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Letter to the Editor


We have received the following letter from Professor D.J. Smeenk, Zaltbommel, the Netherlands.
I received the September copy of Crux on the 6th of November. As
always, it gave me much pleasure and entertainment.
As far as I remember, I have been a subscriber to Crux for about twenty
years. In 1981, I retired after having been a school leader for twenty years
and then, my good friend, the late Jaap Groenman, advised me to subscribe
to Crux. So I did. It has given me much pleasure and entertainment.
To my regret, I noticed that during the last few years, I am the only
Dutchman who upholds the credit of the Netherlands!
I should feel very much obliged if, in some way, you can tell me the total
number of subscribers to Crux, and how many of them are Dutch. If any,
could you not encourage them to send in their solutions and their problems?
Crux deserves it, and is worth it.
Your sincerely,
[signed] D.J. Smeenk.
We thank Professor Smeenk for his kind words | it is our aim to be the
best journal on mathematical problem solving.
In answer to his questions, the total number of subscribers to CRUX
with MAYHEM is 871, and of these, only 3 are sent to addresses in the
Netherlands. We look forward to more solvers from the Netherlands!
We are also pleased that some national Mathematical Olympiad committees have taken out bulk subscriptions. There is a discount available for
bulk subscriptions sent to a single address | 20% for 25{49 copies and 40%
for 50 and more copies.
As was announced in the December 2001 issue, there are some subscriptions awarded to schools in some developing countries, courtesy of a
generous donation by a subscriber who wishes to remain anonymous. We
again thank this subscriber for this generosity.
Bruce Shawyer
Editor{in{Chief

THE ACADEMY CORNER


No. 46
Bruce Shawyer

All communications about this column should be sent to Bruce


Shawyer, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University
of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. A1C 5S7
In this issue, we present the problems of the 2001 Atlantic Provinces Council
on the Sciences, annual mathematics competition for university students,
held at St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Nova Scotia. Thanks to
Nabil Shalaby for collecting a copy for us. This competition turned out to be
quite dicult. If you can solve them, send me your nice solutions!

2001 APICS Math Competition


Time allowed: 3 hours

1. P is a polynomial with integer coecients. For four distinct integers


x, we have P (x) = 9. Show that there are no integers x with P (x) = 16.
2. Consider the Fibonnacci sequence f1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, : : : g with a1 = 1,
a2 = 1, an+2 = an+1 + an for all n  2.
Show that

1 an
X
1
4n+1 is equal to 11 .

n=1

3. Prove that among any 13 distinct real numbers, it is possible to nd

x and y such that 0 < 1x+;xyy < 2 ; p3.


r

4
n (2n)!
4. Show that lim
!1
n = e.
5. In 4ABC , R is the mid-point of BC . S is a point on AC such that
n

CS = 4SA. T is a point of AB such that the area of 4RST is twice the


area of 4TBR. Find AT .
TB

6.

Determine all functions


 x + y which
 are everywhere di erentiable and
satisfy f (x) + f (y) = f
for all x, y 2 R with xy 6= 1.

1 ; xy
Z
7. Evaluate the integral I (k) = 01 sin(kx)xcosk(x) dx, where k 2 N.
Z 1 sin(x)

Hint: recall that
x dx = 2 .
0

8. Find three consecutive integers, the rst being a multiple of the


square of a prime number, the second being a multiple of the cube of a prime
number and the last being a multiple of the fourth power of a prime number.
Next, we present the problems of 8th International Mathematics Competition, held at the Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic, on 19{25 July
2001. This competition is for university students completing up to their
fourth year, and consists of two sessions, each of ve hours. Thanks to
Moubinool Omarjee for sending them to us.

8th International Mathematics Competition

Day 1 Problems
Problem 1. Let n be a positive integer. Consider an n  n matrix with
entries 1, 2, : : : , n2 written in order starting top left and moving along each
row in turn left to right. We choose n entries of the matrix such that exactly
one entry is chosen in each row and each column. What are the possible
values of the sum of the selected entries?
Problem 2. Let r, s, t be positive integers which are pairwise relatively prime. If a and b are elements of a commutative multiplicative group
with unity element e, and ar = bs = (ab)t = e, prove that a = b = e.
Does the same conclusion hold if a and b are elements of an arbitrary
non-commutative group?
P
tn
Problem 3. Find limt%1 (1 ; t) 1
n=1 1+tn , where t % 1 means that
t approaches 1 from below.
Problem 4. Let k be a positive integer. Let p(x) be a polynomial of
degree n, each of whose coecients is ;1, 1 or 0, and which is divisible by
(x ; 1)k . Let q be a prime such that lnqq < ln(nk+1) . Prove that the complex
qth roots of unity are roots of the polynomial p(x).
Problem 5 Let A be an n  n matrix such that A 6= I for all  2 C.
Prove that A is similar to a matrix having at most one non-zero entry on the
main diagonal.
Problem 6.Suppose that the di erentiable functions a, b, f , g : R ! R
satisfy
f (x)  0 , f 0 (x)  0 , g0 (x) > 0 for all x 2 R ,
xlim
!1 a(x) = A > 0 , xlim
!1 b(x) = B > 0 , xlim
!1 f (x) = xlim
!1 g(x) = 1 ,
and
f 0 (x) + a(x) f (x) = b(x) .
g0 (x)
g(x)
Prove that
f (x) = 2 B .
xlim
!1

g(x)

A+1

4
Day 2 Problems
Problem 1 Let r, s  1 be integers and a0 , a1 , : : : , ar;1 , b0 , b1 , : : : ,
bs;1 be real non-negative numbers such that
(a0 +a1x+a2 x2 +  +ar;1 xr;1 +xr )(b0 +b1 x+b2 x2 +  +bs;1 xs;1 +xs )

= 1 + x + x2 +    + xr+s;1 + xr+s .
Prove that each ai and each bj equals either 0 or 1.
q p
p
Problem 2 Let a0 = 2, b0 = 2, and an+1 = 2 ; 4 ; a2n ,
bn+1 = 2 + p2b4n+ b2 .
n

to 0.

(a) Prove that the sequences fan g, fbn g are decreasing and converge

(b) Prove that the sequence f2n an g is increasing, the sequence f2n bn g
is decreasing and that these two sequences converge to the same limit.
(c) Prove that there is a positive constant C such that for all n the
following inequality holds: 0 < bn ; an < 8Cn .
Problem 3.
Find the maximum number of points on a sphere of
radius 1 in Rn suchpthat the distance between any two of these points is
strictly greater that 2.
Problem 4. Let A = (ak;t )k;t=1;::: ;n be an n  n complex matrix such
that for each m 2 f1, : : : , ng and 1  j1 <    < jm  n the determinant
of the matrix (ajk ;jt )k;t=1;::: ;m is zero. Prove that An = 0 and that there
exists a permutation  2 Sn such that the matrix
(a(k);(t))k;t=1;::: ;n .
has all of its non-zero elements above the diagonal.
Problem 5. Let R be the set of real numbers. Prove that there is no
function f : R ! R with f (0) > 0, and such that
f (x + y)  f (x) + yf (f (x)) for all x, y 2 R .
Problem 6.

For each positive integer n, let fn () = sin   sin(2) 

sin(4)    sin(2n ).

For all real  and all n, and prove that


jfn()j  p23 jfn(=3)j .

THE OLYMPIAD CORNER


No. 219

R.E. Woodrow
All communications about this column should be sent to Professor R.E.
Woodrow, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Calgary,
Calgary, Alberta, Canada. T2N 1N4.
Here we are at the beginning of a new year and a new volume of CRUX
with MAYHEM. My thanks go to our readers, problem solvers, commentators, and suppliers of Olympiad materials over the last year (and for some
decades!). Among those contributing last year are:
Mohammed Aassila
Murray S. Klamkin
Miguel Amengual Covas
Hojoo Lee
Ed Barbeau
Richard Nowakowski
Michel Bataille
Luyun-Zhong-Qiao
Pierre Bornsztein
Heinz-Jurgen Sei ert
Rene Bornsztein
Toshio Seimiya
Christopher J. Bradley
Andrei Simion
Competitions Committee of the
Raul A. Simon Lamb
Greek Mathematical Society
Achilleas Sinefakopoulos
George Evagelopoulos
Christopher Small
Walther Janous
D.J. Smeenk
Athanasios Kalakos
Edward T.H. Wang
To start the new year we give the problems of the 1999 Vietnamese
Mathematical Olympiad. My thanks go to Ed Barbeau, Canadian Team Leader
to the IMO in Bucharest for forwarding them to us.

VIETNAMESE MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD 1999


Category A

March 12-13, 1999

1. Solve the system of equations

 (1 + 42x;y )51;2x+y
= 1 + 22x;y+1
3
2
y + 4x + 1 + ln(y + 2x) = 0

2. Let A0, B0, C 0 be the respective mid-points of the arcs BC , CA,

AB, not containing points A, B, C , respectively, of the circumcircle of the

6
triangle ABC . The sides BC , CA and AB intersect the pairs of segments
(C 0 A0 ; A0 B 0), (A0 B0 ; B0 C 0) and (B0 C 0 ; C 0A0 ) at the pairs of points (M; N ),
(P; Q) and (R; S ), respectively. Prove that MN = PQ = RS if and only if
the triangle ABC is equilateral.
3. Let (xn)1n=0 and (yn)1n=0 be two sequences de ned recursively as
follows
x0 = 1 x1 = 4 , xn+2 = 3xn+1 ; xn ,
y0 = 1 y1 = 2 , yn+2 = 3yn+1 ; yn ,
for all n = 0, 1, 2, : : : .
(a) Prove that

x2n ; 5yn2 + 4 = 0
for all non-negative integers n.
(b) Suppose that a, b are two positive integers such that a2 ; 5b2 + 4 = 0.
Prove that there exists a non-negative integer k such that xk = a and yk = b.
4. Let a, b, c be real positive numbers such that abc + a + c = b.
Determine the greatest possible value of the following expression

P = a2 2+ 1 ; b2 2+ 1 + c2 3+ 1 .

5. In three-dimensional space, let Ox, Oy, Oz, Ot be four non-planar


distinct rays such that the angles between any two of them have the same
measure.
(a) Determine this common measure.
(b) Let Or be another ray di erent from the above four rays. Let , , , 
be the angles formed by Or with Ox, Oy, Oz, Ot, respectively. Put
p = cos + cos + cos + cos  ,
q = cos2 + cos2 + cos2 + cos2  .
Prove that p and q are invariant when Or rotates about the point O.

6. Let T be the set of all non-negative integers not greater than 1999
and N be the set of all non-negative integers. Find all functions f : N ! T
satisfying the following conditions
f (t) = t for all t 2 T
f (m + n) = f (f (m) + f (n)) for all m, n 2 N

Category B

1. Let fung1n

March 12-13, 1999

be a sequence de ned by
u1 = 1; u2 = 2 and un+2 = 3un+1 ; un
for all n = 1, 2, : : : .
Prove that
2
=1

un+2 + un  2 + uun+1
n

for all n = 1, 2, : : : .
2. Let ABC be a triangle inscribed in the circle O. Locate the
position of the points P , not lying in the circle O, of the plane (ABC )
with the property that the lines PA, PB , PC intersect the circle O again at
points A0 , B 0 , C 0 such that A0 B 0 C 0 is a right-angled isosceles triangle with
\A0 B 0 C 0 = 90 .
3. Consider real numbers a, b such that all roots of the equation

ax3 ; x2 + bx ; 1 = 0

are real and positive.


Determine the smallest possible value of the following expression:
2
P = 5aa2;(b3;aba+) 2 .

4. Let f (x) be a continuous function de ned on [0; 1] such that

(i) f (0) = f (1) = 0.


 
(ii) 2f (x) + f (y) = 3f 2x3+y 8 x, y 2 [0; 1].
Prove that f (x) = 0 for all x 2 [0; 1].
5. The base side and the altitude of a regular hexagonal prism
ABCDEF , A00B0C 0D0 E00F 00 are equal
to a and h, respectively. Prove that
six planes (AB F ), (CD B ), (EF 0 D), (D0 EC ), (F 0 AE ) and (B 0 CA) are
tangent to the same sphere. Determine the centre and the radius of this
sphere.
6. Two sequences fxng1n=1 and fyng1n=1 are determined recursively
by
x1 = 1 ,
y1 = 2 and
for all n = 1, 2, : : : .

xn+1 = 22yn ; 15xn


yn+1 = 17yn ; 12xn

8
(a) Prove that
(i) fxn g and fyn g are not equal to zero for all n = 1, 2, : : : .
(ii) The sequences fxn g and fyn g contain in nitely many positive terms
and in nitely many negative terms.
(b) Are the (19991945 )th terms of the sequence fxn g and the sequence fyn g
divisible by 7 or not?
As a second set for your problem-solving pleasure we give the
problems of the 16th Balkan Mathematical Olympiad, 1999, from Ohrid,
Macedonia. Thanks again go to Ed Barbeau, Canadian Team leader to the
IMO at Bucharest for collecting this set for our use.
16th BALKAN MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD
Ohrid, Macedonia, 1999

1. Given an acute-angled triangle ABC , let D be the mid-point of the


arc BC of the circumcircle of ABC not containing A. The points which are
symmetric to D with respect to the line BC and the centre of the circumcircle
are denoted by E and F , respectively. Finally, let K stand for the mid-point
of [EA]. Prove that:
(a) the circle passing through the mid-points of the edges of the triangle
ABC , also passes through K ;
(b) the line passing through K and the mid-point of [BC ] is perpendicular
to AF .
2. Let p > 2 be a prime number such that 3 divides p ; 2. Let
S = fy2 ; x3 ; 1 j x, y are integers, 0  x, y  p ; 1g .
Prove that at most p ; 1 elements of the set S are divisible by p.
3. Let ABC be an acute-angled triangle; M , N and P are the feet
of the perpendiculars from the centroid G of the triangle upon its sides AB ,
BC and CA respectively. Prove that:
4
area(MNP ) 1
27 < area(ABC )  4 .

4. Let 0  x0  x1  x2      xn     be a non-decreasing
sequence of non-negative integers such that for every k, k  0, the number
of terms of the sequence which are less than or equal to k is nite, say yk .
Prove that for all positive integers m, n
n
X

i=0

xi +

m
X

j =0

yj  (n + 1)(m + 1) .

9
Next we have some housekeeping to do | corrections to solutions published last year and an alternate solution. Corrections rst!
Murray Klamkin wrote to point out an error in one of his own solutions
given last April.
5. Third Macedonian Mathematical Olympiad [2001 : 178; 1999 : 198]
Find the biggest number n such that there exist n straight lines in space,
R3 , which pass through one point, and the angle between each two lines is
the same. (The angle between two intersecting straight lines is de ned to be
the smaller one of the two angles between these two lines.)
Comment by Murray S. Klamkin, University of Alberta, Edmonton,
Alberta. Branko Grunbaum pointed out that there are six equi-inclined lines
determined by the centre and the vertices of a regular icosahedron.
The result given in the published solution is for concurrent rays, not
concurrent lines.
Next we turn to a comment and correction for a solution given in the
September number.
3. St. Petersburg City Mathematical Olympiad, Selective Round, 11th
Grade [2001 : 307; 1999 : 263]
Prove that there are no positive integers a and b such that for all different primes p and q greater than 1000, the number ap + bq is also prime.
Comment and Correction by Greg Martin, Mathematics Department,
University of British Columbia.
The solution cites an incorrect version of Dirichlet's Theorem. For a
residue class modulo m to contain in nitely many primes, it is not sucient
for the residue class to be non-zero modulo m, as the residue class 2 (mod 4)
demonstrates. Rather, it is necessary (and sucient) for the residue class to
be reduced, that is, for the integers in the residue class to be relatively prime
to m. The published solution can be rescued by choosing m to be relatively
prime to both a and b, for example, m = ab + 1.
Next we give an alternate solution to another problem, from the same
set, that is more visual, and thus may be simpler.
1. St. Petersburg City Mathematical Olympiad, Selective Round, 11th
Grade [200 1: 305-306; 1999 : 263]
It is known about real numbers a1 , : : : , an+1 ; b1 , : : : , bn , that
0  bk  1 (k = 1, : : : , n) and a1  a2      an+1 = 0. Prove
the inequality:

10

n
X
i=1

ak b k 

Pnj=1 bj ]+1
X
k=1

ak .

(1)

Alternate solution by Greg Martin, Mathematics Department, University of British Columbia.


Consider n rectangles, with heights a1 , : : : , an and widths 1, lined up
side by side as in Figure 1. Next, consider n rectangles, with heights a1 ,
: : : , an and widths b1 , : : : , bn , lined up side by side as in Figure 2. The
total area of this latter set of rectangles is precisely the left-hand side of the
putative inequality (1). If we superimpose the two pictures as in Figure 3,
where the second set of rectangles has been shaded in, we see that the rst
set of rectangles completely contains the second. Moreover, not all of the
rectangles in the rst set are needed | only the rst m rectangles, where
m is anyPninteger greater than or equal to the width
of Figure 2, which is
exactly j=1 bj . In particular, if we take m = [Pnj=1 bj ] + 1, then the
rst m rectangles of Figure 1 completely contain the rectangles in Figure 2,
which immediately establishes the inequality (1). (In fact, we need only take
m = dPnj=1 bj e which saves a rectangle if the sum of the bj 's is an integer.)
The only thing that really needs proof in the above argument is that
the second set of rectangles will always t inside the rst set of rectangles.
It is enough to show that for any y{coordinate between 0 and a1 , the rst
set of rectangles at height y is at least as wide as the second set of rectangles
at the same height. For any such y{coordinate, there is an index 1  i  n
such that ai  y > ai+1 . It is easy to see, then, that the width of the rst
set of rectangles at height y is exactly i, while the width of the second set of
rectangles at height y is exactly b1 +    + bi  1 +    + 1 = i. In fact, this
argument proves the inequality (1) under an even weaker hypothesis than
b1 , : : : , bn  1: all we really need is that the non-negative numbers bj
satisfy b1 +    + bj  j for each 1  j  n.
a1
a2

Figure 1

a3
a4
a5
a6

a1
a2

Figure 2

a3
a4
a5
a6

a7
a8

a7
a8

b1
b1 +b2
b1 +b2 +b3

Pn b
i=j j

11

Figure 3

While sorting some solutions, I discovered that Mohammed Aassila


had also submitted solutions to problems 4 and 6 of the 1996 Australian
Mathematical Olympiad, for which we discussed solutions over a year ago
[1999 : 461-462; 1999 : 74-75]. My apologies!
Now we turn to readers' comments and solutions for problems posed
in the December 1999 number of the Corner. We start with solutions to
problems of the 13th Iranian Mathematical Olympiad 1996, Second Round
[1999 : 454-455].
1. Prove that for every natural number n  3 there exist two sets
A = fx1 , x2 , : : : , xng and B = fy1 , y2 , : : : , yng such that
(a) A \ B = ;,
(b) x1 + x2 +    + xn = y1 + y2 +    + yn ,
(c) x21 + x22 +    + x2n = y12 + y22 +    + yn2 .
Solutions by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France; by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France; and by Hojoo Lee, student, Kwangwoon University,
Kangwon-Do, South Korea. Both Aassila and Lee gave the following solution
allowing negative numbers. We give Lee's write-up.
We can choose (n ; 1) positive numbers a1 , : : : , an;1 such that
a1P< a2 <    < an;1 . Then we have
;1 ai < ;an;1 <    < ;a2 < ;a1 < 0 <a1 <a2 <    <an;1 < Pn;1 ai .
; ni=1
j =1
It follows that P
;1 ai g \ f;a1 , : : : , ;an;1 , Pn;1 ai g = ;.
fa1 , : : : , an;1 , ; ni=1
i=1

;1 ai , yn = n;1 ai and xi = ai , yi = ;ai for


Now, let xn = ; ni=1
i=1
1  i  n ; 1. Then we get Pni=1 xi = 0 = Pni=1 yi and
Pn x2 = Pn;1 a2 + Pn;1 a 2 = Pn y2.
i=1 i
i=1 i
i=1 i
i=1 i

12

Lee's solution also works for n = 2. Aassila and Bornsztein also give
proofs avoiding negative numbers. We give Bornsztein's solution in positive
integers.
We will prove that we may add the condition
(d) \A  N and B  N ".
First we note that A3 = f1, 5, 6g and B3 = f2, 3, 7g satisfy the four
conditions (a), (b), (c) and (d).
Let n be an integer, with n  3.
Suppose that the sets An = fx1 , : : : , xn g and Bn = fy1 , : : : , yn g
satisfy the conditions (a), (b), (c), and (d).
Let A0n = f8x1 , 8x2 , : : : , 8xn g and Bn0 = f8y1 , : : : , 8yn g. It is clear
that A0n and Bn0 satisfy (a), (b), (c) and (d).
Moreover, for each i 2 f1, : : : , ng, we have

8xi 62 f1, : : : , 7g and 8yi 62 f1, : : : , 7g .


It follows that the sets An+3 = A3 [ A0n and Bn+3 = B3 [ Bn0 satisfy (a),
(b), (c) and (d), with Card An+3 = n + 3 = Card Bn+3 .
Thus, from two sets satisfying (a), (b), (c) and (d) for the integer n, we
may construct two sets satisfying (a), (b), (c) and (d) for the integer n + 3.
We deduce that, using this process, we only have to look at the cases

n = 3, 4, 5.
For n = 3, we already have found A3 and B3 .
For n = 4, we may choose A4 = f1, 4, 6, 7g and B4 = f2, 3, 5, 8g.
For n = 5, we may choose A5 = f1, 5, 9, 17, 18g and B5 = f2, 3, 11,
15, 19g and the proof is complete.

2. Let L be a line in the plane of an acute triangle ABC . Let the lines
symmetric to L with respect to the sides of ABC intersect each other in the
points A0 , B 0 and C 0 . Prove that the incentre of triangle A0 B 0 C 0 lies on the
circumcircle of triangle ABC .

13

Solutions by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France; and by Toshio


Seimiya, Kawasaki, Japan. We give Seimiya's solution.

L C l
E 
C0

D 

B0




A0

Let D, E , F be the intersections of L with BC , CA, AB respectively.


Let l, m, n be the lines symmetric to L with respect to BC , CA, AB ,
respectively, and let A0 , B 0 , C 0 be the intersections of m, n; n, l; l, m,
respectively.
Since BF and BD are bisectors of \B 0 FD and \B 0 DF , respectively,
we have B is the incentre of 4B 0FD. Hence B 0 B bisects \FB 0 D.
Since DC bisects \EDC 0 and CE bisects the exterior angle of \DEC 0,
we have C is the excentre of 4DEC 0 opposite to D. Hence CC 0 bisects the
exterior angle of \DC 0E , so that CC 0 is the bisector of \B 0 C 0 A0 .
Let I be the intersection of BB 0 and CC 0.
Since BB 0 and CC 0 are bisectors of \A0 B 0 C 0 and \A0 C 0 B 0 respectively, we have I is the incentre of 4A0B 0 C 0.
We put \B 0 A0 C 0 = \FA0 E = x.
Since I is the incentre of 4A0B 0 C 0 we get
\B 0 IC = 90 + x2 ; that is
\BIC = \B 0 IC 0 = 90 + x2 .
(1)
In triangle A0 EF , FA and EA are the exterior bisectors of \A0 FE and
\A0 EF , respectively, so that A is the excentre of 4A0 EF opposite to A0 .
Thus, we have \FAE = 90 ; x2 ; that is
\BAC = 90 ; x2 .
(2)
From (1) and (2), it follows that
\BIC + \BAC

 

= 90 + x + 90 ; x
2


2 = 180 .

Therefore A, B , I , C are concyclic.


Thus the incentre of 4A0 B 0 C 0 lies on the circumcircle of 4ABC .

14

3. 12k persons have been invited to a party. Each person shakes hands
with 3k+6 persons. Also, we know that the number of the persons who shake
hands with any two persons is constant. Find the number of persons invited.
Solution by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France.
Let the xed quantity referred to be n. Now consider a xed person a.
Let B be the set of people who have shaken hands with a, and C the set of
those that have not. Then jB j = 3k + 6 and jC j = 9k ; 7.
For any b 2 B , people who have shaken hands with a and b must be
in B . Hence, b has shaken hands with n people in B , and thus with 3k +5 ; n
people in C .
For any c 2 C , people who have shaken hands with a and c must be
in B . Hence, c has shaken hands with n people in B .
The total number of handshakes between B and C is given by
(3k + 6)(3k + 5 ; n) = (9k ; 7)n, which simpli es to 9k2 ; 12kn +
33k + n + 30 = 0. It follows that n = 3m for some positive integer
m, and
9k+43
.
Since
3
is
not
a
divisor
of
44
,
we
have
=
6
1 for
4m = k + 3 + 912kk+43
;1
12k;1
any choice of k. Furthermore, if k > 3 then 2(12k ; 1) > 9k + 43 and thus,
9k+43
< 2. Therefore, we need only consider k = 1, 2, 3. Only k = 3 yields
12k;1
an integer value for 912kk+43
;1 , and there are 36 people at the party.
Comment by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France.
This problem was proposed to, but not used by, the jury of the 36th IMO
in Canada (1995). A solution may be found in \36th International Mathematical Olympiad" published by the Canadian Mathematical Society, p. 138{139.
4. Let n be a natural number. Prove that n can be written as a sum of
some distinct numbers of the form 2p 3q such that none of them divides any
other. For example 19 = 4 + 6 + 9.
Comments by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France; and by Pierre
Bornsztein, Pontoise, France.
This problem is the same as problem 6 of the 8th Korean Mathematical
Olympiad, First Round, for which a solution has appeared in CRUX with
MAYHEM [1999 : 462].
5. Prove that for any natural number n
dpn + pn + 1 + pn + 2e = dp9n + 8e :

Comment by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France.


This problem and its solution may be found in the American Mathematical Monthly, 1988, p. 133{134, Ex. 3010.

15

Solution by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France. For n = 0, 1, 2


it is easy to see that the relation is true. Now, for n  3, we have

3
8
n(n + 1)(n + 2) > n + 9
(consider the function (x ; 1)x(x + 1) ; (x ; 91 )3 ).


By the AM-GM inequality, we have

pn + pn + 1 + pn + 2
3

Hence,

q3 p p
n n + 1 pn + 2
r 8
> n+ 9.

>

pn + pn + 1 + pn + 2 > p9n + 8 .

On the other hand,

pn + pn + 1 + pn + 2
3

Hence,
Consequently,

<

rn + n + 1 + n + 2
3

pn + pn + 1 + pn + 2 < p9n + 9 .
dpn + pn + 1 + pn + 2e = dp9n + 8e .

Next we look at solutions for the Final Round - First Exam, of the 13th
Iranian Mathematical Olympiad given on [1999 : 455].
1. Prove the following inequality

 9
1
1
1
(xy + xz + yz) (x + y)2 + (y + z)2 + (x + z)2  4

for positive real numbers x, y, z.


Solutions by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France; and by Pierre
Bornsztein, Pontoise, France. We give Aassila's presentation.
Two solutions to this problem have already appeared in CRUX with
MAYHEM [1995 : 205; 1996 : 321]. We present here a new proof.
Reducing to the same denominator, the inequality to be proved is equivalent to

A+B+C  0

16
where

X ; 5

4x y ; x4 y2 ; 3x3 y3
symmetric
X ; 5 24

B =:
4xy ; x y ; 3x3 y3
symmetric
X ; 4

C =:
2x yz ; 2x3 y2 z ; 2x3 yz2 + 2x2 y2 z2
symmetric
P
and
runs over all six permutations of x, y, z.
A =:

symmetric

Thanks to Shur's inequality,

x(x ; y)(x ; z) + y(y ; z)(y ; x) + z(z ; x)(z ; y)  0 ,


we have then by multiplying by 2xyz:
X ; 4

C =
2x yz ; 2x3 y2 z ; 2x3 yz2 + 2x2 y2 z2  0 .
symmetric

On the other hand, by the rearrangement inequality, we have


X 5
X 42
X 5
X 33
xy 
xy ,
xy 
xy ,
symmetric

and hence,

symmetric

symmetric

symmetric

X ; 5

4x y ; x4 y2 ; 3x3 y3  0 ,
symmetric
X ; 5 24

B =
4xy ; x y ; 3x3 y3  0 .
A =

symmetric

2. Prove that for every pair m, k of natural numbers, m can be expressed uniquely as
where

ak   ak;1 
a t 
m = k + k ; 1 +  + t
ak > ak;1 >    > at  t  1 .

Solutions by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France; by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France; and by Moubinool Omarjee, Paris, France. We give
Omarjee's solution.
Pour l'unicite, si il existe ak , : : : , at et bk , : : : , bs , en cherchant la
premiere place ou il di ere, disons k et ak > bk , alors

bk 
bk ; k + 1 bk + 1 ak 
m  k +  +
<
 k  m,
1
k

17
ce qui est absurde.
; 
Pour l'existence, on cherche le plus grand ak tel que akk  m, puis
;onak;r1eapplique
;leak m^eme algorithme. On cherche le plus grand ;aakk; 1 tel; aque

k
k;1  m ; k . La decroissance de aj suit du fait que m ; k < k;1 .

3. In triangle ABC we have \A = 60. Let O, H , I , and I 0 be the

circumcentre, orthocentre, incentre, and the excentre with respect to A of


the triangle ABC . Consider points B 0 and C 0 on AC and AB such that
AB = AB0 and AC = AC 0. Prove that
(a) Eight points B , C , H , O, I , I 0 , B 0 , and C 0 are concyclic.
(b) If OH intersects AB and AC in E and F respectively, then triangle AEF
has a perimeter equal to AC + AB .
(c) OH = jAB ; AC j.
Solution by Toshio Seimiya, Kawasaki, Japan.
In the gure we assume that 4ABC is acute and AB < AC . But the
following proof works in other cases with minor changes.
A

A
I O

B0

B
C0

C
N

O F B0
EH Y
X
M
B

(a) Let N be the second intersection of AI with the circumcircle


of 4ABC . It is well known that BN = CN = IN , so that N is the
circumcentre of 4IBC . Since BH ? AC , CH ? AB , we have
\BHC = 180 ; 60 = 120 .
Since I is the incentre of 4ABC , we have \BIC = 90 + 12 \A =

90 +30 = 120 . Since O is the circumcentre of 4ABC , we have \BOC =
2\BAC = 120 .
Similarly, 4ACC 0 is equilateral, so that \BC 0 C = \AC 0 C = 60 .
Also, H , I , O, B 0 lie on the same side of A with respect to BC , and C 0, I 0
lie on the opposite side of A.

18
Now,

\BHC = \BIC = \BOC = \BB 0 C (= 120 ) , and


\BC 0 C + \BIC = \BI 0 C + \BIC = 60 + 120 = 180 .
Hence B , C , H , I , O, B 0 , I 0 lie on the circle with centre N .
(b) Let M be the intersection of ON with BC . Since BN = CN , we
have that M is the mid-point of BC and that OM ? BC .
Since \BOM = 21 \BOC = \BAC = 60 and OB = ON , we
have that 4OBN is equilateral. Hence OM = MN . As is well known,
AH = 2OM , so that AH = ON = OA. Since H , O lie on the circle with
centre N , we have HN = ON . Thus, AH = AO = ON = HN , so that
AHNO is a rhombus. Therefore, HO is the perpendicular bisector of AN .
Since \EAN = \FAN and AN ? EF , we have \AFE = 90 ;
\NAF = 90 ; 30 = 60 . Since EF is the perpendicular bisector of
AN , we get \NFE = \AFE = 60 , so that \NFC = 60 . Hence,
\EFN = \NFC , and \EAN = \NAF , so that N is the excentre of
4AEF . Let X be the foot of the perpendicular from N to AC . Then X is
the point of tangency of the excircle to AC .
Thus, we have 2AX = AE + AF + EF .
Since NB 0 = NC , X is the mid-point of B 0 C , so 2AX = AB 0 +AC =
AB +AC . Hence, we have AE +AF +EF = AB +AC . Thus, the perimeter
of 4AEF is equal to AB + AC .
(c) Let Y be the intersection of AN with OH . Then NY ? OH . Since
\NFY = \NFX , we have NY = NX . Since H , O, B 0 , C lie on the circle
with centre N , we get from NY = NX that OH = B 0 C = AC ; AB 0 =
AC ; AB. That is, OH = jAB ; AC j.
4. Let k be a positive integer. Prove that there are in nitely many
perfect squares in the arithmetic progression fn  2k ; 7gn1 .
Solution by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France.
We rst show, by induction on m, that, for every m, there exists a
positive number am for which a2m  ;7 (mod 2m ).
Note that am = 1 satis es the conditions for m  ; 3. Inductively,

let us suppose ;that a2m  ;
7 (mod 2m ). Then a2m  ;7 mod 2m+1 , or

a2m  2m ; 7 mod 2m+1 .
;

If a2m  ;
7 mod 2m +1 , then we can put am+1 = am .
;
If a2m  2m ; 7 mod 2m+1 , then we put am+1 = am + 2m;1 , and
note that
a2m+1 = (am + 2m;1 )2 = a2m + 2m am + 22m;2
 a2m + 2m a;m ;mod 2m+1  ;
 a2m + 2m mod 2m+1  ;7 mod 2m+1

19
completing the induction step.
Now since a2m  2m ; 7, the sequence (am ) is unbounded and thus,
takes on in nitely many values; that is, there are in nitely many numbers m
for which one can nd an associated positive number nm such that nm 2m ; 7
(= a2m ) is a perfect square.
Now, given our ( xed) number k, we simply consider the in nitely many
m for which m  k, and note that (nm  2m;k )2k ; 7 is a perfect square.
Comment by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France. This problem was
proposed to, and not used by, the jury at the 36th IMO in Canada (1995).
A solution may be found in \36th International Mathematical Olympiad",
published by the Canadian Mathematical Society, p. 332.
5. Let ABC be a non-isosceles triangle. Medians of the triangle ABC
intersect the circumcircle in points L, M , N . If L lies on the median of BC
and LM = LN , prove that 2a2 = b2 + c2 .
Solutions by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France; by Michel Bataille,
Rouen, France; by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France; and by Toshio Seimiya,
Kawasaki, Japan. We give Aassila's solution.
Let G be the centroid of 4ABC . Since 4ACG and 4NGL are similar, and since 4MLG and 4ABG are similar, we have

LN = LG , LM = GL .
AC CG AB
BG

Thanks to LM = LN , we obtain
We have
which yields

AB = BG .
AC CG

c2 = 2c2 + 2a2 ; b2 ,
b2 2b2 + 2a2 ; c2

(b2 ; c2 )(2a2 ; c2 ; b2 ) = 0 .
Finally, we have 2a2 = b2 + c2 .
That completes this number of the Corner. Olympiad season is
approaching. Send me your nice solutions as well as Olympiad Contests for
use in the Corner!

20

BOOK REVIEWS
JOHN GRANT McLOUGHLIN
ARML-NYSML Contests 1989{1994,
by Lawrence Zimmerman and Gilbert Kessler,
published by MathPro Press, 1995, (Contests in Mathematics, Volume 2),
ISBN 0{9626401{6{6, softcover, 189+ pages.
Reviewed by Jozsef

Pelik an
 , Eotv
} os,
} Lorand University, Budapest,
Hungary.
The ARML in the title means American Regions Mathematics League
and NYSML means New York State Mathematics League. The rst is an
annual event for high school students with about 1000 participants coming
from all over the United States and Canada and the second one is a similar
event, teams coming primarily from New York State.
The format of the two contests is identical and quite di erent from most
other mathematics competitions. 15-member teams are competing in four
basic rounds, each round being di erent in structure.
The TEAM ROUND consists of 10 short answer questions with varying
diculty which the team as a whole has to solve during a given time limit.
(They can choose any strategy, for example, working together, or smaller
groups working on di erent problems, etc.)
The POWER QUESTION is a challenging, multi-section problem usually
focused about a single mathematical theme. A detailed, well-written
solution to it must be produced by the team as a whole within a time limit
of one hour.
The INDIVIDUAL ROUND resembles most of the usual mathematical
contests. The students, working independently, have to solve eight short
answer questions, ten minutes being allowed for each pair of questions.
The most unusual part of the contest is certainly the RELAY ROUND.
Here teams split into groups of three. Within each group the rst person has
to solve a problem, the answer being a number. This number is needed by
the second person to be able to solve his or her problem and this solution in
turn is needed by the third person. The score then depends on how quickly
this third person produces the nal answer.
I think, in this contest you can nd the most instructive problems
among the power questions and the most unusual ones in the relay round.
Therefore, I give a sample problem from both types.

21
Power Question | Lattice Points on a Parabola (ARML 1992)
Throughout this problem, the points A(a; a2 ), B (b; b2 ), C (c; c2 ), and
D(d; d2 ) represent distinct lattice points on the parabola y = x2 .
I. Let the area of the triangle ABC be K . It can be shown that

K = 12 (a ; b)(b ; c)(c ; a) .
1. Show that K must be an integer.
2. Show that K = 3 is the only possible prime value for K .
3. Show that K cannot be the square of a prime.
4. Show that the area of the quadrilateral ABCD cannot be 8.
II. It can be shown that the slope of AB is a + b.
1. A line passes through the point (3; 5) and through two lattice points on
y = x2 . Compute the coordinates of these two points. Be sure to nd
all possible pairs of such points.

2. A line passes through the point (2; 4) and through three other lattice
points on the \double parabola" y2 = x4 . Compute the coordinates of
these three points. Be sure to nd all possible triplets of such points.
III. Consider the quadrilateral ABCD. [Remember that the slope of AB ,
for example, is a + b.]

1. Let the vertices be labelled (alphabetically) in a counterclockwise


direction. Show that

tan A = 1 + (a d+;b)(b a + d) .

2. A quadrilateral is \cyclic" if all four of its vertices lie on the same circle.
Show that: if quadrilateral ABCD is cyclic, then a + b + c + d = 0;
AND
if a + b + c + d = 0, then quadrilateral ABCD is cyclic.
3. Use the previous result to show that:
If a circle intersects the graph of y = x2 in four points, and three of
them are lattice points, then the fourth must also be a lattice point.
(Note to the reader of this review: The answer is, of course, too long
to be given here. Work it out for yourself!)

