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Buffers Buffers a r e d e f i n e d a s c o m p o u n d o r m i x t u r e o f c o m p o u n d s that by their presence in solution resist the changes in pH upon addition of small quantities of acid or alkali.

Characteristic of Buffers a) Definite pH value (by dissolving known amount compound) b) pH value of buffer does not alter after long time storage or dilution. c) pH value of buffers slightly altered by addition of small quantities of acids and bases. Applications Enhancing solubility-if pH of solution not adjusted properly, drug may precipitate Improving stability-many drugs hydrolyze in aqueous solution. Adjusting pH of solution stabilizes such drugs Improving purity-protein purification Optimizing biological activity-enzymes have max stability at definite pH Comforting the body-if pH of solution greatly differs from normal pH of relevant body fluid cause irritation, hence pH of formulation should match with pH of physiological solution. Should be controlled in formulation of eye drops, ear drops, injections and liquid orals. e.g. Acetified syrup- - - 5 . 0 - 7 . 2 Dextrose injection--- 3.5-6.5 Ox y m e t z o l i n e n a s a l drops-- 4.0-6.5 Chloramphenicoleye drops---- 7.0-7.5

Enhancing the solubility: -If pH is not maintained-Drug may precipitate. Sodium salicylate precipitates as salicylic acid when acidified. Acidic drugs more soluble in basic medium and vice versa. Increasing the stability: -Compounds get hydrolyzed in aqueous solutions. Vitamins are stable only at narrow pH range.

Improving purity: -Proteins are least soluble at their isoelectric point. Insulin precipitates from aqueous soln. at pH 5.0-6.0.Used for purification of insulin. Optimizing Biological Activity: At definite pH enzyme have activity F or pepsin maximum activity at P h S torage of products

Glass containers impart alkalinity to products.

BUFFER SYSTEMS -C OMPOSITIONS Buffer solutions are aqueous solutions consisting of a.Mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base S oln. containing acetic

acid and sodium acetate. b.Mixture of a weak base and its conjugate acid. S oln. containing Ammonium hydroxide and ammonium chloride. c.Two salts act as acid base pair w h ic h can functioneit h er as (a) or (b) S olution of M onobasic

potassium P hosphate (K H 2 PO 4 ) and D ibasic potassium P hosphate (K 2 H PO 4 ) BUFFER SYSTEMS C OMPOSITIONS( contd . ) d. Am p h oteric electrolytes S olution

of glycine. e.Strong acids and strong bases High concentration of hydronium and hydroxyl ion Hydrochloric acid buffers 1.2 to 2.2 ,S trong acid pH

less than 3.0 ,S trong base pH more than 11.0 BUFFER SYSTEMS -C OMPOSITIONS ( contd . ) M ainly borates , citrate , phosphate and phthalate

salts used in pharmacy. I onic strength of buffer is adjusted to definite value by adding sodium chloride and

pot. Chloride. S ome soln. of drug themselves manifest buffer action E phedrine weak base in acidic media forms a

salt ephedrine Hydrochloride. S alicylic acid stored in soft glass bottle sodium ions in the container react to sodium salicylate.

B uffers in B iological system Blood : B lood pH 7.4 (B uffer capacity : 7.0-7.8 ) pH of blood in diabetic coma is 6

.8 ,L ife is in danger. B lood consist of primary and secondary buffer systems P ri m ary buffer syste m in plas m a Carbonic acid

and bicarbonate ,( o.o25 M and 0.00125 M) Acid/alkali salts of phosphoric acid as buffers. P lasma proteins , which behave as acids

in blood combine with bases and act as buffers. Secondary buffer syste m s present in eryt h rocytes Hemoglobin / O xyhemoglobin system

acid/alkali salts of

phosphoric acid system. B uffer in B iological system ( contd ) L acri m al fluids (Tears) T ear have greater degree of buffer capacity.

D ilution of 1:15 with neutral distilled water ( dilution value ) . pH -7.4 (range 7.0-8.0) P ure conjunctivas fluid acidic than the tear fluid. pH is

increase rapidly when fluid is removed for analysis because of loss of Carbon dioxide from tear fluid. Urine p H : 6 ( 4 . 5 - 7 . 8 ) pH is low-hydrogen ions excreted by kidneys, highHydrogen ions retained in kidneys. P

harmaceutical B uffers

F ormulation of ophthalmic preparation. B oric acid ,S odium borate and sufficient sodium chloride to make the mixture

isotonic. pH range is 7.0 to 9.0 U sed in colorimetric for determination of pH P reparation of different std. pH solution.

M aintain constant pH in in vitro studies and B iologic research. D issolution studies ,M icrobial studies etc. P harmacopoeia gives elaborate

list of B uffers and their method of preparation. R efer P harmacopoeia IMP .

P harmaceutical B uffers

Choice

of pharmaceutical buffers depend on the following factors Availability of chemicals S terility of final solution S tability of drug S

tability of buffer on aging Cost of material F reedom from toxicity E .g. B orate buffer cannot be used to stabilize

the oral or parenteral solution because of toxic effects. T he experimental pH values slightly differ form calculated pH

values using buffer equation