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Chemistry

Concept Maps Class IX


Matter in Our Surroundings Is matter around us pure Atoms and Molecules Structure of Atom

Class-IX(Chemistry)
(e.g. oxygen atom = 16 g) (e.g. NaCl = 58.5 g)
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(e.g. oxygen gas = 32 g)

GAM 6.023 10 Atoms 6.023 1023 Ions Gram formula mass GMM

6.023 1023 Molecules

In terms of particles

In terms of mass Volume N = NA Molar volume

(No. of atoms in a molecule)

n=

Mass GAM/GMM

Mass N = GAM/GMM NA

Atomicity Molecule of element


(Mass of one molecule)

Chemical formulae

In terms of volume

Mole

Some useful formulae

Volume Mass = GAM/GMM Molar volume

Molecular mass

Molecule
22.42

Atomic mass
(Mass of one atom)

n=

N NA

GMM

Molecule of compound
(Positively charged
+ 2+

(Mass of 1 mole molecules)

Atom exist as

Molar mass (Mass of 1 mole)

ATOM
(Mass of 1 mole atoms)

ion e.g. K , Ca

)
GAM

Cation
Electopositive radicals

Monoatomic ion Valency of ion

(Smallest particle of matter) (Short hand representation) Represents name of element Represents no. of atoms

Ion
(Charged species)

(Present one atom only e.g. H+, Na+ )

Significance Electronegative radicals

Polyatomic ion Anion


(Negatively charged
2

(Present two or more atoms e.g. OH, SO42 )

Symbol

ion e.g. F , O

Ionic compound
Rules for writing formulae Formula unit Formula mass
(Mass of one formula unit)

Dalton's symbols

Rules for writing symbols Modern symbols

Formation

Class-IX(Chemistry)
Phosphorus Iron

MAP-1
Volatility Solubility

Non-Metals
Boiling point

Metals Metalloids
(Intermediate properties of metals & non-metals)

Melting point

Based on principle

Sublimation
Large proportion Small proportion

Solid Radioactive
(e.g. Sugar in sugar solution)

(e.g. Water in sugar solution)

Classification

Liquid
Diffusion Density
(Intermixing of particles on their own)

Solvent Solute

Gas Normal

Separation
Element Components

(Water)

Pure substance

Homogeneous

Mixture

True solution
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SUBSTANCE
(Particle size < 10 cm)

(only one kind of particles present) (Matter that can't be broken into simpler ones.)

(More than one kind of particles present e.g. soil, air)


Concentration

Suspension Heterogeneous Compound


(Consists of 2 or more elements combined chemically
Lime Water
5

(Particle size > 10 cm)


Percentage method

Tyndall Effect

Organic

Colloidal solution
Classification Inorganic

(Obtained from rocks and minerals e.g. salt, marble)

(Liquid or solid in (Particle size between 10 10 cm) (Solid in solid e.g. milky glass) gas e.g. fog, smoke) (Obtained from living beings Aerosol e.g. alcohol, sugar) Salt (Gas in liquid Foam e.g. shaving cream) (Formed by acid & base

Mass % of solute m solute 100 M solution

Classification Solid sol

Acid
(Turns blue litmus red e.g. HCl, H2SO4)

Volume% of solute v solute 100 V solution

Gel
(Liquid in solid e.g. butter)

Base
e.g. NaCl, CaCO3)

Solid foam Emulsion


(Liquid in liquid e.g. milk) (Turns red litmus blue e.g. NaOH, KOH)

Sol
(Gas in solid e.g. Pumice) (Solid in liquid e.g. blood)

Class-IX(Chemistry)

MAP-2
Water Alcohol

Solvent
MgO Al2O3

Principle (Ability to sublime)


Principle (Density) Adsorbent medium

Method

Example (Sand & I2)

Filter paper

Principle (Relative solubility & affinity of constituents)

Sublimation Centrifugation Chromatography

Example (separation of cream from milk)

Principle (Solubility)

Principle (Density)
Example (Components of ink)

Using Suitable Solvent

SEPARATION TECHNIQUES

Separating funnel

Example (Sugar/Sand)

Fractional distillation Evaporation


Principle (Boiling point)

Example (Oil & Water)

Distillation
Example (Alcohol & water)

Example (Coloured components of blue ink solution)

Principle (Boiling point)

Principle (Boiling point)