22
Relay from NYSML 1990
R1. Compute the area of the smallest square that goes through the points
(0; 0) and (4; 0).
R2. Let T = TNYWR, (Reviewer's remark: this is the acronym used in this
competition for `The Number You Will Receive'.) and let K = T ; 5.
The positive integer n is even, and all its divisors (except n itself) divide
n=2. Compute the largest K {digit number n with this property.
R3. Let N = TNYWR, and let K be the sum of the digits of N .
Two secants are drawn to a circle from an outside point, intercepting
arcs (between them) of lengths K and 2. If the angle between the
secants is 30 , compute the radius of the circle.
Solutions
R1. It is clear enough that we get the smallest square if we let the
segment (0; 0); (4; 0) be the diagonal of the square. This gives
Area = 12 (diagonal)2 = 8.
R2. (Reviewer's remark: Here comes a tough decision on the part of the
competitor which clearly indicates the peculiarities of this competition.
With some experimentation you easily come to the conjecture that n
must be a power of 2. As K = T ; 5 = 8 ; 5 = 3, your number is then
512. Should you pass it quickly on to the third person or spend some
time trying to nd a rigorous proof that your conjecture is indeed true?
There was some slight indication of the possibility of such a dilemma
already in R1. There the phrase `clear enough' would not be a satisfactory explanation in some rigorous mathematical competitions, but
in R1 the situation was intuitively so clear that it would have been a
serious mistake | competition-wise | to try to nd a rigorous proof.)
The conjecture that n must be a power of 2 is true, and a rigorous
proof is actually quite easy: if n had an odd prime divisor p then n=p
|although a proper divisor| would not divide n=2.
R3. As N = 512, K = 8. Since the di erence in the degree measures of the
arcs must be 2  30 = 60 , which corresponds to an arc length 2r=6,
we have 8 ; 2 = 2r=6 which gives r = 18.

The book covers the problems (with solutions) of ARML 1989{1994,


NYSML 1989{1992 and tiebreakers of NYSML and ARML in the period 1983{
1994. (These were used when ties occurred among top individual scores.)
It also contains a list of ARML and NYSML winners (both teams and individuals) for the given periods and a Glossary of some of the less common
mathematical terms used in the book.
I found the book well-written, the problems in general interesting, and
I can recommend it to anyone having an interest in contests in mathematics.

23

If (

a; b; c)

is Heron, can ( ;
also be Heron?
s

a; s

b; s

c)

K.R.S. Sastry
Heron's name should be familiar to those who use the formula
p
 = s(s ; a)(s ; b)(s ; c) , where s = (a + b + c)=2 ,
to calculate the area of a triangle in terms of the lengths a, b, c of its sides.
According to mathematical historians Heron lived in Alexandria in the rst
century, and according to [3] he introduced the de nitions of point, straight
line, etc. into Euclid's Elements. His name is further associated with the
observation that the triangle with side lengths 13, 14, and 15 has area 84.
We use the quadruple (a; b; c; ) to denote the sides and the area of the
triangle, and when a, b, c, and  are all integers we call the triangle a Heron
triangle.
Here we look at the triple a0 = s ; a, b0 = s ; b, c0 = s ; c, and ask
when these numbers can be the sides of a triangle, which we shall call the
derived triangle. Moreover, we will be interested when the triangle derived
from a Heron triangle is itself a Heron triangle. Certainly not always: in
the case ofpHeron's own triangle (13; 14; 15; 84) we have (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ; 0 ) =
(8; 7; 6; 214 15). Here (a0 ; b0 ; c0) is not Heron because 0 is not an integer.
Of course, (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) may even fail to form a triangle! (Consider (a; b; c) =
(4; 13; 15).) In the next section we derive a condition on (a; b; c) so that
(a0 ; b0 ; c0) too forms a triangle.
There are isosceles Heron triangles that provide an armative answer
to our question. But the determination of solutions of other types is an open
problem. Our aim is to determine the isosceles Heron triangles (a; b; c) for
which (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) = (s ; a; s ; b; s ; c) is also Heron. Also, we show that
a Heron triangle whose sides form an arithmetic progression cannot be a
solution to our problem.
Necessary Conditions
We rst establish a known fact about primitive Heron triangles; that is,
about Heron triangles that have the gcd of the sides equal to 1.
Theorem 1. In a primitive Heron triangle exactly one side is even.
Proof. Since a, b, c are integers, s = (a + b + c)=2 is either an integer
or a half-integer. If s is an integer, then a + b + c must be even. Since
c 2002 Canadian Mathematical Society
Copyright

24

gcd(a; b; c) = 1, we must have that one of a, b, or c is even and the other

two are odd.


If s is a half-integer, then s ; a, s ; b, s ; c are all half-integers. In
this case  cannot be an integer. Hence the proof is complete.
The answer to the question, when do both (a; b; c) and (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) form
triangles is provided by
Theorem 2. If the inequalities s=2 < a, b, c < s hold, then (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) forms
a triangle.
Proof. When the triple (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) forms a triangle then, necessarily,
a0 + b0 > c0. This requires that (s ; a) + (s ; b) > s ; c; that is, that
s=2 < c. Also, s ; c = (a + b ; c)=2 > 0; that is, s > c. Repetition of these
two facts using a and b in place of c and noting that the necessary conditions
are also sucient completes the proof.
The next theorem shows that for the present purposes we need s to be
an even integer.
Theorem 3. If both (a; b; c) and (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) are Heron, then s is an even
integer.
Proof. Since s0 = (a0 + b0 + c0 )=2 = s=2 is an integer, s must be even.
On two occasions we require the solutions (x; y; z) of the Diophantine
equation x2 = y2 + kz2 . Here k is a given natural number. We refer the
reader to [2], p. 420 and p. 426 for a discussion of this. We merely state the
solution which is easy to derive anyway:

x = (u2 + kv2 ) , y = ju2 ; kv2 j , 


(1)
z = (2uv) ,  = 1, 2, 3, : : : :
Earlier we saw that Heron's own (a; b; c) did not yield (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) Heron. The

next theorem shows more generally that a Hoppe's triangle (that is, a triangle
whose sides form an arithmetic progression, see [2], p. 197) does not make
(a0 ; b0 ; c0) Heron.
Theorem 4. Let (a; b; c) be a Heron triangle in which the sides are in arithmetic progression. Then (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) is not Heron.
Proof. For de niteness, we let a = 2a1 be the even side and b and c be
odd. If d is the common di erence of the progession, then b = 2a1 ; d and
c = 2a1 + d. This shows that d is odd. However, s = 3a1 must be even by
Theorem 3. Let
p a1 = 2a2 . This gives a = 4a2 , b = 4a2 ; d, c = 4a2 + d
and  = 2a2 3(4a22 ; d2 ). Since  is an integer, we must have

4a22 ; d2 = 3p2 or (2a2 )2 = d2 + 3p2 .

25
The solution of the above equation for k = 3 from (1) is

2a2 = (u2 + 3v2 ) , d = ju2 ; 3v2 j , p = (2uv) .


The rst of these shows that (u2 + 3v2 ) is even. Hence, at least one of ,
u22 + 3v22 must2be even.
But u2 + 3v2 = (u2 ; 3v2 ) + (6v2 ) shows that
2
u + 3v and u ; 3v are together both even or both odd. In any case, this
contradicts the fact that d must be odd. Hence the claim of the theorem is
true.
We prove our main result in the next section. However, we begin the
next section with a discussion on isosceles Heron triangles.
Isosceles Heron Triangles
Our interest lies in a solution to our problem by determining primitive Heron triangles. Carlson [1] and Singmaster [8] show that isosceles
Heron triangles result when we juxtapose two identical copies of a primitive
Pythagorean triangle (a right triangle with integer sides). It is known ([2]
pp. 165, 169) that the sides of primitive Pythagorean triangles are completely
described by

m2 ; n2 , 2mn , m2 + n2 ,
(2)
where m, n are natural numbers such that m > n, gcd(m; n) = 1 and one
of m, n is even and the other is odd. We can generate an isosceles Heron

triangle in two ways. They are illustrated below.


The rst juxtaposition given by Figure 1 has (a; b; c) = (2(m2 ;
2
n ); m2 + n2; m2 + n2), s = 2m2 and (a0; b0 ; c0 ) = (2n2 ; m2 ; n2; m2 ; n2).

m2 + n2
2

mn

m2 ; n2 2 m22 ; n2
- 2(m ; n ) 
Figure 1
We note that s and a0 are even and b0 and c0 are odd in agreement with
Theorems 1 and 3. Hence we may hope for a solution to our problem.
The second juxtaposition given by Figure 2 has (a; b; c) = (4mn; m2 + n2 ;
m2 + n2 ), s = (m + n)2 , and (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) = ((m ; n)2 ; 2mn; 2mn).

26

m2 + n2
m2 ; n2
2mn
mn 
Figure 2
0
We note that s and a are odd and b0 and c0 are even, contradicting Theorems 1
and 3. Hence this case does not lead to primitive solutions at all.
We are now in a position to establish our main result.
Theorem 5. Both the triangle (a; b; c) = (2(m2 ; n2 ); m2 + n2 ; m2 + n2 )
and its derived triangle (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) = (2n2 ; m2 ; n2 ; m2 ; n2 ) are Heron if
and only if m = u2 + 2v2 and n = 2uv, where u is odd and gcd(u; v) = 1.
p
Proof. Heron's formula yields 0 = mn2 m2 ; 2n2 . Therefore, 0 will be
an integer if and only if m2 ; 2n2 = l2 is a perfect square. That is
m2 = l2 + 2n2 ,
an instance of equation (1) when k = 2. Hence the solution
m = (u2 + 2v2 ) , l = ju2 ; 2v2 j , n = (2uv) .
Our interest is in the primitive solutions (a; b; c). Hence the presence of  is
unnecessary. Furthermore, if u is even, then l, m, n have gcd 2. Therefore,
we require that u be odd. Thus
m = u2 + 2v2 , n = 2uv .
(3)
We leave the veri cation that (a; b; c) and (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) as determined by (3) are
both Heron to the reader. This completes the proof.
We illustrate Theorem 5 with a couple of examples. If we put u = v = 1
in (3), we get m = 3, n = 2, (a; b; c) = (10; 13; 13) and (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) =
(8; 5; 5). Also u = 3, v = 1 gives m = 11, n = 6, (a; b; c) = (170; 157; 157)
and (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) = (72; 85; 85). One can also observe that if u is even, say
u = 2, v = 1, then m = 6, n = 4, (a; b; c) = (40; 52; 52) and (a0 ; b0 ; c0) =
(32; 20; 20). This is just a multiple of our rst illustration.
Conclusion. The present discussion determined a partial solution to our general problem: For which Heron triangles (a; b; c) is (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) also Heron.
We invite the reader to provide other solutions to our general problem.
This may take the form of determining another class of Heron triangles
2

mn

27

(a; b; c) that also have (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) Heron. A proof that the Pythagorean triangles (a; b; c) = (m2 ; n2 ; 2mn; m2 + n2 ) can or cannot have (a0 ; b0 ; c0 )
Heron would be another step. By chance if one meets with a Heron triangle (p; q; r) for which pqr(p + q + r) is a perfect square, then that would
be an example to our problem: Take (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) = (p; q; r). Then one has
(a; b; c) = (q + r; r + p; p + q). (Can you see why?) In the references the
reader can nd many interesting problems on Heron triangles.
Acknowledgement: The author thanks the referee and the editor for their
suggestions to improve the presentation.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

References
J.R. Carlson, Determination of Heronian Triangles, Fibonacci Quarterly, 8 (1970), 499{506.
L.E. Dickson, History of the Theory of Numbers, Vol. II, Chelsea, New
York, N.Y. (1971).
Lucio Russo, La Rivoluzione Dimenticata (The Forgotten Revolution),
Reviewed in Notices of the American Math. Society, 45 (May, 1998),
601{605.
K.R.S. Sastry, Heron Problems, Math. and Comput. Ed., 29 (1995),
192{202.
K.R.S. Sastry, Heron Triangles: A New Perspective, Aust. Math. Soc.
Gazette, 26 (1999), 160{168.
K.R.S. Sastry, Heron Angles, Math. and Comput. Ed., 35 (2001), 51{60.
K.R.S. Sastry, A Heron Di erence, Crux Mathematicorum with Mathematical Mayhem, 27 (2001), 22{26.
D. Singmaster, Some Corrections to Carlson's \Determination of
Heronian Triangles", Fibonacci Quarterly, 11 (1973), 157{158.

K.R.S. Sastry
Jeevan Sandhya
Doddakalsandra Post
Raghuvana Halli
Bangalore 560062, India

28

MATHEMATICAL MAYHEM
Mathematical Mayhem began in 1988 as a Mathematical Journal for and by
High School and University Students. It continues, with the same emphasis,
as an integral part of Crux Mathematicorum with Mathematical Mayhem.
All material intended for inclusion in this section should be sent to
Mathematical Mayhem, Cairine Wilson Secondary School, 977 Orleans Blvd.,
Gloucester, Ontario, Canada. K1C 2Z7 (NEW!). The electronic address is
mayhem-editors@cms.math.ca
The Assistant Mayhem Editor is Chris Cappadocia (University of Waterloo). The other sta member is Jimmy Chui (University of Toronto).

MAYHEM TAUNT
As promised, at various times in 2001, 2002 is going to be a year of prizes
here at MAYHEM. Since we have decided that the focus of MAYHEM will be on
pre-university mathematics, the prizes will be awarded to students enrolled in elementary or secondary schools or equivalent. Solutions from other people are always
welcomed, and the featured solution may not necessarily come from this age group.
To be eligible, each solution to a MAYHEM Problem must be handwritten on a
sheet of paper (one question per sheet). Attached to each solution of each problem
must be a completed student information sheet signed by the student and a representative of the student's school (teacher or administrator). A copy of the information
sheet is included in this issue, and on the Canadian Mathematical Society's web site
at journals.cms.math.ca/CRUX/MAYHEM-Taunt.
Students may work alone, or in groups. If the problem is solved by a group
please submit one solution with the information of all the group members.
Prizes will be awarded based on the following criteria:
 rst solution to a problem;
 most correct solutions from a single person;
 youngest solver;
 most elegant solution.
Other prizes may be awarded at the discretion of the MAYHEM Editors. In all cases
the decision of the MAYHEM Editors is nal!
Our purpose is also to support schools, and as a result we will have some prizes
for schools. To aid us in this process, we would ask that the school information for
the student is lled out with care.

29
Prizes will range from past copies of MAYHEM to subscriptions to CRUX with
MAYHEM to book prizes from the Canadian Mathematical Society. The prizes are
made possible from a grant from the Endowment Fund of the Canadian Mathematical
Society, and we thank the board of the Endowment Grants Committee for providing
us with the money to make this possible.
Problems and information will be available on the Canadian Mathematical Society's web site at journals.cms.math.ca/CRUX/MAYHEM-Taunt.

 MAYHEM
LE DEFI

Comme nous l'avons promis a quelques reprises en 2001, le MAYHEM remettra


plusieurs prix en 2002. Puisque nous avons decide que le MAYHEM mettrait l'accent
cette annee sur les mathematiques preuniversitaires, des prix seront remis aux e leves
inscrits a des e coles primaires ou secondaires (ou l'equivalent). Les solutions d'autres
personnes sont toujours les bienvenues, toutefois, car la solution presentee ne sera
pas necessairement celle d'une personne du groupe d'^age cible.
Pour e^ tre acceptable, une solution a un probleme du MAYHEM doit e^ tre e crite
a la main sur papier (une question par feuille). A chaque probleme presente devra e^ tre
annexee une che de renseignements de l'eleve, d^ument remplie et signee par l'eleve
et un representant de son e cole (membre du personnel enseignant ou de la direction).
La che de renseignements est reproduite dans le present numero et para^t sur le site
Web de la Societe au journals.smc.math.ca/CRUX/MAYHEM-defi.
Les e leves peuvent travailler seuls ou en groupe. Si un probleme est resolu en
groupe, priere de remetttre une solution accompagnee d'une che de renseignements
pour chaque membre du groupe.
Les prix seront attribues dans les categories suivantes :
 premiere solution a un probleme;
 plus grand nombre de bonnes solutions presentees par une personne;
 e leve le plus jeune ayant resolu un probleme;
 solution la plus e legante.
D'autres prix pourront e^ tre remis a la discretion de la redaction du Mayhem. Dans
tous les cas, la decision des redacteurs du MAYHEM est nale!
Comme notre objectif est aussi d'encourager les e coles, nous remettrons aussi
des prix aux e tablissements. Pour nous faciliter la t^ache, nous vous demandons de
remplir avec soin l'information sur l'ecole sur la che de renseignements de l'eleve.
Au nombre des prix, il y aura des anciens numeros du MAYHEM, des abonnements a Crux with Mayhem et des ouvrages de la Societe mathematique du Canada.
Ces prix ont e te achetes gr^ace a une bourse du fonds de dotation de la SMC. Nous
remercions le Comite d'attribution des bourses du fonds de dotation de nous avoir
remis la somme necessaire a notre concours.
Les problemes et tout autre renseignement seront publies sur le site Web de la
Societe mathematique du Canada au journals.smc.math.ca/CRUX/MAYHEM-defi.

30

Mayhem Problems

Proposals and solutions may be sent to Mathematical Mayhem, c/o


Faculty of Mathematics, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West,
Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, or emailed to
mayhem-editors@cms.math.ca

Please include in all correspondence your name, school, grade, city, province or state
and country. We are especially looking for solutions from high school students. Please
send your solutions to the problems in this edition by 1 August 2002. Solutions
received after this time will be considered if there is time before publication of the
solutions.
Starting this issue, problems will be printed in English and French.

To be eligible for this month's MAYHEM TAUNT, solutions must be


postmarked before 1 June 2002.

M29. Proposed by the Mayhem sta .


De ne the \silly product" of two numbers as the sum of the product of all the
corresponding digits. So 235 s 718 = 2  7 + 3  1 + 5  8 = 57. Find two
numbers A and B so that A s B = 2002 and A + B is a minimum.
On de nit le \produit singulier" de deux nombres comme la somme des produits de leurs chi res respectifs. Par exemple : 235s 718 = 27+31+58 = 57.
Trouver deux nombres A et B tels que A s B = 2002 et A + B soit minimale.
M30. Proposed by Haralampy Steryion, Chalkis, Greece.
Find all functions f : R ! R with the property
f (x + y) = f (x)ef (y);1 for every x, y 2 R.
Trouver toutes les fonctions f : R ! R satisfaisant la condition
f (x + y) = f (x)ef (y);1 pour tout x, y 2 R.
M31. Proposed by the Mayhem sta .
Given four spheres of unit radius, each tangent to the other three, nd the radii
of the two spheres that are tangent to all four of the unit spheres.
On considere quatre spheres de rayon unite, chacune tangente aux trois autres.
Trouver le rayon des deux spheres qui sont simultanement tangentes aux quatre
spheres donnees.
M32. Proposed by Nicolae Gustia, North York, Ontario.
In a triangle with angles A, B and C , if 8 cos A cos B cos C = 1 then prove
that 4ABC is equilateral.
Montrer que si dans un triangle, les angles A, B et C satisfont la condition
8 cos A cos B cos C = 1, alors le triangle est e quilateral.
M33. Proposed by Richard Hoshino, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova
Scotia.
a, b and c are three consecutive terms of a geometric sequence, where a, b and
c are all integers. If a + b + c = 7, determine all possible values of a, b and c.
Les entiers a, b et c sont trois termes consecutifs d'une suite geometrique. Si
a + b + c = 7, trouver toutes les valeurs possibles de a, b et c.

31

Problem of the Month

Jimmy Chui, student, University of Toronto


Problem.
How many ordered triples of integers (a; b; c) satisfy ja + bj + c = 19
and ab + jcj = 97?
(1997 AHSME, Problem 28)
Solution. We know that a + b = (19 ; c) and ab = 97 ; jcj. We can
view a and b as the solutions to the quadratic t2  (19 ; c)t +(97 ;jcj) = 0.
Now, for this equation to have integer solutions, a necessary condition
is that the discriminant is a perfect square.
Hence, D = (19 ; c)2 ; 4(97 ; jcj) = c2 ; 38c + 4jcj ; 27 must be a
perfect square.
If c  0, then D = c2 ; 34c ; 27 = (c ; 17)2 ; 316. Let this be m2 ,
and after rearranging, we have (c + m ; 17)(c ; m ; 17) = 316 = 22  79.
Let c + m ; 17 be x and c ; m ; 17 be y, so that xy = 316. Now, we note
that x + y = 2c ; 34, which is independent of the introduced variable m.
From this, we can tell that x and y must have the same parity (they add to an
even number). From this, we know that fx; yg = f2; 158g. (Order is not
relevant when we are solving for c.) Then, x + y = 2c ; 34 = 160. Solving
for c, the only value satisfying c  0 is c = 97. However, from the original
equations, this value is impossible, since that would mean that ja + bj is a
negative number.
The other case is if c < 0.
Then the discriminant is D = c2 ; 42c ; 27 = (c ; 21)2 ; 468. Let this be m2 ,
and after rearranging, we get (c + m ; 21)(c ; m ; 21) = 468 = 22  32  13.
From similar reasoning as before, x = c + m ; 21 and y = c ; m ; 21
multiply to 468, add to 2c ; 42, and are of the same parity. The only values
that x and y can take are fx, yg = f2, 234g, f6, 78g, f18, 26g.
These values correspond to x + y = 2c ; 42 = 236; 84; 44. The only
values of c that satisfy c < 0 are c = ;97, ;21, ;1.
When c = ;1, we have the two equations ja + bj = 20 and ab = 96.
This leads to the four solutions fa, bg = f8, 12g. (These solutions can
be found from, for example, t2  20t + 96 = 0.) When c = ;21, we have
the four solutions fa, bg = f2, 38g. When c = ;97, we have four more
solutions fa, bg = f116, 0g. Hence, the original set of equations have 12
solutions in total.
Note. An alternate solution can be obtained by rst eliminating c from
the original set of equations. This can be done by making the two cases c  0
and c < 0. The objective is then to work with equations in terms of a and b.

32

High School Solutions


Editor: Adrian Chan, 1195 Harvard Yard Mail Center, Cambridge, MA,
USA 02138-7501 <ahchan@fas.harvard.edu>
H283. Proposed by Jose Luis Daz-Barrero, Universitat Politecnica
de Catalunya, Terrassa, Spain.
Let a1 , a2 , : : : , an be positive real numbers in arithmetic progression.
Prove that
n
X
4n .
1
>
2
k=1 ak an;k+1

(a1 + an)

I. Solution by Edward T.H. Wang, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo,


Ontario.
The strict inequality should be replaced by \" since equality is possible. Let d denote the common di erence of the arithmetic progression.
Then for all k = 1, 2, : : : , n, we have ak = a1 + (k ; 1)d and an;k+1 =
a1 + (n ; k)d. Hence, ak + an;k+1 = 2a1 + (n ; 1)d = a1 + an which
implies
n
X

n
=
(a1 + an )2
k=1 (ak + an;k+1 )
Since 4ak an;k+1  (ak + an;k+1 )2 we have
n
n
X
X
1
4

2
k=1 ak an;k+1 k=1 (ak + an;k+1 )
1

(1)

(2)

From (1) and (2), the result follows.


II. Solution by Natalio H. Guersenzvaig, Universidad CAECE, Buenos
Aires, Argentina.
Suppose that n > 1. Thus, there exists a non-zero real number r such
that ak = a1 + (k ; 1)r for k = 1, : : : , n. By the AM{GM Inequality, since
the ak 's are di erent numbers, we have,

pak an;k

+1

< ak + a2n;k+1 = 2a1 + (2n ; 1)r = a1 +2 an ,

whence it follows that


n
X

k=1 ak an;k+1

>

n
X

4
4n .
=
2
(a1 + an)2
k=1 (a1 + an )

[Note that, as pointed out by Wang, the ak 's do not have to be distinct;
thus, the \>" must be replaced by \". Ed.]
Also solved by Mihaly Bencze, Brasov, Romania and the proposer.

33

H284. Prove that for any positive integer n,


n

) .
1  (nn!)2  (n(4+n1)
2n

Solution by Gottfried Perz, Pestalozzigymnasium, Graz, Austria.


Note that, if k  n ; 1, we get nk  (k + 1)k and consequently
nk ; k2 ; k  0. From that follows

nk ; k2 ; k + n = (n ; k)(k + 1)  n ,

and nally

nY
;1
k=0

(n ; k)(k + 1) = (n!)2  nn .

Thus, the left inequality holds.


It follows from some short calculations that the right inequality

nn  (4n)n
(n!)2
(n + 1)2n

is equivalent to

 n + 1 2n
2

 (n!) .
2

It follows from the AM{GM Inequality, that, for 0  k  n ; 1,

 n + 1 2
2

so that

nY
;1
k=0

 (n ; k) + (k + 1) 2
2

(n ; k)(k + 1) = (n!) 
2

 (n ; k)(k + 1) ,
 n + 1 2n
2

Also solved by Mihaly Bencze, Brasov, Romania; Natalio H. Guersenzvaig, Universidad


CAECE, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Henry J. Pan, student East York C.I., Toronto and Edward
T.H. Wang, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario.

H285. Four people, A, B, C , D, are on one side of a river. To get


across the river they have a rowboat, but it can t only two people at a time.
A, B, C , D, could each row across the river in the boat individually in 1,
2, 5, and 10 minutes respectively. However, when two people are on the
boat, the time it takes them to row across the river is the same as the time
necessary to row across for the slower of the two people. Assuming that no
one can cross without the boat, and everyone is to get across, what is the
minimum time for all four people to get across the river?

34

Solution by the editors.


The minimum time is 17 minutes.
The following trip takes 17 minutes. A and B cross together (2 min).
A returns alone (1 min). C and D cross together (10 min). B returns
alone (2 min). A and B cross together (2 min).
Now we show it cannot take less than 17 minutes. To get everyone
across, a total of 5 trips must be made. Notice:
1. C and D cross together; otherwise 15 minutes is used for two of the
trips and the total time is at least 18 minutes.
2. C and D travel only once; otherwise at least 15 minutes is used for at
most three trips, and the total time is at least 17 minutes.
3. Now with 10 minutes taken up for C and D's one crossing, we have
four trips that must be done. If the total time is less than 17 minutes,
then the four trips must be done in 6 minutes or less. For this to be
done, at least two trips have to take 1 minute; that is, A travelling back
alone. (If A travels with anyone else it takes more than 1 minute). But
if A comes back twice, he must cross over three times (to end up on the
other side). Thus, A must go on all ve trips, so that C and D cannot
cross together. Thus, it is impossible to make the trip in less than 17
minutes.

H286. A mouse eats his way through a 3  3  3 cube of cheese by


tunnelling through all of the 27 1  1  1 sub-cubes. If he starts at one of
the corner sub-cubes and always moves onto an uneaten adjacent sub-cube
can he nish at the center of the cube? (Assume that he can tunnel through
walls but not edges or corners.)
Solution by the editors.
Colour the 3  3 cube in this manner: colour each corner sub-cube
black. Every other sub-cube is coloured black or white so that each sub-cube
is a di erent colour than all the other sub-cubes that it shares a face with.
Thus, we end up with the alternating cube pictured below.

35
Now, notice that the corner sub-cube is black, and the centre subcube is white. But as the mouse goes through from sub-cube to sub-cube,
the destination sub-cube is a di erent colour from his original cube. Since
there are 13 white cubes and 14 black cubes, the mouse's path must go
BWBW : : : BWB. The last cube must be black. Thus, he cannot end up in
the centre sub-cube last.
H287. Suppose we want to construct a solid polyhedron using just n
pentagons and some unknown number of hexagons (none of which need be
regular), so that exactly three faces meet at every vertex on the polyhedron.
For what values of n is this feasible?
Solution by Gottfried Perz, Pestalozzigymnasium, Graz, Austria.
Let the number of the hexagonal faces of the polyhedron be m, and let
be v, f , and e the numbers of the vertices, faces and edges of the polyhedron,
respectively. Then we have, according to Euler's formula,

v + f ; e = 2.

(1)

Since all the faces of the polyhedron must be either pentagons or hexagons,

f = n + m.
Each of the n pentagonal faces has 5 edges; each of the m hexagonal faces has
6 edges. Taking into account that every edge belongs to 2 faces, this yields
e = 5n +2 6m .
Since exactly three faces meet at every vertex, three edges meet at every
vertex. Each of the edges connects two vertices of the polyhedron, so that

v = 23e = 10n +6 12m .


Plugging that into (1), we nally get

10n + 12m + n + m ; 5n + 6m = 2 ,
6
2
which simpli es to

n = 12 .

Two examples of polyhedra that meet the requirements are the pentagondodecahedron (where m = 0) and the truncated icosahedron (with m = 20).

36

H288. Proposed by Jose Luis Daz-Barrero, Universitat Politecnica


de Catalunya, Terrassa, Spain.
If x, y, z are positive real numbers, show that
 cosh y cosh z

;
cosh
x
sinh(x + z) cosh(x + y + z)
 cosh x cosh z

;
cosh
y
= sinh(1y + z) cosh(
x + y + z)
1

Solution by the proposer.


After reducing to a common denominator, the left hand side of the
above identity can be written as

 cosh y cosh z ; cosh(x + y + z) cosh x 


.
sinh(x + z)
cosh(x + y + z)
1

(1)

Taking into account the identities

sinh a sinh b = 21 [cosh(a + b) ; cosh(a ; b)]


cosh a cosh b = 12 [cosh(a + b) + cosh(a ; b)] ,

expression (1) is equal to

 cosh(y ; z) + cosh(2x + y + z) 
1
2 sinh(x + z)
cosh(x + y + z)
sinh(
x
+
y
)
(2)
= cosh(x + y + z) .

Since (2) is symmetric in x and y; from it we obtain the right side of our
identity and we are done.

SKOLIAD No. 59
Shawn Godin
E ective this issue, the Skoliad Corner is now incorporated into Mathematical Mayhem. This is to consolidate High School level material into one section. We envisage little change in the actual material!
Solutions may be sent to Shawn Godin, Cairine Wilson S.S., 975 Orleans
Blvd., Orleans, ON, CANADA, K1C 2Z5, or emailed to
mayhem-editors@cms.math.ca

37
Please include on any correspondence your name, school, grade, city,
province or state and country. We are especially looking for solutions from
high school students. Please send your solutions to the problems in this
edition by 1 June 2002. A copy of MATHEMATICAL MAYHEM Vol. 1 will be
presented to the pre-university reader(s) who send in the best set of solutions
before the deadline. The decision of the editor is nal.
This issue's items come to us from South Africa. My thanks go out to
John Webb of the University of Cape Town for forwarding the material to me.
For more information on the math competitions visit the University of Cape
Town Mathematics Department's web site
http://www.mth.uct.ac.za

The rst contest is the 2001 contest for grades 9 and 10 students. Students are given 75 minutes, no calculators are allowed. Participants are
awarded 0 points for an incorrect answer, 1 point for each question not answered and for correct answers the points are: 5 points for questions 1 - 10,
6 points for questions 11 - 20 and 7 points for questions 21 - 30.

The UCT Mathematics Competition

1. 85 is equal to

Grades 9 and 10 : 2001

(1) 0:625
(2) 1:667
(3) 1:8
2. In the diagram, the value of x is


(4) 1:6

(5) 0:6

x

55

44

(1) 99

(2) 98
(3) 101
(4) 109
3. 70  0:02 is equal to
(1) 3:5
(2) 35
(3) 350
(4) 0:35
4. (3y + x) ; (y ; 2x) + (x ; y) is equal to
(1) 2y + 4x (2) y + 4x
(3) 2y
(4) y
5. The area of the gure, in square centimetres, is

(5) 111
(5) 3500
(5) 5y

10

12

(1) 80

(2) 88
(3) 100
6. What is the last digit of 22001?
(1) 1
(2) 2
(3) 4

(4) 120

(5) 160

(4) 6

(5) 8

38

7. A large reservoir can be emptied by four sets of cylindrical pipes, at


the same level.
Set P has one pipe, of diameter 40 cm.
Set Q has two pipes, of diameter 20 cm.
Set R has three pipes, of diameter 16 cm.
Set S has ve pipes, of diameter 10 cm.
Which set will empty the reservoir in the shortest time?
(1) P
(2) Q
(3) R
(4) S
(5) They will
all take the
same time.
8. In the multiplication shown, the value of A + B is
2 A
 B 3

(1) 7

6 9
9 2
9 8 9
(3) 13

(2) 11
(4) 14
(5) 16
9. What is the sum of all the prime numbers which are greater than
20 and less than 40?
(1) 115
(2) 120
(3) 131
(4) 133
(5) 140
10. The three circles in the gure have the same centre; their radii
are 3 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm. What percentage of the large circle is shaded?

(1) 20%

(2) 25%
(3) 28%
(4) 30%
(5) 33 13 %
11. On a 26 question test, 8 points were given for each correct answer
and 5 points were deducted for each wrong answer. Tom answered all the
questions and scored zero. How many questions did he get correct?
(1) 8
(2) 9
(3) 10
(4) 12
(5) 13
12. Ahmed, Bongani, Cyril, Delia and Evan have their birthdays on
successive days, but not necessarily in that order. Ahmed's birthday is as
many days before Cyril's as Bongani's is after Evan's. Delia is two days

39
older than Evan. Cyril's birthday is on a Wednesday. On what day of the
week is Evan's birthday?
(1) Tuesday (2) Monday (3) Thursday (4) Friday
(5) Sunday

13. If the exterior angles x, y, z of the triangle are in the ratio 4 : 5 : 6,


then the interior angles a, b, c are in the ratio
a
z c

(1) 7 : 5 : 3

(2) 3 : 2 : 1

x
b

(3) 4 : 2 : 1

(4) 8 : 5 : 2

(5) 6 : 5 : 4

14. In the gure AB = BC = CD = DE = EF and AE = AF .


What is the size of \EAF ?
E
C

(1) 10

(2) 15

(3) 20

D F

(4) 30

(5) Not
enough
information.

15. The highest common factor of two numbers is 4. The lowest


common multiple of these two numbers is 24. What are the possibilities for
the sum of the two numbers?
(1) 20 only (2) 28 only (3) 20 or 28 (4) 36 only (5) 20 or 36
16. One and a half litres of water are poured into jugs A and B. If
jug A contains 50% more water than jug B , how much water is in jug A?
(1) 1000 ml (2) 900 ml
(3) 750 ml
(4) 600 ml
(5) 500 ml

40

17. A die rests on a table. Ali, sitting on one side of the table, sees
two sides of the die and its top, and can see 7 dots altogether. Benni, sitting
on the opposite side of the table, can see the top and the other two faces
and sees 11 dots altogether. How many dots are on the bottom face of the
die resting on the table?
(1) 1
(2) 2
(3) 3
(4) 4
(5) 5
18. A point P is inside a regular octagon ABCDEFGH , such that
triangle ABP is equilateral. What is the size of \APC ?
(1) 120
(2) 135
(3) 90
(4) 112 12
(5) 97 12 
19. The gure shown is to be drawn without lifting the pencil from the
paper and without going over any line twice. What is the smallest number
of straight line strokes needed to draw the gure?

(1) 20

(2) 22
(3) 25
(4) 30
(5) 35
20. Sizwe and Thabo sit down to eat sausages. Sizwe has four
sausages and Thabo has three. Vuyo joins them. He has no sausages, but
has R7 [means 7 Rand, the South African currency. Ed.]. He o ers to give
the money to Sizwe and Thabo if they will share the sausages with him.
They agree, and the three boys cut up the sausages and share them equally.
When Vuyo gives the R7 to Sizwe and Thabo, how should they divide the
money?
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Sizwe R6,
Sizwe R5:50, Sizwe R5,
Sizwe R4:50, Sizwe R4,
Thabo R1
Thabo R1:50 Thabo R2
Thabo R2:50 Thabo R3
21. A fraction has a four-digit numerator and a ve-digit denominator
and simpli es to exactly 12 . The nine digits are all di erent. Which of the
following could be the numerator of the fraction?
(1) 5314
(2) 6729
(3) 7341
(4) 7629
(5) 8359

41

22. If A, B, C , D and E are ve points in the same plane, with


AB = 21, BC = 17, CD = 14, DE = 67 and EA = 15, then AD is equal
to
(1) 52

(2) 63

(3) 73

(4) 43

(5) Not
enough
information.
23. Four- fths of the children in a school are boys. Three-quarters of
the boys are expelled for misbehaviour, but none of the girls. What fraction
of the children remaining are girls?
(2) 201
(3) 15
(4) 101
(5) 14
(1) 21
24. In an acute-angled triangle each angle is a whole number of
degrees and the smallest angle is one-sixth of the largest angle. What is the
sum of the two smaller angles?
(1) 96
(2) 90
(3) 102
(4) 84
(5) 108
25. If a = 2250, b = 3200 and c = 5150, which of the following is true?
(1) a > b > c (2) a > c > b (3) c > a > b (4) b > c > a (5) c > b > a
26. The natural numbers are arranged in the pattern below. In which
row does 2001 lie?
Row 1
3
11
19
Row 2
2
6
10
14
18
22
Row 3 1
5
9
13
17
21
Row 4
4
8
12
16
20
24
Row 5
7
15
23
(1) Row 1
(2) Row 2
(3) Row 3
(4) Row 4
(5) Row 5
27. Moving East or South all the time, how many routes are there
from A to B through at most one star?
A





(1) 14

(2) 12
(3) 11
(4) 10
(5) 9
28. In triangle ABC , AB = 25, BC = 23 and AC = 24. A
perpendicular BD is dropped onto AC , with D on AC . Then AD ; DC is
equal to
p
p
p
p p
(1) 4
(2) 3 2
(3) 1 + 2 3 (4) 17
(5) 1+ 2+ 3

42

29. A number of unit cubes are put together to make a larger cube
and then some of the faces of the larger cube are painted. After the paint
dries the larger cube is taken apart. It is found that 45 small cubes have no
paint on any face. How many faces of the large cube were painted?
(1) 1
(2) 2
(3) 3
(4) 4
(5) 5
30. A rectangular prism has a tetrahedron ACED cut out of it. The
ratio of the volume of the tetrahedron to the volume of the prism is
B

D
G

(1) 13

(2) 41

(3) 121

(4) 81

(5) 16

Next is the Interprovincial Mathematics Olympiad. This is written by


teams of ten. 30 minutes are allowed, and no calculators. Each correct answer receives 100 points.

INTERPROVINCIAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD: 2001


TEAM PAPER: SENIORS

S1.

Find the largest integer which cannot be expressed in the form

7a + 11b + 13c, where a, b and c are integers, with a  0, b  0 and c  0.


S2. The 5{digit number 32::1:: is divisible by 156. What is the number?

S3. Eight boxes, each in a unit cube, are packed in a 2  2  2 crate,


open at the top. The boxes are taken out one by one. In how many ways
can this be done? (Remember that a box in the bottom layer can only be
removed after the box above it has been removed.)
S4. How many integers between 1 and 1000 cannot be expressed as
the di erence between the squares of two integers?
S5. Find the smallest positive integer which has a factor ending in 0,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9.

43

S6. A circle is inscribed in quadrilateral ABCD. The sides BC and


DA have the same lengths, and the sides AB and CD are parallel, with
lengths 9 and 16, respectively. What is the radius of the circle?
S7. For how many integers n between 1 and 2002 is the improper
fraction
n2 +4
n+5
NOT in lowest terms?
S8. Solve the inequality logp3(2 ; x) + 4 log9(6 ; x) > 2.

