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# HYDRAULICS

## ..and the power of its system What is Hydraulics?

it is a branch of science concerned with the application of the properties of liquids (particularly water), at rest and in motion, to engineering problems. The term "hydraulics" originates from the Greek word (hydraulikos) which in turn originates from (hydraulos) meaning water organ which in turn comes from (hydor, Greek for water) and (aulos, meaning pipe).

Formula P=F/A P pressure F force A area Units of Measurement Pascal lb / in2 Kg / cm2 mm Hg bar

Basic Principles
Pascal's Principle - also known as the Pascals law, named after Blaise Pascal. In fluid mechanics, the principle states that the pressure applied to an enclosed body of fluid is transmitted equally in all directions with unchanged intensity.

Related Concepts
Hydrodynamics Study of the mechanics of fluids in motion. Energy is transmitted by the impact of the fluid on the blades. Hydrostatics Study of the mechanics of fluids at rest. Energy is transmitted by the fluid to all of the recipients, and movement is proportional to the effort made or the force exerted. Fluids Fluids have the capacity to be moved through any shape no matter its form. They often take the shape of the container they are in. Fluids are among the most versatile forms of transmitting power and modifying movements. Liquids have a constant volume A liquid is considered to be noncompressible.

Gases occupy all the volume of the recipient which holds them. Gas is considered to be highly compressible.

Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created nor destroyed; it can only be conserved or changed from one form to another.

Pressure - it is the force acting on a surface per unit of area. All liquids and gasses exert pressure on any body immersed in them and on the walls of their containers, if any. 1|P a ge

Flow Rate FLOW RATE is the term used to describe the volume of liquid flowing through a pipe in a specific period of time. FLOW is the action of a hydraulic system which causes movement of the actuator.

1.Pump is a device used to produce the movement of a hydraulic fluid, increasing its pressure to the level required by the hydraulic system. Pumps have a power density about ten times greater than an electric motor (by volume).

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
What is a Hydraulic System? A hydraulic drive system is a drive or transmission system that uses pressurized hydraulic fluid to drive hydraulic machinery. It consists of three parts: The generator (e.g. a hydraulic pump), driven by an electric motor, a combustion engine or a windmill; valves, filters, piping etc. (to guide and control the system); the motor (e.g. a hydraulic motor or hydraulic cylinder) to drive the machinery.

Common Types of Hydraulic Pumps Gear Pump Vane Pump Axial Piston Pump Radial Piston Pump Gear Pump - cheap, durable, simple. Less efficient, because they are constant (fixed) displacement, and mainly suitable for pressures below 20 MPa (3000 psi). Vane Pump - cheap and simple, reliable(especially in g-rotor form). Good for higher-flow low-pressure output. Axial Piston Pump - many designed with a variable displacement mechanism, to vary output flow for automatic control of pressure. There are various axial piston pump designs, including swashplate and checkball. Radial Piston Pump - A pump that is normally used for very high pressure at small flows.

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## ELEMENTS OF A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

2.Actuators are the elements in charge of transforming hydraulic energy into linear or rotational mechanical energy. 2 Kinds of Actuators Linear Actuators (Hydraulic Cylinders) Hydraulic cylinders are able to give pushing and pulling forces of millions of metric tons with only a simple hydraulic system. Rotary Actuators (Hydraulic Motors) The hydraulic motor is the rotary counterpart of the hydraulic cylinder. Conceptually, a hydraulic motor should be interchangeable with the hydraulic pump, due to the fact it performs the opposite function. Hydraulic Cylinders

Weight-loaded Accumulators This accumulator type applies a force to the liquid by means of a piston, and allows for the possibility of adding or removing weight, depending on the set pressure.

Spring-loaded Accumulators It consists of a cylinder, a mobile piston, and a spring. They are small in size and can be mounted in any position.

Hydraulic Motors

3.Accumulators It acts as an emergency power source, e.g. to complete a working stroke in case of drive or pump failure. Their function is to store energy by using pressurized gas.

Hydro-Pneumatic Accumulators This type of accumulator is equipped with a chamber that is loaded with inert gas usually dry nitrogen.

