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BIOLOGY Concept Maps Class IX (CBSE)

POllution Adolescence Reproduction In Animals Cell

POLLUTION
Discharge of Industrial & Domestic Waste Used Pesticides & Fertilizer's e.g. DDT

Natural - Volcanic eruptions, dust storms, forest fires Causes


Human activities
Burning of fuels Deforestation Use of CFC's Industrial waste Automobile Exhaust Global warming Acid rain

Oil leaks from boats & Ship Ganga in most polluted river of the world Water - borne diseases

Causes

Effects
Eutrophication

Restriction of Human activities near water bodies Treatment of Industrial domestic waste before discharge Use of Eco-friendly fertilizers & pesticides.

W a t e r

A
POLLUTION

i r

Effects

Ozone Depletion Smog


(Smoke + fog)

Van Mahotsav

Prevention

Prevention

Treatment of Industrial waste Use of less polluting fuel (Unleaded petrol, Sulphur free coal)

Purification

Filtration

Distilation Sedimentation

Domestic methods

ADOLESCENCE PERIOD LEADING TO REPRODUCTIVE MATURITY


Puberty Period of sexual maturity caused by changes in Hormones Secretions of endocrine glands. Increase in height Leads to Development of Secondary sexua characters in boys and girls
This is a growth hormone Conserves water for the body

Anterior lobe
Two distinct region of the gland Size of pea

Posterior lobe

Cone shaped gland in the brain Hormone melatonin Contanin pinealocytes Locate in the neck Thyroxine Regulate the basal metabolic rate

Connected to the hypothalamus

Pineal Gland Pituitary Gland Adrenal Gland Thyroid Gland

Located above your kidneys Helps maintain blood pressure Helps regulated metablism Helps balance insulin

Secretes thyroxine hormone

Triiodothyronine

Pancreas

Endocrine
Testes Ovaries

Secretes digestive enzymes

Reduce calcium level in the blood

Thymus
Helps slow the immune systems inflamatory response Produces thymosin Role in lmmune system

Secretes glucagons and insulin

Released when High glucose level in the blood

Glucose gets low in the blood

Important

Testosterone

Secretes

Testes

Ovaries

Contribute

Development /puberty menstrual cycle

Skeetal and muscular growth

Development of

Voice change

2 Hormones

Estrogen Reproductive structure Distribution of bodyhair

Progesterone

Contribute to the development and function of the female reproductive organs and sex characteristics

REPRODUCTION IN ANIMALS
ASEXUAL (SINGLE PARENT) SEXUAL (TWO PARENT)
Multiple

A
BUDDING

Divide in to more than two e.g. Plasmodium

STEPS

FISSION
Binary Divide in to two e.g. Bacteria, Amoeba

2
Fertilization (Fusion of Gametes)

Gametogenesis (Formation of Gametes)

B
Fragmentation
Parturition (Birth of young one)

Embryogenesis (Formation of Embryo from zygote)

C
Spore formation

HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE


Testes Epididymis Vasa deferentia Vasa deferentia Penis

FEMALE
Ovaries Fallopian tubes Uterus Vagina Vulva

Schleiden & Schwann R.Virchow

Longest-Nerve cell Largest - ostrich egg Smallest - PPLO/mycoplasma

CELL THEORY
Collect Together to make Type of cell Prokaryotic Eukaryotic

CELL SIZE

Prokaryotic Eukaryotic

No membrane bounded organelles Loose DNA in cytoplasm e.g. BGA, bacteria, PPLO

Organs e.g. Heart

Tissue e.g. skin

CELL

Can be Seen by

Microscope

CELL MEMBRANE
(BARRIER FOR CELL & meant for transportation inside & outside the cell) Cell wall (rigid) (only in plants) Plasma membrane (fluid mossaic model) Cytosol

PROTOPLASM
CYTOPLASM NUCLEUS (HEAD QUARTER) Cell Organelles Chromatin Nucleolous Cell division

Double Membranous
Plastids (kitchen) (Only in Plants)

Non Membranous Ribosome Protein synthesis

Single membranous

Mitochondria (Power house)


Energy ATP

ER (Transportation)
Smooth ER Rough ER (Protein factors)

Golgi (Trafficking)

Vacuole
(Maintains Osmoregulation of cell )

Lysosome (Suicidal Bags) or (waste dispasable system)


Contain Hydrolytic enzymes