S9. ABCD is a 22 square and E and F are the mid-points of AB and
BC , respectively. If AF intersects ED and BD at G and H , respectively,
what is the area of quadrilateral BEGH ?
S10. Points A, B and C lie on a circle. The line AP is perpendicular
to BC , with P on BC . If AP = 6, BP = 4 and CP = 17, nd the radius

of the circle.
Next we give the solutions to the contest presented in [2001 : 315].
First is the 2000 National Bank Junior Mathematics Competition.
1. In this problem, we will be placing various arrangements of 10c and
20c coins on the nine squares of a 3  3 grid. Exactly one coin will be placed in
each of the nine squares. The grid has four 2  2 subsquares each containing
a corner, the centre, and the two squares adjacent to these.
(a) Find an arrangement where the totals of the four 2  2 subsquares
are 40c, 60c, 60c and 70c in any order.
Solution
m m

10 10 
20

10m 10m
20



20 
20 
20


.
(b) Find an arrangement where the totals of the four 2  2 subsquares
are 50c, 60c, 70c and 80c in any order.
Solution m m m

10 10 10


10m
20 
20



20 
20 
20


44
(c) What is the maximum amount of money which can be placed on the
grid so that each of the 2  2 subsquares contains exactly 50c?

Solution. The maximum amount is $1.30

m
20 10 
20

10m 10m 10m
m
20 10 
20


.
(d) What is the minimum amount of money which can be placed on the
grid so that the average amount of money in each of the 2  2 subsquares is
exactly 60c?

Solution. The minimum amount is $1.20



10m
20 10m
m
10m
20 10

10m
20 10m

.
2. (Note: In this question an \equal division" is one where the total
weight of the two parts is the same.)
(a) Belinda and Charles are burglars. Among the loot from their latest
caper is a set of 12 gold weights of 1g, 2g, 3g, and so on, through to 12g. Can
they divide the weights equally between them? If so, explain how they can
do it; if not, why not?

Solution. Yes, it can be done. There are many possible solutions, for
example Belinda gets 1g, 3g, 5g, 6g, 7g, 8g, 9g and Charles gets the rest.
(b) When Belinda and Charles take the remainder of the loot to Freddy
the Fence, he demands the 12g weight as his payment. Can Belinda and
Charles divide the remaining 11 weights equally between them? If so, explain
how they can do it; if not, why not?

Solution. Yes, it can be done. There are many possible solutions, for
example Belinda gets 1g, 3g, 5g, 7g, 8g, 9g and Charles gets the rest.
(c) Belinda and Charles also have a set of 150 silver weights of 1g, 2g, 3g,
and so on, through to 150g. Can they divide these weights equally between
them? If so, explain how they can do it; if not, why not?

Solution. No, it cannot be done. There are 75 even weights and 75 odd
weights so that the total weight is odd. Thus, they cannot split it up evenly .

45

3. Humankind was recently contacted by three alien races: the


Kweens, the Ozdaks, and the Merkuns. Little is known about these races
except:
- Kweens always speak the truth.
- Ozdaks always lie.
- In any group of aliens a Merkun will never speak rst. When it does
speak, it tells the truth if the previous statement was a lie, and lies if
the previous statement was truthful.
Although the aliens can readily tell one another apart, of course to humans
all aliens look the same.
A high-level delegation of three aliens has been sent to Earth to negotiate our fate. Among them is at least one Kween. On arrival they make the
following statements (in order):
Statement A (First Alien): The second alien is a Merkun.
Statement B (Second Alien): The third alien is not a Merkun.
Statement C (Third Alien): The rst alien is a Merkun.
Which alien or aliens can you be certain are Kween?
Solution.
The rst alien cannot be a Merkun, so that statement C is a lie. If the
third alien is a Merkun (who lies), then statement B must be true, but this
is impossible. Thus, the third alien must be an Ozdak. If the rst alien is a
Kween, then the second is a Merkun who lies, but this is impossible, so that
the rst alien is an Ozdak. Now the second alien cannot be a Merkun. If
the second alien is an Ozdak then the third is a Merkun, which is impossible.
Thus, the second alien must be a Kween.
Only the second alien is a Kween.
4. A chessboard is an 8  8 grid of squares. One of the chess pieces,
the king, moves one square at a time in any direction, including diagonally.
(a) A king stands on the lower left corner of a chessboard (marked K).
It has to reach the square marked F in exactly 3 moves. Show that the king
can do this in exactly four di erent ways.
Solution. By counting paths as in the diagram to the solution to part
(b).
(b) Assume that the king is placed back on the bottom left corner. In
how many ways can it reach the upper left corner (marked G ) in exactly seven
moves?

46

Solution. There are 127 possible paths (see diagram).

127

51

76

21

30

25

12

5. (Note: For this question answers containing expressions such as

4
13

are acceptable.)
(a) The Jones family lives in a perfectly square house, 10m by 10m,
which is placed exactly in the middle of a 40m by 40m section, entirely covered (except for the house) in grass. They keep the family pet, Dolly the
sheep, tethered to the middle of one side of the house on a 15m rope. What
is the area of the part of the lawn (in m2 ) in which Dolly is able to graze?
(See shaded area.)
Solution. The area is made up of a semicircle of radius 15m and two
quarter circles of radius 10m. Thus, Area = 21 152 + 2  14 102 = 3252  .

40m

40m
Dolly

The Jones

Daisy

The Smiths

(b) The Jones' neighbours, the Smiths, have an identical section to the
Jones but their house is located 5m to the North of the centre. Their pet
sheep, Daisy, is tethered to the middle of the southern side of the house on
a 20m rope. What is the area of the part of the lawn (in m2 ) in which Daisy
is able to graze?

47

Solution. The area that Daisy can graze is given above. It is made up of
one semicircle and four quarter circles. Thus, Area = 12 202 + 2  41 152 +
2  14 52 = 325.

Finally, we give the solutions to the 2001 BC Colleges Senior High


School Mathematics Contest, part A [2001 : 318].
1. The di erence of squares x2 ; y2 factors into (x ; y)(x + y). Since x
and y are positive integers, we know that x > y. Thus, 2001 = (x;y)(x+y)
for four di erent sets of integers x and y. This requires that we determine
how 2001 factors. With a little e ort we see that 2001 = 3  23  29. Thus,
the factorizations of 2001 are 1  2001, 3  667, 23  87, and 29  69.
For 2001 = a  b with a < b, we have x ; y = a and x + y = b, which
means that x = 21 (a + b). Thus, for our four factorizations of 2001 we have
x = 12 (1 + 2001) = 1001, 12 (3 + 667) = 335, 21 (23 + 87) = 55, and
1
(29 + 69) = 49, respectively. Therefore, the sum of the these four values
2
is 1001 + 335 + 55 + 49 = 1440. The answer is d
2. Let x and y be the number of pears and peaches respectively that
Antonino purchases. Then (in cents) he spends 18x + 33y = 2001, which
simpli es to 6x +11y = 667 or 6x = 667 ; 11y. Clearly the maximum number of fruits he could buy occurs when he maximizes the number of peaches
(since they are cheaper), which means he should buy as few pears as possible.
Thus, let us try successive small values of y, starting at y = 0 to determine
when 667 ; 11y is rst a multiple of 6. For y = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 we get
667 ; 11y = 667, 656, 645, 634, 623, and 612. It is easy to check that 612 is
the rst of these which is a multiple of 6. Thus, y = 5 and x = 612=6 = 102
Therefore, x + y = 107. The answer is b
3. Set x = p3 + 2p2 ; p3 ; 2p2. Then

r p   p 
p
p
x = 3+2 2;2 3+2 2 3;2 2 +3;2 2
q
p
= 6 ; 2 3 ; (2 2) = 6 ; 2p9 ; 8 = 6 ; 2 = 4 .
2

Thus, x = 2.pHowever, p
it is clear from the de nition of x that it is
positive, since 3 + 2 2 > 3 ; 2 2. Therefore, x = 2. The answer is b
4. Draw lines through P parallel to the sides of the rectangle ABCD,
cutting o lengths x, y, z, w, as shown in the diagram.

48
D

C
z

y
A

Then from the Theorem of Pythagoras we have

x2 + y 2 = 9 ,
y2 + z2 = 16 ,
z2 + w2 = 25 .

(1)
(2)
(3)

If we now subtract (2) from the sum of (1) and (3) we get: x2 + w2 = 18. But
we also have (from
the Theorem
of Pythagoras): x2 + w2 = PB2 , whence,
p
p
PB has length 18 = 3 2. The answer is b
5. Consider a cross-section through the centres of the two spheres as
shown in the diagram below. Let A be the centre of the sphere of radius
40mm, and let B be the centre of the sphere of radius 30mm. Let C be one
of the points in this cross-section which lie where the two spheres join. Since
the distance AB is 50mm, we see by the Theorem of Pythagoras that 4ABC
is right angled with the right angle at point C . The altitude of this triangle
is clearly the radius of the circle of intersection of the two bubbles. Let us
denote this altitude by r.
40

C
r
50

30

Then the area (in mm2 ) of 4ABC can be computed in 2 di erent ways:
A = 12  30  40 = 12  50  r ,
from which we see that r = 24mm. Thus, the diameter of the circle of
intersection of the spheres is 48mm. The answer is b

49

6. If we let those people in line possessing only a toonie be denoted by

T , and those possessing a loonie be denoted by L, then our problem can be


translated to: what is the probability of a random list of four Ls and four T s
having the property that in moving from the beginning of the list to the end of
the list we will have always encountered at least as many Ls as T s. To begin
we will rst determine the total number of possible random orderings of four
Ls and four T s. Clearly there are eight positions in the list, four of which
must be ;set aside for L, with the remainder having T . This means there are
in total 84 = 70 such random orderings of four Ls and four T s. Now let

us try to determine the number of such orderings satisfying the additional


condition that in moving from the beginning of the list to the end of the list
we always encounter at least as many Ls as T s. Let us examine the rst four
positions in the list. We note that there must be at least two Ls in these
rst four positions. We also note that however many Ls there are among
the rst four positions, there are the same number of T s among the last four
positions of the list.
Case (i): there are four Ls among the rst four positions. In this case there
is only one possibility, namely LLLLTTTT .

Case (ii): there are three Ls among the rst four positions. Since the rst
position must be L, there are three places where one can put the T that belongs to the rst four positions. Thus, there are three possible arrangements
for the rst four positions. But by symmetry, there are also three possible
arrangements for the last four positions, and the rst four positions and the
last four positions can be arranged independently, for a total of 3  3 = 9
possibilities for case (ii).
Case (iii): there are two Ls among the rst four positions. Again the rst position must be L. It is easy to see that there are only two possible arrangements among the rst four positions, namely LLTT and LTLT . By symmetry, we have the same number of possibilities for the last four positions, for
a total of 2  2 = 4 arrangements for case (iii).
Thus, we have a total of 1 + 9 + 4 = 14 acceptable arrangements, and
the probability we seek is 14=70 = 1=5. The answer is d

7. Consider the diagram below, where the three circles represent the
applicants with design skills (D), writing skills (W), and programming skills
(P). We have used the letters a through g to represent the various subsets of
these people having di erent combinations (or lack) of skills. We are interested in the value of e.
Since 80% of the 45 applicants have at least one of the desired skills,
there are 36 such applicants. From the remaining information in the problem
statement we conclude that

50

D
a
d

b
e

c
f

g
P

a + b + c + d + e + f + g = 36
b + c + e + f = 20
a+b +d+e
= 25
d + e + f + g = 21
b
+e
= 12
d+e
= 14
e + f = 11
Adding the second, third, and fourth equations above and subtracting
the rst we get b + d + 2e + f = 30, while adding the last three equations
together yields b + d +3e + f = 37. Comparing these we see that e = 7. This
is all we need to answer the question. However, the interested reader may
be curious to nd all the remaining values as well; therefore, we continue.
With this value of e we can use the last three equations displayed above to
determine b = 5, d = 7, and f = 4. With these values we can use the
second, third, and fourth equations displayed above to determine c = 4,
a = 6, and g = 3. One can simply check that the rst equation is satis ed
for these values. The answer is b
8. Let us label the critical equation:
a S (b S c) = (a S b) L (a S c) ,
(1)
where we are assuming that a, b, c are three distinct numbers. Clearly, the
left hand side of this expression is always the smallest of the three values a,
b, c. If the smallest of the three values is b, then the left hand side of (1) is b,
while the right hand side simpli es to b L (a S c), which is de nitely a or c;
thus, b cannot be the smallest of the three values. Similarly, c cannot be the
smallest of the three values. This means that a is the smallest values. This
eliminates all but choice (a) and choice (e) from the set of possible answers.
Now, if we examine (1) with a the smallest value, then both sides resolve

51
to a, and we have (1) holding true. This describes choice (a). We note that
choice (e) imposes a further restriction, namely b < c, which is unnecessary.
We are asked to determine which must hold. Thus, our solution is simply
that a must be the smallest of the three values. The answer is a
9. Consider also the point D with coordinates (;7; 4) (see diagram
below).

D
C

A
B

Clearly AC = DC . Thus, we must nd k which minimizes the sum


DC + BC . This sum is obviously minimized when B, C , and D are collinear
(that is, when they lie on one line). This occurs when the slope of BC is
equal to the slope of BD. The slope of BD is ; 103 and the slope of BC is
(1 ; k)=3. Setting these equal yields 1 ; k = ; 109 , or k = 1:9. The answer

is c

10. Observe that the unshaded portion of the quarter circle is also

1
2

of its area. Let us then compute the area of the unshaded regions. We will
solve the more general problem using a radius of r units. Clearly, the area
of triangle CBX is 21 xr. Now drop a perpendicular from A to the line CD
1
meeting it at E . Since \ACD = 30 , we see
p3 that AE = 2 r, and by the
Theorem of pPythagoras
 1 we then get CE = 2 r. Thus, the area of triangle
1
3
AXE is 2 2 r ; x  2 r. The remaining unshaded region is the curved piece
AED. This is obviously the di erence between
the circular sector ACD and
triangle ACE . The sector ACD has area 121 r2 , since pit is one twelfth part
of a circle of radius r. The triangle ACE has area 21  23 r  12 r. Putting all
the pieces together we see that the area of the unshaded part is:

p3r2 xr ! r2 p3r2 ! xr r2


xr
A = 2 + 8 ; 4 + 12 ; 8 = 4 + 12 .
But we are given that A is one half the area of the quarter circle; that is, one
half of 14 r2 . Thus, we have
xr + r2 = r2 , xr = r2 , x = r .
4

12

24

Since r = 1 we have x = =6. The answer is c

52

PROBLEMS
Problem proposals and solutions should be sent to Bruce Shawyer, Department
of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's,
Newfoundland, Canada. A1C 5S7. Proposals should be accompanied by a solution,
together with references and other insights which are likely to be of help to the editor.
When a proposal is submitted without a solution, the proposer must include sucient
information on why a solution is likely. An asterisk (?) after a number indicates that
a problem was proposed without a solution.
In particular, original problems are solicited. However, other interesting problems may also be acceptable provided that they are not too well known, and references are given as to their provenance. Ordinarily, if the originator of a problem can
be located, it should not be submitted without the originator's permission.
To facilitate their consideration, please send your proposals and solutions
on signed and separate standard 8 12 "11" or A4 sheets of paper. These may be
typewritten or neatly hand-written, and should be mailed to the Editor-in-Chief,
to arrive no later than 1 September 2002. They may also be sent by email to
crux-editors@cms.math.ca. (It would be appreciated if email proposals and solutions were written in LATEX). Graphics les should be in epic format, or encapsulated
postscript. Solutions received after the above date will also be considered if there
is sucient time before the date of publication. Please note that we do not accept
submissions sent by FAX.

Starting with this issue, we will be giving each problem twice, once in each of
the ocial languages of Canada, English and French. In issues 1, 3, 5 and 7,
English will precede French, and in issues 2, 4, 6 and 8, French will precede
English.
In the solutions section, the problem will be given in the language of
the primary featured solution.

2701?. Proposed by Walther Janous, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria.


Do there exists in nitely many triplets (n; n +1; n +2) of adjacent natural numbers such that all of them are sums of two positive perfect squares?
(Examples are (232; 233; 234), (520; 521; 522) and (808; 809; 810).)
Compare the 2000 Putnam problem A2 [2001 : 3]
..........................................................
Existe-t-il une in nite de triplets (n; n +1; n +2) de nombres naturels
consecutifs qui soient tous la somme de deux carres parfaits non nuls ?
(Exemples : (232; 233; 234), (520; 521; 522) et (808; 809; 810).)
Voir le Putnam 2000, probleme A2 [2001 : 3]

53

2702. Proposed by Walther Janous, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria.


Let  be an arbitrary real number. Show that
 s 2 2
;s2 ; 8Rr ; 2r2  ,
3+1
r s 3
where R, r and s are the circumradius, the inradius and the semi-perimeter
of a triangle, respectively.
Determine the cases of equality.
..........................................................
Soit  un nombre reel arbitraire. Montrer que
 s 2 2
;s2 ; 8Rr ; 2r2  ,
3+1
r s 3
ou R, r et s sont respectivement le rayon du cercle circonscrit, le rayon du
cercle inscrit et le demi-perimetre d'un triangle.
Trouver les cas d'egalite.
2703. Proposed by Mihaly Bencze, Brasov, Romania.
Suppose that a, b, c, d, u, v 2 R and a + c 6= 0. Determine all
continuous functions f : R ! R for which f (ax + b) + f (cx + d) = ux + v.
..........................................................
Soit a, b, c, d, u, v 2 R et a + c 6= 0. Trouver toutes les fonctions continues
f : R ! R pour lesquelles f (ax + b) + f (cx + d) = ux + v.
2704. Proposed by Mihaly Bencze, Brasov, Romania.
Prove that 0
1
2
2
X
p
2(b2 + c2 ) ; a2 ; s + rR+ bRr A  0 ,
R ; 2r  121 @
cyclic

where a, b and c are the sides of a triangle, and R, r and s are the circumradius, the inradius
and the semi-perimeter of a triangle, respectively.
..........................................................
Montrer que 0
1
2
2
X
p
s
+
r
+
bRr
1
A  0,
2(b2 + c2 ) ; a2 ;
R ; 2r  12 @
R
cyclique
ou a, b et c sont les c^otes d'un triangle, et R, r et s sont respectivement
le rayon du cercle circonscrit, le rayon du cercle inscrit et le demi-perimetre
d'un triangle.
2705. Proposed by Angel Dorito, Geld, Ontario.
The interior of a rectangular container is 1 metre wide and 2 metres
long, and is lled with water to a depth of 12 metre. A cube of gold is placed
at in the tub, and the water rises to exactly the top of the cube without
over owing.
Find the length of the side of the cube.

54
L'interieur d'un bassin rectangulaire mesure 1m de largeur et 2m de
longueur ; il est rempli d'eau jusqu'a une hauteur d'un demi-metre. Un cube
en or est pose au fond du bassin et le niveau d'eau monte jusqu'a concider
exactement avec la hauteur du cube.
Trouver la longueur de l'ar^ete du cube.
2706. Proposed by Walther Janous, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria.
Suppose that ;1 and ;2 are two circles having at least one point S in
common. Take an arbitrary line ` through S . This line intersects ;k again at
Pk (if ` is tangent to ;k , then Pk = S ).
Let  be a ( xed) real number, and let R = P1 + (1 ; )P2 .
Determine the locus of R as ` varies over all possible lines through S .
..........................................................
Soient ;1 et ;2 deux cercles ayant au moins un point S en commun.
Une droite ` passant passant S coupe ;k en un point Pk (si ` est tangente a
;k , alors Pk = S ).
Soit  un nombre reel xe, et soit R = P1 + (1 ; )P2 .
Trouver le lieu des points R lorsque ` parcourt l'ensemble des droites
par S.
2707. Proposed by Walther Janous, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria.
Let ABC be a triangle and P a point in its plane. The feet of the
perpendiculars from P to the lines BC , CA and AB are D, E and F respectively.
Prove that

AB2 + BC 2 + CA2  AF 2 + BD2 + CE 2 ,


4

and determine the cases of equality.


..........................................................
Soit P un point dans le plan d'un triangle ABC . Soit D, E et F respectivement, les pieds des perpendiculaires menees de P sur les droites BC ,
CA et AB.
Montrer que

AB2 + BC 2 + CA2  AF 2 + BD2 + CE 2 ,


4

et determiner les cas d'egalite.


2708. Proposed by Toshio Seimiya, Kawasaki, Japan.
Suppose that
1. O is the intersection of diagonals AC and BD of quadrilateral ABCD,

55
2. OA < OC and OD < OB ,
3. M and N are the mid-points of AC and BD, respectively,
4. MN meets AB and CD at E and F , respectively, and
5. P is the intersection of BF and CE .
Prove that OP bisects the line segment EF .
..........................................................
On suppose que
1. O est l'intersection des diagonales AC et BD d'un quadrilatere
ABCD,
2. OA < OC et OD < OB ,
3. M et N sont respectivement les points milieu de AC et BD,
4. MN coupe AB et CD en E et F , respectivement, et
5. P est l'intersection de BF avec CE .
Montrer que OP coupe le segment EF en son milieu.
2709. Proposed by Toshio Seimiya, Kawasaki, Japan.
Suppose that
1. P is an interior point of 4ABC ,
2. AP , BP and CP meet BC , CA and AB at D, E and F , respectively,
3. A0 is a point on AD produced beyond D such that DA0 : AD =  : 1,
where  is a xed positive number,
4. B 0 is a point on BE produced beyond E such that EB 0 : BE =  : 1,
and
5. C 0 is a point on CF produced beyond F such that FC 0 : CF =  : 1.
2
Prove that [A0 B 0 C 0]  (3+1)
[ABC ], where [PQR] denotes the area of
4
4PQR.
..........................................................
On suppose que
1. P est un point interieur du triangle ABC ,
2. AP , BP et CP coupent BC , CA et AB en D, E et F , respectivement,
3. A0 est un point sur AD situe au-dela de D de sorte que
DA0 : AD =  : 1, ou  est un nombre positif xe,
4. B 0 est un point sur BE situe au-dela de E de sorte que
EB0 : BE =  : 1, et
5. C 0 est un point sur CF situe au-dela de F de sorte que
FC 0 : CF =  : 1.
2
Montrer que [A0 B 0 C 0 ]  (3+1)
[ABC ], ou [PQR] designe l'aire du
4
4 PQR.

56

 cek, Palacky University, Olomouc,


2710. Proposed by Jaroslav Svr
Czech Republic.
Determine the point P on the semicircle ;, constructed externally over
the side AB of the square ABCD, such that AP 2 + CP 2 is maximal.
..........................................................
Sur le demi-cercle ; construit sur le c^ote AB , a l'exterieur du carre
ABCD, trouver le point P tel que AP 2 + CP 2 soit maximal.
2711?. Proposed by Catherine Shevlin, Wallsend, England.
Two circles, centres O1 and O2 , of radii R1 and R2 (R1 > R2 ), respectively, are externally tangent at P . A common tangent to the two circles, not
through P , meets O1 O2 produced at Q, the circle with centre O1 at A1 and
the circle with centre O2 at A2 .
Prove or disprove that there exist simultaneously integer triangles
QO1 A1 and QO2 A2 .
..........................................................
Deux cercles, de centre O1 et O2 , de rayon respectif R1 et R2
(R1 > R2 ), sont exterieurement tangents en P . Une tangente commune aux
deux cercles et ne passant par P coupe la droite O1 O2 en Q et rencontre le
cercle de centre O1 en A1 et celui de centre O2 en A2 .
Montrer si oui on non il existe simultanement deux triangles QO1 A1
et QO2 A2 dont les c^otes sont des entiers.
2712. Proposed by Antreas P. Hatzipolakis, Athens, Greece; and Paul
Yiu, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
Given 4ABC , let Y and Z be the feet of the altitudes from B and C .
Suppose that the bisectors of \BY C and \BZC meet at X . Prove that
4BXC is isosceles.
..........................................................
On donne un triangle ABC et soit Y et Z les pieds des perpendiculaires
abaissees des sommets B et C . Soit X le point d'intersection des bissectrices
de \BY C et \BZC . Montrer que le triangle BXC est isocele.

Professor Jordi Dou


We always like to recognise milestones. We have just discovered that
we missed Professor Jordi Dou's ninetieth birthday last year. It will be nice
to have some problems dedicated to Jordi this year. Please send proposals
post haste to the Editor-in-Chief.

57

SOLUTIONS

No problem is ever permanently closed. The editor is always pleased to


consider for publication new solutions or new insights on past problems.

My, the gremlins have been at work ! We apologise to Michel Bataille, Rouen,
France, for omitting his name as a solver of problem 2571 ; to David Loeffler, student,
Trinity College, Cambridge, UK, for omitting his name as a solver of problem 2563 ;
and to Walther Janous, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria, for omitting his
name as a solver of problems 2495, 2559, 2569 and 2572.

2572. [2000 : 374, 2001 : 473] Proposed by Jose Luis Daz-Barrero,


Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Terrassa, Spain.
Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. Prove that
a+b+c

.
ab bcca  a + 3b + c
[Compare problem 2394 [1999 : 524], note by V.N. Murty on the generalization.]
III. Remarks by Walther Janous, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck,
Austria.
Howard's question (in the editorial remarks given after the solutions
[2001 : 473]) unfortunately has a negative answer. Indeed, let n = 5 and
note that we must have
(a + b + c + d + e)2 ; 5(a  b + b  c + c  d + d  e + e  a)  0 .
But the following self-explanatory substitutions of a, : : : , e, yield the claimed
contradiction ; that is
(i) (3 + 4 + 2 + 1 + 2)2 ; 5(3  4 + 4  2 + 2  1 + 1  2 + 2  3) = ;6 < 0 ;
(ii) (10+4+2+1+2)2 ; 5(10  4+4  2+2  1+1  2+2  10) = 1 > 0.
Next, let us proceed more systematically. We shall prove the following
interesting result.
Theorem. Suppose that n  4. Then the best constant n such that the
inequality
(x1 +    + xn )2  n  (x1 x2 + x2 x3 +    + xn;1 xn + xn x1) (1)
holds true whenever x1 , x2 , : : : , xn  0 occurs when n  4.
Proof. Putting x1 = x2 = 1 and x3 =    = xn = t in (1), we obtain
;2 + (n ; 2)t2   ;1 + 2t + (n ; 3)t2  .
n
Thus, letting t ! 0, it follows that n  4.

58
show

In order to show that n = 4, we proceed by induction ; that is, we will

(x1 +    + xn )2  4(x1 x2 + x2 x3 +    + xn;1 xn + xn x1 ) .

(2)
If all the xi 's are equal to zero, the inequality is clear. If not, we may put
(due to homogenuity) x1 +    + xn = 1, and (2) then reads
(3)
x1 x2 + x2 x3 +    + xn;1 xn + xn x1  14 .
The case of n = 4 was settled already by Howard.
Therefore, suppose that (3) is valid up to n. Now, suppose that
x1 +    + xn + xn+1 = 1. Because the LHS of (3) is cyclically homogenous,
we may let xn+1 = maxfx1 , : : : , xn+1 g.
By the induction hypothesis, we have (on \gluing together" x1 and x2 !)
(x1 + x2 )x3 + x2 x3 +    + xn xn+1 + xn+1 (x1 + x2 )  41 ;
that is,
x2 x3 + x2 x3 +    + xnxn+1 + xn+1x1 + x1 x3 + xn+1x2  14 .
But x1 x3 + xn+1 x2  xn+1 x2  x1 x2 , and the proof is complete.

2601. [2001 : 48] Proposed by Michel Bataille, Rouen, France.

Sequences fun g and fvn g are;de ned


 by u0 = 4, u1 = 2, and for all
integers n  0, un+2 = 8t2 un+1 + t ; 12 un , vn = un+1 ; un . For which
t is fvn g a non-constant geometric sequence ?
Amalgamated solutions of Christopher J. Bradley, Clifton College,
Bristol, UK and David Loeer, student, Cotham School, Bristol, UK.
Now v0 = u1 ; u0 = 2 ; 4 = ;2. Thus, for fvn g to be a non-constant
geometric sequence we must have vn = ;2rn with r 6= 1 for n  0. Then

un+1 ; un = ;2rn
un ; un;1 = ;2rn;1

u1 ; u0 = ;2
n

n
Adding these we get un+1 = u0 ; 2 r r ;;1 1 = 4r ; r2r; 1 ; 2 . Substituting this expression into the recurrence and multiplying by r ; 1, we
+1

obtain :

+1

4r ; 2rn+2 ; 2 = 8t2 (4r ; 2rn+1 ; 2) + t ; 21 (4r ; 2rn ; 2)

59
for all n  0. This can be rearranged as

rn(;2r2 + 16t2 r + 2t ; 1) = 3 + 32t2 r ; 16t2 + 4rt ; 2t ; 6r


or rn (;2r2 + 16t2 r + 2t ; 1) = (2r ; 1)(2t + 1)(8t ; 3)
for all n  0. We now see that both sides of this equation must be equal to
zero, since if the bracketed term on the left were non-zero the left hand side
would vary with n while the right would not, a contradiction. Thus we have
either r = 12 , t = ; 21 , or t = 38 .
If r = 21 , the bracketed term on
the left is ; 21 + 8t2 + 2t ; 1 ; this must
p
be zero, giving the solutions t =  138 ; 1 .
If t = ; 21 , the bracketed term becomes ;2r2 +4r ; 2 = ;2(r ; 1)2 . To
make this zero, we would have to take r = 1, contradicting the requirement
that fvn g be non-constant. Thus this value of t may be rejected.
If t = 83 the bracketed term is ;2r2 + 94 r ; 14 = ; 41 (8r ; 1)(r ; 1).
Thus this is also a valid solution with r = 18 .
p
Thus, the possible values of t are 3 and ( 13 ; 1)=8.
8

Also solved by AUSTRIAN IMO TEAM 2001 ; BRIAN D. BEASLEY, Presbyterian College, Clinton,
SC, USA ; VINAYAK GANESHAN, student, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario ; RICHARD I. HESS,
Rancho Palos Verdes, CA, USA ; MITKO KUNCHEV, Baba Tonka School of Mathematics, Rousse, Bulgaria;
KEE-WAI LAU, Hong Kong, China ; HENRY LIU, student, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA ; JOEL

SCHLOSBERG, student, New York University, NY, USA ; HEINZ-J URGEN
SEIFFERT, Berlin, Germany ; CHRIS
WILDHAGEN, Rotterdam, the Netherlands ; and the proposer. There were four incorrect solutions.

2602?. [2001 : 48]

Proposed by Walther Janous, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria.


For integers a, b and c, let Q(a; b; c) be the set of all numbers
an2 + bn + c, where n 2 N = f0, 1, : : : , g.
(a) Show that Q(6; 3; ;2) is square-free.
(b) Determine other in nite sets Q(a; b; c) with the same property.
Solution by Manuel Benito and Emilio Fernandez, I.B. Praxedes Mateo
Sagasta, Logro~no, Spain.
(a) In order to show that the equation 6n2 +3n;2 = u2 has no solution
on the non-negative integers n and u, let us multiply by 24 and rewrite it
then as (12n + 3)2 ; 57 = 24u2 . By putting x = 12n + 3 and y = 2u, the
equation for x and y is
x2 ; 6y2 = 57 .
(1)
The fundamental (that is, minimal over positive integers) solution of
Pell's equation x2 ; 6y2 = 1 is x1 = 5, y1 = 2.
Let us apply Theorem 108 on page 205 of Nagell, T., Introduction to
Number Theory, Chelsea, 1981 :

60

If u + v D is the fundamental solution of any class of the equation


u22 ; Dv22 = N and if x1 + y1pD is the fundamental solution of equation
x ; Dy = 1, we have the inequalities

pN
0  v  p y1
2(x1 + 1)

and

(2)

1 (x1 + 1)N .
2
From (2) we get, for our equation (1), the inequality
p
p
0  y  p22 6 6 = 2 .
But (1) has no solution when y = 0 or 1. Thus, it has no solution at all.
pD = [a ; a ; a ; : : : ; a ] be the continued fraction develop(b) Let
0
1
2
n
p
ment for D ; it is known (see, for example, Baker, A., A Concise Introduction in the Theory of Numbers, Cambridge, 1984, p. 122) that if n is even, the
equation x2 ; Dy2 = ;1 has no solution in integers, so that Q(D; 0; ;1)
shall be square{free in such cases.
Examples.
p
1. Q(15; 0; ;1) is square{free, because 15 = [3; 1; 6].
p
2. For , 2 N, let D = 2 2 + 2 ; since D = [ ; ; 2 ], we have
that Q( 2 2 + 2 ; 0; ;1) is square{free.
p
3. For , 2 N, let D = 2 2 + ; since D = [ ; 2 ; 2 ], we have
that Q( 2 2 + ; 0; ;1) is also square{free.

0 < juj 

Also solved by CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK part (a) only ; RICHARD
I. HESS, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA, USA ; and JOEL SCHLOSBERG, student, New York University, NY, USA.

2603. [2001 : 48] Proposed by Hojoo Lee, student, Kwangwoon University, Kangwon-Do, South Korea.
Suppose that A, B and C are the angles of a triangle. Prove that
r
sin A+sin B +sin C  154 + cos(A ; B ) + cos(B ; C ) + cos(C ; A) .
Solution by Henry Liu, University of Memphis, Tennessee, USA.
Since sin A + sin B + sin C > 0 and
15 + cos(A ; B ) + cos(B ; C ) + cos(C ; A) > 0 ,
4
it suces to show that
(sin A + sin B + sin C )2  154 + cos(A ; B ) + cos(B ; C ) + cos(C ; A) .

61
We have

0
12
X
@ sin AA  154 + X cos(A ; B)
cyclic
cyclic
X 2
X
(=)
sin A + 2 sin A sin B
cyclic
cyclic
X
 154 + (cos A cos B + sin A sin B)
cyclic
X
X 2
(=) 3 ; cos A  154 + (cos A cos B ; sin A sin B)
cyclic
X cyclic
X 2
(=)
cos(A + B ) +
cos A + 34  0
cyclic
cyclic
X
X 2
(=)
cos( ; A) +
cos A + 34  0
cyclic
X
Xcyclic2
(=) ; cos A + cos A + 34  0
cyclic
cyclic
2
X
1
(=)
cos A ; 2  0 .
cyclic

Clearly, the last inequality is true, so that the initial inequality is


also true. Equality holds when cos A = cos B = cos C = 21 ; that is, when
A = B = C = 60 .

 University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina ;
Also solved by SEFKET
ARSLANAGIC,
 BENCZE, Brasov, Romania ;
AUSTRIAN IMO-TEAM 2001 ; MICHEL BATAILLE, Rouen, France ; MIHALY
PIERRE BORNSZTEIN, Pontoise, France ; CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK ; SCOTT
BROWN, Auburn University at Montgomery, Montgomery, Alabama, USA ; NIKOLAOS DERGIADES, Thessaloniki, Greece ; C. FESTRAETS-HAMOIR, Brussels, Belgium ; VINAYAK GANESHAN, student, University of
Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada ; JOE HOWARD, Portales, NM, USA ; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria ; PAUL JEFFERYS, student, Berkhamsted Collegiate School, UK ; KEE-WAI
 MATH CLUB, Gyor,
LAU, Hong Kong ; DAVID LOEFFLER, student, Cotham School, Bristol, UK ; REVAI
} Hun
gary ; JUAN-BOSCO ROMERO M ARQUEZ,
Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain ; JOEL SCHLOSBERG,
student, New York University, NY, USA ; D.J. SMEENK, Zaltbommel, the Netherlands ; PANOS E. TSAOUSSOGLOU, Athens, Greece ; STEPHEN WEBER, Georg-Cantor-Gymnasium Halle, Germany ; PETER Y. WOO,
Biola University, La Mirada, CA, USA ; LI ZHOU, Polk Community College, Winter Haven, FL, USA ; and the
proposer. There was one incomplete solution submitted.

62

2604. [2001 : 49] Proposed by Walther Janous, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria.


a + b ; a for all
(a) Determine the upper and lower bounds of a +
b b+c a+c
positive real numbers a, b and c.
(b)? Determine the upper and lower bounds (as functions of n) of
nX
;1

xj
; x1 x+1 xn
x
j + xj +1
j =1

for all positive real numbers x1 , x2 , : : : , xn .


Solution by Peter Y. Woo, Biola University, La Mirada, CA, USA.
a + b ; a . Then
(a) Let f (a; b; c) = a +
b b+c a+c

2
2
2
f (a; b; c) = a2 b + b2 a a+ bb2+c b+ cc2+b c+ ac2+a abc
+ a2c + 2abc .
Hence, 0 < f (a; b; c) < 1. Now, f (a; b; c) can be made arbitrarily close to 1
by letting c = b and b = a, when  is suciently small.
Further, f (a; b; c) can be made arbitrarily close to 0 by letting a = b
and b = c, when  is suciently small.

Therefore, the greatest lower bound and least upper bound values of

f (a; b; c) are 0 and 1, respectively.

(b) Let
g = x1 x+1 x2 + x2 x+2 x3 +    + xn;x1n;+1 xn ; x1 x+1 xn
= f (x1 ; x2 ; x3 ) + f (x1 ; x3 ; x4 ) + f (x1 ; x4 ; x5 ) +    + f (x1 ; xn;1 ; xn ) ,
which has values between 0 and n ; 2.
By letting x2 = x1 , x2 = x2 , : : : , we can make g arbitrarily close to
n ; 2, when  is suciently small.
Similarly, by letting x1 = x2 , x2 = x3 , : : : , we can make g arbitrarily
close to 0, when  is suciently small.
Therefore, the greatest lower bound and least upper bound values of g
are 0 and n ; 2, respectively.


Also solved by MICHEL BATAILLE, Rouen, France ; MANUEL BENITO and EMILIO FERNANDEZ,
I.B. Praxedes Mateo Sagasta, Logro~no, Spain ; CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK ;
NIKOLAOS DERGIADES, Thessaloniki, Greece ; OLEG IVRII, Cummer Valley Middle School, North York,
Ontario ; MURRAY S. KLAMKIN, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta ; DAVID LOEFFLER, student,
 MATH CLUB, Gyor,
Cotham School, Bristol, UK ; REVAI
} Hungary ; JOEL SCHLOSBERG, student, New York

University, NY, USA ; HEINZ-J URGEN
SEIFFERT, Berlin, Germany (part (a) only) ; CHRIS WILDHAGEN,
Rotterdam, the Netherlands (2 solutions to part (a) only) ; LI ZHOU, Polk Community College, Winter Haven,
FL, USA ; and the proposer. There was one incorrect and one incomplete solution.
 MATH CLUB was a very good solution, but was in such detail that it would
The solution by the REVAI
have required four pages in print ! This editor also awarded an A+ grade to the solutions of Christopher
J. Bradley and of Manuel Benito and Emilio Fernandez Moral.