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## Types of Hydro-Pneumatic Accumulators

i. PISTON-TYPE ii. DIAPHRAGM-TYPE iii. BAG-TYPE i. Piston-type Accumulator This type of accumulator consists of a cylindrical body and a mobile piston. The gas occupying the volume above the piston is compressed as the cylinder body is filled with liquid.

4. VALVES Regulates pressure by creating special pressure conditions and by controlling how much fluid will flow in portions of a circuit and where it will go. Controls the operation of the actuators. CLASSIFICATION OF VALVES Based on Function Pressure Control Valves Flow Control Valves Direction Control Valves Based on Method of Activation Directly Operated Valve Pilot Operated Valve Mutually Operated Valve Electrically Actuated Valve Open Control Valve

ii. Diaphragm-type Accumulator This type of accumulator consists of 2 metal hemispheres separated by a flexible, synthetic rubber diaphragm.

Based on Function
PRESSURE CONTROL VALVES

## FLOW CONTROL VALVES

iii. Bag-type Accumulator This type of accumulator consists of a synthetic rubber bag inside a metal shell. The bag is filled with compressed air.

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## Based on the Method of Activation

DIRECTLY OPERATED VALVE

5.Fluid Transmission Lines are lines that facilitate the flow of hydraulic fluid through the system. these lines must resist great pressure, therefore they must be carefully selected. Pipe, tubes and hoses, along with the fittings or connectors, constitute the conducting lines that carry hydraulic fluid between components.

## Tubes, Pipes, and Hoses

Hydraulic Tubes are seamless steel precision pipes, specially manufactured for hydraulics. The tubes have standard sizes for different pressure ranges, with standard diameters up to 100 mm. Hydraulic Pipes are used in case standard hydraulic tubes are not available. Generally these are used for low pressure. They can be connected by threaded connections, but usually by welds. Hydraulic Hose is graded by pressure, temperature, and fluid compatibility. Hoses are used when pipes or tubes cannot be used, usually to provide flexibility for machine operation or maintenance.

## Seals, Fittings, and Connections

Fittings serve several purposes: to bridge different standards. to allow proper orientation of components, a 90, 45, straight, or swivel fitting is chosen as needed. They are designed to be positioned in the correct orientation and then tightened. to incorporate bulkhead hardware.

## Types of Seals and Fittings

Pipe Fittings O-ring Boss Flare Seal Face Seal Beam Seal Swaged Seals OPEN PRESSURE CONTROL VALVE

## Seals and Fittings

Pipe Fittings - the fitting is screwed in until tight, difficult to orient an angled fitting correctly without over or under tightening.

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O Ring Boss - the fitting is screwed into a boss and orientated as needed, an additional nut tightens the fitting, washer and o-ring in place.

Beam Seal

## - a costly metal to metal seal used primarily in aircraft.

Swaged Seal Flare Seal - a metal to metal compression seal with a cone and flare mating. - tubes are connected with fittings that are swaged permanently in place. Primarily used in aircraft.

Connections
Connections are used to join parts or change the direction of the tubes. FILTERS

Face Seal - is a seal in which the sealing surfaces are normal to the axis of the seal. Face seals are typically used in static application and are used to prevent leakage in the radial direction with respect to the axis of the seal.

Filters are an important part of hydraulic systems. Metal particles are continually produced by mechanical components and need to be removed along with other contaminants. RESERVOIR The hydraulic fluid reservoir holds excess hydraulic fluid to accommodate volume changes. The reservoir is also designed to aid in separation of air from the fluid and also work as a heat accumulator to cover losses in the system when peak power is used. 6|P a ge

FILTERS

RESERVOIR

Historical Background The Ferguson three-point hitch system was the first agricultural use of a technology that was predicted centuries ago and developed for other industries in the 1700s hydraulic power. The idea for hydraulic cylinders goes back to the French mathematician Blaise Pascal. He studied fluids, pressures and vacuums in the mid1600s, four centuries ago. It took another 140 years and the dawn of the Industrial Revolution for that scientific principle to be applied in a useful way. Joseph Bramah was an inventor and successful locksmith in England. They had the basis of the hydraulic press. The press has been used in thousands of industrial applications over the next 150 years. Later inventors realized that they could substitute pumps for the small cylinder to force liquid under pressure into the large cylinder. So, 150 years after the invention of hydraulic presses, the stage was set for Harry Ferguson and Henry Ford to adapt the hydraulic press to the Fordson Tractor.

