOB IV II

C III e.g. A 2 units I Sol. Area I + III = A(ABCD) Area of semicircle with AD & BC as diameter =4p B Sol.

IV II

C III

## Cuboid Cube Cone Cylinder Sphere Hemisphere

Frustum

l1-l
r2 h r h1 a r r h h h b
l l

r1 r r r a 1. T.S.A 2[lb +bh + hl] 2. C.S.A 2[bh +hl] 3. Volume l b h 4. Diagonal 2 + b2 + h2 a 2 1. T.S.A 6a 2 2. C.S.A 4a 3 3. Volume a 4. Diagonal 3a
2

## 1. C.S.A = 2pr 3 2. T.S.A. = 3pr 3. Volume = 2/3pr3

1. C.S.A = p1r1l1 pr2(l1l) 2 2 2. T.S.A. = pl(r1+r2) + p(r1 + r2 ) 2 2 3. Volume = 1/3ph(r1 + r2 + r1r2) 4. Slant height = h2 + (r1 " r2 )2

NOTE : 1. C.S.A. Curved surface area 2. T.S.A. Total surface area 3. l Length 4. b Breadth 5. h Height 6. l Slant height 7. r Radius 8. a Side of cube

## Total surface area = C.S.A. of 2 hemispheres + C.S.A of cylinder

Probability PROBABILITY

Elementary event (E) : Only one outcome sum of the probabilities of all elementary events is 1.

## Applications Gambling, insurance & statistics control theory.

Examples

Case -1) One dice is rolled: P(1) = Probability of getting 1. Similarly P(2),P(3), P(4), P(5) & P(6) 0 P(E) 1 No. of outcomes favourable to E P(E) = No. of all possible outcomes EVENT(E) 1 P(1) = ; P(1) = 1 1 = 5 6 6 6 P(1) = not getting 1 ; = getting 2,3,4, 5 and 6 Complimentary Events(E) Not E = E, P(E) = 1 P (E) ln case 1 : P(1) = 1 1 , 1,2,3,4,5,6 6

## P(E) > 4 Probability of getting 5 & 6.

In case 1 P(E) > 4 =P(5) + P(6) 2 1 = 6 3 In case 3 P(E) = 4 = P(1) + P(2) + P(3) + P(4) 4 2 = 6 3 Sum = 8 for (2,6) (3,5) (4,4) (5,3) (6,2) 5 P(sum 8) = 36

Case -2) Two dice are rolled: P(sum = 8) = Probability of getting two numbers whose sum is 8. In case 2 Certain event P(E) = 1 Impossible event P(E) = 0 In case 2 : P(sum 13) is impossible. hence, P (sum 13) = 0 Case -3) Box with balls : A box contains 2 black, 4 green and 4 red balls.

Black Black

Red

6
Green Green

1,6
Green

## 2,6 3,6 4,6 5,6

Statistics

Grouped
Class of Intervals NO. of Students 10-25 2 25-40 3 40-55 7 55-70 6 70-85 6 85-100

Ungrouped

MODE MEAN
6

; fx x= ;f
i

i i

## The value of the observation having the max. frequency

MODE MEDIAN
Intervals 10-25 25-40 40-55 55-70 70-85 85-100 No. of students 2 3 7 6 6 6 C.f. 2 5 12 18 24 30 n-C.f. 28 25 18 12 6 0

Class size (h) = 15 Max. frequency f1 = 7 Modal class = 40-55 Lower limit of modal class = 40 f0 = 3 (Previous class f value) f2 = 6 (next class f value) 5 f1 " f0 2 Mode = l + 3 2f " f " f 0! h 3 0 4 1 0 21 Mode = 40 + 4/5 15 = 52 MEAN 3 Methods

MEDIAN x1, x2, ........ xn observations f1, f2, ........ fn frequencies 5n 2 Average of 3 + 10 42 1
th

## 5n 2 & 3 0 observation. 42 1 5 n + 12 3 0 observation. 4 2 1

th

th

n is even

n is odd

n = 30 ; n/2 = 15 55-70 is median class lower limit of the median class (l) = 55 c.f. = cum frequency of median preceeding class n / 2 " c.f . ! h = 62.5 Median = l + f

## Step deviation Direct Method Assumed mean method

x =

; fx ;f
i

i i

x = a + hu = 62 5 x = a + h3 3 4
xi 17.5 32.5 47.5 62.5 77.5 92.5 fi x i 35 97.5 332.5 375 465 555 1860

; f x 2 =62 0 f 0 ; 1
i i i

x = a + d 5 x = a + 3 3 4
ui = -2 -1 0 1 2 3

; f d 2 = 62 0 f 0 ; 1
i i i

## Class Intervel 10-25 25-40 40-55 55-70 70-85 85-100

fi 2 3 7 6 6 6 30

di = x i a -30 -15 0 15 30 45

xi " a h

fi ui -4 -3 0 6 12 18

f iu i = 29

fi di

= 435