63

2606. [2001 : 49] Proposed by K.R.S. Sastry, Bangalore, India.

A Gergonne cevian connects the vertex of a triangle to the point at which


the incircle is tangent to the opposite side.
Determine the unique triangle ABC (up to similarity) in which the
Gergonne cevian BE bisects the median AM , and the Gergonne cevian CF
bisects the median NB .
I. Solution independently submitted by Nikolaos Dergiades, Thessaloniki, Greece and by D.J. Smeenk, Zaltbommel, the Netherlands.
If s is the semiperimeter of triangle ABC then AE = s ; a. If G is
the mid-point of EC then MG is parallel to BE [since M is the mid-point
of BC ] ; moreover, since BE bisects AM , E is the mid-point of AG. Thus,
AE = 31 AC , or s ; a = 31 b , or

3(b + c ; a) = 2b .

(1)

3(c + a ; b) = 2c .

(2)

Similarly,
Solving the system (1) and (2) we nd that

a = b = c.
5
6
3
II. Solution by Vinayak Ganeshan, student, University of Waterloo.
Menelaus's theorem to 4AMC with BE as transversal
h Applying
AP
MB
1 1 s;c
that is, PM  BC  CE
EA = 1  2  s ; a = 1 (P being where AM interi
sects BE ) , we get

(s ; a)  2  1 = (s ; c)  1  1 ,
which implies that b = 3a ; 3c. Similarly [using 4BNA with transversal
CF ], c = 3b ; 3a. Together, these equations give a : b : c = 5 : 6 : 3, which
solves the problem.


 University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina ;
Also solved by SEFKET
ARSLANAGIC,
MICHEL BATAILLE, Rouen, France ; FRANCISCO BELLOT ROSADO, I.B. Emilio Ferrari, Valladolid, Spain ;
CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK ; PAUL JEFFERYS, student, Berkhamsted Collegiate
School, UK ; GEOFFREY A. KANDALL, Hamden, CT, USA ; GERRY LEVERSHA, St. Paul's School, London,
England ; DAVID LOEFFLER, student, Trinity College, Cambridge, UK ; JOEL SCHLOSBERG, student, New

York University, NY, USA ; HEINZ-J URGEN
SEIFFERT, Berlin, Germany ; PETER Y. WOO, Biola University,
La Mirada, CA, USA ; LI ZHOU, Polk Community College, Winter Haven, FL, USA ; and by the proposer.

64

2610. [2001 : 50] Proposed by Aram Tangboondouangjit, Carnegie


Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Let ffn g be the Fibonacci sequence given by f0 = 0, f1 = 1, and for
n  2, fn = fn;1 + fn;2 . Prove that, for n  1,
f2n j (f3n + (;1)nfn) .
Solution by LipZhou, Polk Community
p5 College, Winter Haven, FL, USA..
1
+
5
1
;
Let a = 2 and b = 2 . Then a + b = 1 and ab = ;1.
Since an + bn = (a + b)(an;1 + bn;1 ) ; ab(an;2 + bn;2 ), we see
easily by induction that an + bn is an integer for n  1. By Binet's formula,

f3n + (;1)n fn = p15 (a3n ; b3n ) + p15 (;1)n (an ; bn)


;

= p15 a3n ; b3n + (ab)n (an ; bn)
= p15 (an + bn )(a2n ; b2n) = (an + bn )f2n ,
from which the conclusion follows.

Also solved by the AUSTRIAN IMO-TEAM, 2001 ; MICHEL BATAILLE, Rouen, France ; BRIAN D.
BEASLEY, Presbyterian College, Clinton, SC, USA ; PIERRE BORNSZTEIN, Pontoise, France ; CHRISTOPHER
J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK ; SCOTT H. BROWN, Auburn University at Montgomery, Montgomery, AL, USA ; JAMES T. BRUENING, Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, MO, USA ;
CHARLES R. DIMINNIE, Angelo State University, San Angelo, TX, USA ; VINAYAK GANESHAN, student, University of Waterloo, Waterloo ; C. FESTRAETS-HAMOIR, Brussels, Belgium ; RICHARD I. HESS, Rancho Palos
Verdes, CA, USA ; JOHN G. HEUVER, Grande Prairie Composite High School, Grande Prairie, Alberta ; JOE
HOWARD, Portales, NM, USA ; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria ; PAUL JEFFERYS, student, Berkhamsted Collegiate School, UK ; KEE-WAI LAU, Hong Kong ; GERRY LEVERSHA, St. Paul's
School, London, England ; HENRY LIU, student, University of Memphis, TN, USA ; DAVID LOEFFLER,
student, Cotham School, Bristol, UK ;DAVID E. MANES, SUNY at Oneonta, Oneonta, NY, USA ; REVAI MATH

CLUB, Gyor, Hungary ; JUAN-BOSCO ROMERO M ARQUEZ,
Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain ;
JOEL SCHLOSBERG, student, New York University, NY, USA ; ROBERT P. SEALY, Mount Allison University,

Sackville, New Brunswick ; HEINZ-J URGEN
SEIFFERT, Berlin, Germany ; CHRIS WILDHAGEN, Rotterdam,
the Netherlands ; KENNETH M. WILKE, Topeka, KS, USA ; LI ZHOU, Polk Community College, Winter Haven,
FL, USA (second solution) ; PETER Y. WOO, Biola University, La Mirada, CA, USA ; and the proposer.
Many solvers proved the statement by showing that F3n + (;1)n Fn = Ln F2n where Ln is the
nth term of the Lucas sequence fLn g de ned
by Ln = Ln;1 + Ln;2 for n  3, and L1 = 1; L2 = 3.
Since it is also well known that Ln = an + nbn , the solution
given above yields the same result. However,
some solvers only showed that F3n + (;1) Fn = (an + bnn)F2n nand then claimed that the conclusion
follows. This logic is clearly awed since it is not obvious that a + b is an integer, though it is clear that
it must be a rational number. Nonetheless, we are willing to give the bene t of doubt to these solvers since
as it turns out, an + bn an integer.

Crux Mathematicorum
is

Founding Editors / Redacteurs-fondateurs : Leopold Sauve & Frederick G.B. Maskell


Editors emeriti / Redacteur-emeriti : G.W. Sands, R.E. Woodrow, Bruce L.R. Shawyer

Mathematical Mayhem

Founding Editors / Redacteurs-fondateurs : Patrick Surry & Ravi Vakil


Editors emeriti / Redacteurs-emeriti : Philip Jong, Je Higham,
J.P. Grossman, Andre Chang, Naoki Sato, Cyrus Hsia

65

THE OLYMPIAD CORNER


No. 220
R.E. Woodrow

All communications about this column should be sent to Professor R.E.


Woodrow, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Calgary,
Calgary, Alberta, Canada. T2N 1N4.
We begin with the problems of the two days of the Turkish Mathematical Olympiad 1998. Thanks go to Ed Barbeau for collecting these problems
at the IMO in Romania.

VI TURKISH MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD


Second Round

First Day - December 11, 1998 (Time: 4.5 hours)

\
\
\ \

1. On the base of the isosceles triangle ABC (jABj = jAC j) we


choose a point D such that jBDj : jDC j = 2 : 1 and on [AD] we choose a
point P such that m(B AC ) = m(B PD).
Prove that m(DPC ) = m(B AC )=2.
2. Prove that

(a + 3b)(b + 4c)(c + 2a)  60abc


for all real numbers 0  a  b  c.

3. The points of a circle are coloured by three colours. Prove that there
exist in nitely many isosceles triangles with vertices on the circle and of the
same colour.
Second Day - December 12, 1998 (Time: 4.5 hours)
4. Determine all positive integers x, n satisfying the equation
5. Given the angle XOY , variable points M and N are considered on

x + 3367 = 2n .
3

the arms [OX ] and [OY ], respectively, so that jOM j + jON j is constant.
Determine the geometric locus of the mid-point of [MN ].
6. Some of the vertices of unit squares of an n  n chessboard are
coloured so that any k  k square formed by these unit squares on the chess
board has a coloured point on at least one of its sides. If l(n) stands for the
minimum number of coloured points required to satisfy this condition, prove
that
2
l(n)
nlim
!1 n2 = 7 .

66
As a second set for this issue we give the Turkish Team Selection
Examination for the 40th IMO, 1999. Thanks again to Ed Barbeau for collecting them at the IMO in Romania.

TURKISH TEAM SELECTION


EXAMINATION
th
FOR THE 40 IMO
First Day - March 20, 1999
(Time: 4.5 hours)

1. Let m  n be positive integers and p be a prime. Let p{expansions


of m and n be
m = a + a p +    + ar pr ,
n = b + b p +    + bs ps ,
respectively, where ar , bs 6= 0, for all i 2 f0, 1, : : : , rg and for all
j 2 f0, 1, : : : , sg, we have 0  ai , bj  p ; 1.
If ai  bi for all i 2 f0, 1, : : : , rg, we write m p n. Prove that
 
n (=) m  n .
p6j m
p
0

2. Let L and N be the mid-points of the diagonals [AC ] and [BD] of


the cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, respectively. If BD is the bisector of the
angle ANC , then prove that AC is the bisector of the angle BLD.
3. Determine all functions f : R ;! R such that the set


f (x) : x 6= 0 and x 2 R
x
is nite, and for all x 2 R
f (x ; 1 ; f (x)) = f (x) ; x ; 1 .

Second Day - March 21, 1999


(Time: 4.5 hours)

4. Let the area and the perimeter of a cyclic quadrilateral C be AC and


PC , respectively. If the area and the perimeter of the quadrilateral which is
tangent to the circumcircle
of C at the vertices of C are AT and PT , respec
P
A
C
tively, prove that AT  PCT .
2

67

5. Each of A, B, C , D, E and F knows a piece of gossip. They communicate by telephone via a central switchboard, which can connect only two of
them at a time. During a conversation, each side tells the other everything
he or she knows at that point. Determine the minimum number of calls for
everyone to know all six pieces of gossip.
6. Prove that the plane is not a union of the inner regions of nitely
many parabolas. (The outer region of a parabola is the union of the lines not
intersecting the parabola. The inner region of a parabola is the set of points
of the plane that do not belong to the outer region of the parabola.)
As a nal contest for this issue we give the Final Round of the Japanese
Mathematical Olympiad 1999. Thanks go to Ed Barbeau for collecting this
when he was Canadian Team Leader to the IMO in Romania.

JAPANESE MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD 1999


Final Round | February 11, 1999
Duration: 4 hours

1. You can place a stone at each of 1999  1999 squares on a grid pattern. Find the minimum number of stones to satisfy the following condition.
Condition: When an arbitrary blank square is selected, the total number of
stones placed in the corresponding row and column shall be 1999 or more.
2. Let f (x) = x + 17. Prove that for each natural number n, n  2,
there is a natural number x, for which f (x) is divisible by 3n but not by
3n .
3. Let 2n + 1 weights (n is a natural number, n  1) satisfy the
following condition.
Condition: If any one weight is excluded, then the remaining 2n weights can
be divided into a pair of n weights that balance each other.
Prove that all the weights are equal in this case.
4. Prove that
3

+1

f (x) = (x + 1 )(x + 2 )(x + 3 )    (x + n ) + 1


2

cannot be expressed as a product of two integral-coecient polynomials with


degree greater than 1.
5. For the convex hexagon ABCDEF having side lengths that are
all 1, nd the maximum value M and minimum value m of three
diagonals AD, BE , and CF and their possible ranges.

68
Next, we turn to readers' comments and solutions to problems of the
13th Iranian Mathematical Olympiad 1995, given [1999 : 456].
1. Find all real numbers a  a      an satisfying
1

n
X

i=1

ai = 96 ,

n
X

i=1

n
X

ai = 144 ,
2

i=1

ai = 216 .
3

Solutions by Moubinool Omarjee, Paris, France; and by George


Evagelopoulos, Athens, Greece. Comments by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France; by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France; and by Edward T.H.
Wang, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario.
Wang notes that this is the same as CRUX with MAYHEM problem
#1982, which appeared [1994 : 250] with solution(s) [1995 : 256{257]. Bornsztein points out the similarity to CRUX with MAYHEM problem #1838,
where a solution in positive integers is required.
2. Points D and E are situated on the sides AB and AC of triangle
ABC in such a way that DE kBC . Let P be an arbitrary point inside the
triangle ABC . Lines PB and PC intersect DE at F and G, respectively.
Let O be the circumcentre of triangle PDG and let O be that of PFE .
Show that AP ? O O .
Solution by Toshio Seimiya, Kawasaki, Japan.
1

P
D

O2
q

O1
q

;2
K
C
Q
Let ; and ; be the circumcircles of 4PDG and 4PFE , respectively,
so that O and O are centres of ; and ; , respectively. Let Q be the
intersection of ; and ; other than P . Then O O ? PQ.
Let H and K be the intersections of AP with DE and BC , respectively.

;1

69
Since DE kBC , we get

DH : BK = AH : AK = HE : KC , so that
DH : HE = BK : KC .

(1)

FH : HG = BK : KC .

(2)

Since FGkBC , we similarly get


From (1) and (2), we have

DH : HE = FH : HG .
Thus,

DH  HG = FH  HE .
Note that DH  HG and FH  HE are the powers of H with respect to ;
and ; , respectively. Hence, H is a point on the radical axis of ; and ; .
Since P and Q are intersections of ; and ; , we have that PQ is the
radical axis of ; and ; . Therefore, H is a point on the line PQ, so that A,
P , Q are collinear.
Since, PQ ? O O , we have AP ? O O .
3. Let P (x) be a polynomial with rational coecients such that
P ; (Q)  Q. Show that P is linear.
1

Solutions by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France; and by Moubinool


Omarjee, Paris, France. We give Bornsztein's argument.
Let P (x) 2 Q[x] such that P ; (Q)  Q. It follows that
P (Q)  Q (since P 2 Q[x])
(1)
and
P (R ; Q)  RnQ ( since P ; (Q)  Q) .
(2)
It is easy to see that P cannot be a constant polynomial.
Since P 6 0, multiply by the denominators of the coecients of P . We
obtain another polynomial with integer coecients, satisfying (1) and (2).
Moreover,
 if c is the leading coecient of this last polynomial, then,
;
using x 7! xc and multiplying by cn; (where n is the degree of P ), we
obtain a monic polynomial, with (1) and (2).
Thus, with no loss of generality, we may suppose that P 2 Z[x], where
P has leading coecient 1 (P is monic), and P satis es (1) and (2).
The desired result follows immediately from this claim:
1

70
Claim: If P 2 Z[x] is a monic polynomial, with degree greater than 1, then
there exists an integer a such that P (x) ; a has a positive real irrational root.
Proof. Let p be a prime such that p > P (1) ; P (0) and greater than the
largest real roots of P (x) ; P (0) ; x.
Let a = p + P (0). Then P (1) ; a = P (1) ; P (0) ; p < 0 and
P (p) ; a = P (p) ; P (0) ; p > 0.
From the Intermediate Value Theorem, it follows that P (x) ; a has a
real root in (1; p), say .
Since P (x) ; a is a monic polynomial with integer coecients, it is well
known that, if is a rational root of P (x) ; a, then divides P (0) ; a = ;p.
Whence, = 1 or = p. Thus, is irrational.
This ends the proof of the claim.
It follows from the claim that if P 2 Z[x] is a monic polynomial satisfying (2), then P cannot have a degree greater than 1. That is, P is linear.
4. Let S = fx , x , : : : , xng be an n{element subset of the set
fx 2 R j x  1g. Find the maximum number of elements of the form
n
X
"i xi , "i = 0, 1
i
which belong to I , where I varies over all open intervals of length 1,
and S over all n{element subsets.
Solutions by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France; by Pierre
Bornsztein, Pontoise, France; and by Moubinool Omarjee, Paris, France. We
give Bornsztein's argument.
We will prove that the desired maximum, denoted by M , is
1

=1



M =  nn  where bc is the integer part function.
2

Let S be an n{element subset of (1; +1). Denote by s(A) the sum of the
elements of the subset A of S , with s(;) = 0. Let I be an open interval of
length one.
Claim: If A, B are two subsets of S with A 6 B then s(A) or s(B ) does not
belong to I .
Proof. Since A 6 B there exists x 2 B nA. Thus,
s(B) = x + s(B ; fxg)  x + s(A)  1 + s(A) .
Then, s(B ) ; s(A)  1.
It follows that the numbers s(B ) and s(A) cannot belong to a common
open interval of length one.

71
From the claim, it follows immediately that the number of elements of
the form Pni "i xi , with "i = 0, 1, (that is the number of s(A) where A  S )
which belong to I is not greater than the maximum number of subsets A ,
A , : : : , of S which may be constructed such that none of the Ai 's is included
in another.
Such a family of subsets
 is a Sperner family. It is well known that a
Sperner family has at most nn2  elements (see [1]).
Since it is true for any I , S under the assumptions of the exercise, we
deduce that
=1

M 

n .

(1)

n
2

 
Conversely: Let p be an integer such that n < p.
For i = 1, : : : , n, let xi = 1 + p i .
2

1
+

j k
Let A be any n2 {subset of S = fx , : : : , xn g. Then,
1

n < s(A) =
2

j k

n +
2

j k

< n2 +


=
Thus,

s(A) 2 I =

xi 2i A
X

xi 2i A

1
p+i
1

n + 1 jnk .
2
p 2

j k

n ; n + 1 .
2
2

j k j k

I is clearly an open interval of length one, and I contains all s(A) where
A  S with Card(A) =  n .


Then, at least nn2  elements of the form P "i xi , "i = 0, 1, belong
to I .
2

It follows that

M 

n .

n
2

From (1) and (2), we deduce that M = nn2  , as claimed.


Reference.
[1] K. Engel, \Sperner theory", Cambridge University Press, p. 1{3.

(2)

72

5. Does there exist a function f : R ! R that ful ls all of the following


conditions:
(a) f (1) = 1
(b) there exists M > 0 such that ;M < f (x) < M
(c) if x 6= 0 then


  2

f x + x 2 = f (x ) + f x
1

Solution by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France.


Let n be the smallest integer for which f (x) < n for all x 6= 0. Then,
we can nd x 6= 0 such that f (x)  n ; 1. Then,
  2

f x = f x + x2 ; f (x) < n ; (n ; 1) = 1 ,
and thus, f ( x ) > ;1. Now, substituting x for x in the original equation,
1

we have

 

(n ; 1)  f (x) = f x12 + x ; f x1 < n + 1 .


Thus, (n ; 1) < n + 1, and thus, n 2 f1, 2g. But, putting x = 1 in the
original equation, we get f (2) = 2, and therefore, n > 2, a contradiction.
2

Comment by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France. The problem and


solution can be found in \36th International Mathematical Olympiad" published by the Canadian Mathematical Society, p. 124.
6. Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. Find all real numbers x, y, z
such that

x+y+z = a+b+c
4xyz ; (a x + b y + c z) = abc .
2

Solution by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France.


The second equation is equivalent to

a2 + b2 + c2 + abc
4 = yz
zx xy xyz
and also to
where

4 = x +y +z +x y z ,
2
1

2
1

2
1

0 < x = payz < 2 , 0 < y = pbzx < 2 ,


0 < z = pcxy < 2 .
1

73
Setting x = 2 sin u, 0 < u <  , and y = 2 sin v, 0 < v <  , we have
1

4 = 4 sin u + 4 sin v + z + 4 sin u  sin v  z .


2

Hence,

2
1

z + 2 sin u  sin v = 2 cos u  cos v ;


1

and then,

z = 2(cos u  cos v ; sin u  sin v) ; = 2 cos(u + v) .


1

Thus,

pyz sin u ,
a = 2p
b = 2pzx sin v ,
c = 2 xy(cos u  cos v ; sin u  sin v) .
From x + y + z = a + b + c, we get
;p
x cos v ; py cos u + ;px sin v + py sin u ; pz = 0
2

which implies

pz = px sin v + py sin u = px y + py x .
2
2
1

Therefore,

pz = px  pb + py  a ,
2 zx
2pyz
and thus, z = a b . Similarly, x = a b , y = c a .
The triple



(x; y; z) = b +2 c ; c +2 a ; a +2 b

is the unique solution.


Comment by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France. The problem and a
solution are in \36th International Mathematical Olympiad", published by
the Canadian Mathematical Society, p. 122{123.
Next we turn to the February 2000 number of the Corner and solutions
to problems of the Final (Selection) Round of the Estonian Mathematical
Contests 1995-96 given [2000 : 6].

74

1. The numbers x, y and x2

x2 + y2 + 6 is a perfect cube.
xy

y2 + 6 are positive integers. Prove that


xy

Solutions by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France; by Pierre Bornsztein, Courdimanche, France; and by Edward T.H. Wang, Wilfrid Laurier
University, Waterloo, Ontario. We give Wang's write-up and comment.
2 y2 + 6
Suppose x +xy
= k for some positive integers x, y and k. We
prove that necessarily k = 8.
Consider

x2 + y 2 + 6 = k
xy

(1)

as a Diophantine equation in two variables x and y. Let (a; b) denote the


solution of (1) with the least positive a value. We rst show that a = 1.
Due to symmetry, we may assume that a  b. Note rst that a and b must
both be odd since they clearly must have the same parity and if they are both
even, then modulo 4, a + b + 6  2 while kab  0. If a = b, then from
k = 2 + a2 we deduce immediately that a = 1. If a < b then b  a + 1.
Since
2

ka ; b)2 + a2 + 6 = k2 a2 ; 2kab + kab = k


(ka ; b)a
ka2 ; ab

and

2+ 2+6

2+6

ka ; b = a bb
; b = a b > 0,
we see that (ka ; b; a) is also a solution of (1) in natural numbers. Note
that
2
a
a +6;ab  a +6;a(a+1) = 6;a < 0 if a > 6. Thus, ka;b = b < a
if a > 6, contradicting the minimality of a. Hence, a  6. It remains to show
that a =
6 3, 5. If a = 3, then we get b + 15 = 3kb, which implies that 3
divides b and thus, b + 15  6, while 3kb  0 (mod 9). If a = 5, then we
get b +31 = 5kb. Since b is an integer and 31 is a prime we deduce from the
relation between roots and coecients that 5k = 32, which
is impossible.
2
b
Therefore, we conclude that a = 1, which implies k = b = b + b .
Hence, b = 7 and k = 8, which is a cube.
2

+6

+7

Comment. This is a beautiful problem which parallels the following


\infamous" problem of the 29th IMO, supposedly the most dicult IMO
problem ever (with an average score of 0:6 out of 7):
\Suppose a and b are2positive
integers such that ab + 1 divides
2
a
+b
a + b . Prove that ab + 1 is a perfect square."
2

75

2. Let a, b, c be the sides of a triangle and , , the opposite angles


of the sides, respectively. Prove that if the inradius of the triangle is r, then
a sin + b sin + c sin  9r.
Solutions by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France; by Michel Bataille,
Rouen, France; by Pierre Bornsztein, Courdimanche, France; by Murray S.
Klamkin, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta; by Hojoo Lee, student,
Kwangwoon University, Kangwon-Do, South Korea; by David Loeer, student, Cotham School, Bristol, UK; by Toshio Seimiya, Kawasaki, Japan; and
by Panos E. Tsaoussoglou, Athens, Greece.
We rst give Loeer's solution.
First we substitute sin( ) = 2aR , etc., so that the required inequality
is equivalent to
2
2
2
9r  2aR + 2bR + 2cR ,

18Rr  a + b + c .

or

The product Rr can be neatly expressed by comparing two well-known formulae for the area of the triangle: abc
and rs = r(a +2b + c) . Equating
4R
these gives Rr = 2(a +abcb + c) .
Thus, the required inequality becomes:
9abc
a+b+c  a +b +c ,
9abc  (a + b + c )(a + b + c) .
2

However, applying the AM-GM inequality, we see that


2 2 2
(abc) 23  a + b3 + c ;

that is,
and

3(abc) 23  a + b + c ,
2

(abc) 13  a + 3b + c ,

or 3(abc) 13  a + b + c .
Multiplying these together it follows that 9abc  (a + b + c)(a + b + c ),
which we showed to be equivalent to the required inequality.
Now we give Klamkin's generalization and comment.
Since a = 2R sin , etc., where R is the circumradius, the inequality is
now
a + b + c  18Rr .
We prove the stronger inequality
a + b + c  xRr ; (2x ; 36)r  18Rr ,
where 18  x  24. The right-hand inequality reduces to (x;18)(R;2r) 
2

76
which is the well-known Chapple-Euler inequality. For the left-hand
inequality, we use an identity [1; p. 52].

a + b + c = 2(s ; 4Rr ; r )  xRr ; (2x ; 36)r


2

where s is the semiperimeter. This reduces the inequality to


2s  (x + 8)Rr + (38 ; 2x)r .
Since it is known [1; p. 50] that s  16Rr ; 5r, we must have here that
2

32Rr ; 10r  (x + 8)Rr + (38 ; 2x)r


or that (24 ; x)Rr  (48 ; 2x)r and which is valid if x  24 as well.
2

Comment. As a known complementary inequality, we also have


9R  a + b + c .
For one simple proof of this consider the expansion of (A + B + C )  0
where A, B , C are vectors from the circumcentre to the vertices A, B , C of
the triangle ABC (note that A = R , 2B  C = 2R ; a , etc.). Another
proof follows from OH = 9R ; (a + b + c ) where O and H are the
circumcentre and orthocentre of ABC .
Reference:
[1] D.S. Mitrinovic, J.E. Pecaric, V. Volenic, Recent Advances in Geometric
Inequalities, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1989.
3. Prove that the polynomial Pn(x) = 1 + x + x2 + x3 +    + xnn has
no zeros if n is even and has exactly one zero if n is odd.
Solutions by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France; by Michel Bataille,
Rouen, France; by Pierre Bornsztein, Courdimanche, France; and by Murray
S. Klamkin, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. We give the write-up
of Bataille (with his added supplementary remark).
We shall prove by induction the following property
(
P n has no (real) zeros
(n )
P n has exactly one (real) zero.
2

+1

Clearly ( ) is true since P (x) = 1 and P (x) = 1 + x.


Suppose now that (n ) is true for an integer n  0. We will denote by
xn the unique zero of P n . The continuous function P n has no zeros and
is positive for x  0. Hence, P n (x) > 0 for all x.
Since the derivative P 0n of P n is P n , the function P n is increasing. Furthermore, x!;1
lim P n (x)= ;1 and x!lim1 P n (x)=+1,
so that P n (x) < 0 for x < xn and P n (x) > 0 for x > xn .
0

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

77
Now, using P 0n = P n , we see that P n (x) is a minimum when
x = xn . Hence, for all x
2

+2

+1

+2

2n+2
P n (x)  P n (xn) = P n (xn ) + xnn
2

+2

+2

+1

x2nn+2

n + 2)!

(2

(2

+ 2)!

n+1 )2
= (2xnn+ 2)!
> 0.
(

Thus, P n (x) never takes the value 0.


Also, as above, P n is increasing, continuous, and x!;1
lim P n (x)= ;1,
lim1 P n (x)=+1. Hence, P n has a unique zero. This completes the
x!
induction and shows that property (n ) is true for all non-negative integer n.
Remark. As a supplement, we show that nlim
!1 xn = ;1.
Consider
2

+2

+3

+3

P n (;2n;3) =
2

+1

n+1
X

k=0

; n;
k

+2

3)

n
X

(2n+3) p

p=0

+3

3
; (2pn++1)!
.
(2p)!
1

We have P n (;2n ; 3) < 0 (since 2n + 3 > 2p + 1 for p = 0; : : : ; n) and


thus, xn > ;2n ; 3. Hence,
2

+1

2n+2

1 + nxn > 0 ,
P n (xn ) = P n (xn) ; P n (xn ) = xnn
which implies xn > xn . Therefore, (xn ) is a decreasing sequence of real
numbers and, as such, either limn!1 xn = ;1 or (xn ) converges to a real
number m. Assume that the latter does occur. Note that m  xn < 0 for
all n. Since for all n  0 we have P n (x)  ex  P n (x) for all x  0
2

+3

+3

+1

(2

+ 2)!

+3

+1

[easy induction], we would have

+1

2n+1
0  exn  P n (xn) = P n (xn ) ; (2xnn+ 1)!
2n+1
2n+1
= ; (2xnn+ 1)!  ; (2mn + 1)! .
m2n+1 = 0) while, by the
But then, limn!1 exn = 0 (because nlim
!1 (2n + 1)!
xn
m
continuity of the exponential function, we must have nlim
!1 e = e 6= 0.
This contradiction shows that nlim
!1 xn = ;1.
2

+1

4. Let H be the orthocentre of an obtuse triangle ABC and A , B ,


C arbitrary points taken on the sides BC , AC , AB, respectively. Prove
that the tangents drawn from the point H to the circles with diameters AA ,
BB , CC are equal.
1

78

Solutions by Michel Bataille, Rouen, France; and by Toshio Seimiya,


Kawasaki, Japan. We give Seimiya's solution.
B
;2
t2
E
C1
A
D
H
r

t1

B1

;1

A1

t3

;3

C
The lines HA, HB , HC meet BC , CA, AB at D, E , F , respectively.
Then, AD ? BC , BE ? AC and CF ? AB .
Let ; , ; , ; be circles with diameters AA , BB , CC , respectively.
Since \ADA = \BEB = CFC = 90 , we have that ; , ; , ;
pass through D, E , F , respectively.
Let t , t , t be the tangent segments from H to ; , ; , ; , respectively.
Since \ADB = \AEB = 90 , A, D, B , E are concyclic, so that
HA  HD = HB  HE .
Hence, we have
t = HA  HD = HB  HE = t .
Thus, t = t .
Similarly, we have t = t . Therefore, t = t = t .
5. Find all functions f : R ! R satisfying the following conditions for
all x 2 R.
(a) f (x) = ;f (;x);
(b) f (x + 1) = f (x) + 1;
 
(c) f x1 = x12 f (x), if x 6= 0.
1

2
1

2
2

79

Solutions by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France; by Michel Bataille,


Rouen, France; and by Pierre Bornsztein, Courdimanche, France. We give the
write-up by Aassila.
Set g(x) = f (x) ; x. Then g satis es
(a') g(x) = ;g(;x);
(b') g(x + 1) = g(x);
 
(c') g x1 = x12 g(x), if x 6= 0.
By (a'){(b') we get g(0) = g(;1) = 0, and for all x 6= 0, ;1 we have


= ;(x + 1) g ; x
g(x) = g(x + 1) = (x + 1) g x




= ;(x + 1) g 1 ; x
= ;(x + 1) g x x




 
2
= ;(x + 1) x x 2 g x x = ;x g 1 + x = ;x g x
= ;g(x) .
Hence, g(x)  0, and f (x) = x for all x 2 R.
2

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

+ 1)

Now we turn to solutions from our readers to problems of the Japan


Mathematical Olympiad, Final Round, 1996 given [2000 : 7].
2. For positive integers m, n with gcd(m; n) = 1, determine the value
gcd(5m + 7m ; 5n + 7n).
Solutions by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France; by Michel Bataille,
Rouen, France; by Pierre Bornsztein, Courdimanche, France; and by George
Evagelopoulos, Athens, Greece. We give Bornsztein's solution.
We will use the following lemma (see [1] for a proof).
Lemma. If a and b are relatively prime integers with a > b, then for every
pair of positive integers m and n we have

(am ; bm ; an ; bn ) = a m;n ; b m;n


where (x; y) denotes the gcd of integers x and y.
Let m, n be positive integers, with (m; n) = 1.
Let Sm = 5m + 7m , Sn = 5n + 7n , S = (Sm ; Sn ) and Ua = 7a ; 5a
for a 2 N .
If m = n = 1, we have S = Sm = Sn = 12.
Since (m; n) = 1 and m, n are playing symmetric parts, we may
(

suppose that m > n.

80
Let m = a + n. Then, a 2 N and (a; n) = 1.
We have

Sm ; 5a Sn = 7nUa .

(1)

Since 5 and 7 are relatively prime, it is easy to see that (S ; 5a ) = 1 and


(S ; 7n) = 1.
Then, from (1), we deduce that S = (Ua ; Sn ).
Case 1. a is odd.
Let Sn = Sl, Ua = S k, where k, l 2 N and (k; l) = 1. Then, using
the binomial expansion

7an = (S l ; 5n )a = S L ; 5an
and

7an = (S k + 5a )n = S K + 5an

where K , L are integers.


Thus,

S (K ; L) = 2  5an .
It follows that S divides 2  5an . Since (S ; 5) = 1, we deduce (using Gauss'
theorem) that S divides 2.
Moreover, Sm , Sn are even. Thus, 2 divides S . Then, S = 2.
Case 2. a is even.
Let a = 2b, where b 2 N and (b; n) = 1.
Moreover, m and n are odd, since m = 2b + n and (m; n) = 1. Then
S divides SnUn = U n = 7 n ; 5 n and S divides Ua = 7 b ; 5 b .
From the lemma, we deduce that S divides
7 ; 5 = 24 .
(2)
Since m, n are odd, we have 7m  ;1 (mod 8) and 5m  5 (mod 8).
It follows that 4 divides Sm and Sn , but 8 does not divide either Sm
or Sn .
In the same way, Sm  Sn  1m + (;1)m  0 (mod 3). Since 3 and
2

4 are relatively prime, it follows that

Sm  Sn  0 (mod 12)

but

Sm 6 0 (mod 24) .

81
From (2), we may conclude that S = 12. Then:
if m, n are odd, we have (Sm ; Sn ) = 12;
if m, n have opposite parities, we have (Sm ; Sn ) = 2.
Reference.
[1] Math. Magazine, Exercise no 1091, vol. 54, no. 2, March 1981, pp. 86{87.
3. Let x be a real number with x > 1 and such that x is not an integer.
Let an = bxn c ; xbxn c (n = 1, 2, 3, : : : ). Prove that the sequence
of numbers fan g is not periodic. (Here byc denotes, as usual, the largest
integer  y.)
Solutions by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France; and by Michel
Bataille, Rouen, France. We give Bataille's solution.
Suppose for purpose of contradiction, that there exists a positive integer
p such that ann pp = ann for all positive integers n. De ning the integer un
by un = bx c ; bx c, we would have un = xun for all n. We now
distinguish the following mutually exclusive cases:
Case 1. u = bxp c ; bxc 6= 0.
Then, x = uu12 is a rational number that we can also write as x = kl
where k, l are coprime integers. Note that k > l > 1 (since x > 1 and
x 62 N). For alln n,n un = xnu so that lnun = knu and, ln being
coprime with k , l divides u . This would mean that u has an in nite
number of divisors (since l > 1), which is clearly impossible.
Case 2. u = bxp c ; bxc = 0.
Then, un = 0 for all n, and an easy induction shows that, for all positive
integers m,
+1

+
+

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

bxmp c = bxc , bxmp c = bx c , : : : , bxmp


and bxmp c = bxp c .
+1

+2

p;1 c =

bxp; c ) (1)
1

However, from x < x <    < xp < xp , we get


2

+1

bxc  bx c      bxpc  bxp c


and since bxp c = bxc, we have bxr c = bxc for r = 1, 2, : : : , p + 1.
Actually, we even have bxn c = bxc for all positive integers n (divide n
n
by p and use (1)). Again this is impossible since nlim
!1 x = +1 and thus,
n
nlim
!1bx c = +1.
Thus, in both cases we are led to an impossibility, and fan g cannot be
2

+1

periodic.

+1

82

5.

Let q be a real number such that 1 +2 5 < q < 2. When we


represent a positive integer n in binary expansion as

n = 2k + ak;  2k; +    + a  2 + a
(here ai = 0 or 1), we de ne pn by
pn = qk + ak; qk; +    + a q + a :
1

Prove that there exist in nitely many positive integers k which satisfy
the following condition: There exists no positive integer l such that
p k < pl < p k .
Solution by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France.
By induction on n, we can prove that k = qn satis es the required
condition, where qn is de ned by
2

2 +1

8
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
:

qm =
2

qm
2

+1

m
X

2k

km
=0
X

2k .
2 +1

k=0

That completes the Corner for this issue of CRUX with MAYHEM. We
are entering Olympiad season. Send me your nice solutions and generalizations as well as Olympiad Contests.

Professor Toshio Seimiya


Regular readers of this section will be aware of the many beautiful
geometry problems that have been proposed by Professor Toshio Seimiya.
We dedicated some to him in March 2001 [2001 : 114], in celebration of his
90th birthday. Unfortunately, we did not have a photograph available then.
We do now! See page 100.

83

BOOK REVIEWS

JOHN GRANT McLOUGHLIN


Teaching Statistics: Resources for Undergraduate Instructors
edited by Thomas L. Moore, published by the Mathematical Association of
America (MAA Notes Series, #52), 2000,
ISBN 0-88385-162-8, softcover, 222+xii pages, $31.95 (U.S.).
Reviewed by C.L. Kaller, retired Professor of Mathematics, Kelowna, BC.
This instructors' handbook is an eclectic collection of articles (some
published for the rst time, but many reprints of previously published articles or commentaries on such articles) on a number of aspects of introductory undergraduate statistics instruction. It is a compendium of information
intended to be regarded essentially as an instructors' manual for teachers of
statistics courses to undergraduate or even senior secondary school students.
Particular targets of this volume are those teachers of statistics courses who
have limited formal training in that discipline.
The volume consists of articles in six categories:
1. Hortatory Imperatives [of data-based statistical instruction]
2. Teaching with Data [in classroom settings]
3. Established Projects in Active Learning [with usage guidelines]
4. Textbooks [with detailed textbook selection procedures]
5. Technology [resources available for classroom presentations]
6. Assessment [of student achievement].
The motivation behind the choice of articles in each of these categories is relevance to what the editor feels is the current (2000) thinking about just what
constitutes acceptable statistics instruction, particularly when such instruction is provided by teachers whose formal professional training in statistics
is somewhat limited. The editor points out that the volume is far from an
all-inclusive presentation of resources and ideas on statistics education; it is
his stated hope, however, that the material will provide direction to readers
and to have them keep alert to other instructional resources constantly being
developed.
Laudatory as is the intent of the editor in publishing the contents of
this handbook to help the classroom statistics instructor, this publication is
not without some irritating editorial aws giving this reviewer the distinct
impression that the volume was thrown together in a hasty rush to the printers. Grammar, spelling, consistency and format have not received the careful
editorial attention expected in an MAA publication. Indeed, on the back
cover of the book (as well as elsewhere inside) even the word statistics is
misspelled!

84
Very irritating is the sloppiness in grammar, especially in the use of
the word data which appears inconsistently presented as both a plural and
a singular noun. Indeed, within the same paragraph in the volume, this
word appears as a singular noun in one sentence and plural in another, and
authors inconsistently refer to these data and this data quite interchangeably.
Careful editing of the articles accepted for this publication would at least have
resulted in consistently using (incorrectly, asserts this reviewer) the word
data in singular form if it were impossible to use it correctly as a plural noun.
In the editor's own contribution (on page 31, Implications for Statistics
Teaching) it is stated that \Statistics faculty need to learn new skills. We
now have to grade grammar and writing style as well as statistical thinking."
In a volume intended to give advice and guidance to statistics teachers, it is
regrettable that the editor/author failed to take his own pronouncement to
heart to produce a better quality contribution to the MAA Notes Series.