Historical Background The other innovation that Ferguson brought to the hydraulic three-point hitch was a sophisticated feedback mechanism that would adjust the hydraulic cylinder and the plow up if it started to plow deeper. According to historian Robert C. Williams in Fordson, Farmall, and Poppin' Johnny, within a few short years, "the Ferguson system, or a similar hydraulically controlled, threepoint (hitch) system, became virtually mandatory on almost all tractors. Within a few years, hydraulic cylinders were being installed not only on tractors, but also on the implements, as well. With flexible, high pressure hoses, a tractor's hydraulic pump and levers could control cylinders on the implements mounted behind it.

## OPERATION Hydraulic System Hydraulic Machines

Cranes are types of machine used for lifting, generally equipped with a hoist or winder (also called a wire rope drum), wire ropes or chains and sheaves, that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally.

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Loaders are heavy equipment machine often used in construction, primarily used to load materials into or onto another type of machinery (such as a dump truck, conveyor belt, feed-hopper, or railcar).

HOW DOES A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM WORK? The basic idea behind any hydraulic system is very simple: Force that is applied at one point is transmitted to another point using an incompressible fluid.

Automotive Lifters are designed as a safe method of raising various transportation units for different types of repairs and maintenance. A vital piece used in any home garage or commercial repair shop.

Cable-cutting & stripping Machines, Hacksaws, Welding Machines, Pipe-bending Machines, Paper-cutting Machines are just some few machines which uses the principle of Hydraulic systems.

## Simple Hydraulic System HYDRAULIC JACK

In this system a reservoir and a system of valves has been added to Pascal's hydraulic lever to stroke a small cylinder or pump continuously and raise a large piston or an actuator a notch with each stroke.

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NOT IDEAL

## Basic Hydraulic System

Components such as Relief Valve, Check valve & Pressure regulator are added to make the system somewhat ideal.

Basically, any hydraulic system must contain the following units: PUMP, ACTUATOR, RESERVOIR, CONTROL VALVE, and TUBING. Actuators are the elements in charge of transforming hydraulic energy into linear or rotational mechanical energy. Reservoir are deposits or drains that stores hydraulic fluid so that it can be sent back to the system by the pump. Pump is used to produce the movement of the hydraulic fluid, increasing its pressure to a level required by the system. Valves are used to control the fluid in the hydraulic system.

Protective Valves
The relief valve is a type of valve used to control or limit the pressure in a system or vessel which can build up by a process upset, instrument or equipment failure, or fire. A check valve is a mechanical device, a valve, which normally allows the fluid to flow through it in only one direction. The pressure regulator maintains system pressure between two predetermined pressure limits and relieves the pump when no mechanisms are moving, bypassing the pump flow unrestricted back to the reservoir. 9|P a ge

Open-Center Hydraulic System An open-center system is one having fluid flow, but no pressure in the system whenever the actuating mechanisms are idle.

Closed-Center Hydraulic System In this system, a pump can rest when the oil is not required to operate a function.

Series Connection

## Fixed-Displacement Pump and Accumulator

Series/Parallel Connection

Variable-Displacement Pump

Flow Divider

## CRITERIA FOR SELECTION

With hydraulics, there are two primary considerations - the viscosity grade and the hydraulic oil type. These specifications are typically determined by the type of hydraulic pump employed in the system, operating temperature and the system's operating pressure.

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Choosing the correct hydraulic hose involves several factors including size, temperature of fluids used in the hose, pressure. Consider the gasket and hydraulic seals Consider the hydraulic cylinder and tubes.

Oil Contamination Due to Internal Friction Leakage Risks Oil Temperature Filtration critical - must be free of debris Manpower intensive to clean up It is combustible