Class-IX(Chemistry)

MAP-3
Liquid N2 boils off followed by liquid O2 Heavy impurities settle down

Suspended impurities separates Combustion Rusting

Fractional distillation

Sedimentation

Filtration
Example

SEPARATION OF GASES FROM AIR

CITY WATER SUPPLY

CHANGES IN MATTER

Chemical change

Definition (Change in chemical Characteristics properties)


New product formed Permanent and irreversible change Energy absorbed or evolved

Physical change

Liquefaction Sterilization Purification


(At high P & low T) Example Definition
Condensation

(Change in physical Characteristics properties) Removal of dust, gases & water vapour Removal of harmful micro organism
No new product formed Temporary and reversible change No net gain or loss of energy

Class-IX(Chemistry)

Boiling point Melting point Condensation Freezing point Freezing Condensation point

Latent heat
Melting

Solid to liquid & vice versa

(Heat energy required to change 1 kg of solid into liquid at atmospheric pressure and its M.P.)

Liquid to gas & vice versa

Boiling
(Heat energy required to change 1 kg of liquid into gas at Latent heat atmospheric pressure and its B.P.)

1
n

By altering temperature
n

Humidity
n

Solid to gas & vice versa


W.S.

Sublimation (Zig-zag motion)

Humidity Surface area Temperature


n

Wind speed Nature of substance

Brownian motion
Camphor

Interconversions

By altering pressure

Liquefaction

(At high P & low T)

Dissolving solid in liquid

Movement of pollen grains

Factors affecting

Evidence

Evaporation

Physical nature

Matter consists of particles

MATTER
(Anything that has mass, occupies space.)

Difference between boiling and evaporation

Uses of cotton clothes

Characteristics
Cohesive force (between similar atoms)

Evaporation It is a surface phenomenon. It occurs at all temperatures below B.P.

Boiling It is a bulk phenomenon.

BEC Solid

Classification

Small particle size Interparticle spaces

Interparticle attraction

It occurs at B.P. only.

The rate of evaporation The rate of boiling does depends upon the surface not depend upon the area of the liquid, humidity surface area, wind speed, temperature & wind speed and humidity.

Particles moving constantly

(between dissimilar atoms) Adhesive force

Plasma Liquid Gas

Diffusion

Class-IX(Chemistry)
( In cancer, thyroid etc.) (to find the age of fossil)

Medicine
(Cracks in metal casting)

Carbon dating
Reaction (e.g. esterification reaction) mechanism

Industry

(e.g. Cl = 35.5u, Cu = 63.5 u)

Application
(Traces used Agriculture for plant nutrition)

Fractional atomic mass


(Diff. physical properties same chemical properties) (Diff. Z, same A) (No. of protons) (Sum of protons & neutrons)

Atomic number

Isotope Characteristics Isobar


(Same Z, diff. A) (8 electrons in outermost shell)

Mass number Octet rule Isotone Isoelectronic Valency


(Same no. neutrons in different atoms) (Combining capacity of an atom) (Diff. atoms, ions molecules with same no. of electrons)

Electronic configuration
(Distribution of electrons in shells)

Electron
Property Electron Proton E. Goldstein p Positively charged +1
-19

(Contains protons & neutrons)

Neutron James Chadwick n

Discovery J.J. Thomson Symbol Nature Relative charge Absolute charge Relative mass Absolute mass e Negatively charged -1 1.602 10
1 1837

Nucleus

Proton
Neutral 0
-19

Fundamental particles

ATOM

Atomic structure
Extranuclear region

C 1.602 10 1

(Smallest particle of matter)

(Electrons revolve)

Neutron
1
-24

Thomson model
-24

Bohr's model Rutherford model

Postulates
Electrons revolve in shells Fixed energy of each orbit Energy increases from K to N No gain or loss of energy in shell Electron jumps to higher or lower orbit by gain or loss of energy.

9.109 10

-28

1.6725 10

g 1.6748 10

(K, L, M, N)

Main features
(Atom is electrically neutral)

Defects
(Facts of Rutherford experiment)

Shell
Defects
Most a -particles Observation passed straight. Some deflected through large angles Some retraced their path

Alpha particle scattering experiment Conclusion


a -particles

Orbital

Large empty space Nucleus inside atom Very small nucleus as compared to atom

Subshell
(s, p, d, f)