Gardner's Workout: Training the Mind and Entertaining the Spirit


by Martin Gardner, published by A.K. Peters, 2001.
ISBN 1-56881-120-9, hardcover, 319 + xi pages, $35.00 (U.S.).
Reviewed by Edward J. Barbeau, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario.
Martin Gardner has been part of my mathematical environment since I
discovered his Scienti c American columns as an undergraduate and was captivated by his easy style and elegant problems. Even though he has been succeeded by others in Scienti c American, he has remained very much in view
through appearances in television specials, issues and reissues of his essays,
continuing interest of others in problems that he was the rst to publicize
and articles in a number of journals.
This book is an anthology of 34 articles and 7 reviews that have appeared, mostly during the 1990s, in Quantum, Math Horizons and other
journals of general mathematical interest. An article on Kasparov's defeat
by Deep Blue rst appeared in The Washington Post; four reviews of books
were published in The Los Angeles Times; an essay on the growth of recreational mathematics appeared in Scienti c American, although that was a
\heavily revised and cut version" of what appears in this book. Despite the
variety of topics, there is a linkage from many essays to the next that provides a coherent ow of ideas for the reader who, like myself, progressed
from end to end. Prominent are articles on number play, geometry, graph
theory, arti cial intelligence, puzzles, games and tricks.
Occasionally Gardner becomes more serious. In a pair of articles on
arti cial intelligence, Gardner dissents from the views of those who would
see us on the threshold of reproducing human thinking, and puts forward his
belief that the mind is on a much higher plan of complexity and is qualitatively di erent from anything that has been produced so far on computers. A

85
review of the 1997 NCTM Yearbook, an algebra text and the PBS videoseries
Life by the Numbers in The New York Review of Books provides the occasion to vent his displeasure at the \fuzzy new math". He skewers it for its
faddishness and dilution with much that is mathematically irrelevant. If the
Yearbook is any guide, reformers seem to be completely ignorant of fascinating and challenging mathematical material available in a number of ne
books published in recent years by established mathematicians. It is hard to
argue with his assessment of the PBS series as \high on special e ects, low
on mathematical content". This is an important article, that well deserves
its more permanent place in this volume.
Those who want to enliven the modern school classroom will nd many
riches in this book. Four successive chapters treat, in whole or in part, magic
squares, with some new material. A prize of $100 has not yet been claimed
for a 3  3 magic square whose entries are all squares. There are many
squares that almost do the job, but getting the complete solution is equivalent to nding rational points on certain cubic curves. There are numerous
dissection problems, a genre which I have found encourages my own undergraduate students to think of geometry in more structural terms. A Quantum
article deals with decomposing both squares and equilateral triangles into
three similar parts, all three of which, two of which and none of which are
congruent. Is it true that there is a unique solution to the triangle problems
with one and no congruent pairs of parts? In the magazine, Cubism for Fun,
Gardner o ered a $50 prize for anyone who could, for any integer n exceeding
1, cover the surface of a cube by n congruent polygons without overlapping.
In an addendum, he tells us that this was won by a reader, Anneke Treep,
who without any technical complications applied the right perspective and
degree of imagination.
Other problems, however, are de nitely not for the classroom. Consider the problem, due to Gardner himself from the initial chapter of the
book; it asks for the minimum area of a surface placed inside a transparent
cube to render it opaque from any direction. The best answer seems to be
4:2324. \I believe the opaque cube problem to be extremely dicult," he
writes, \it is keeping me awake at nights."A substantial essay treats minimal Steiner trees (spanning trees of minimum length) on a rectangular array
of nodes, and includes a table of the best known results for n  n when
2  n  14.
The pace is varied by a discussion of directed graphs to analyze propositional calculus, and by some word play. Can you provide a square array of
nine letters for which, each row, column and diagonal, spell out a word? Or
provide a chain of words, each altered by a single letter from its predecessor,
that converts BLACK to WHITE?
The e ectiveness of this book derives in large part from the passion
with which Gardner shares his mathematical enthusiasm and on the breadth
and erudition of his discussions. This is another winner!

86

On a \Problem of the Month"


Murray S. Klamkin
In the problem of the month [1999 : 106], one was to prove that
p
p
p
a + b ; c + b + c ; a + c + a ; b  pa + b + pc ,
where a, b, c are sides of a triangle.
p

It is to be noted that this inequality will follow immediately from the


Majorization Inequality [1]. Here, if A and B are vectors (a ; a ; : : : ; an ),
(b ; b ; : : : ; bn ) where a  a      an , b  b      bn, and
a  b , a + a  b + b , : : : , a + a +    + an;  b + b +    + bn; ,
a + a +    + an = b + b +    + bn, we say that A majorizes B and
write it as A  B. Then, if F is a convex function,
1

F (a ) + F (a ) +    + F (an )  F (b ) + F (b ) +    + F (bn ) .
1

If F is concave, the inequality is reversed.


For the triangle inequality, we can assume without loss of generality
that a  b  c. Then a + b ; c  a, (a + b ; c) + (a + c ; b)  a + b,
and (a + b ; c) + (a + c ; b) + (b + c ; a) = a + b + c. Therefore, if F is
concave,

F (a + b ; c) + F (b + c ; a) + F (c + a ; b)  F (a) + F (b) + F (c)


(for the given inequality, F = px is concave).
As to the substitution a = y + z, b = z + x, c = x + y which was
used in the referred to solution and was called the Ravi Substitution, this
transformation was known and used before he was born. Geometrically, x,
y, z are the lengths which the sides are divided into by the points of tangency

of the incircle. Thus, we have the following implications for any triangle
inequality or identity:

F (a; b; c)  0 (=) F (y + z; z + x; x + y)  0 ,
F (x; y; z)  0 (=) F ((s ; a); (s ; b); (s ; c))  0

(here s is the semiperimeter). This transformation eliminates the troublesome triangle constraints and lets one use all the machinery for a set of three
non-negative numbers.
c 2002 Canadian Mathematical Society
Copyright

87
Another big plus for the Majorization Inequality is that we can obtain
both upper and lower bounds subject to other kinds of constraints. Here are
two examples:
(1) Consider thePbounds on sin a + sin a +    + sin an where n  4,
  ai  0 and ai = S  2. Since
1

 ;  ;  ;  ; 0; 0; : : : ; 0  (a ; a ; : : : ; an )   S ; S ; : : : ; S  ,
2 2 2 2
n n
n
1

we have

 
4  sin a + sin a +    + sin an  n sin Sn .
P
(2) Consider the bounds on a + a +    + an where ai = S (  n) and
1

2
1

2
2

the ai 's are positive integers. Since



(S ; n + 1; 1; 1;    ; 1)  (a ; a ;    ; an)  Sn ; Sn ;    ; Sn ,
1

we have

 
(S ; n + 1) + n ; 1  a + a +    + an  n Sn .
2

2
1

2
2

For many other applications, see [1].


Reference
1. A.W. Marshall, I. Olkin, Inequalities: Theory of Majorization and
Its Applications, Academic Press, NY, 1979.
Murray S. Klamkin
University of Alberta
Edmonton
Alberta
Canada T6G 2G1

88

Substitutions, Inequalities, and History


Shay Gueron
The Non-Ravi Substitution
A solution to the inequality (1996 Asian Paci c Mathematical Competition)
p
p
p
p
a + b ; c + a ; b + c + ;a + b + c  pa + b + pc (1)
where a, b, c are the sides of a triangle, appeared in Crux [1999 : 106]. It
starts with the substitution a = x + y, b = y + z, c = z + x (x, y, z > 0).
This substitution is referred to as the \Ravi Substitution" and reported to be
known by this name, at least in Canadian IMO circles.
It seems that this awkward credit for the substitution di used to wider
circles. The same inequality (1) appears in a French problem solving book
from 1999 [9, p. 146]. Although the solution proposed in [9] is di erent,
it starts with the same substitution which, amazingly, is called there too
the \Ravi Substitution". Further, [9] includes several other mentions and
applications of the \Ravi Substitution" [9, pp. 130, 146, 147, 155, 237].
In response to Crux [1999 : 106], Klamkin [6] comments telegraphically
that the substitution a = x + y, b = y + z, c = z + x is a classical technique
that was known and used before he (Ravi) was born. It is time to set things
straight.
Although Klamkin gives no reference in his piece, he is right; this substitution is one of the rst strategies taught in Olympiad training classes,
at least | a la Crux | in Israeli circles. But since even folklore should be
supported by some written evidence, can we nd such support? The answer
is positive. One example appears in Engel's book (an English translation of
previous German versions) [2, p. 178]: the substitution a = x + y, b = y + z,
c = z + x with x, y, z > 0 is advice number 7 in Engel's list of 18 possible strategies for proving inequalities. It is explained in [2, p. 164] that this
substitution is merely another manifestation of the triangle inequality. The
same explanation appears in more detail in [8, Chapter II, p. 26], a book
devoted to geometric inequalities. It provides some references to papers
where such equivalent forms of the triangle inequality are mentioned (see
pp. 35{36). One of these references, namely [5], is a paper from 1971 |
written by Klamkin.
Consequently, even without digging into earlier references (which are
probably easy to nd) Klamkin's remark is evidently correct.
c 2002 Canadian Mathematical Society
Copyright

89

Karamata and the Majorization Inequality


We continue with a historical mood. Klamkin [6] proposes to solve
(1) by using the Majorization Inequality. This inequality relates to two sequences a  a      an and b  b      bn and states that:
a +    + ai  b +    + bi for 1  i  n ; 1 and a +    + an = b +    + bn
if and only if f (a )+    + f (an )  f (b )+    + f (bn ) for any convex function f (x). Clearly, this inequality includes Jensen's Inequality as a special
case. The proof of one direction is easy, and the more intricate part can be
proved by applying the Abel Summation Formula
1

n
X

i=1

ai bi =

n
X

j
X

j =1 i=1

ai (bj ; bj ) ,
+1

setting bn = 0.
The Majorization Inequality is well known, but unfortunately, this
generic name does not reveal its source: this inequality is due to Karamata, 1932 [4], and should therefore be called the Karamata Inequality, as
in [1, pp. 31-32]. It turns out to be a strong tool with various applications,
some of which can be found in [7] and [8, Chapter VIII]). We also note that
before [6], the inequality (1) appeared in [3] (a paper in Hebrew) as an
example (probably well known even before) of a case where the Karamata
Inequality is a useful approach.
+1

Substitution and the Karamata Inequality


We conclude with an example in the spirit of [6], where a substitution
followed by the application of the Karamata Inequality leads to a solution.
This is IMO 2000 Problem 2 (as solved by one of the Israeli contestants, Eran
Assaf; the problem has some half dozen solutions): Let a, b, c be positive
numbers with abc = 1. Prove that




(2)
a ; 1 + 1b b ; 1 + 1c c ; 1 + a1  1 .
The substitution a = x=y, b = y=z, c = z=x (x, y, z > 0) converts (2) to
(x ; y + z)(y ; z + x)(z ; x + y)  xyz .
(3)
Without loss of generality, assume that x  y  z, so that (y + z ; x),
(z + x ; y) > 0. If x + y ; z  0 (3) follows immediately, so that we may
assume that x + y > z as well.
Since x  x + y ; z, x + y  (x + y ; z) + (z + x ; y), and
x + y + z = (x + y ; z) + (z + x ; y) + (y + z ; x), we can apply the
Karamata Inequality to the triplets (x; y; z) and (x+y ;z; x+z ;y; z +y ;x),
and obtain (3) by writing

f (x) + f (y) + f (z)  f (x + y ; z) + f (z + x ; y) + f (y + z ; x)

90
for the convex function f (x) = ; ln x.
Returning to history, it turns out that inequality (3) to which the IMO
2000 problem is reduced/equivalent, is not really a new one: it is due to
A. Padoa, in 1925 (Period. Mat. (4)5 : 80{85). Moreover, (3) is equivalent to
a (b + c ; a) + b (c + a ; b) + c (a + b ; c)  3abc, which is IMO 1964
Problem 2. Could you guess what substitution is helpful for proving these
inequalities easily?
2

References
[1] E. Beckenbach and R. Bellman. Inequalities. Springer, Berlin (1965).
[2] A. Engel Problem solving strategies. Springer, Berlin (1997).
[3] S. Gueron and R. Tessler. Majorization and the Karamata Inequality.
Etgar-Gilionot Mathematica 48-49: 4-10 (1999).
[4] J. Karamata. Sur une inegalite relative aux fonctions convexes Publ.
Math. Univ. Belgrade 1:145-148 (1932).
[5] M.S. Klamkin. Duality in triangle inequalities. Notices of the
Amer. Math. Soc. p. 782 (1971).
[6] M.S. Klamkin. On a Problem of the Month. Crux Mathematicorum,
Vol 28, p. 86 (2002) .
[7] A.W. Marshall and I. Olkin. Inequalities: Theory of Majorization and
its Applications. Academic Press, N.Y. (1979).
[8] D.S. Mitrinovic, J.E. Pecaric and V. Volenec. Recent advances in geometric inequalities. Kluwer, London (1989).
[9] T.B. Soulami. Les Olympiades de mathematiques ; Re exes et
strategies. Ellipse, Paris (1999).
Shay Gueron
University of Haifa
Israel
shay@math2.haifa.ac.il

91

MATHEMATICAL MAYHEM
Mathematical Mayhem began in 1988 as a Mathematical Journal for and by
High School and University Students. It continues, with the same emphasis,
as an integral part of Crux Mathematicorum with Mathematical Mayhem.
All material intended for inclusion in this section should be sent to
Mathematical Mayhem, Cairine Wilson Secondary School, 977 Orleans Blvd.,
Gloucester, Ontario, Canada. K1C 2Z7 (NEW!). The electronic address is
mayhem-editors@cms.math.ca

The Assistant Mayhem Editor is Chris Cappadocia (University of Waterloo). The other sta member is Jimmy Chui (University of Toronto).

MAYHEM PROBLEMS
Envoyez vos propositions et solutions a MATHEMATICAL MAYHEM,
Faculte de mathematiques, Universite de Waterloo, 200 University Avenue
West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, ou par courriel a
mayhem-editors@cms.math.ca

N'oubliez pas d'inclure a toute correspondance votre nom, votre annee scolaire, le nom de votre e cole, ainsi que votre ville, province ou e tat et pays.
Nous sommes surtout interesses par les solutions d'etudiants du secondaire.
Veuillez nous transmettre vos solutions aux problemes du present numero
avant le 1er septembre 2002. Les solutions recues apres cette date ne seront
prises en compte que s'il nous reste du temps avant la publication des solutions.
Chaque probleme sera publie dans les deux langues ocielles du Canada
(anglais et francais). Dans les numeros 1, 3, 5 et 7, l'anglais precedera le
francais, et dans les numeros 2, 4, 6 et 8, le francais precedera l'anglais.
 MAYHEM de ce mois-ci, les solutions doivent
Pour e^ tre admissibles au DEFI
avoir e te postees avant le 1er juillet 2002, cachet de la poste faisant foi.

34. Propose par l'equipe de Mayhem.

Les nombres 1 a 2002 sont e crits au tableau noir et l'on decide de jouer
au jeu suivant :
On lance une piece de monnaie et on e ace deux nombres x et y du
tableau. Si l'on tombe sur pile, on e crit x + y au tableau, sinon on e crit
jx ; yj ; on continue le processus jusqu'a ce qu'il ne reste plus qu'un nombre.
Montrer que ce dernier nombre est impair.
.................................................................

92
The numbers 1 to 2002 are written on a blackboard so you decide to
play a fun game. You ip a coin, then erase two numbers, x and y, from the
board. If the coin was heads you write the number x + y on the board, if the
coin was tails you write the number jx ; yj. You continue this process until
only one number remains. Prove that the last number is odd.
35. Propose par l'equipe de Mayhem.
On de nit deux suites par x = 4732, y = 847, xn = xn yn and
yn = xnxnyynn . Trouver
1

+1

+
2

+1

nlim
!1 xn

nlim
!1 yn .

et

.................................................................
Two sequences are de ned by: x = 4732, y = 847, xn
and yn = xnxn yynn . Find
1

+1

+1

= xn yn
+
2

nlim
!1 xn

and

nlim
!1 yn .

36. Propose par l'equipe de Mayhem.

Dans un triangle ABC , soit AM la mediane issue du sommet A. Montrer que AM  AB AC .


.................................................................
In 4ABC , AM is the median from A. Prove AM  AB AC .
37. Propose par J. Walter Lynch, Athens, GA, USA.
Trouver deux entiers positifs di erents, plus petits que 100, et tels que
la somme des chi res des deux entiers soit e gale au plus grand et que produit
de leurs chi res soit e gal au plus petit.
.................................................................
Find two (di erent) positive integers less than 100 such that the sum of
the digits in both integers is the larger integer and the product of the digits
in both integers is the smaller integer.
38. Propose par l'equipe de Mayhem.
Trouver toutes les valeurs de n telles que 1! + 2! + 3! +    + n! soit
un carre parfait.
.................................................................
Find all values of n such that 1! + 2! + 3! +    + n! is a perfect square.
+
2

+
2

93

Challenge Board Solutions


Editor: David Savitt, Department of Mathematics, Harvard University,
1 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA, USA 02138 <dsavitt@math.harvard.edu>
In this issue we present some of the solutions to the Konhauser Problemfest presented in the April 2001 issue [2001 : 204].
1. Last season, the Minnesota Timberwolves won 5 times as many
games as they lost, in games in which they scored 100 or more points. On the
other hand, in games in which their opponents scored 100 or more points,
the Timberwolves lost 50% more games than they won. Given that there
were exactly 34 games in which either the Timberwolves or their opponents
scored 100 or more points, what was the Timberwolves' win-loss record in
games in which both they and their opponents scored 100 or more points?
Solution: Let the desired win-loss record be a ; b, so that of the games
when both the Timberwolves and their opponents scored at least 100 points,
the Timberwolves won a and their opponents won b. Also, let c be the number of games in which only the Timberwolves scored at least 100 points and
d be the number of games in which only their opponents scored at least 100
points. Thus, we have
a + c = 5b ,
(1)
b + d = 1:5a ,
(2)
a + b + c + d = 34 .
(3)
Thus, we get c = 5b ; a, and d = 1:5a ; b from (1) and (2), so that (3) yields
3a + 10b = 68.
Now a and b are non-negative integers, and in particular b  6 and
68 ; 10b is divisible by 3, which is true only for b = 2 and b = 5. If b = 2,
then a = 16, c = 5b ; 1 = ;6 < 0, which is a contradiction. Thus, we must
have b = 5 and a = 6. The Timberwolves were 6 ; 5 in games in which both
they and their opponents scored at least 100 points.
2. Three circles are drawn in chalk on the ground. To begin with, there
is a heap of n pebbles inside one of the circles, and there are \empty heaps"
(containing no pebbles) in the other two circles. Your goal is to move the
entire heap of n pebbles to a di erent circle, using a series of moves of the
following type. For any non-negative integer k, you may move exactly 2k
pebbles from one heap (call it heap A) to another (heap B), provided that
heap B begins with fewer than 2k pebbles, and that after the move, heap A
ends up with fewer than 2k pebbles. Naturally, you want to reach your goal
in as few moves as possible. For what values of n  100 would you need the
largest number of moves?
Solution: This is a close relative of the classic \Towers of Hanoi" problem. In that problem, a tapering stack of d discs is to be moved from one peg

94
to one of the other two pegs, which are originally empty. No disc is ever allowed to rest on a larger disc, and the discs must be moved one at a time. If bd
is the number of moves required for d discs, one shows that bd = 2bd + 1
(that is, to move the bottom disc, rst move the other discs onto a single
peg, then after the bottom disc is moved, the others are moved back onto
it). However, all we need for our present purpose is that bd > bd .
The connection between the given problem and the \Towers of Hanoi"
problem can be seen by writing n as a sum of distinct powers of 2. Then, n
can be written as such a sum in exactly one way.
The distinct powers of 2 correspond to the discs in the \Towers of
Hanoi" problem, but larger powers of 2 correspond to smaller discs. The
condition for moving 2k pebbles corresponds to the fact that the top disc
must be moved before any of the discs underneath.
Note that d corresponds to the number of distinct powers of 2 that add
up to n (or the number of 1's in the binary expansion of n). So our problem
boils down to: what numbers n  100 have the most digits 1 in their binary
expansion?
The powers of 2 that can be used in the binary expansion of numbers
n  100 are 2 , 2 , 2 , 2 , 2 , 2 , 2 . However, they cannot all be used
since their sum is 127 > 100. It is possible to use all but one of them in just
two ways:
2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 95 ,
2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 63 .
Hence, 63 and 95 are the desired values of n.
3. (a) Begin with a string of 10 A's, B's, and C's, for example
+1

+1

A B C C B A B C B A

and underneath, form a new row, of length 1 shorter, as follows: between


two consecutive letters that are di erent, you write the third letter, and between two letters that are the same, you write that same letter again. Repeat
this process until you have only one letter in the new row. For example, for
the string above, you will now have:
A B C C B A B C B A
C A C A C C A A C
B B B B C B A B
B B B A A C C
B B C A B C
B A B C A
C C A B
C B C
A A
A

95
Prove that the letters at the corners of the resulting triangle are always either
all the same or all di erent.
Solution: Think of the letters A, B, C as representing the numbers 0,
1, 2, respectively, (mod 3). Then, if in some row we have    x y   
where x and y are integers (mod 3), we get    ; x ; y    in the next row,
where ;x ; y is computed (mod 3). If the original row corresponds to the
integers x x    x (mod 3), then the next rows are:
1

10

:::

;x ; x
;x ; x
;x ; x
x + 2x + x
x + 2x + x
:::
;x ; 3x ; 3x ; x
1

:::

and we see the pattern (which can be proved by induction): apart from the
 signs, the coecients are those of Pascal's triangle, the binomial coecients. In particular, the tenth (bottom) row will consist of the single entry
 
 
 
;x ; 91 x ; 92 x ;    ; 98 x ; x
1

10

(mod 3) .
;9 ;9

But since 9 is a power of the prime 3, all binomial coecients , ,


: : : , ;  are divisible by 3, so that the entry in the bottom row is equal to
;x ; x (mod 3). Thus, the three corner numbers (x ; x ; ;x ; x )
(mod 3) that add to 0 (mod 3) and it follows that they are either all the
same or all di erent.
(b) For which positive integers n (besides 10) is the result from part (a)
true for all strings of n A's, B's, and C's?
Solution: For n = 1, and for n = 3k + 1, k  0. For such an n, the
nth row will have the form:
1

10

10

10

 k

k
k 
3
3
3
;x ; 1 x ; 2 x ;  ; 3k ; 1 xn; ; xn  ;x ; xn (mod 3) ,
because the binomial coecients are divisible by 3.
4. When Mark climbs a staircase, he ascends either 1, 2, or 3 stairsteps
with each stride, but in no particular pattern from one foot to the next. In
how many ways can Mark climb a staircase of 10 steps? (Note that he must


nish on the top step. Two ways are considered the same if the number of
steps for each stride are the same; that is, it does not matter whether he puts
his best or his worst foot forward rst.) Suppose that a spill has occurred on
the 6th step and Mark wants to avoid it. In how many ways can he climb the
staircase without stepping on the 6th step?
Solution: Let an be the number of ways for Mark to climb a staircase of
n steps. Then a = 1, a = 2 and a = 4. For n > 3, consider Mark's last
1

96
stride. If his last stride was 1{step, then before that he climbed an n ; 1{step
staircase, and there are an; ways in which that can be done. Using a similar
argument for 2{ and 3{step last steps, we get an = an; + an; + an; for
n > 3. Using this we can calculate a = 274. Thus there are 274 ways that
Mark can climb the stairs before the spill has occurred.
Once the spill has occurred, we can work through the same way. If bn
is the number of ways to get to step n and not step on step 6, then we have:
bn = an for n  5, b = 0. Thus, using the recurrence relation for an we
get b = 0 + 13 + 7 = 20, b = 20 + 0 + 13 = 33, b = 0 + 20 + 33 = 53
and b = 20 + 33 + 53 = 106. Thus, there are 106 ways to go up the stairs
and avoid the spill.
5. Number the vertices of a cube from 1 to 8. Let A be the 8  8 matrix
whose (i; j ) entry is 1 if the cube has an edge between vertices i and j , and
is 0 otherwise. Find the eigenvalues of A, and describe the corresponding
eigenspaces.
Solution:Let the vertices be numbered as shown.
1

10

10

Then we have

A=

2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4

0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0

1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0

0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0

1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1

1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1

0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1

0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0

3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5

We can nd a few eigenvectors by inspection; for example (1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1)T


is an eigenvector for  = 3 and (1 1 1 1 ; 1 ; 1 ; 1 ; 1)T is an
eigenvector for  = ;1. From these a pattern starts to emerge. Note that
the entries 1 occur in positions 1, 2, 3, 4 and the entries ;1 occur in positions
5, 6, 7, 8. Now, f1, 2, 3, 4g [ f5, 6, 7, 8g = S [ S is a decomposition of
the vertex set S = f1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8g into two disjoint parts S , S with
the property that each vertex in Si is connected to two vertices in Si and one
1

97
vertex in Sj for i, j 2 f1; 2g, i 6= j . We now have the observation, whose
proof follows from the de nition of A given in the problem:
Let S = S [ S be any decomposition of S = f1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
7, 8g into disjoint subsets S , S such that there exist integers k and l with
k + l = 3 such that each vertex in Si is connected to k vertices in Si and l
vertices in Sj for i, j 2 f1, 2g, i 6= j . Then the vector with entries 1 in the
positions corresponding to S and ;1 in the positions corresponding to S
is an eigenvector of A for the eigenvalue k ; l.
Note that while we could interchange the subsets S and S , that would
just change the eigenvector to its opposite. Except for this, there are eight
di erent decompositions of S of the desired type, as shown in the table
below.
S
S
k l 
Eigenvector
S

3 0 3
(1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1)T
f1, 2, 3, 4g f5, 6, 7, 8g 2 1 1 (1; 1; 1; 1; ;1; ;1; ;1; ;1)TT
f1, 2, 5, 6g f3, 4, 7, 8g 2 1 1 (1; 1; ;1; ;1; 1; 1; ;1; ;1)T
f1, 4, 5, 8g f2, 3, 6, 7g 2 1 1 (1; ;1; ;1; 1; 1; ;1; ;1; 1)T
f1, 2, 7, 8g f3, 4, 5, 6g 1 2 ;1 (1; 1; ;1; ;1; ;1; ;1; 1; 1)T
f1, 4, 6, 7g f2, 3, 5, 8g 1 2 ;1 (1; ;1; ;1; 1; ;1; 1; 1; ;1)T
f1, 3, 5, 7g f2, 4, 6, 8g 1 2 ;1 (1; ;1; 1; ;1; 1; ;1; 1; ;1)T
f1, 3, 6, 8g f2, 4, 5, 7g 0 3 ;3 (1; ;1; 1; ;1; ;1; 1; ;1; 1)
(Geometrically, the eigenvectors for  = 1 in this table can be thought
of as corresponding to pairs of opposite faces of the cube; the eigenvectors
for  = ;1 can be thought of as corresponding to pairs of diagonal planes
through the cube.) It is easily checked that the eigenvectors for  = 1 (similarly for  = ;1) listed above are linearly independent. Therefore, for matrix
A we have eigenvalues  = 3,  = 1 (with multiplicity 3),  = ;1 (with
multiplicity 3) and  = ;3, and the eigenspaces are spanned by the vectors
in the table.
6. Let f (x) be a twice-di erentiable function on the open interval (0; 1)
such that
1

lim f (x) = ;1 , and xlim


f (x) = +1 .
!;
Show that f 00 (x) takes on both negative and positive values.
x!0+

Solution: Take an arbitrary number x in the interval (0; 1) and let


f 0 (x ) = m. Suppose that f 00 (x)  0 for all x in (0; 1). Then, in particular,
for all x with 0 < x < x we must have f (x)  f (x ) + m(x ; x ).
But f (x)  f (x ) + m(x ; x ) shows that, as x ! 0 , we have
f (x)  f (x ) ; mx , contradicting the given limx! + f (x) = ;1.
Similarly, if f 00 (x)  0 for all x in (0; 1) then for all x with
x < x < 1 we must have f (x)  f (x ) + m(x ; x ), and this contradicts limx! ; f (x) = +1.
0

98
Thus, we must have f 00 (x) > 0 for some x in (0; 1) as well as f 00 (x) < 0
for some x in (0; 1), and we are done.
7. Three stationary sentries are guarding an important public square
which is, in fact, square, with each side measuring 8 rods (recall that one rod
equals 5:5 yards). (If any of the sentries see trouble brewing at any location
on the square, the sentry closest to the trouble spot will immediately cease to
be stationary and dispatch to that location. And like all good sentries, these
three are continually looking in all directions for trouble to occur.) Find the
maximum value of D, so that no matter how the sentries are placed, there
is always some spot in the square that is at least D rods from the closest
sentry.
Solution: Divide the square into rectangles as shown, in such a way
that QY = Y R = 4 and PZ = XY . We claim once this has been done
D = 21 XY is the maximum value of D.
0

Proof: One way to place the sentries is at the centres of the rectangles

PXZS , XQY T , TY RZ ; for this placement, every point on the square is at


most D from the sentry at the centre of the rectangle it belongs to. Thus,
a value D > D is not possible. To show that D = D actually works,
we have to show that there is no placement of the sentries for which every
point of the square has distance less than D to the closest sentry. Suppose
we did have such a placement. Since there are four corners P , Q, R, S of
the square and only three sentries, at least two corners would be guarded
by the same sentry. Without loss of generality, let P and S be two corners
guarded by the same sentry. Now note that X and Y cannot be guarded by
a single sentry, because by our assumption that sentry would have distance
less than D to both X and Y , so that XY < 2D = XY , a contradiction.
Similarly, no other two opposite corners of the three smaller rectangles that
we constructed can be guarded by a single sentry. Thus, S , X , Y are all
guarded by di erent sentries, say 1, 2, 3, in that order, and since S and P
are guarded by the same sentry P , Z , Y are also guarded by 1, 2, 3 in that
order. Thus, Q and R must be guarded by 3. But, we will show that the
0

99
mid-point O of XQ is too far from Z and R to be guarded by 2 and 3, respectively, which will provide a contradiction.
Let PX = a , XQ = 8 ; a. Then
PZ = XY
(=) PX + XZ = XQ + QY ,
2

which gives a = 1, so that PX = 1, QX = 7, XO = 27 and


ZO > ZP = 2Dp , showing that O is indeed too far from Z . Thus, the
answer is D = 12 65.
8. The Union Atlantic Railway is planning a massive project: a railroad
track joining Cambridge, Massachusetts and North eld, Minnesota. However, the funding for the project comes from the will of Orson Randolph Kane,
the eccentric founder of the U.A.R., who has speci ed some strange conditions on the railway; thus the skeptical builders are unsure whether or not it
is possible to build a railway subject to his unusual requirements.
Kane's will insists that there must be exactly 100 stops (each named after
one of his great-grandchildren) between the termini, and he even dictates
precisely what the distance along the track between each of these stops must
be. (Unfortunately, the tables in the will do not list the order in which the
stops are to appear along the railway.) Luckily, it is clear that Kane has put
some thought into these distances; for any three distinct stops, the largest
of the three distances among them is equal to the sum of the smaller two,
which is an obvious necessary condition for the railway to be possible. (Also,
all the given distances are shorter than the distance along a practical route
from Cambridge to North eld!)
U.A.R.'s engineers have pored over the numbers and noticed that for any
four of Kane's stops, it would be possible to build a railway with these four
stops and the distances between them as Kane speci es. Prove that, in fact,
it is possible to complete the entire project to Kane's speci cations.
Solution: Let d(i; j ) be the required distance from stop i to stop j along
the track. Note that if four stops are arranged successfully along the track,
there is a unique greatest distance between two of those four stops: the
one that ends up closest to Cambridge, and the one that ends up closest to
North eld.
Now for the proof.
The case n = 4 is trivial. Suppose the statement is true for N stops
(N  4) and we have a table of distances d(i; j ) for N + 1 stops satisfying
the given conditions. Find the largest of these distances. This largest distance can only occur once, because if d(i; j ) = d(k; l) with fi, j g 6= fk, lg, it
would be impossible to arrange stops i, j , k, l (or if two of them were equal,
say j = l, then stops i, j , k, m with m 6= i, j , k) successfully along the track.
Without loss of generality, assume that the greatest distance in the table is
d(1; N + 1). Let a, b be any two distinct stops with 2  a, b  N . Then,
0

100
since stops 1, a, b, N +1 could be arranged successfully, and d(1; N +1) is the
largest distance, we must have either d(1; a) = d(1; b) + d(a; b) or
d(1; b) = d(1; a) + d(a; b) (but we cannot have d(a; b) = d(1; a) + d(1; b)).
Now, ignore stop N + 1 for the moment and arrange stops 1, 2, : : : , N successfully along the track, which is possible by the induction hypothesis. Since
we cannot have d(a; b) = d(1; a) + d(1; b) for any a, b 2 f2, 3, : : : , N g,
we have that 1 cannot be between any two other stops in this successful
arrangement; that is, all stops 2, 3, : : : , N must be the same side of stop 1.
Since they all have the proper distances to stop 1 and d(1; N + 1) is larger
than all those distances, we can place stop N + 1 on the track in such a way
that all stops 2, 3, : : : , N are between stop 1 and stop N + 1, that stops 1
and N + 1 are the proper distance apart, and that all stops 1, 2, : : : , N are
still in the same places.
All we now need to do is to check that stop N +1 is the correct distance
d(a; N + 1) to each of the stops a, 2  a  N . Then, since d(1; N + 1) is
less than the distance from Cambridge to North eld, we can arrange for the
stops to follow each other in this order between Cambridge and North eld,
and we will be done.
Consider any stop a, 2  a  N . Since it has the correct distance
d(a; 1) to stop 1, in the above placement its distance to stop N + 1 is given
by d(1; N + 1) ; d(a; 1). But since d(1; N + 1) is the largest of the required
distances between stops 1, a, N + 1, we have
d(1; N + 1) = d(a; 1) + d(a; N + 1) ,
so that
d(1; N + 1) ; d(a; 1) = d(a; N + 1) ,
and we are done.

Professor Toshio Seimiya

101

Problem of the Month

Jimmy Chui, student, University of Toronto


Problem. (a) Given positive numbers a , a , a ,    , an and the quadratic
n
X
function f (x) = (x ; ai ) , show that f (x) attains its minimum value at
i
n
n
n !
X
X
X
1
1
n i ai , and prove that i ai  n i ai .
(b) The sum of sixteen positive numbers is 100 and the sum of their
squares is 1000. Prove that none of the sixteen numbers is greater than 25.
(1996 Canadian Open, Problem B3)
Solution. (a) The quadratic function f (x) is a parabola, and the graph
y = f (x) opens upward. (The x {coecient is positive.) Hence the vertex
of the graph is a minimum point; that is, there is a unique value of x that
minimizes y = f (x), and the point (x; y) is the vertex.
It is known that the x{coordinate of the vertex of the function
f (x) = ax + bx +n c is ;b=n2a. Our given function, after expanding, is
f (x) = nx ; 2x X ai + X ai , and the x-coordinate of the vertex is
i
i
n
1 X
n i ai . Hence, for this value of x, the value of f (x) is minimized.
We also know that f (x) is greater than or equal to 0, since it is the sum
of non-negative squares. Hence, the discriminant must be less than or equal
to 0. (This condition corresponds to f (x) having one or no roots.)
n !
n
X
If we let the discriminant be D, then D=4 =
ai ; n  X ai  0.
i
i
n
n !
X
X
1
Rearranging this inequality gives us the desired result, ai 
n i ai .
i
(b) Let the largest value of the ai 's be b. Consider the 15 ai 's, excluding b. Then,
apply the result in (a) to these 15 numbers. We have
X 
X
1
ai ; 15 ai  0, where both summations are taken over the 15
ai 's excluding b.
1

=1

=1

=1

=1

=1

=1

=1

=1

=1

=1

=1

1 X a = 1  15 ;1000 ; b  ; (100 ; b)
ai ; 15
i
15
;

1
8  (b ; 25) (2b + 25)  0 .
= 15  ;16b + 200b + 5000 = ; 15
Since b is a positive value, the inequality holds true if and only if b  25. In
other words, the largest of the ai 's must not exceed 25, QED.
X

2

102

SKOLIAD No. 60
Shawn Godin
Solutions may be sent to Shawn Godin, Cairine Wilson S.S., 975 Orleans
Blvd., Orleans, ON, CANADA, K1C 2Z5, or emailed to
mayhem-editors@cms.math.ca

Please include on any correspondence your name, school, grade, city, province
or state and country. We are especially looking for solutions from high school
students. Please send your solutions to the problems in this edition by
1 July 2002. A copy of MATHEMATICAL MAYHEM Vol. 2 will be presented
to the pre-university reader(s) who send in the best set of solutions before
the deadline. The decision of the editor is nal.
This issue's item comes to us from Manitoba. My thanks go to Diane
Dowling at St.Paul's College in Winnipeg for forwarding the material to me.

MANITOBA MATHEMATICAL CONTEST, 2001

For Students in Senior 4


9:00 a.m. { 11:00 a.m. Wednesday, February 21, 2001
Sponsored by
The Actuaries' Club of Winnipeg, The Manitoba Association of Mathematics
Teachers, The Canadian Mathematical Society, and The University of Manitoba
Answer as much as possible. You are not expected to complete the paper. See both sides
of this sheet. Hand calculators are not permitted. Numerical answers only, without explanation,
will not be given full credit.

1. (a) Solve the equation x ; x2 = 9.


