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ECOLOGY II: HUMAN EFFECTS ON THE BIOSPHERE
ECOLOGY II: HUMAN EFFECTS ON THE BIOSPHERE

Population age structure in industrialized countries vs. developing countries

in industrialized countries vs. developing countries The average fertility rate required to achieve long term

The average fertility rate required to achieve long term zero population growth ( replacement fertility rate) is 2.1

The expansion of human population and affluence, especially in the developing world harms natural ecosystems

The expansion of human population and affluence, especially in the developing world harms natural ecosystems

What is the biosphere?

The biosphere includes all regions of Earth where organisms live

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What factors are studied when considering the biosphere?

Climate refers to the average weather conditions such as cloud cover, temperature, humidity and wind speed over time

Climate refers to the average weather conditions such as cloud cover, temperature, humidity and wind speed

Biomes are areas of land characterized by their climate and type of vegetation

land characterized by their climate and type of vegetation Factors that cause differences in regional climates
land characterized by their climate and type of vegetation Factors that cause differences in regional climates

Factors that cause differences in regional climates include wind and ocean currents, intensity of sunlight, distribution of land masses and seas, and elevation

Global climate change, a topic that includes global warming, refers to the relatively abrupt shift in weather patterns during the last hundred years

that includes global warming , refers to the relatively abrupt shift in weather patterns during the

Carbon dioxide and other global warming pollutants are collecting in the atmosphere like a thickening blanket, trapping the sun's heat and causing the planet to warm up

are collecting in the atmosphere like a thickening blanket, trapping the sun's heat and causing the

Human activities are responsible for rising concentration of greenhouse gas

Human activities are responsible for rising concentration of greenhouse gas

The rise in average temperature effects on the earth's climate patterns and on all living things.

1) Weather patterns change as consequence of global warming higher temperatures could lead to increased droughts and wildfires, heavier rainfall and a greater number of category 4 and 5 hurricanes. %

2) Health problems associated with global warming include allergy and asthma causes by smog pollution 7%

3) Increasing global temperatures are expected to disrupt ecosystems, pushing to extinction those species that cannot adapt. Approximately 20 to 30 percent of plant and animal species assessed so far are likely to be at increased risk of extinction if global average temperature increases by more than 2.7 to 4.5 degrees Fahrenheit 7%%

The International Union of Conservation of Nature reported that of 47,677 species analyzed, 36% were threatened or endangered

47,677 species analyzed, 36% were threatened or endangered Extirpation refers to the loss of a single

Extirpation refers to the loss of a single population while extinction means that all populations of a species have disappeared irreversibly

Population growth of humans has also cause the unintended decline of biodiversity, the HIPPO acronym

H Habitat loss, including that caused by human-induced

climate change.

I Invasive species (harmful aliens, including predators,

diseases, and competitors that displace native species

P

Pollution

P

Population, Human overpopulation to be exact, a root

cause of the other four factors

O Overharvesting, Overuse (hunting,

fishing, gathering)

Habitat loss is the single greatest threat to biodiversity throughout the biosphere

greatest threat to biodiversity throughout the biosphere Desertification occurs when plowing or grazing removes

Desertification occurs when plowing or grazing removes plants and exposes topsoil to wind erosion

Invasive species ranks second behind habitat loss as a threat to biodiversity

ranks second behind habitat loss as a threat to biodiversity Brown tree snakes came on cargo

Brown tree snakes came on cargo planes to Guam and fed on exotic birds, three bird species are now extinct in the island

Overexploitation of wildlife by harvesting is another major threat to biodiversity

by harvesting is another major threat to biodiversity Scientists estimate that we have removed as much

Scientists estimate that we have removed as much as 90 percent of the large predatory fish such as shark, swordfish and cod from the world's oceans.

Pollution (Oil spills, human agricultural waste, fertilization, pesticides, acid deposition, greenhouse gases etc.) caused by human activities has a negative effect on biodiversity

pesticides, acid deposition, greenhouse gases etc.) caused by human activities has a negative effect on biodiversity

When pollutants enter the food chain, top predators most severely damaged

enter the food chain, top predators most severely damaged Biological magnification - the concentration of a

Biological magnification- the concentration of a chemical increases as the the pollutant moves up the food chain

Conservation biology is a goal oriented science that seems to understand and counter the loss of biodiversity

seems to understand and counter the loss of biodiversity Biodiversity hotspots refers to relatively small areas

Biodiversity hotspots refers to relatively small areas that have a large number of endangered and threatened species and endemic species, those found nowhere else

Science In the News

Science NOW Magazine Sea Turtles Suffer Collateral Damage From Fishing

Magazine Sea Turtles Suffer Collateral Damage From Fishing More than 8 million sea turtles have died

More than 8 million sea turtles have died in the past 2 decades after being accidentally caught by fishing vessels, a global analysis suggests. The researchers identify the Mediterranean Sea and the eastern Pacific Ocean as particularly dangerous for sea turtles. Turtle deaths probably are widely underreported, along coastlines with small-scale fishing.