6

(b) Find real numbers a and b such that (2a )(4b ) = 8 and a+7b = 4.
2. (a) Find all real numbers x such that 25jxj = x + 144.
p
(b) If x is a real number and p 5 p = 7 ; 3px what is the
7+3 x
value of x?
3. (a) If two of the roots of x + px + qx + r = 0 are equal in absolute
value but opposite in sign, prove that pq = r. (p, q and r are real numbers.)
(b) If a, b and c are real numbers such that a + b + c = 14,
c = a + b and ab = 14, nd the numerical value of c.
4. (a) If 0 <  < 180 and 2 sin  + 3 sin   2 what is the largest
possible value of ?
2

103
(b) Let O be the origin, P the point whose
coordinates are (2; 3)
x
and F a point on the line whose equation is y = 2 . If PF is perpendicular
to OF nd the coordinates of F .
5. How many consecutive zeros are there at the end of the product of
all the integers from 16 to 100 inclusive?
6. In triangle ABC , \ACB = 135 , CA = 6 and BC = p2. If M is
the mid-point of the side AB , nd the length of CM .
7. A circle of radius 2 has its centre in the rst quadrant and has both
coordinate axes as tangents. Another smaller circle also has both coordinate
axes as tangents and has exactly one point in common with the larger circle.
Find the radius of the smaller circle.
8. A parallelogram has an area of 36 and diagonals whose lengths are
10 and 12. Find the lengths of its sides.
9. a, b, c, d are distinct integers such that (x;a)(x;b)(x;c)(x;d)=4
has an integral root r. Prove that a + b + c + d = 4r.
10. If x, y and z are positive real numbers, prove that
(x + y ; z)(x ; y) + z(x ; z)(y ; z)  0 .
2

Next we present the ocial solutions to the Mandelbrot competitions


from the October issue [2001 : 385].

The Mandelbrot Competition

Division B Round Two Individual Test


December 1997

1. If a group of positive integers has a sum of 8, what is the greatest


product the group can have? (1 point)
Solution.
Clearly we do not want any 1's in our group, since they contribute to
the sum but not the product. Any 5 in the group can be replaced by a 2 and
a 3, which have the same sum but a greater product. Similarly, any 6 can
be replaced by two 3's, and so on, since every number contributes more to
the product if broken down into 2's and 3's. (A 4 can be replaced with two
2's, with no e ect on the sum or product.) Hence, our optimal group should
consist of 2's and 3's only. The only such sets of numbers summing to 8 are
2+2+2+2 or 2+3+3. The products in these cases are 16 and 18. Hence,
18 is optimal.
2. There is one two-digit number such that if we add 1 to the number
and reverse the digits of the result, we obtain a divisor of the number. What
is the number? (1 point)

104
Solution.
Let the two-digit number n be t u . If u is not 9, then the number obtained by adding one and reversing the digits is u + 1 t . Since
this potential divisor; cannot equal n, it must be half of n or less, so that
2(u + 1)  t and 2 (u + 1)  10 + t  t  10 + u. This restricts us to
the numbers n = 30, 40, 50, 51, 60, 61, 70, 71, 80, 81, 82, 90, 91, or 92. A
quick check shows that none of these numbers works. Hence, u must be 9.
If n = t 9 , then n + 1 = t + 1 0 (unless t = 9), so that the divisor
would be t + 1. But n equals 10(t + 1) ; 1, which cannot be a multiple of
t + 1. Thus t must also be 9, yielding n = 99 , making the divisor equal to
001, or 1.
3. Ten slips of paper, numbered 1 through 10, are placed in a hat.
Three numbers are drawn out, one after another. What is the probability
that the three numbers are drawn in increasing order? (2 points)
Solution.
Let the numbers chosen be A, B , and C . There are six orders in which
the slips can be chosen: ABC , ACB , BAC , BCA, CAB , CBA. Of these
six, only one is in the increasing order we desire. Hence, the probability
is 16 .
4. The three marked angles are right angles. If \a = 20 , then what
is \b? (2 points)

b
a
Solution.
Note that \b is complementary to an angle which is complementary
to \a; hence, \b = \a, so that \b = 20 .
5. Vicky asks Charlene to identify all non-congruent triangles 4ABC
given:
(a) the value of \A
(b) AB = 10, and
(c) length BC equals either 5 or 15.

105
Charlene responds that there are only two triangles meeting the given conditions. What is the value of \A? (2 points)
Solution.
Consider AB to be a xed segment of length 10. Since BC is either 5
or 15, C must lie on one of the two circles with center B and radii 5 and 15,
as in the diagram.
R
S
X
B

There are many possible values for \A; the possible positions for point C
are the points where \A intersects the two circles. For some angles, as with
\A = \BAR in the diagram, there is only one possible point C ; for others,
as with \A = \BAT , there are three. The only value which gives exactly
two points C is that which makes the angle tangent to the inner circle, as
with \A = \BAS . Call the point of tangency X . Since AB = 10, BX = 5,
and \BXA is a right angle, we conclude that triangle ABX is a 30 -60 -90
triangle. Hence, \A = 30 .
6. Five pirates nd a cache of ve gold coins. They decide that the
shortest pirate will become bursar and distribute the coins | if half or more
of the pirates (including the bursar) agree to the distribution, it will be accepted; otherwise, the bursar will walk the plank and the next shortest pirate
will become bursar. This process will continue until a distribution of coins is
agreed upon. If each pirate always acts so as to stay aboard if possible and
maximize his wealth, and would rather see another pirate walk the plank
than not (all else being equal), then how many coins will the shortest pirate
keep for himself? (3 points)
Solution.
Call the pirates p , p , : : : , p , with p the shortest and p the tallest.
Consider what would happen if only p and p remained. Whatever division
strategy p suggested would hold, since p 's vote alone would constitute half
the total vote. Thus, p would simply allot himself all the gold. Next consider
1

106
the situation where three pirates remained. Whatever distribution p chose,
p would have to agree, as long as he got one or more coins. His only alternative would be to go to the two-pirate situation, in which p gets nothing
at all. Hence, p would simply take 4 coins for himself and allot 1 coin to
p , getting a majority vote from himself and p . Similarly, with four pirates
remaining, p , the bursar, would take 4 coins for himself and allot 1 coin
to p . Again, since p would have otherwise gotten nothing, he would have
to support the plan. With ve pirates, the bursar, p , would allot himself 3
coins and give one coin each to p and p . Since each of p and p gets more
3

than they would get by vetoing the plan, they must support it. The shortest
pirate gets 3 coins.
7. The twelve positive integers a  a      a have the property
that no three of them can be the side lengths of a non-degenerate triangle.
Find the smallest possible value of aa121 . (3 points)
Solution.
If a, b and c can be sides of a non-degenerate triangle with a  b  c,
we always must have c < a + b. Hence, if no three of our integers can form
a non-degenerate triangle, we must have ai  aj + ak for any three with
i > j , k. Since the numbers are increasing, it suces to show that
1

12

a +a  a , a +a  a , a +a  a
1

and so on. Substituting the rst inequality into the second, we have

a + 2a  a .
1

Substituting this and the second inequality into the third, we get

2a + 3a  a .
1

Substituting into the fth inequality:

3a + 5a  a .
1

We continue in this manner. At each step, we simply increase the coecients


of a and a ; they must increase as Fibonacci numbers, since at each step
we get the new coecient by adding the previous two. Hence, the nal
inequality will read
55a + 89a  a .
1

12

To obtain the smallest possible ratio we choose a = a . This simply yields


144a  a , or a =a  144. Since this limit can be attained, with
a = a = 1, a = 2, a = 3, a = 5, : : : , a = 144, we nd that
144 is the least value.
1

12

12

12

107

The Mandelbrot Competition


Division B Round Two Team Test

December 1997
FACTS: A polynomial p(x) of degree n or less is determined by its value
at n + 1 x{coordinates. For n = 1 this is a familiar statement; a line (degree
one polynomial) is determined by two points. Moreover, the value of p(x) at
any other x{value can be computed in a particularly nice way using Lagrange
interpolation, as outlined in the essay An Interpretation of Interpolation.
We will also need a result from linear algebra which states that a system
of n \di erent" linear equations in n variables has exactly one solution. For
example, there is only one choice for x; y, and z which satis es the equations
x + y + z = 1, x + 2y + 3z = 4, and x + 4y + 9z = 16.
SETUP: Let p(x) be a degree three polynomial for which we know the
values of p(1), p(2), p(4), and p(8). By the facts section there is exactly one
such polynomial. According to Lagrange interpolation the number p(16) can
be deduced; it equals
p(16) = A p(1) + A p(2) + A p(4) + A p(8) ,
for some constants A through A . The goal of this team test will be to
compute the Ai and use them to nd information about p(16) without ever
nding an explicit formula for p(x).
Problems:
Part i: (4 points) We claim that the Ai can be found by subtracting
x ; (x ; 1)(x ; 2)(x ; 4)(x ; 8) = A x + A x + A x + A .
(1)
Implement this claim to compute A through A .
Solution.
Apparently we have been handed a magic formula which generates the
constants Ai needed for computing p(16). It is referred to frequently in this
solution, so we reproduce it here:
x ; (x ; 1)(x ; 2)(x ; 4)(x ; 8) = A x + A x + A x + A . (2)
Rather than marvel at this stroke of good fortune so early on, we set about
computing the values A through A . Carefully multiplying out the left-hand
side yields
0

x ; (x ; 1)(x ; 2)(x ; 4)(x ; 8)


= x ; (x ; 3x + 2)(x ; 12x + 32)
= x ; (x ; 15x + 70x ; 120x + 64)
= 15x ; 70x + 120x ; 64
= A x +A x +A x+A .
4

108
Therefore we should use A = 15, A = ;70, A = 120, and A = ;64.
Part ii: (4 points) To show that these Ai are in fact the correct numbers
we must show that they correctly predict p(16) for four \di erent" polynomials. We begin with the case p(x) = x. Show that the value of p(16) agrees
with the prediction A p(1) + A p(2) + A p(4) + A p(8). (HINT: try x = 2
in (1).)
Solution.
According to Lagrange Interpolation, if p(x) is a polynomial of degree
three or less, then we should be able to predict p(16) based on the values of p(x) at x = 1, 2, 4 and 8. We will now show that the constants
Ai just computed do the job by showing that p(16) always equals the sum
A p(8) + A p(4) + A p(2) + A p(1). According to the facts section we
need only verify that the Ai work in four di erent cases to know that they
will always work. In checking these four cases we employ a somewhat clever
method that never actually uses the numbers calculated in part i, just the
equation (2) that produced them.
First suppose that p(x) = x. Then clearly p(1) = 1, p(2) = 2,
p(4) = 4, and p(8) = 8. Let us check whether or not A p(8) + A p(4) +
A p(2) + A p(1), which is the same as 8A + 4A + 2A + A , correctly
predicts p(16). Substituting x = 2 into equation (2) gives us
2 ; (2 ; 1)(2 ; 2)(2 ; 4)(2 ; 8) = 8A + 4A + 2A + A .
The left-hand side equals 16 since the (2 ; 2) factor causes the second term
to vanish. However, the right hand side is our prediction for p(16). Sure
enough, we get p(16) = 16, just as we should for the function p(x) = x.
Part iii: (5 points) Continuing the previous part, show that the Ai
correctly predict p(16) for the three other polynomials p(x) = 1,
p(x) = x and p(x) = x .
Solution.
In all cases the prediction for p(16) is A p(8) + A p(4) + A p(2) +
A p(1). Continuing our work from part ii we try p(x) = 1, so our prediction
becomes A + A + A + A . Using x = 1 in (2) yields
1 ; (1 ; 1)(1 ; 2)(1 ; 4)(1 ; 8) = A + A + A + A .
The left-hand side reduces to 1, so that the prediction is p(16) = 1, which
again is correct. When p(x) = x the prediction for p(16) becomes
64A + 16A + 4A + A . This can be found quickly by substituting x = 4
into equation (2):
4 ; (4 ; 1)(4 ; 2)(4 ; 4)(4 ; 8) = 64A + 16A + 4A + A .
The now familiar cancellation occurs on the left hand side, leaving us with a
prediction of 4 for p(16). Since p(x) = x we expect to have p(16) = 16 ,
3

109
and indeed 16 = (4 ) = 4 . The case of p(x) = x works in exactly
the same manner, substituting x = 8 into equation (2), so we encourage
the reader to try it as practice. (Naturally teams were expected to show the
details for this case as well in their solutions!)
Notice that we were able to do all of our checking without ever using
the numerical values of A through A . The other more obvious method is
to plug in the values for the Ai and do the arithmetic. However, the slick
technique can be generalized, while the more routine method cannot.
Part iv: (4 points) Suppose that p(x) is a third degree polynomial with
p(1) = 0, p(2) = 1, and p(4) = 3. What value should p(8) have to guarantee
that p(x) has a root at x = 16?
Solution.
We have now veri ed that A = 15, A = ;70, A = 120, and
A = ;64 are the correct values needed to interpolate p(16). We are also
told in this problem that p(1) = 0, p(2) = 1, and p(4) = 3. Furthermore,
we want p(16) = 0 so that p(x) has a root at x = 16. Substituting all of
these values into our interpolation formula produces
2

2 2

p(16) = A p(8) + A p(4) + A p(2) + A p(1)


0 = 15p(8) ; 70  3 + 120  1 ; 64  0
90 = 15p(8)
6 = p(8) .
Thus we need p(8) = 6 to ensure that p(16) = 0 so that there is a root at
x = 16.
Part v: (4 points) Let p(x) be a degree three polynomial with
p(1) = 1, p(2) = 3, p(4) = 9, and p(8) = 27. Calculate p(16). How
==)
==)
==)

close does it come to the natural guess of 81?


Solution.
There are two ways to do this problem|a long way and a short way.
The long way involves substituting all of the values for A through A and
p(1) through p(8) into the interpolation formula shown above and cranking out the answer. The short way, hinted at by our above work, involves
plugging x = 3 into equation (2). We opt for the short way, obtaining
3 ; (3 ; 1)(3 ; 2)(3 ; 4)(3 ; 8) = 27A + 9A + 3A + A .
The left-hand side reduces to 81 ; (2)(1)(;1)(;5) = 71, while the expression on the right is exactly the interpolation formula for p(16). Therefore we
have p(16) = 71, ten less than the intuitive guess of 81.
0

110

PROBLEMS
Faire parvenir les propositions de problemes et les solutions a Bruce Shawyer,
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland,
St. John's (Terre-Neuve), Canada, A1C 5S7. Les propositions de problemes doivent
e^ tre accompagnees d'une solution ainsi que de references et d'autres indications qui
pourraient e^ tre utiles a la redaction. Si vous envoyez une proposition sans solution,
vous devez justi er une solution probable en fournissant susamment d'information.
Un numero suivi d'une asterisque (?) indique que le probleme a e te propose sans
solution.
Nous sollicitons en particulier des problemes originaux. Cependant, d'autres
problemes interessants pourraient e^ tre acceptables s'ils ne sont pas trop connus et si
leur provenance est precisee. Normalement, si l'auteur d'un probleme est connu, il
faut demander sa permission avant de proposer un de ses problemes.
Pour faciliter l'etude de vos propositions, veuillez taper ou e crire a la main
(lisiblement) chaque probleme sur une feuille distincte de format 8 12 "11" ou A4, la
signer et la faire parvenir au redacteur en chef. Les propositions devront lui parvenir
au plus tard le 1er octobre 2002. Vous pouvez aussi les faire parvenir par courriel a
crux-editors@cms.math.ca. (Nous apprecierions de recevoir les problemes et solutions envoyes par courriel au format LATEX). Les chiers graphiques doivent e^ tre de
format epic ou eps (encapsulated postscript). Les solutions recues apres la date
ci-dessus seront prises en compte s'il reste du temps avant la publication. Veuillez
prendre note que nous n'acceptons pas les propositions par telecopieur.
Chaque probleme sera publie dans les deux langues ocielles du Canada
(anglais et francais). Dans les numeros 1, 3, 5 et 7, l'anglais precedera le francais,
et dans les numeros 2, 4, 6 et 8, le francais precedera l'anglais.
Dans la section des solutions, le probleme sera publie dans la langue de la
principale solution presentee.

2713. Propose par Toshio Seimiya, Kawasaki, Japan.

Soit O un point interieur du triangle ABC et supposons que AO, BO


et CO coupent BC , CA et AB en D, E et F , respectivement. Soit H le pied
de la perpendiculaire a EF passant par D.
Montrer que les pieds des perpendiculaires a AF , FO, OE et EA
passant par H sont sur un m^eme cercle.
.................................................................
Suppose that O is an interior point of 4ABC , and that AO, BO and
CO meet BC , CA and AB at D, E and F , respectively. Let H be the foot
of the perpendicular from D to EF .
Prove that the feet of the perpendiculars from H to AF , FO, OE and
EA are concyclic.

111

2714. Propose par Toshio Seimiya, Kawasaki, Japan.


Soient respectivement D et E des points sur les c^otes AC et AB d'un
triangle ABC , de sorte que \DBC = 2\ABD et \ECB = 2\ACE .
Si BD et CE se coupent en O et si OD = OE , que peut-on dire de ce
triangle ?
.................................................................
Suppose that D and E are points on sides AC and AB , respectively, of
4ABC , such that \DBC = 2\ABD and \ECB = 2\ACE . Suppose
that BD and CE meet at O, and that OD = OE . Characterize 4ABC .
2715. Propose par Toshio Seimiya, Kawasaki, Japan.
Soit O le centre du cercle inscrit a un quadrilatere convexe ABCD.
Si E et F sont respectivement les centres des cercles inscrits aux triangles
ABC et ADC , montrer que A, O et le centre du cercle circonscrit au triangle
AEF sont sur une droite.
.................................................................
Suppose that the convex quadrilateral ABCD has an incircle with centre O. Let E and F be the incentres of 4ABC and 4ADC , respectively.
Prove that A, O and the circumcentre of 4AEF are collinear.
2716. Propose par Toshio Seimiya, Kawasaki, Japan.
On suppose que
1. ABCD est un quadrilatere convexe donne,
2. P est un point sur AD situe au-dela de A de telle sorte que
\APB = \BAC ,
3. Q est un point sur AD situe au-dela de D de telle sorte que
\DQC = \BDC , et
4. AP = DQ.
Que peut-on dire du quadrilatere ABCD ?
.................................................................
Suppose that
1. convex quadrilateral ABCD is given,
2. P is a point of AD produced beyond A such that \APB = \BAC ,
3. Q is a point on AD produced beyond D such that \DQC = \BDC ,
and
4. AP = DQ.
Characterize quadrilateral ABCD.

112

2717. Propose par Mihaly Bencze, Brasov, Romania.


Pour tout triangle ABC , montrer que







8 sin A2 sin B2 sin C2  cos A ;2 B cos B ;2 C cos C ;2 A .

.................................................................
For any triangle ABC , prove that







8 sin A2 sin B2 sin C2  cos A ;2 B cos B ;2 C cos C ;2 A .

2718. Propose par Mihaly Bencze, Brasov, Romania.

Soit Ak 2 Mm (R) tels que Ai Aj = Om , i, j 2 f1, 2, : : : , ng, avec


i < j et xk 2 R , (k = 1, 2, : : : , n). Montrer que

det Im +

n ;
X

xk Ak + xk Ak

k=1

 0.

.................................................................
Let Ak 2 Mm (R) with Ai Aj = Om , i, j 2 f1, 2, : : : , ng, with i < j
and xk 2 R , (k = 1, 2, : : : , n). Prove that

det Im +

n ;
X

k=1

xk Ak + xk Ak
2

 0.

2719. Propose par Antal E. Fekete, Memorial University, St. John's,


Newfoundland.
Soit k 2 Z et n 2 N. Montrer que, pour n = 1 et n = 2,
1
X

et

1 (;k ; 2 + j )n
k + j )n = (;1)n X
j!
j!
j

j =0

1
X

=0

(;1)j (k +j !j ) = (;1)n
n

j =0

1
X

(;1)j (;k ;j2! + j )

j =0

Ces e galites sont-elles vraies ou fausses pour d'autres valeurs entieres


positives de n ?
.................................................................
Let k 2 Z and n 2 N. Show that
1
X

j =0

1 (;k ; 2 + j )n
k + j )n = (;1)n X
j!
j!
j

=0

113
and

1
X

(;1)j (k +j !j ) = (;1)n
n

j =0

1
X

(;1)j (;k ;j2! + j )

j =0

for n = 1 and n = 2.
Are these equalities true or false for other positive integral values of n?
2720. Propose par Antal E. Fekete, Memorial University, St. John's,
Newfoundland.
Soit k un entier et n un entier non negatif.
1
P

k + j )n est un multiple entier de e et trouver la somme.


j!
j
n
1
P
(b) Montrer que (;1)j (k +j !j ) est un multiple entier de 1e et trouver la
j
(a) Montrer que

=0

somme.

=0

.................................................................
Let k be an integer and n be a non-negative integer.
1
P

k + j )n is an integral multiple of e, and nd the sum.


j!
j
n
1
P
(b) Show that (;1)j (k +j !j ) is an integral multiple of 1e , and nd the
j
(a) Show that
sum.

=0

=0

2721. Propose par Vedula N. Murty, Visakhapatnam, India.

On considere l'equation cubique x ; 19x + 30 = 0. Il est facile de


veri er que les racines de cette e quation sont ;5, 2 et 3. Si l'on essaie de
resoudre l'equation ci-dessus par la methode trigonometrique, on trouve que
les racines sont :
3

 




;2 31 cos  , ; 2 13 cos   , et ; 2 31 cos   ,
2

ou  13 =

19
3

et cos  = 15

3
19

 32

Sans utiliser de calculatrice, montrer que


 




;2 13 cos  = ;5, ;2 31 cos   = 2, et ;2 31 cos   = 3 .
2

114
Consider the cubic equation x ; 19x + 30 = 0. It is easily veri ed
that the roots of this equation are ;5, 2 and 3. If one tries to solve the
above equation using trigonometry, the roots come out as
3

 




;2 31 cos  , ; 2 13 cos   , and ; 2 31 cos   ,
2

3

2
3
.
and cos  = 15 19
3
Show, without the use of a calculator, that

where  31

19

 




;2 13 cos  = ;5, ;2 31 cos   = 2, and ;2 31 cos   = 3 .
2

2722. Propose par Vaclav Kone cny, Ferris State University, Big
Rapids, MI, USA.
On considere deux triangles pythagoriciens comme indique dans la gure. Les longueurs de AC , CB , AD
et DE sont des nombres impairs et les longueurs des
c^otes superposes, AE et AB , sont des nombres pairs.
C
Existe-t-il une con guration semblable telle que la
longueur de CD soit un entier ?
................................................................. A
E
B
Consider two Pythagorean triangles as indicated in
the gure. The lengths of AC , CB , AD and DE are
D
odd integers and the lengths of the overlapping sides,
AE and AB, are even integers.
Does there exist such a con guration of Pythagorean
triangles such that the length of CD is an integer?
2723. Propose par Walther Janous, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck,
Austria.
Soit n , n , : : : , nk (1  k  N ) des entiers non negatifs tels que
n + n +    + nk = N . Trouver la valeur minimale de la somme
k ;nj 
P
lorsque (a) m = 2 ; (b)? m  3.
m
j =1
.................................................................
For 1  k  N , let n , n , : : : , nk be non-negative integers such
that n + n +    + nk = N . Determine the minimum value of the sum
k ;nj 
P
when (a) m = 2;
(b)? m  3.
m
j =1
1

115

SOLUTIONS
No problem is ever permanently closed. The editor is always pleased to
consider for publication new solutions or new insights on past problems.

2605. [2001 : 49] Proposed by K.R.S. Sastry, Bangalore, India.


In triangle ABC , with median AD and internal angle bisector BE , we
are given AB = 7, BC = 18 and EA = ED. Find AC .
I. Solution by Peter Y. Woo, Biola University, La Mirada, CA, USA.
Let M , N be feet of the perpendiculars from A, E to BC , respectively.
Let J be on BN such that BJ = BA = 7. Then 4ABE 
= 4JBE by SAS.
Therefore, EJ = EA = ED. Furthermore, JN = ND = 1 and NC = 10.
Also AE=EC = AB=BC = 7=18. Hence
25 = 125 .
=
10

MC = NC  AC
EC
18
9

Thus

37
BM = 18 ; 125
9 = 9:

By the Theorem of Pythagoras:

AC ; AB = (MC + AM ) ; (MB + AM ) = MC ; MB .
2

Therefore,


2

2

37
AC = AB + 125
;
9
9
; 37) = 49 + 162  88 = 225 ,
= 49 + (125 + 37)(125
81
81
2

from which we conclude that AC = 15.

JND

II. Solution by Henry Liu, student, University of Memphis, TN, USA.


Let J lie on side BC with BJ = 7. Then (as in solution I above)
4ABE = 4JBE . Thus, \BAE = \BJE . Also, ED = EA = EJ ,

116
which implies that 4JDE is isosceles, whence \CDE = \BJE = \BAE .
Therefore, 4CDE and 4CAB are similar. Set y = EA = ED. Then
and

UK.

9 = AC ==)
y
7
AC ; y = 18 ==)
9
AC
==)
==)

AC  y = 63
AC ; AC  y = 162
AC = 162 + 63 = 225
AC = 15 .
2
2

III. Solution by Paul Je reys, student, Berkhamsted Collegiate School,

Since BE bisects \ABC , we have 7=AE = 18=EC . Thus

AE = 7 and EC = 18 AC:
(1)
EC 18
25
Let = \BAC and = \ABC . By the Law of Sines on 4ABE , we have
AE = BE
(=) AE sin = BE sin( =2):
sin( =2)
sin
Applying the Law of Sines to 4BDE yields:
BE
DE =
sin( =2)
sin(\BDE ) (=) DE sin(\BDE ) = BE sin( =2) .
Since AE = ED we have sin(\BDE ) = sin . If \BDE = , then 4BAE
is similar to 4BDE . Since BD = 9 =
6 7 = BA, we get a contradiction,
whence we have \BDE = 180 ; . Thus BDEA is a cyclic quadrilateral.
Since \BDE = 180 ; , we also have \CDE = , which implies that
4CDE is similar to 4CAB. Therefore, 9=AC = EC=18. From (1), we
have

9 = 18  AC , so that 9  25 = AC .
AC 25 18
Thus, AC = 15.
2


 University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and
Also solved by SEFKET
ARSLANAGIC,
Herzegovina; AUSTRIAN IMO TEAM 2001; MICHEL BATAILLE, Rouen, France; FRANCISCO
 L OPEZ

BELLOT ROSADO, I.B. Emilio Ferrari, and MAR I A ASCENSI ON
CHAMORRO, I.B.
Leopoldo Cano, Valladolid, Spain; CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK;
SCOTT BROWN, Auburn University, Montgomery, AL; NIKOLAOS DERGIADES, Thessaloniki,
Greece; CHARLES DIMINNIE and KARL HAVLAK, Angelo State University, San Angelo, TX;
C. FESTRAETS-HAMOIR, Brussels, Belgium; VINAYAK GANESHAN, student, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario; RICHARD I. HESS, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA, USA; JOE HOWARD,
Portales, NM, USA; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria; GEOFFREY

 Y,
 Ferris State University, Big Rapids, MI,
A. KANDALL, Hamden, CT, USA; V ACLAV
KONECN
USA; MITKO KUNCHEV, Baba Tonka School of Mathematics, Rousse, Bulgaria; KEE-WAI LAU,
Hong Kong, China; GERRY LEVERSHA, St. Paul's School, London, England; DAVID LOEFFLER,

117
student, Cotham School, Bristol, UK; DAVID E. MANES, SUNY at Oneonta, Oneonta, NY, USA;
REVAI MATH CLUB, Gyor,
} Hungary; JOEL SCHLOSBERG, student, New York University, NY,

USA; HEINZ-JURGEN
SEIFFERT, Berlin, Germany (2 solutions); ECKARD SPECHT, Otto-vonGuericke University, Magdeburg, Germany; KENNETH M. WILKE, Topeka, KS, USA; LI ZHOU,
Polk Community College, Winter Haven, FL, USA; and the proposer. There was one incorrect
solution.
Most solvers used a variation of solution III above. Kandall observes \It is easy to show
that if a = 2c, then EA = ED regardless of the length of AC ", where a and c, of course, are
the lengths of the sides opposite A and C , respectively.
Kandall, Kone cny, and Sei ert all consider the
q more general problem with BC = a,
AB = c and DE = EA, and conclude that AC = 12 a(a + c).

2607. [2001 : 49] Proposed by Vaclav Konecny, Ferris State University, Big Rapids, MI, USA.
(a) Suppose that q > p are odd primes such that q = pn +1, where n is an
integer greater than 1. Let z be a complex number such that zq = 1.

qX
;
p;1
z
b j;p 1 czj .
Prove that p
z + 1 = j (;1)
(b) Suppose that q > 3 is an odd prime such that q = 3n + 2, where n is
an integer greater than 1. Let z be a complex number such that zq = 1.
qX
;
(;1)b j;3 3 czj .
Prove that z ; 1 =
z +1
1

=1

qX
;1
j =1

j =1

Solution by Michel Bataille, Rouen, France.


(a) Observing that n is necessarily even, we may write

(;1)b j;p 1 c zj =
=

pn
X

(;1)b j;p 1 c zj

j =1
p
X

j =1

zj ;

p
X
j =1

X
X
zj p + zj p ;    ; zj n; p.
+

+2

j =1

j =1

+(

1)

If z = 1, this sum is p ; p + p ; p +    + p ; p = 0. Note that


zp ; 1 = 0 as well.
zp + 1
If z 6= 1, the sum is
p
p
p
z zz ;;11 ; zp zz ;;11 +    ; z n; p zz ;;11


p
= zz ;;11 (z) 1 ; zp + z p ;    ; z n; p
pn
p 1 (;z )(z q;1 ; 1)
p
zp ; 1
=
= zz ;;11 (z) ((;;zz))p ;;11 = zzp ;
+1
z;1
zp + 1
+1

1) +1

1)

118
(the latter, using zq; = z1 ). Thus, we have (a). Note that it is not necessary
to suppose that p and q are primes | it is sucient to require that p and q
are odd.
(b) This time, n is necessarily odd. We have
1

S =

qX
;1
j =1

n+1
X

(;1)b j;3 3 c zj =

j =1

(;1)b j;3 3 czj

= ;z ; z + z + z + z ; z + z + z +   
; z n; + z n; + z n;
+z n+z n
= ;z ; z + z n + z n 

;

+z 1 + z + z 1 ; z + z ;    ; z n; .
;

3(

1)

3(

1)+1

3(

1)+2

+1

+1

3(

2)

1
If z = 1, we have S = 0 = zz3 ;
.
+1

If z 6= 1, we have

3 n;1
3
S = ;z ; z + zq; + zq; + zz ;; z ; ;zz3 .
2

3 1

1+

Using zq; = z12 , zq; = z1 and z n; = z15 , we obtain


1

S = zz3 ;

+1

;z
(

z3 + 1) + z3 1 ; 1  = z3 ; 1 .
2
z
z;1
z5
z3 + 1

+ 1)(

This completes the proof of (b). Similarly to (a), it is sucent to require that
q is odd.
Also solved by AUSTRIAN IMO{TEAM 2001; VINAYAK GANESHAN, student, University
of Waterloo, Walerloo, Ontario; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria;
GERRY LEVERSHA, St. Paul's School, London, England; HENRY LIU, student, University of
Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA; DAVID LOEFFLER, student, Cotham School, Bristol, UK; JOEL

SCHLOSBERG, student, New York University, NY, USA; HEINZ-JURGEN
SEIFFERT, Berlin,
Germany; CHRIS WILDHAGEN, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; and the proposer.
In fact, only Janous and Sei ert considered the case: z = 1. The other solvers ignored
it. The editor was generous in not classing their solutions as incomplete.

119

2612?. [2001 : 49] Proposed by Walther Janous, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria.


Two \Galton"{ gures are given as follows:
A
B
6

?

n + k (k < n)

(There are n levels in total; there are k levels such that there is no
\intersection" between the levels emanating from A and B .)
Let two balls start at the same time from A and B . Each ball moves
either . or & with probability .
Determine the probability P (n; k) (1  k < n) such that the two balls
reach the bottom level without colliding.
Solution by Li Zhou, Polk Community College, Winter Haven, FL, USA.
Denote by c(n; k), the number of pairs of colliding paths. Then,
c(n; k) = 0 if k  n, c(n; n ; 1) = 1, and c(n; 0) = 2n;  2n; = 2 n; .
Also, there are c(n ; 1; k) pairs of colliding paths starting with (.; .),
c(n ; 1; k + 1) with (.; &), c(n ; 1; k ; 1) with (& ; .), and c(n ; 1; k)
with (& ; &). Therefore,
c(n; k) = c(n ; 1; k ; 1) + 2c(n ; 1; k) + c(n ; 1; k + 1) .
1
2

n;X
k ;  2n ; 2
+
2
n;k;1
i .
i
 






m
m
;
2
m
;
2
m
;
2
Indeed, using the identity
j = j;2 +2 j;1 + j ,

We claim that c(n; k) =

2n ; 2

=1

we see easily that it satis es the recursion. Moreover, since

; 2n ; 2
n 2n ; 2
X
2n ; 2 + 2 nX
=
= 2 n; ,
n;1
i
i
i
i

=0

=0

we see that all three boundary conditions are satis ed as well. Hence,
nX
k; 2n ; 2
n;
P (n; k) = 1 ; c2(n;n;k) = 2 2 ;n;c(n; k) = 2 n1;
i .
i n;k
2


Also solve by MANUEL BENITO and EMILIO FERNANDEZ,
I.B. Praxedes Mateo Sagasta,
Logro~no, Spain; KEITH EKBLAW, Walla Walla, WA, USA; RICHARD I. HESS, Rancho Palos

120
Verdes, CA, USA; ERIC POSTPISCHIL, Nashua, NH, USA; and JOEL SCHLOSBERG, student,
New York University, NY, USA. There was one incomplete solution.
The submitted solutions varied in length from the above to one of ten pages. Postpischil
noted that, in the CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA
(1999), p. 138, Eric Weisstein shows how to write the sum in terms of the Beta Function (also
known as the Eulerian Integral of the Second Kind) and the incomplete Beta Function.

2613. [2001 : 136] Proposed by Murray S. Klamkin, University of


Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. Dedicated to Toshio Seimiya, and based on his
problem 2515.
In 4ABC , the three cevians AD, BE and CF through a non-exterior
point P are such that AF + BD + CE = s (the semi-perimeter).
Characterize 4ABC for each of the cases when P is (i) the orthocentre, and
(ii) the Lemoine point.
[Ed. The Lemoine point is also known as the symmedian point. See, for example, James R. Smart, Modern Geometries, 4th Edition, 1994, Brooks/Cole,
California, USA. p. 161.]
Solution by Theoklitos Paragiou, Limassol, Cyprus, Greece.
In both cases 4ABC is isosceles.
(i) When P is the orthocentre, AD, CF ,2 and 2BE 2are the altitudes.
We have therefore, BD = c cos B = c + 2aa ; b , and likewise,
2 2
2
2 2 2
CD = a + 2bb ; c , and AF = b + c2c ; a . Thus, the following statements are equivalent to the given condition:
AF + BD + CE = s ,
b2 + c2 ; a2 + c2 + a2 ; b2 + a2 + b2 ; c2 = a + b + c ,
2c
2a
2b
2
ab(b ; a ) + bc(c ; b ) + ac(a ; c ) = 0 ,
(a ; b)(b ; c)(c ; a)(a + b + c) = 0 .
2

The last equation holds if and only if the given triangle is isosceles.
(ii) Standard references tell us that when P is the Lemoine point,
2

AF = a2cb b2 , BD = b2ac c2 , and CE = c2ba a2 .


+

Thus, the following statements are equivalent to the given condition:


AF + BD + CE = s ,

cb2 + ac2 + ba2 = a + b + c ,


a2 + b2 b2 + c2 c2 + a2
2
3
2
3
2
(a ; b)(b ; c)(c ; a)[a (b + c) + 2a bc + a(b + 2b c + 2bc2 + c3 ) + bc(b2 + c2 )] = 0 .
2(a2 + b2 )(b2 + c2 )(c2 + a2 )

121
Once again, the last equation holds if and only if the given triangle is
isosceles.

Also solved by MICHEL BATAILLE, Rouen, France; FRANCISCO BELLOT ROSADO,


I.B. Emilio Ferrari, Valladolid, Spain; CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK; JOHN G. HEUVER, Grande Prairie Composite High School, Grande Prairie, Alberta;
WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria; HENRY LIU, student, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA; DAVID LOEFFLER, student, Trinity College, Cambridge,
UK; JOEL SCHLOSBERG, student, New York University, NY, USA; D.J. SMEENK, Zaltbommel, the Netherlands; ECKARD SPECHT, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany;
PETER Y. WOO, Biola University, La Mirada, CA, USA; and by the proposer.
Most solvers used essentially the same argument as in the featured solution, sometimes
with more detail, sometimes with less. Together with problem 2515 [2000 : 114; 2001 : 144],
we now have established that
AF + BD + CE = s if and only if 4ABC is isosceles
when P is the incentre, the orthocentre, and the Lemoine point. David Loeer continues the
theme with the comment:
In fact, huge numbers of triangle centres may be dealt with in the same way, if you have a
computer algebra system or incredible patience! The Mittenpunkt | Kimberling's X(9) [Clark
Kimberling, Encyclopedia of Triangle Centers, http://cedar.evansville.edu/ck6/tcenters/;
or Math. Mag. 67:3 (June 1994), 163{187] | satis es the condition only for isosceles triangles,
although this is slightly more tricky to prove than the above. The same is true of the Spieker
center X(10), all of the power points, and various others such as X(37), X(38), X(39), X(42), and
X(43).
Klamkin wondered whether the same is true of the circumcentre. However, before we
get carried away with wild conjectures note that AF + BD + CE = s for all triangles when
P is either the centroid or the Gergonne point.

2614. [2001 : 136] Proposed by Murray S. Klamkin, University of


Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. Dedicated to Toshio Seimiya, and suggested by
his problem 2514.
In 4ABC , the two cevians through a non-exterior point P meet
AC and AB at D and E , respectively. Suppose that AE = BD and
AD = CE . Characterize 4ABC for the cases when P is (i) the orthocentre,
(ii) the centroid, and (iii) the Lemoine point.
Solution by Henry Liu, student, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN,
USA.
(i) When P is the orthocentre, BD and CE are the altitudes. By
SAS and the given conditions, 4ADB 
= 4CEA, so that AB = AC
and consequently, \ABC = \ACB . Further, 4BEC 
= 4CDB since
they are similar right triangles that share their hypotenuse BC . Thus,
BD = CE = AD. Therefore. 4ABC is isosceles with A = 45 and
B = C = 67:5 .
(ii) When P is the centroid, E and D are mid-points of their respective sides. By SSS , 4BEC 
= 4BDC . Since these triangles have BC in
common while the vertices D and E lie on the same side of the line BC ,
the two triangles must coincide (with E and D the same vertex). Since AB

122
contains E and AC contains D, the two sides of 4ABC coincide, and the
triangle is therefore degenerate (with \A = 0 and the vertices B and C
coincident).
(iii) As in problem 2613, when P is the Lemoine point,
2

AE = a2cb b2 and EB = a2ca b2 .


By Stewart's
Theorem
we have
c(CE
+ AE  EB) = a AE + b EB , so



2 b2 c
a
abc
that c CE + a2 b2
= a2 b2 and therefore,
+

CE = a b
2

Similarly, we have

a2 + 2b2 ; c2 .
(a2 + b2 )2

AD = a2bc c2 and BD = a c
2

a2 + 2c2 ; b2 .
(a2 + c2 )2


AE  =  BD  , so that
The given conditions imply AD
CE
2

2

cb2 (a2 + c2 ) = a2 c2  (a2 + b2 )2  2a2 + 2c2 ; b2 .


(1)
bc2 (a2 + b2 )
a2 b2 (a2 + c2 )2 2a2 + 2b2 ; c2
Set x = a , y = b , z = c , and (1) reduces to
y (2x + 2y ; z)(x + z) ; z (2x + 2z ; y)(x + y) = 0 .
Since y = z satis es the equation, we can factor out (y ; z) to get
(y ; z)(y z ; y z + y z + P (x; y; z)) = 0 ,
where P (x; y; z) is a polynomial in x, y, and z having all its terms positive.
2

Note that the rst three terms in the factor on the right satisfy

y z ; y z + y z = y z ((y ; z) + yz) > 0 .


Since y ; z = (b ; c)(b + c), we see that (1) is equivalent to
(b ; c)Q(a; b; c) = 0 ,
where Q is a polynomial that is positive for all positive values of a, b, and c.
We conclude that b = c, so that 4ABC is isosceles.
It remains to determine the shape of 4ABC . [Here the editor has
4

replaced Liu's argument with a shorter calculation.]



AE  =  BD  , and set b = c to get
Instead of (1), use CE
AD
2

b = a (2a + b ) .
4

123

Since a, b > 0, thispequation implies that b; = 2a. Therefore, 4ABC must


satisfy b = c = 2a with \A = cos;
. One easily checks that these
conditions are also sucient.
1

3
4

Also solved by CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK; JOHN


G. HEUVER, Grande Prairie Composite High School, Grande Prairie, Alberta; WALTHER
JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria; DAVID LOEFFLER, student, Trinity College, Cambridge, UK; JOEL SCHLOSBERG, student, New York University, NY, USA ((i) and
(ii) only); PETER Y. WOO, Biola University, La Mirada, CA, USA ((i) and (ii) only); and the
proposer.

2615. Proposed by Murray S. Klamkin, University of Alberta,


Edmonton, Alberta.
Suppose that x , x , : : : , xn , are non-negative numbers such that
1

x +
2
1

(x x ) = n(n2+ 1) ,
1

where the sums here and subsequently are symmetric over the subscripts
1, 2, : : : , n.
(a) Determine the maximum of P x .
r
P
(b)? Prove or disprove that the minimum of x is n(n2+ 1) .
Solution by Heinz-Jurgen Sei ert, Berlin, Germany.
(a) The given equation,
1

n
X

k=1

xk +

(xj xk ) = n(n2+ 1) ,
j<kn
X

(1)

is satis ed when x = x = ::: = xn = 1, so that the maximum of P x is


greater than or equal to n. Using the trivial inequality 2t ; t  1, t 2 R,
we obtain
1

X

2
1

=
=

n
X

k=1
n
X
k=1

xk

!2

xk + 2

j<kn

j<kn
X

j < kn

2xj xk ; (xj xk )

j<kn

1 = n ,
2

j<kn

x  n. Hence, the maximum of P x is n.


1

(xj xk ) ; (xj xk )

X
X

xj xk

xj xk +

 n(n2+ 1) +
or

k=1

xk + 2

= n(n2+ 1) +

n
X

124
(b) Clearly, if n = 1, then the minimum of x is 1.
Let n = 2. From the condition x + x + (x x ) = 3, we have
x x  pp
3 < 2, so that (x + x ) = 3 + x x (2 p
; x x )  3, or
x + x  3. Since an equality
is
attained
when
x
=
3 and x = 0, it
p
P
follows that the minimum of x is 3.
Let n = 3. First, suppose that maxfx x p
,x x p
, x x g > 2. If x x > 2,
then x + x + x  x + x  2px x > 2 2 > 6. Otherwise, we have
(x +x +x ) = 6+px x (2;x x )+x x (2;x x )+x x (2;x xp)  6,
or x + x + x  6. Since an equality is attained
when x = 6 and
x = x = 0, we conclude that the minimum of P x is p6.
We choose
disprove for n  4. The equation (1) is satis ed when
r to

p
x =x =
2n(n + 1) + 4 ; 2 and x = x =    = xn = 0.
P

2
1

2
2

1
2

r 
p

However, x = 2 2n(n + 1) + 4 ; 2 < n(n + 1), because the


last inequality easily reduces to n(n + 1) > 16, which is true for n  4.
P

1
2

Also solved by PETER Y. WOO, Biola University, La Mirada, CA, USA. Part (a) only was
solved by the proposer. One solver sent an incomplete solution. Another solver misinterpreted
the condition and solved a di erent problem.

2617. [2001 : 137] Proposed by Murray S. Klamkin, University of


Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.
A problem in one book was to prove that each edge of an isosceles
tetrahedron is equally inclined to its opposite edge. A problem in another
book was to prove that the three angles formed by the opposite edges of a
tetrahedron cannot be equal unless they are at right angles.
1. Show that only the second result is valid.
2. Show that a tetrahedron which is both isosceles and orthocentric must
be regular.

Solution by Joel Schlosberg, student, New York University, NY, USA.


If the three edges that come out of a single vertex of the tetrahedron
are labelled as the three vectors a, b, c, then the six sides of the tetrahedron
are a, b, c, c ; b, b ; a, a ; c.
If X , Y and Z are the three angles formed by the opposite edges, then

cos X =  ajajj(cc ;; bb)j =  aja jjc c;;ab jb ,


cos Y =  ajbbjja;;bcjc , cos Z =  bjc jjcb;;aajc .

125
(The \angle between the opposite segments" is a slightly ambiguous
phrase which could refer to either of the two supplementary angles. However, this does not a ect the problem, since the [absolute values of the]
cosines of two supplementary angles are the same.)
1. A counterexample to the rst result is the tetrahedron with
vertices (0; 0; 0), (0; 2u; 0), (u; u; v), (;u; u; v), where 2u 6= v , so that
a = (0; 2u; 0), b = (u; u; v) and c = (;u; u; v). A simple calculation shows
that
jc ; bj = j(;2u; 0; 0)j = j(0; 2u; 0)j = jaj ,
ja ; cj = j(u; u; ;v)j = j(u; u; v)j = jbj ,
jb ; aj = j(u; ;u; v)j = j(;u; u; v)j = jcj ,
so that the tetrahedron is isosceles. However,
2

cos X =  aja jjc c;;ab jb =  2u ja;j 2u = 0 ,


2

but

cos Y =  ajbbjja;;bcjc =  2ujb;j v 6= 0 .


Therefore cos X 6=  cos Y , and these angles are not equal.
2

To prove the second result, suppose that the three angles formed
by opposite sides are equal. Without loss of generality, assume that
a  b  a  c  b  c. Then
j cos X j = j cos Y j = j cos Z j ,
and thus,
ac;ab = bc;ab = bc;ac.

jajjc ; bj

jbjja ; cj
jcjjb ; aj
However, any equation of the form D(x ; y) = E (z ; y) = F (z ; x)
has the unique solution x = y = z. (The equivalent homogeneous linear
system Dx + (E ; D)y ; Ez = 0, Fx ; Ey + (E ; F )z = 0, has the
solution set x = y = z; these are the only solutions, since any solution to a
given n{equation, (n +1){variable system of homogeneous linear equations

is a scalar multiple of any other solution)


Therefore a  b = a  c = b  c, so that a  (c ; b) = 0, b  (a ; c) = 0 and
c  (b ; a) = 0. Hence a ? (c ; b), b ? (a ; c) and c ? (b ; a), implying
that the opposite angles are right angles.
2. If a tetrahedron with sides a, b, c, c ; b, b ; a, a ; c is isosceles,
then jaj = jc ; bj, jbj = ja ; cj and jcj = jb ; aj. Therefore,
jaj = jc ; bj or a  a = (c ; b)  (c ; b) = c  c + b  b ; 2b  c ,
2

126
and thus,

;a  a + b  b + c  c = 2b  c .

Similarly

a  a ; b  b + c  c = 2a  c

and a  a + b  b ; c  c = 2a  b .
If the tetrahedron is orthocentric, then a  (c;b) = b  (a;c) = c  (b;a) = 0,
and further, we have a  b = a  c = b  c. Combining this with the previous
equations gives us
;a  a + b  b + c  c = a  a ; b  b + c  c = a  a + b  b ; c  c .
Combining these equations pairwise allows us to deduce that a  a = b  b =
c  c, and hence that jaj = jbj = jcj. Combining this with the equations
jaj = jc ; bj, jbj = ja ; cj and jcj = jb ; aj shows us that all six sides are
equal in length, so that the tetrahedron is regular.
Also solved by JOHN G. HEUVER, Grande Prairie Composite High School, Grande
Prairie, Alberta; PETER Y. WOO, Biola University, La Mirada, CA, USA; and the proposer.

2618 Proposed by Murray S. Klamkin, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.


Determine a geometric problem whose solution is given by the positive
solution of the equation
x2

R2 + x2 ; a2
4R2 + x2 ; b2
4R2 + x2 ; c2

p
p
4R2 + x2 ; a2 +
4R2 + x2 ; b2 +
4R2 + x2 ; c2 + a + b + c ,
+

p

where a, b, c and R are the sides and circumradius of a given triangle ABC .
Solution by the proposer.
We show that x is the altitude to the face ABC of an orthocentric
tetrahedron of maximum isoperimetric quotient, EV3 , where V and E are
the volume and total edge length of the tetrahedron, respectively.
If PABC is an orthocentric tetrahedron, then P must lie on a line
through H , the orthocentre of ABC , and perpendicular to the plane of
ABC . Then
p
p
PA = 4R cos A + x = 4R + x ; a , etc.,
2

d V
and 3V = x[ABC ]. The given equation corresponds to dx
E3

= 0.

That the maximum is unique follows by dividing both sides of the given equation by x, and then noting that the left hand side is an increasing function
of x, whereas the right hand side is a decreasing one.
No other solutions were received.

127

2620. Proposed by Bill Sands, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, dedicated to Murray S. Klamkin, on his 80th birthday.
Three cards are handed to you. On each card are three non-negative
real numbers, written one below the other, so that the sum of the numbers
on each card is 1. You are permitted to put the three cards in any order
you like, then write down the rst number from the rst card, the second
number from the second card, and the third number from the third card.
You add these three numbers together.
Prove that you can always arrange the three cards so that your sum lies
in the interval ; . (Corrected)
Solution by Michel Bataille, Rouen, France.
Denote by (a ; a ; a ), (b ; b ; b ), (c ; c ; c ) the triples of numbers
respectively written on each of the cards. By hypothesis, these numbers are
non-negative and
a + a + a = b + b + b = c + c + c = 1.
Following the process described in the statement of the problem, we can form
six sums, namely
s = a +b +c ,
s = a +c +b ,
s = b +a +c ,
s = b +c +a ,
s = c +a +b ,
s = c +b +a .


For the purpose of contradiction we will suppose that si 2= ; for i = 1,
2, : : : , 6. Since s + s + s = 3, one of the numbers s , s , s must be at
least 1, and one must be at most 1. Say, s  1 and s  1. By supposition,
we even have s < and s > . The latter implies that we cannot have
s > (otherwise s + s > 3); hence s < . Now, s + s < 1, which
means that we actually have s > 2, or
c + b + a > 2.
(1)
Similarly, since s + s + s = 3, two of the numbers s , s , s are less
than (and the third is greater than 2).
 If s < and s < , then b < and a < , which implies b +a < 1.
From (1) we have c > 1, contradicting c  c + c + c = 1.
 If s < and s < , then b < and c < , which implies b + c < 1.
From (1) we have the contradiction a > 1.
 If s < and s < , then a < and c < , which implies a + c < 1.
From (1) we have the contradiction b > 1.
In the same way it is readily checked that we are also led to a contradiction when the condition (1) is replaced by s > 2 or s > 2. The conclusion
follows.
1
2

3
2

1
2

1
2

3
2

3
2

3
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

128
[Editor's comment: When this problem was originally printed, the interval that appeared was ; . (This problem is impossible since the interval is too restricted.)
A subsequent issue, [2001 : 213], (incorrectly) corrected

the interval to ; . This new problem can now be proven, but is not as
sharp as it could be, since we can improve the lower bound on the interval. In
the next issue, [2001 : 267], the problem was further corrected to the (correct) interval listed in the problem statement above. Unfortunately, some
solvers missed this last correction, and solved the previously stated (weaker)
problem. As a result, we have split the solvers into two groups: those who
have solved the intended problem, and those who solved the weaker problem.]
1
3

1
3

2
3

3
2

Also solved by CHARLES R. DIMINNIE, Angelo State University, San Angelo, TX, USA;
RICHARD I. HESS, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA, USA; KEE-WAI LAU, Hong Kong; JOEL
SCHLOSBERG, student, New York University, NY, USA; LI ZHOU, Polk Community College,
Winter Haven, FL, USA; and the proposer. The weaker version of the problem was correctly solved by CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK; ERIC POSTPISCHIL,
Nashua, NH; and CHRIS WILDHAGEN, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. There was one incorrect
solution.
Both Dimminie and the proposer show that these bounds are the best possible:
 ; 21 ; 12 ; 0, ; 12 ; 21 ; 0, (0; 0; 1) can give a sum of 12 or 2, and
 ; 21 ; 12 ; 0, (0; 0; 1), (0; 0; 1) can give a sum of 0 or 32 .
The proposer also asks about generalizing the problem to n cards of n numbers each. He
conjectures that the best intervals for achievable sums appear to be




1 ; 2 ; 1 + 2 for n even,
1 ; 2 ;1+ 2
n
n
n+1
n + 1 for n odd,
but he has no proof. Perhaps our readers can check these bounds and supply proofs!

Crux Mathematicorum

Founding Editors / Redacteurs-fondateurs: Leopold Sauve & Frederick G.B. Maskell


Editors emeriti / Redacteur-emeriti: G.W. Sands, R.E. Woodrow, Bruce L.R. Shawyer

Mathematical Mayhem

Founding Editors / Redacteurs-fondateurs: Patrick Surry & Ravi Vakil


Editors emeriti / Redacteurs-emeriti: Philip Jong, Je Higham,
J.P. Grossman, Andre Chang, Naoki Sato, Cyrus Hsia

129

THE OLYMPIAD CORNER


No. 221
R.E. Woodrow

All communications about this column should be sent to Professor R.E.


Woodrow, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Calgary,
Calgary, Alberta, Canada. T2N 1N4.
First, corrections. AGL should be NGL in line 1 of solution 5 on
page 19 of the February 2002 issue. The range given on the second last line
of page 75 of the March issue should be 18  x  24, not 14  x  18.
We begin this number with the problems of the Swiss Mathematical
Contest, May 17, May 20, 1999.
Thanks again go to Ed
Barbeau for collection the problems when he was Canadian Team Leader
to the IMO in Romania.

SWISS MATHEMATICAL CONTEST


May 17, 1999

1. Two circles intersect each other in points M and N . An arbitrary


point A of the rst circle, which is not M or N , is connected with M and N ,
and the straight lines AM and AN intersect the second circle again in the
points B and C . Prove that the tangent to the rst circle at A is parallel to
the straight line BC .
2. Is it possible to partition the set f1, 2, : : : , 33g into 11 disjoint subsets, each with three elements, such that in each subset one of the elements
is the sum of the other two elements?
3. Determine all functions
f : R n f0g ! R, satisfying
 
1
1
x f (;x) + f x = x for all x 2 R n f0g.
4. Find all solutions (x; y; z) 2 R  R  R of the system
x2 = y ,
1 + 4x2
4

y2 = z ,
1 + 4y 2
4

z2 = x .
1 + 4z 2
4

5. Let ABCD be a rectangle, P a point on the line CD. Let M , N be


the mid-points of AD and BC respectively. PM intersects AC in Q. Show
that MN is the bisector of the angle QNP .

130

May 20, 1999

1.

Let m and n be two positive integers such that m2 + n2 ; m is


divisible by 2mn. Prove that m is the square of an integer.
2. A square is partitioned into rectangles whose sides are parallel to
the sides of the square. For each rectangle, the ratio of its shorter side to its
longer side is determined. Prove that the sum S of these ratios is always at
least 1.
3. Determine all integers n 2 N such that there exist positive real
numbers 0 < a1  a2      an satisfying
n
X

i=1

ai = 96 ,

n
X

i=1

a2i = 144 ,

n
X

i=1

a3i = 216 .

4. Prove that for every polynomial P (x) of degree 10 with integer coecients there is an (in both directions) in nite arithmetic progression which
does not contain P (k) for any integer k.
5. Prove that the product of ve consecutive positive integers is never
a perfect square.
Next we give the problems of the Final Round of the 50th Polish Mathematical Olympiad, April 14-15, 1999. Thanks go to Ed Barbeau for collecting
the contests when he was Canadian Team Leader to the IMO at Bucharest.

50th POLISH MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD


Problems of the Final Round

DAY 1, April 14, 1999 | (Time: 5 hours)

1. Let D be a point on side BC of triangleAEABC suchBCthat AD > BC .

Point E on side AC is de ned by the equation EC = AD ; BC . Show that


AD > BE .
2. Given are non-negative integers a1 < a2 < a3 <    < a101
smaller than 5050. Show that one can choose four distinct integers ak , al ,
am , an so that the number ak + al ; am ; an is divisible by 5050.
3. Prove that there exist distinct positive integers n1, n2, n3, : : : , n50
such that n1 + S (n1 ) = n2 + S (n2 ) = n3 + S (n3 ) =    = n50 + S (n50 ),
where S (n) denotes the sum of the digits of n.

131
DAY 2, April 15, 1999 | (Time: 5 hours)

4. Find all integers n  2 for which the system of equations


8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:

x21 + x22 + 50 = 16x1 + 12x2


x22 + x23 + 50 = 16x2 + 12x3
x23 + x24 + 50 = 16x3 + 12x4
..
.

..
.

..
.

x2n;1 + x2n + 50 = 16xn;1 + 12xn


x2n + x21 + 50 = 16xn + 12x1
has a solution in integers x1 , x2 , x3 , : : : , xn .
5. Let a1, a2, : : : , an, b1, b2, : : : , bn be integers. Prove that
X
X
(jai ; aj j + jbi ; bj j) 
jai ; bj j .
i<jn

i;jn

6. In a convex hexagon ABCDEF ,

AB  CD  EF = 1 .
\A + \C + \E = 360 , BC
DE FA

FD EC
Prove that AB
BF  DE  CA = 1.

We now give the problems of the 1996 Chilean Mathematical Olympiad.


Thanks go to Raul A. Simon Lamb of Santiago, Chile for forwarding them to
us for our use.

CHILEAN MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD 1996


1.

Consider a cube of edge 18 cm.


In the centre of three di erent
(and not opposite) faces we bore
a square perforation of side 6 cm.
That goes across the cube as far as
the opposite face. We thus obtain
the following gure:

Determine the surface area of the resulting solid.

132
d on one of
2. Two circles intersect at A and B. P is a point on arc AB
the circles. PA and PB intersect the other circle at R and S (see gure). If
P 0 is any point on the same arc as P and if R0 and S 0 are the points in which
d = R0 S 0 .
P 0A and P 0B intersect the second circle, prove that RS
R0

P
P0

S0
S

3. Let a, b, c, d be integers such that ad 6= bc.

(a) Prove that it is always possible to write the fraction


1

ax + b)(cx + d)

in the form

r
s
ax + b + cx + d ,

where r, s are rational numbers.


(b) Calculate the sum

 +  + 
1

1
1

10

+    + 1993 1 1996 .

4. Construct 4ABC , knowing the points on its circumcircle, and points


D, E and F where this circumcircle is met by the altitude, the transversal of
gravity (median) and the bisectrix (angle bisector), respectively, issuing from
C . (Assume AC < BC .)
Next we turn to the March 2000 number of the Corner and solutions
from our readers to problems of the 10th Mexican Mathematical Olympiad
National Contest 1996, given [2000 : 71{72].
1. Let ABCD be a quadrilateral and let P and Q be the trisecting
points of the diagonal BD (that is, P and Q are the points on the line segment
BD for which the lengths BP , PQ and QD are all the same). Let E be the
intersection of the straight line through A and P with BC , and let F be
the intersection of the straight line through A and Q with DC . Prove the
following:

133
(i) If ABCD is a parallelogram, then E and F are the mid-points of BC and
CD, respectively.
(ii) If E and F are the mid-points of BC and CD, respectively, then ABCD

is a parallelogram.
Solutions by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France; and by Toshio Seimiya,
Kawasaki, Japan. We give Seimiya's write-up.
A
D
Q
F

P
B

C
E
(i) Since ABCD is a parallelogram ADkBC and AD = BC . Thus, we
have BE : AD = BP : PD = 1 : 2.
Therefore, BE = 21 AD = 12 BC , so that BE = EC . Similarly, we get
DF : DC = DF : AB = DQ : QB = 1 : 2. Thus, DF = 21 DC ; that is
DF = FC .
Therefore, E and F are mid-points of BC and CD, respectively.
A
D
Q
F

P
c

B
C
E
(ii) Since E , F are mid-points of BC , CD, respectively, we get EF kBD
and EF = 12 BD.
Since PQkEF we have

AP : AE = PQ : EF = BD : BD = 2 : 3 = DP : DB .
Therefore, ADkBE ; that is, ADkBC . Similarly we have AB kDC .
Hence, ABCD is a parallelogram.
1

134

3. Prove that it is not possible to cover a 6 cm  6 cm square board


with eighteen 2 cm  1 cm rectangles, in such a way that each one of the
interior 6 cm lines that form the squaring goes through the middle of at least
one of the rectangles. Prove also that it is possible to cover a 6 cm  5 cm
square board with fteen 2 cm  1 cm rectangles, in such a way that each one
of the interior 6 cm lines that form the squaring and each one of the interior
5 cm lines that form the squaring goes through the middle of at least one of
the rectangles.
Comment by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France.
More generally it is known (see [1]) that an h  w rectangle has a
fault-free tiling with dominoes if and only if hw is even, h  5, w  5, and
(h; w) 6= (6; 6).
Reference
[1] G.E. Martin, \Polynominoes, a Guide to Puzzles and Problems in Tiling",
MAA, pp. 17{21.
4. For which integers n  2 can the numbers 1 to 16 be written each in
one square of a squared 4  4 paper (no repetitions allowed) such that each
of the 8 sums of the numbers in rows and columns is a multiple of n, and all
of these 8 multiples of n are di erent from one other?
Solution by Edward T.H. Wang, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo,
Ontario.
The only valuesPare n = 2 and 4. To see this, note rst that the sum
th row sum
of the 16 entries is 16
k
=1 k = 136. Let Ri and Ci denote the i
and the ith column sum, respectively, i = 1, 2, 3, 4. Then, by assumptions,
Ri = ai n, Ci = bi n where the 8 natural numbers ai 's and bi 's are all
distinct.
P
P
P
Hence, 2  136 = 4i=1 (Ri + Ci ) = n 4i=1 (ai + bi )  n 8k=1 k = 36n,
and thus, n  b 272
c = 7.
36
On the other hand, since n j Ri for all i = 1, 2, 3, 4 we have
n j P4i=1 Ri or n j 136. Since 136 = 23  17, we conclude that the only
possible values of n are n = 2 or 4.
To complete the proof it clearly suces to display a con guration in
which all the 4 row sums and the 4 column sums are distinct multiples of 4.
The array shown in the gure below is one such con guration since
(R1 ; R2; R3 ; R4 ) = (16; 20; 48; 52) and (C1; C2 ; C3 ; C4 ) = (28; 32; 36; 40).
1
2
9
16

3
4
11
14

5
6
13
12

7
8
15
10

6. The picture below shows a triangle 4ABC in which the length AB


is smaller than that of BC , and the length of BC is smaller than that of

135

AC . The points A0 , B0 0 and C 0 are such that 0AA0 is perpendicular to BC


and the length of AA equals that of BC ; BB is perpendicular to AC and
the length of BB 0 equals that of AC ; CC 0 is perpendicular to AB and the
length of CC 0 equals that of AB . Moreover \AC 0B is a 90 angle. Prove
that A0 , B 0 and C 0 are collinear.
Bq 0

A
C0

A0
Solutions by Michel Bataille, Rouen, France; and by Toshio Seimiya,
Kawasaki, Japan. We give Seimiya's solution.

Br 0

H
B

C0
C

A0

AA0 , BB0 and CC 0 are concurrent at the orthocentre H of 4ABC .


Since BH ? AC and CH ? AB we get
\ABB 0 = \ABH = \ACH = \ACC 0 .
Since BA = CC 0 and BB 0 = CA, we have
4BAB0  4CC 0A .

136
Thus, AB 0 = C 0 A and \AB 0 B = \C 0AC . Since BB 0 ? AC we have

\B 0 AC 0 = \B 0 AC + \C 0AC = \B 0 AC + \AB 0 B = 90 .


Since AB 0 = AC 0 and \B 0 AC 0 = 90 we get \AC 0 B 0 = 45 .
Similarly we have BA0 = BC 0 and \A0 BC 0 = 90 . Thus, we get
0
\BC A0 = 45 .
Since \AC 0 B = 90 , we have
\B 0 C 0A0 = \AC 0B 0 + \AC 0 B + \BC 0A0 = 45 + 90 + 45 = 180 .

Therefore, A0 , B 0 and C 0 are collinear.

We continue with readers' solutions to problems of the Bi-National


Israel-Hungary Competition, 1996, given on [2000 : 73].
1. Find all sequences of integers x1, x2, : : : , x1997 such that
1997
X

k=1

2k;1 (xk )1997 = 1996

1997
Y

k=1

xk .

Solutions by Michel Bataille, Rouen, France; and by Pierre Bornsztein,


Pontoise, France. We give Bataille's presentation.
We make the following key observation: if (x1 ; x2 ; : : : ; x1997 ) satis es
the property
1997
X

k=1

2k;1 (xk )1997 = 1996

1997
Y

k=1

xk ,

then x1 is even.
Substituting 2y1 for x1 in (1) and dividing both sides by 2, we get:

(x2 )1997 + 2(x3 )1997 +    !+ 21995 (x1997 )1997 + 21996 (y1 )1997
= 1996

1997
Y

k=2

xk y1 .

This means that the sequence (x2 ; : : : ; x1997 ; y1 ) also satis es (1).
Iterating, we obtain successively:

x2 is even, x2 = 2y2 and (x3 ; : : : ; x1997 ; y1 ; y2) satis es (1)


::: ::: ::: ::: ::: :::
x1997 is even, x1997 = 2y1997 , and (y1; y2 ; : : : ; y1997 ) satis es (1)

(1)

137
Thus, we have obtained the following
result: if (x 1 ; x2 ; : : : ; x1997 )
;
satis es (1), then the xk 's are even and x21 ; x22 ; : : : ; x1997
also satis es (1).
2
It follows that all the xk 's are 0. Indeed, if xj 6= 0 (say), then we might
write xj = 2r  z with r  1 and z odd; iterating the previous process r
times would yield a sequence satisfying (1) and containing the odd term z,
which is impossible, as we have seen. Conversely, the null sequence obviously satis es (1) so that we may conclude that the only sequence satisfying
(1) is the null sequence.
2. Let n > 2 be an integer, and suppose that n2 can be represented as
the di erence of the cubes of two consecutive positive integers. Prove that
n is the sum of two squares. Prove that such an n really exists.
Solution by Michel Bataille, Rouen, France.
Let m be a positive integer such that n2 = (m + 1)3 ; m3 . Then we
have (2n)2 ; 3(2m + 1)2 = 1, so that (2n; 2m + 1) is one of the pairs (x; y)
satisfying
x is even and > 4; y is odd; x2 ; 3y2 = 1 .
As is well known, the solutions topx2 ; 3y2 =p 1 in positive integers are
the pairs (xk ; yk ) given by xk + yk 3 = (2 + 3)k or equivalently by the
relations


xk+1 = 2xk + 3yk


yk+1 = xk + 2yk

with x1 = 2, y1 = 1. From these recursion formulas, we readily deduce thatp xk even, p


yk odd occurs precisely when k is odd. Observing that
xk ; yk 3 = (2 ; 3)k , we see that

2n = x2j+1 =

1
2



2j +1

2+ 3

+ 2; 3

2j +1 

for some j > 1 .

Denoting u = 2+ 3, v = 2 ; 3, we have xk = 12 (uk + vk ) and u + v = 4,


uv = 1 so that we can easily verify the following relations (valid for all k):
xk+2 = 4xk+1 ; xk ; 2x2k = x2k + 1 ; xk xk+1 = 12 x2k+1 + 1 .
From this, we get rst n = xj xj+1 ; 1 and then,
2

2

n = xj+1 ; xj ; + xj+1 ; xj
.
It remains to prove that xj+1 ; xj ; is an integer. But
1

+1

xj + xj+1 = 3xj + 3yj = 3(yj+1 ; yj ) .


Hence, x1 + 2(x2 +    + xj ) + xj+1 = 3yj+1 ; 3y1 = 3yj+1 ; 3 and
x1 + x2 +    + xj = (3yj+1 ; xj+1 ; 1) = (xj+2 ; 3xj+1 ; 1)
= (4xj+1 ; xj ; 3xj+1 ; 1) ;
1

138
that is,

x1 + x2 +    + xj = xj+1 ; xj ; .
1

The result follows.


Examples are obtained by choosing j . For instance, with j = 1,
x3 = 26 so that n = 13 = 222+ 322 (and 132 2= 83 ;3 73 ) or 3with j = 2,
x5 = 362 so that n = 181 = 10 + 9 (and 181 = 105 ; 104 ).
Remark. This problem is close to Problem no. 3 [1999 : 394] and to
Problem 2525 [2000 : 116].
3. A given convex polyhedron has no vertex which is incident with
exactly 3 edges. Prove that the number of faces of the polyhedron which are
triangles, is at least 8.
Solution by Murray S. Klamkin, University of Alberta, Edmonton,
Alberta.
Let E , F , V denote the respective number of edges, faces, and vertices
of the polyhedron. As is known, E + 2 = F + V . Also, let Vr denote the
number of vertices with valence r and Fs the number of faces with s sides.
It follows that
2E = 3F3 + 4F4 +    + sFs = 4V4 + 5V5 +    + rVr .
Since
V = V4 + V5 +    + Vr and F = F3 + F4 +    + Fs ,
we get from
2E + 4 = 2 (V4 + V5 +    + Vr ) + 2 (F3 + F4 +    + Fs ) ,
that

F3 + 2F4 +    + (s ; 2)Fs + 4 = 2 (V4 + V5 +    + Vr )

and

2V4 + 3V5 +    + (r ; 2)Vr + 4 = 2 (F3 + F4 +    + Fs ) .

Adding the last two equations, we get

8 + V5 + 2V6 +    + (r ; 4)Vr + F5 + 2F6 +    + (s ; 4)Fs = F3 .


Hence, F3 is at least 8.

4. Let a1, a2, : : : , an be arbitrary real numbers and b1, b2, : : : , bn


real numbers satisfying the condition 1  b1  b2      bn  0.
Prove that there is a positive integer k  n for which the inequality
ja1b1 + a2b2 +    + anbnj  ja1 + a2 +    + akj holds.

139

Solution by Michel Bataille, Rouen, France.


Let A1 = a1 , A2 = a1 + a2 , : : : , An = a1 + a2 +    + an and
M = max(jA1 j; jA2 j; : : : ; jAnj). We have to prove that
ja1b1 + a2b2 +    + anbnj  M .
Noticing that

a1 b1 + a2 b2 +    + anbn
= A1 b1 + (A2 ; A1 )b2 +    + (An ; An;1 )bn
= A1 (b1 ; b2 ) + A2 (b2 ; b3 ) +    + An;1 (bn;1 ; bn ) + An bn ,

we obtain:

ja b + a b +    + anbnj
 jA j jb ; b j + jA j jb ; b j +    + jAn; j jbn; ; bnj + jAnj jbnj
 M (jb ; b j + jb ; b j +    + jbn; ; bnj + jbnj)
= M (b ; b + b ; b +    + bn; ; bn + bn )
= Mb  M , as desired.
1 1

2 2

Next we move to the April 2000 number of the Corner and solutions
from our readers to problems of the Finnish High School Mathematics Contest, Final Round, 1997 given [2000 : 132].
1. Determine all numbers a, for which the equation

a3x + 3;x = 3

has a unique solution x.


Solutions by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France; by Stewart
Metchette, Gardena, CA, USA; and by Edward T.H. Wang, Wilfrid Laurier
University, Waterloo, Ontario. We given Bornsztein's solution.
We will prove that the required numbers a are those which satisfy a  0
or a = 49 . Let a, x be real numbers. Let f (x) = 31;x ; 3;2x . Then
a3x + 3;x = 3 (=) f (x) = a.
For all real numbers x : f 0 (x) = ln(3)  3;2x (2 ; 31+x ).
Let x0 =

ln

;2

3 (that is, 31+x0

ln(3)

= 2). We then have

x ;1
+
f 0 (x)
f (x)

;
;
;

;1

x0
0

f (x0 )

@@
@R

140
 2

and, since 31+x0 = 2, we have f (x0 ) = 3  32 ; 23 = 94 .


From this, we easily deduce that the equation f (x) = a has a unique
solution if and only if a = f (x0 ) = 49 or a  0. And we are done.

2. Two circles, of radii R and r, R > r, are externally tangent. Consider the common tangent of the circles, not passing through their common point. Determine the maximal radius of a circle drawn in the domain
bounded by this tangent line and the circles.
Solutions by Michel Bataille, Rouen, France; and by D.J. Smeenk, Zaltbommel, the Netherlands. We give Bataille's write-up.
We will denote by D the domain bounded by the given circles C , ;
(with respective centres O,
) and their common tangent T .
Solution I. We take for granted that the circle m with maximal radius m
contained in D is the one that is tangent to C , ; and T (which may seem
obvious).
We shall make use of the following result (R) [see proof below]: If Ci ,
with centre Oi and radius Ri , (i = 1; 2) are two circles tangent externally at
I , and T is their common
p tangent (not through I ) touching C1 at K1 and C2
at K2 , then K1 K2 = 2 R1 R2 .
Applying (R) to the three pairs of circles (C; ;), ( m ; C ), ( m ; ;), we
readily obtain
p
p
2 rR = 2prm + 2 Rm ,

so that m = p rRp 2 .
( r +
R)

Proof of (R) (see gure)

K1
O1

K2

M
I

O2

We introduce the point M where the tangent at I to the circles intersects T . Then MI = MK1 = MK2 so that 4K1 IK2 is right-angled at I .
It follows that 4O1MO2 is right-angled at M . Since MI is the altitude
from M in this triangle, we get:
p

IM 2 = IO1  IO2 = R1R2 and K1 K2 = 2MI = 2 R1R2 .

141
Solution II. Consider an arbitrary circle with radius  contained in D. We
may suppose that is tangent to C and ; [otherwise we take instead the
circle with the same radius  and centre at the point of intersection in D of
the circles with centres O,
and radii r + , R + ].
Now invert the gure in a circle with centre the common point I of C
and ; and radius k, cutting C at A, B and ; at E , F .
Thus, C , ; invert into the parallel lines AB , EF respectively, T inverts
into a circle  passing through I and into a circle 0 . Note that  and 0
are both tangent to AB and EF with 0 exterior to  .
2
2
Since d(I; AB ) = 2kr and d(I; EF ) = 2kR , the common radius of 
and 0 is given by

2
u = d(AB; EF ) = k r + R .
From a known formula,  is related to u by the relation
 = k2 d2 ;u u2 ,
1

(1)

where d is the distance from I to the centre of 0 . Clearly, the maximal value
m of  is obtained when d is minimal; that is, when 0 is tangent (externally)
to the circle  . In this case, some simple calculations give (see gure below)
2
4
and d2 ; u2 = l2 + (2u + l0 )2 ; u2
l2 = k r ; R
4
where l0 2 = u2 ; l2 = krR . Hence,
1


4
d ; u = k4 1r + R1 p1r + p1R
2

2

With the help of (1), we get

m = 

rRp .
=

p
2
( r +
R)2
p1r + p1R
1

l0

142

3. Twelve knights sit around a round table. Every knight hates the two
knights sitting next to him, but none of the other nine knights. A task group
of ve knights is to be sent to save a princess in trouble. No two knights
who hate each other can be included in the group. In how many ways can
the group be selected?
Solution by Edward T.H. Wang, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo,
Ontario.
We solve the more general problem when there are n knights and a
group of k compatible knights has to be selected for the task. Recall rst
that by a well-known formula in elementary combinatorics, the number of
ways of selecting k objects from a row of n distinct objects so that no two
of the selected
! objects could be adjacent, is given by the binomial coecient
n;k+1 .
k

Consider one particular knight, say, Sir Lancelot. Then the group to be
selected either includes him or excludes him.
If Lancelot is chosen, then his two neighbours cannot be chosen and
hence, we must choose k ; 1 more knights from the remaining n ; 3 knights
in such a way that no two adjacent knights are selected.
! By the formula
quoted above, this can be done in n ; 3 ;k(;k ;1 1) + 1 ways. If Lancelot
is not chosen, then we must select all k knights from the n ; 1 remaining!
k+1
knights subject to the same constraint. This can be done in n ; 1 ;
k
ways.
Therefore, the total number of possible teams is

f (n; k) =
=
=
=

n ; 3 ; (k ; 1) + 1 + n ; 1 ; k + 1
k;1
k

n ; k ; 1 + n ; k 
k;1 
k

n ; k ; 1 + n ; k n ; k ; 1
k;1
k;1  k

n n;k;1 .
k k;1


j k
Note that f (n; k)  0 if and only if k  n2 .
For the given
! problem, n = 12, k = 5 and thus, the number is
12 6
f (12; 5) = 5 4 = 36.

Remark. This problem can be found on p. 46 of the book Combinatorics


by N. Ya. Vilenkin (translated by A. Shenitzer and S. Shenitzer).

143

4. Determine the sum of all 4{digit numbers, all the digits of which
are odd.
Solutions by Michel Bataille, Rouen, France; by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France; by Stewart Metchette, Gardena, CA, USA; and by Edward
T.H. Wang, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario. We give Wang's
solution.
We solve the general problem of determining the sum of all n{digit
integers, all the digits of which are odd, where n 2 N. Let Tn denote the
set of all such integers, and let Sn denote the corresponding sum. Clearly,
jTnj = 5n. List all the integers in Tn in a row in increasing order and then in
a second row in decreasing order as shown below:
1 1 1 ::: 1, 1 1 1 ::: 3, :::::: , 9 9 9 ::: 9
9 9 9 ::: 9, 9 9 9 ::: 7, :::::: , 1 1 1 ::: 1

where each integer has exactly n digits.


Then clearly the sum of the two integers in the same column is the
constant 1 1 1 : : : 1 0, where there are n 1's. Hence, 2Sn = 5n 1 1 1 : : : 1 0
from which it follows that Sn = 5n  5 5 5 : : : 5 where there are n 5's. In
particular, S1 = 25, S2 = 52  55 = 1375, S3 = 53  555 = 69375,
S4 = 54  5555 = 3471875.
5. Let n  3. Find a con guration of n points in the plane such that
the mutual distance of no pair of points exceeds 1 and exactly n pairs of points
have a mutual distance equal to 1.
Solutions by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France; and by Edward T.H.
Wang, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario. We give Bornsztein's
solution.
Let C be the circle with centre P1 and radius 1. Let P2 , Pn be two
distinct points on C such that P1 P2 Pn is equilateral.
Pn
r Pn;1
r
r

P1

r
r
r
r
r

P4
P3
P2

144

We choose any n ; 3 points on the arc P2 Pn (see gure above). Then:


P1 Pi = 1 for i = 2, : : : , n

P2 Pn = 1

and

Pi Pj < 1 in all other cases.

Next we turn to readers' solutions to problems of the XI form of the


Georgian Mathematical Olympiad, 1997 given [2000 : 133].
2. Two positive numbers are written on a board. At each step you
must perform one of the following:
(i) Choose one of the numbers, say a, already written on the board and write
down either a2 or a1 on the board;
(ii) Choose two numbers, say a and b, on the board and write down either
a + b or ja ; bj on the board.
Obviously, after each step the quantity of numbers on the board increases.
How should you proceed in order that the product of the two initial numbers
will eventually be written on the board?
Solutions by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France; and by Edward T.H.
Wang, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario. We give Bornsztein's
solution.
Let a and b be the two initial numbers.
Case 1. If a = b, the use of (i) gives immediately a2 .
Case 2. If a 6= b we proceed as follows:
| with (i), we write a2 , b2 ;
| with (ii), we write a + b; then with (i), we write (a + b)2 ;
| with (ii), we write j(a + b)2 ; a2 j = b2 + 2ab;
| with (ii), we write j(b2 + 2ab) ; b2 j = 2ab;
1
, two times;
| with (i), we write 2ab
1
| with (ii), we write 21ab + 2ab
= ab1 ;

| with (i), we write 11 = ab; and we are done.


ab

4. We say that there is an algebraic operation de ned on the closed


interval [0; 1] if there is a rule that corresponds to every pair (a; b) of numbers
from this interval a new number c from the same interval. We denote it by
c = a
b. Find all positive k with the property that there exists an algebraic

145
operation de ned on [0; 1] such that for any x, y, z from [0; 1] the following
equalities hold:
(i) x
1 = 1
x = x,
(ii) x
(y
z) = (x
y)
z,
(iii) (zx)
(zy) = zk (x
y).
For all such k de ne the corresponding algebraic operation.
Solutions by Michel Bataille, Rouen, France; and by Pierre Bornsztein,
Pontoise, France. We give Bataille's write-up.
We rst show that 1 and 2 are the only possible values for the positive
number k.
Firstly, for any a, b (with b 6= 0) such that 0  a  b  1, we have
a
b = abk;1
(1)




Indeed, ab 2 [0; 1] and a
b = b ab
(b1) = bk ab
1 = abk;1 . Now,
choose a, b such that 0 < a < b < 1 with a < b2k;1 and a < bk2 ;k+1 .
Then,
(a
b)
(b
b) = (abk;1 )
bk = abk;1 (bk )k;1 = ab(k;1)(k+1) . (2)
[since abk;1 < bk ].
On the other hand (a
b)
(b
b) = a
(b
b
b) with either,
if k  1 , b
b
b = b
(b
b) = b
bk = bbk(k;1) = bk2 ;k+1 (since b  bk )
or,
if k  1 , b
b
b = (b
b)
b = bk
b = bk bk;1 = b2k;1 (since bk  b) .
;

This gives (a
b)
(b
b) = a(bk2 ;k+1 )k;1 (if k  1), or a b2k;1 k;1
(if k  1).
Comparing with (2) immediately yields k = 1 or k = 2.
Using (1), we note that necessarily a
b = min(a; b) if k = 1 and
a
b = ab if k = 2.
Conversely, it is readily checked that the algebraic operation de ned
by a  b = min(a; b) [respectively, a
b = ab] is actually de ned on [0; 1]
and satis es (i), (ii) and (iii) with k = 1 [respectively, with k = 2].
In conclusion, the desired algebraic operation exists if and only if
k = 1 and then a
b = min(a; b) for all (a; b) 2 [0; 1]  [0; 1]
or k = 2 and then a
b = ab for all (a; b) 2 [0; 1]  [0; 1] .
That completes the Corner for this issue. Send me your nice comments
and generalizations as well as Olympiad contests!

146

BOOK REVIEWS

JOHN GRANT McLOUGHLIN


Symmetry by Hans Walser,
translated from the German by Peter Hilton and Jean Pedersen,
published by The Mathematical Association of America (Spectrum Series), 2001,
ISBN # 0-88385-532-1, softcover, 120 pages, $23.50 (US).
Reviewed by Peter Hilton, SUNY, Binghamton, NY, USA.

One of the biggest, and most dicult, jobs facing mathematicians and teachers
of mathematics is to restore the study of geometry to its proper role in the curriculum.
For the uncomfortable fact we have to face is that, in the United States at least, the
teaching of geometry is largely neglected at the pre-college level. Not only do our
students arrive at university often unable to carry out a geometric proof or even to
recognize a valid (or invalid) one when they see it, but they are also largely without
the bene t of very reliable and useful geometric intuition.
A reason why this sorry state has come about is that our mathematical education is highly compartmentalized, so that it is administratively very convenient to
neglect a subject which seems to stand alone. Indeed, we should recognize that we
have, for a long time, failed to recognize the fundamental unity of mathematics and
thus to understand that we should present geometry primarily as a source of ideas
and questions and not of methods and answers. Thus we should not, at the secondary
and early undergraduate levels, regard geometry and algebra as two distinct subjects,
but rather see geometry as providing the concepts and the questions, and algebra as
providing the methods and the answers. Thus, geometry and algebra are interactive
and complementary.
That is the point of view adopted by Hans Walser, the author of this very stimulating monograph. He is very largely concerned with symmetry as a geometric concept, although his last two chapters deal with certain aspects of its applicability outside geometry. But the methods he employs to study the symmetry concept are certainly not con ned to those of synthetic geometry. Thus, in the reviewer's judgment,
the author is correctly assigning to geometry its proper role in the integrated curriculum. The book is full of applications of the symmetry concept within mathematics
and in the real world.
The reviewer must now declare an interest | it was I who, with the assistance of the geometer, Jean Pedersen, translated Walser's text from German into
English. Moreover it was I who recommended that the Mathematical Association of
America should authorize a translation and place it in their excellent Spectrum Series.
In fact, my enthusiastic endorsement of the translation project is published on the
back cover of the book. Thus I cannot claim to have approached the writing of this
review in an objective spirit. Nevertheless, I do claim that English-speaking, nonGerman-speaking students must surely bene t greatly from the availability of this
very stimulating text with its fascinating and unusual examples of symmetry. The
mathematics will not be dicult for the bright high school student: but the wealth of
applications | to mirrors, centres of gravity, parquet oors, error-correcting, minimal supply channels, palindromes and rhyming schemes | will surely provide a real,
and welcome, challenge.

147

Polyomino Number Theory (I)


Andris Cibulis, Andy Liu and Bob Wainwright
Polyominoes are connected plane gures formed of joining unit squares
edge to edge. We have a monomino, a domino, two trominoes named I and
V , and ve tetrominoes named I , L, N , O and T , respectively.

A polyomino A is said to divide another polyomino B if a copy of B


may be assembled from copies of A. We also say that A is a divisor of B ,
B is divisible by A, and B is a multiple of A. The monomino divides every
polyomino.
A polyomino is said to be a common divisor of two other polyominoes
if it is a divisor of both. It is said to be a greatest common divisor if no
other common divisor has greater area. Note that we say a greatest common
divisor rather than the greatest common divisor since it is not necessarily
unique. For instance, the two hexominoes below have both the I {tromino
and the V {tromino as their greatest common divisors.

When two polyominoes have at least two greatest common divisors,


each greatest common divisor is clearly not divisible by any of the others.
However, even if a unique greatest common divisor exists, it is still not
necessarily divisible by the other common divisors. For instance, the two
dodecominoes below have the I {tetromino as their unique greatest common
divisor, but it is not divisible by the I {tromino which is also a common
divisor.

c 2002 Canadian Mathematical Society


Copyright

148
Any two polyominoes have a greatest common divisor, since we can
always fall back on the monomino. When the greatest common divisor is the
monomino, we say that these two polyominoes are relatively prime to each
other. The monomino is relatively prime to every other polyomino. A prime
polyomino is one which is divisible only by itself and the monomino, and it
is also relatively prime to every other polyomino. Note that the monomino
is not considered to be a prime polyomino.
If the area of a polyomino is a prime number, then it must be a prime
itself. The converse is not true. The smallest counter-example is the
T {tetromino. It has area 4, but is a prime polyomino.
A polyomino is said to be a common multiple of two other polyominoes if it is a multiple of both. If two polyominoes have common multiples,
they are said to be compatible. A least common multiple of two compatible
polyominoes is a common multiple with minimum area. As shown earlier,
the I {tromino and the V {tromino have at least two least common multiples.
Clearly, neither multiple divides the other. These two trominoes even have
a common multiple whose area is not divisible by 6, the area of their least
common multiple.

However, the area of every common multiple of the I {tromino and


the I {tetromino must be a multiple of 12, the area of their least common
multiple.
Given two small polyominoes, it is a trivial matter to determine all common divisors of them. It is a di erent situation with common multiples. To
determine whether they are even compatible is often an interesting question.
Finding the area of a least common multiple of two compatible polyominoes
can also be challenging.
The monomino is trivially compatible with every polyomino. This
property is not shared even by the domino, which is incompatible with the
icosomino below. Thus compatibility is not a transitive relation.

149
Suppose we wish to nd a least common multiple of the O{tetromino
with either the T {tetromino or the N {tetromino. Clearly, the area of any
multiple of a tetromino is a multiple of 4. Since the tetrominoes in question
are distinct, the smallest possible area of a common multiple is 8.
Note that two copies of the O{tetromino can abut in essentially two
ways as shown below. Neither gure can be assembled from copies of either
the T {tetromino or the N {tetromino. Hence a common multiple has area at
least 12.

If we paint the squares of the in nite grid black and white in the usual
checkerboard fashion as shown below, then three copies of the O{tetromino
always cover an even number of white squares, while three copies of the
T {tetromino always cover an odd number of white squares. Hence they have
no common multiples with area 12.

If we paint the squares of the in nite grid black and white in the checkered pattern shown below, then three copies of the O{tetromino always cover
an even number of white squares, while three copies of the N {tetromino always cover an odd number of white squares. Hence they have no common
multiples with area 12 either.

It follows that in both cases, the minimum area of a common multiple


is 16. It turns out that such least common multiples exist.
The chart below gives a least common multiple of each pair of trominoes and tetrominoes. The polyominoes are featured along the main diagonal. The gure in the ith row and the j th column shows how a least common

150
multiple of the ith and j th polyominoes can be constructed from the ith polyomino.

Note that the minimum possible area is attained in all but two cases,
between the O{tetromino on the one hand, and the T {tetromino and the
N {tetromino on the other. We have dealt with these cases earlier.
The structure considered in this paper is an example of a Normed Division Domain considered by Solomon W. Golomb in his paper with that title,
published on pages 680 to 686 in Volume 88 of the American Mathematical
Monthly in 1981.
Andris Cibulis
Andy Liu
Bob Wainwright
Riga
Edmonton
New Rochelle
Latvia
Canada
USA
Andrejs.Cibulis@mii.lu.lv aliu@math.ualberta.ca
life1ine@aol.com
Note that the fth character in \line1ine" is the digit 1 and not the letter `l'

151

MATHEMATICAL MAYHEM
Mathematical Mayhem began in 1988 as a Mathematical Journal for and by
High School and University Students. It continues, with the same emphasis,
as an integral part of Crux Mathematicorum with Mathematical Mayhem.
All material intended for inclusion in this section should be sent to
Mathematical Mayhem, Cairine Wilson Secondary School, 977 Orleans Blvd.,
Gloucester, Ontario, Canada. K1C 2Z7 (NEW!). The electronic address is
mayhem-editors@cms.math.ca

The Assistant Mayhem Editor is Chris Cappadocia (University of Waterloo). The other sta member is Jimmy Chui (University of Toronto).

Mayhem Problems
Proposals and solutions may be sent to Mathematical Mayhem, c/o
Faculty of Mathematics, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West,
Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, or emailed to
mayhem-editors@cms.math.ca

Please include in all correspondence your name, school, grade, city, province or state
and country. We are especially looking for solutions from high school students. Please
send your solutions to the problems in this edition by 1 October 2002. Solutions
received after this time will be considered only if there is time before publication of
the solutions.
Starting this issue, problems will be printed in English and French.

To be eligible for this month's MAYHEM TAUNT, solutions must be


postmarked before 1 August 2002.
M39. Proposed by the Mayhem sta .
Given x is a positive real number and

x = 2002 + 2002 + 1 1
1
2002+
2002+

1
2002+ x1

nd x.

.................................................................
Trouver x si x est un nombre reel positif et

x = 2002 + 2002 + 1 1
1
2002+
2002+

1
2002+ x1

152

M40. Proposed by Louis-Francois Preville-Ratelle, student, Cegep


Regional de Lanaudiere a L'Assomption, Joliette, Quebec.
Suppose a and b are two divisors of the integer n, with a < b. Prove:
n

n = n +    + n
+



+
n +1
n
a+1
b
b
a
Here bxc denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x.
For example, if n = 24, a = 3, and b = 6, this says:


24  +  24  +  24  =  24  +  24  +  24  +  24  ,
4
5
6
5
6
7
8
which evaluates to the identity 6 + 4 + 4 = 4 + 4 + 3 + 3.


.................................................................
Soit a et b deux diviseurs de l'entier n tels que a < b. Montrer que
$

n = n +    + n
+



+
n +1
n
a+1
b
b
a
Ici, bxc designe le plus grand entier plus petit ou e gal a x.
Par exemple, si n = 24, a = 3, et b = 6, ceci signi e :


24  +  24  +  24  =  24  +  24  +  24  +  24  ,
4
5
6
5
6
7
8
qui se reduit a l'identite 6 + 4 + 4 = 4 + 4 + 3 + 3.


M41. Proposed by J. Walter Lynch, Athens, GA, USA


Find the number of orders of wins and losses that can occur in a World
Series. For example if the series ends after ve games there are eight possible orders: ANNNN NANNN NNANN NNNAN NAAAA ANAAA
AANAA AAANA where A is for an American League win and N is for a
National League win. Note that the series ends as soon as one team wins
four games.
.................................................................
Trouver le nombre d'ordres des victoires et des defaites possibles dans
une Serie Mondiale. Par exemple, si la serie s'acheve apres cinq parties, il
y a huit ordres possibles :ANNNN NANNN NNANN NNNAN NAAAA
ANAAA AANAA AAANA ou A designe une victoire de la Ligue Americaine et N celle de la Ligue Nationale. Noter que la serie se termine des
qu'une e quipe gagne quatre parties.

153

M42. Proposed by Izidor Hafner, Trzaska 25, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

The diagram below represents the net of a polyhedron. The faces of the
solid are divided into smaller polygons. The task is to colour the polygons
(or number them), so that each face of the original solid is a di erent colour.

.................................................................
Le diagramme ci-dessus represente le developpement d'un polyedre
sur un plan. Les faces du solide sont divisees en polygones plus petits. Le
probleme consiste a colorer les polygones (ou a les numeroter) de telle sorte
que chaque face du solide original soit d'une couleur di erente.
M43. Proposed by the Mayhem sta .
Prove that

29 ; 5 29 7 + 29
58
2

!2002

+ 29 +585 29 7 ;2 29

!2002

is an integer.
.................................................................
Montrer que

29 ; 5 29 7 + 29
58
2

!2002

+ 29 +585 29 7 ;2 29

!2002

est un entier.
M44. Proposed by K.R.S. Sastry, Bangalore, India.
ABCD is a Heron parallelogram (in which the sides, the diagonals and
the area are natural numbers). The diagonals AC and BD have measures 85
and 41 respectively. Determine the measures of the sides AB and BC .
.................................................................
Soit ABCD un parallelogramme de Heron (dont les c^otes, les diagonales et l'aire sont des nombres naturels). Les diagonales AC et BD mesurent
respectivement 85 et 41. Trouver les longueurs des c^otes AB et BC .

154

Challenge Board Solutions


Editor: David Savitt, Department of Mathematics, Harvard University,
1 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA, USA 02138 <dsavitt@math.harvard.edu>
In this issue we present the remainder of the solutions to the Konhauser
Problemfest presented in the April 2001 issue [2001 : 204].
9. Gail was giving a class on triangles, and she was planning to demonstrate on the blackboard that the three medians, the three angle bisectors,
and the three altitudes of a triangle each meet at a point (the centroid,
incentre, and orthocentre of the triangle, respectively). Unfortunately, she
got a little careless in her example, and drew a certain triangle ABC with
the median from vertex A, the altitude from vertex B , and the angle bisector
from vertex C . Amazingly, just as she discovered her mistake, she saw that
the three segments met at a point anyway! Luckily it was the end of the
period, so no one had a chance to comment on her mistake. In recalling her
good fortune later that day, she could only remember that the side across
from vertex C was 13 inches in length, that the other two sides also measured an integral number of inches, and that none of the lengths were the
same. What were the other two lengths?
Solution: By Ceva's Theorem the segments AP , BQ, CR meet at a
AR  BP  CQ = 1. Since AP is a median, BP = PC
point if and only if RB
PC QA
AR
CQ
and we get RB  QA = 1
Now let the unknown lengths BC , CA be a, b, respectively. Since CR
AR = AC = b and thus b  CQ = 1.
is the angle bisector from C , we have RB
CB a
a QA
C
a

P
b Q

B
R

13

On the other hand, CQ + QA = b and combining the last two equations

155
2

soon leads to CQ = a ab
, QA = a b+ b . Now, we use that BQ is an
+b
altitude, so that by Pythagoras' Theorem, BC 2 ; CQ2 = AB 2 ; QA2 ,
which leads to
(a ; 13)(a + 13)(a + b) = b2 (a ; b) .
We need to nd a solution to this equation in positive integers a, b so that
there exists a triangle with sides 13, a, b, and 13, a, b are all distinct. Note
that any prime factor, p, of a + b must be a factor of b2 (a ; b) and hence
such a prime must divide either b or a ; b. This suggests that a and b might
have common factors. On the other hand, if p is a common factor of a and
b, then p3 divides b2 (a ; b) = (a ; 13)(a + 13)(a + b), and unless p = 13
(which is easily seen to be impossible) p cannot divide a ; 13 or a + 13,
so that p3 divides a + b. This suggests that the common factors of a and b
cannot be too large!
Speci cally, if we try p = 3, we need 27 to divide a + b. Let us try
a + b = 27, a = 3x, b = 27 ; 3x. Substituting this into our equation yields

(3x ; 13)(3x + 13)27 = (27 ; 3x)2 (6x ; 27)


(3x ; 13)(3x + 13) = (9 ; x)2 (2x ; 9) ,
which is correct for x = 4. Thus, a = 12, b = 15 is a solution. (Note that

this solution is unique.)


10. An in nite sequence of digits \1" and \2" is determined uniquely by the
following properties:
(i) The sequence is built up by stringing together pieces of the form
\12" and \112".
(ii) If we replace each \12" piece with a \1" and each \112" piece
with a \2", then we get the original sequence back.
(a) Write down the rst dozen digits in the sequence. At which place will the
100th \1" occur? What is the 1000th digit?
Solution: Clearly, the sequence starts with a \1". Now if we think of
the replacement process described in (ii) backwards, we see that the initial
\1" must have started as \1 2" before the replacement. And, in turn, the
\1" of \1 2" started as \1 2" and the \2" started as \1 1 2". Therefore,
before the replacement, \1 2" was \1 2 1 1 2". Continuing in this way, we
can reconstruct as much of the sequence as we want. Let us call the nite
sequence we get after k steps of this backward replacement Sk ; let xk , yk , tk
be the number of 1's, 2's and the total number of digits respectively (so that
xk + yk = tk ) in Sk .
Since at each step, 1 gets replaced by 1 2 and 2 gets replaced by
1 1 2, we have xk+1 = xk + 2yk , yk+1 = xk + yk = tk . Now we can
start answering the questions.

156
Since t4 = 12, the rst dozen digits form S4 = 121121212112. As
for the 100th \1", if we calculate xk , yk , tk a bit further, we get x7 = 99,
y7 = 70, tk = 169. Thus, after 169 digits, S7 is complete and we have
99 \1". The next digit must be a \1" (it is the start of a new \1 2" or \1 1
2"), so that it is the 100th \1" and the 170th digit.
To help nd the 1000th digit, we can use the recurrence:

tk+1 = xk+1 + yk+1 = 2tk + tk;1 .


We can use this to get tk quickly. A little calculation gives t9 = 985, and the
1000th digit will be 15 digits beyond the end of sequence S9 .
A second observation is that we can think of S3 = 12112 as consisting of
not two parts \1 2" and \1 1 2", but as three parts \1 2", \1" and \1 2". As we
construct S4 , S5 , etc, from S3 , these three parts do not in uence each other.
Since \1 2" is actually S2 and \1" is actually S1 , we have Sn+1 = Sn Sn;1 Sn ,
so that S10 = S9 S8 S9 .
Therefore, the 15th digit beyond the end of S9 , which is the digit that
we want, is the same as the 15th digit of S8 . Since S5 already has t5 = 29
digits and S8 is just an extension of S5 , our digit is also the 15th digit of
S5 = S4 S3 S4; since S4 has 12 digits, we are looking for the 3rd digit in S3

which is a \1".
(b) Let An be the number of \1"s among the rst n digits of the
sequence. Given that the ratio An =n approaches a limit, nd that limit.
An
Solution: Given that xlim
!1 n exists, we can nd this limit by looking
only at the integers n = tk , which has the advantage that An = Atk = xk .
xk
Thus, we are looking for klim
!1 tk . Since xk = tk ; yk = tk ; tk;1 , this limit
equals:

tk ; tk;1 = lim 1 ; tk;1  = 1 ; lim tk;1 .


lim
(1)
tk
k!1 tk
k!1
k!1 tk
Since tk+1 = 2tk + tk;1 , we have tk+1 > 2tk but also tk+1 = 2tk + tk;1 <
k < 1.
2tk + tk = 3tk , so that 2 < tkt+1
< 3, or 31 < tkt+1
2
k
Thus, there is no danger that the ratios tkt+1
will approach 0, and by
k
t
k;1 and 1 = lim tk =
the given properties, and from (1), L = klim
L k!1 tk;1
!1 tk
t
k
+1
klim
!1 tk both exist.
Now since tk+1 = 2tk + tk;1 , dividing by tk gives
tk+1 = 2 + tk;1 .
tk
tk

157
Taking the limit as k ! 1 yields: L1 = 2 + L .
p
Therefore, L2 + 2L ; 1 = 0, L = ;1  2, but since 13 < L < 12 , we
p
An = 1 ; L = 2 ; p2.
have L = ;1 + 2. Thus, our nal answer is nlim
!1 n
(c) (Tiebreaker) Show that the limit from part (b) actually exists.
Solution: Consider two sequences ( k ) and ( k ) for k  4 such that:
(1) ( k ) is (monotonically) increasing and ( k ) is decreasing;
(2) For all n with tk;1 + 1  n  tk , we have k  Ann  k .
Furthermore, it will turn out that
; x , k+1 = f ( k ) and k+1 = f ( k ) 1 + 1 .
(3) For f (x) = 32 ;
x
tk + 1

Once we succeed in doing all this, we can argue as follows. The bounded
monotonic sequences ( k ) and ( k ) have limits, say and respectively.
By (3), the continuity of f , and the fact that 1 + tk 1+ 1 ! 1 as k ! 1, we
p
get = f ( ) and = f ( ), so that =pf (f ( )). This gives =p2  2,
but since  1, we must have = 2 ; 2 and = f ( ) = 2 ; 2.
p
But (2) now shows that all values of Ann approach 2 ; 2 as n ! 1,
so that we will be done once we prove that (1), (2) and (3) can be arranged.
To get started, we let 4 , 4 be the minimum, maximum values of Ann
for t3 + 1  n  t4 , respectively. Recall that t3 = 5, t4 = 12, and hence,
we get 4 = 95 and 4 = 32 .
We now construct the sequences ( k ) and ( k ) inductively. Suppose
we have k and k for some k, and we want to de ne k+1 and k+1 ; in
particular, we want to nd bounds for An where tk + 1  n  tk+1 . Note
that the lowest value of Ann on that interval occurs for some n so that the
nth digit is a 2. Such an n corresponds to the end
of a \piece" 1 2 or 1
1 2; in fact, it corresponds to the end of the mth piece for some m with
tk;1 + 1  m  tk . In the sequence through the mth digit we have Am \1"
and m ; Am \2", which convert to Am pieces 12 and m ; Am pieces 112
for a total of 2m ; Am \1" and m \2" in the sequence through the nth digit.
Thus,

Am
An = 2m ; Am = 2 ; m = f  Am  .
Am
n
3m ; Am
m
3;
m
Since the function f is decreasing and Amm  k , we have Ann  f ( k ).
Thus, as stated in (2) and (3), we can take k+1 = f ( k ) as a lower bound

158
for all Ann with tk + 1  n  tk+1 . The proof that we can take k+1 =


f ( k ) 1 + tk 1+ 1 as an upper bound for those same Ann is similar, using
the fact that the highest value for Ann on the interval occurs just before a
digit 2 and that 1 + n1  1 + tk 1+ 1 on the interval.

7
. Note that
From 4 = 59 , 4 = 23 we get 5 = 47 , 5 = 11
4 < 5 and 4 > 5. We can now show by induction that both sequences
are monotonic. Since f is decreasing, k > k+1 implies f ( k ) < f ( k+1 );
that is, k+1 < k+2 . Similarly, k < k+1 implies f ( k ) > f ( k+1 ) and
since 1+ tk 1+ 1 > 1+ tk+11+ 1 , it follows that k+1 > k+2 . This concludes
the veri cation of properties (1), (2) and (3), and thus, the proof.

Problem of the Month


Jimmy Chui, student, University of Toronto
Problem. (a) The equation y = x2 + 2ax + a represents a parabola for all
real values of a. Prove that each of these parabolas passes through a common
point and determine the coordinates of this point.
(b) The vertices of the parabolas in part (a) lie on a curve. Prove that
this curve is itself a parabola whose vertex is the common point found in
part (a).
(1999 Euclid, Problem 8)
Solution.
(a) The point (;1=2; 1=4) satis es the given equation, and thus, all
the parabolas pass through that point.
Reasoning: We want to nd an (x; y) that satis es the equation of the
parabola, that does not rely on the variable a. Noting that the given equation
can be rewritten as y = x2 + a(2x + 1), the only way of eliminating a is to
let x = ;1=2. Upon doing this, we nd that (x; y) = (;1=2; 1=4) satis es
the equations of the family of parabolas.
(b) The equation can be rewritten as y = (x + a)2 + a ; a2 . Hence
the vertex is at (;a; a ; a2). Now, since x = ;a, we have a = ;x, and y =
a ; a2 = ;x ; x2 . Therefore, the vertex lies on the parabola y = ;x ; x2 ,
the vertex of which is (;1=2; 1=4).

159

A Trigonometric Equation
Nicolea Gusita

Consider the equation:

with a, b 6= 0 .
Solution 1: Let us divide both sides by a in (1) and then denote

a sin x + b cos x = c

(1)

b
(2)
a = tan  .
This yields sin x + tan  cos x = ac or
sin (x + )
= ac .
(3)
cos 
1 , which becomes
Since 1 + tan2  = cos12  , we have cos  = p1+tan
2

a
cos  = pa2 +b2 , taking into consideration (2).
Therefore, equation (3) becomes:


c
sin (x + ) = c cos
(4)
a = pa2 + b2 ,
with the solution x +  =  arcsin pa2c+b2 + 2k or x = ; arctan ab 
arcsin pa2c+b2 + 2k, where k 2 Z. From (4) there is the restriction
;1  pa2c+b2  1 so that ;pa2 + b2  c  pa2 + b2 or simply

a2 + b2  c2 .

(5)

We notice that equations (4) and (1) are equivalent since:


LS = a sin x + b cos x = a(sin x + ab cos x)
(x + )
= a(sin x + tan  cos x) = a sincos

p
2
2
=  a + b sin (x + ) .

What happens if we divide both sides in equation (1) by b? We will


leave this as an exercise for the reader.
Solution 2: In this method let us put

tan x2 = t

Therefore, x 6= (2k + 1).

or

x
2x
cos 2
sin

c 2002 Canadian Mathematical Society


Copyright

= t.

(6)

160
Case 1: Equation (1) does not have solutions of the form x = (2k + 1).
Therefore, a sin (2k + 1) + b cos (2k + 1) 6= c. Since we have
sin (2k + 1) = sin ( + 2k) = sin  = 0 and cos (2k + 1) =
cos ( + 2k) = cos  = ;1, the last relation will be converted to
b + c 6= 0 .
(7)

But, sin x = 1+2tt2 , and cos x = 11+;tt22 . Therefore, we have a 1+2tt2 + b 11+;tt22 = c
or (b + c)t2 ; 2at ; b + c = 0; that is, a quadratic equation since b + c 6= 0
from (7). This quadratic equation will have real roots if the discriminant
  0. This gives us:

 = (;a)2 + (b + c)(b ; c) = a2 + b2 ; c2  0

or a2 + b2  c2 , exactly the same restriction we found in solution 1.


The solutions then would be: tan x21 = t1 , or x1 = 2 arctan t1 + 2k1 
and tan x22 = t2 or x2 = 2 arctan t2 + 2k2  with k1 ; k2 2 Z.
Case 2: Equation (1) does have a solution of the form x = (2k + 1).
Thus, a sin (2k + 1) + b cos (2k + 1) = c, or b + c = 0, so that c = ;b,
which yields a sin x + b(1 + cos x) = 0.
But, sin x = sin 2 x2 = 2 sin x2 cos x2 and 1 + cos x = 2 cos2 x2 , so that
we have:
2a sin x2 cos x2 + 2b cos2 x2 = 0 ,


2 cos x2 a sin x2 + b cos x2 = 0 .
Therefore, the roots of equation (1) in this case are obtained thus:

cos x21 = 0, so that x21 = (2k + 1) 2 ; that is, x1 = (2k + 1); k 2 Z.


;

We also have tan x22 = ; ab , so that x2 = 2 arctan ; ab + 2k.
Solution 3: We can determine sin x = X and cos x = Y from the algebraic
system:

aX + bY = c ,

X2 + Y 2 = 1 .

I will leave this solution for the readers to have fun. Good luck!
Nicolae Gusita
Scarlett Heights Entrepreneurial Academy
15 Trehorne Drive, Etobicoke, Ontario
Canada M9P 1N8
gusnick@hotmail.com

161

SKOLIAD No. 61
Shawn Godin
Solutions may be sent to Shawn Godin, Cairine Wilson S.S., 975 Orleans
Blvd., Orleans, ON, CANADA, K1C 2Z5, or emailed to
mayhem-editors@cms.math.ca

Please include on any correspondence your name, school, grade, city, province
or state and country. We are especially looking for solutions from high school
students. Please send your solutions to the problems in this edition by
1 August 2002. A copy of MATHEMATICAL MAYHEM Vol. 3 will be presented to the pre-university reader(s) who send in the best set of solutions
before the deadline. The decision of the editor is nal.
Our item this issue is the 2001 W.J. Blundon Mathematics Contest.
My thanks go out to Don Rideout of Memorial University for forwarding the
material to me.

THE EIGHTEENTH W.J. BLUNDON MATHEMATICS CONTEST


Sponsored by The Canadian Mathematical Society, in cooperation with The Department
of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland

February 21, 2001

1. (a) At a meeting of 100 people, every person shakes hands with


every other person exactly once. How many handshakes are there in total?
(b) How many four-digit numbers are divisible by 5?
2. Show that n2 + 2 is divisible by 4 for no integer n.
3. Prove that the di erence of squares of two odd integers is always
divisible by 8.
4. The inscribed circle of a right triangle ABC is tangent to the hypotenuse AB at D. If AD = x and DB = y, nd the area of the triangle in
terms of x and y.
5. Find all integers x and y such that
2x + 3y = 3y+2 ; 2x+1 .
6. Find the number of points (x; y), with x and y integers, that satisfy
the inequality jxj + jyj < 100.

162

7. A ag consists of a white cross on a red eld.


The white stripes are of the same width, both vertical and horizontal.
The ag measures 48 cm  24 cm. If the area of the white cross equals the
area of the red eld, what is the width of the cross?
8. Solve 2x++p1x ; 2 ;1px = 3.

9. Let P (x) and Q(x) be polynomials with \reversed" coecients

P (x) = anxn + an;1 xn;1 +    + a2x2 + a1x + a0 ,


Q(x) = a0 xn + a1xn;1 +    + an;2x2 + an;1x + an ,
where an 6= 0, a0 6= 0. Show that the roots of Q(x) are the reciprocals of
the roots of P (x).

10. If 1997

product?

1998

is multiplied out, what is the units digit of the nal

Next we turn to solutions to the contests presented in the November


2001 issue. Following are the ocial solutions to the 2001 British Columbia
Colleges mathematics competitions. [2001 : 440{445]

BRITISH COLUMBIA COLLEGES


Junior High School Mathematics Contest, 2001
Final Round { Part A
Friday May 4, 2001

1. The integer 9 is a perfect square that is both two greater than a prime
number, 7, and two less than a prime number, 11. Another such perfect
square is:
(a) 25
(b) 49
(c) 81
(d) 121
(e) 169
Soln. If n = 3k  1, then n2 + 2 = 9k2  6k + 3 = 3(3k2  2k + 1), which is
not prime. Thus we must have n a multiple of 3 in order to have n2 +2
prime. This eliminates all but 81. If we check 81, we see that 79 and
83 are both prime. c

163
2. Three circles, a, b, and c, are tangent to each other at point P , as shown.
a

c P

The centre of b is on c and the centre of a is on b. The ratio of the area


of the shaded region to the total area of the unshaded regions enclosed
by the circles is:
(a) 3 : 13 (b) 1 : 3
(c) 1 : 4
(d) 2 : 9
(e) 1 : 25
Soln. Let the radius of c be r. Then the radii of b and a are 2r and 4r, respectively. Therefore, the areas of a, b, and c are 16r2 , 4r2 , and r2 ,
respectively. Then the area of the shaded region is 4r2 ; r2 = 3r2 ,
and the area of the unshaded region is 16r2 ; 3r2 = 13r2 . The
ratio of shaded to unshaded areas is then 3 : 13. a
3. Here is a diagram of part of the downtown in a medium sized town in
the interior of British Columbia. The arrows indicate one-way streets.
The numbers or letters by the arrows represent the number of cars that
travel along that portion of the street during a typical week day.
180

70

-x
y

20

200

400

200

30

Assuming that no car stops or parks and that no cars were there at the
beginning of the day, the value of the variable W is:
(a) 30
(b) 200
(c) 250
(d) 350
(e) 600
Soln. Clearly the number of cars entering the diagram must equal the number
of cars exiting the diagram; that is,

164

200 + 180 + 70 + 200 = 20 + 30 + W + 400


650 = W + 450
W = 200 . b
4. The corners of a square of side x are cut o so that a regular octagon
remains. The length of each side of the resulting octagon is:

(b) 2x 2 + 2 (c) p x
(a) 22 x
2;1
p

p

(d) x 2 ; 1
(e) x 2 + 1
Soln. Let the length of the removed corner piece be a (see diagram below).
Then a side of the resulting octagon is equal to x ; 2a.
aa6
6
?


x;2a

?
-

?

x
Using the Theorem of Pythagoras on the right-angled triangle in any
corner gives us:

(x ; 2a)2 = a2p+ a2 = 2a2


x ; 2a = a 2 p
x = a(2 + 2)
a = 2 +xp2 .

We are interested in the length of the side of the octagon:

p
p
x ; 2a = x ; xp = x x p ; x = x p
p
p
p ;
p
=x
= x( 2 ; 1) .
= x ;;
Alternate approach: Let b be the side length of the regular octagon.
Since thepremoved corners are 45 -45 -90 triangles, the legs have
length b= 2. Thus

p
b
x = p +b = p b
 p

or b =
p x.
2

2+

2(2
4

2+

2)

(2

2+

2)

2+

2+

165
Rationalizing the denominator we get:

b=

2+

p
p  ;; p x =

p ;
;

x=

p2 ; 1 x .

5. The value of 0:01 ;1 + 1 is: (The line over the digit 1 means that it is
repeated inde nitely.)
1
(a) 91
(b) 90
(c) 91
(d) 10
(e) 91
91
90
;

Soln. Let x = 0:01. Then we note that 10x = 0:1, which can also be written
as 10x = 0:11. Comparing this form of 10x with x we see that the
decimal fraction expansions agree except for the rst digit following the
decimal point. Thus we may subtract to obtain 9x = 0:1, which means
that x = 1=90. Then

(0:01);1 + 1 =

1
90

;1

+ 1 = 90 + 1 = 91 .

1
Alternate method: We rst note that 0:01 < x < 0:02 or 100
< x < 501 ,
which means that 100 > x1 > 50, and there is only one possible answer
in this range. e
6. The people living on Sesame Street all decide to buy new house numbers from the same store, and they purchase the digits for their house
numbers in the order of their addresses: 1, 2, 3, : : : . If the store has 100
of each digit, then the rst address which cannot be displayed occurs at
house number:
(a) 100
(b) 101
(c) 162
(d) 163
(e) 199

Soln. In order to cover the addresses from 1 to 99, we need 20 of each nonzero digit and 9 zeros. From 100 to 199, we will have the greatest call
on the digit 1 since every such address will have at least one digit 1 in
it. Therefore, let us examine only the digit 1 rst. From 100 to 109
we use 11 ones; from 110 to 119 we use 21 ones; for each subsequent
group of ten (up to the address 199) we use a further 11 ones. Thus we
want 20 + 11 + 21 + k(11)  100, implying that k  4. That is, up to
address 159 we have 20 + 11 + 21 + 4(11) = 96 ones. Addresses 160,
161, and 162 use up a further 4 ones and we have exhausted the 100
ones we started with. Thus the rst address which cannot be displayed
is 163. d
7. Given p dots on the top row and q dots on the bottom row, draw line
segments connecting each top dot to each bottom dot. (In the diagram
below, the dots referred to are the small open circles.) The dots must be
arranged such that no three line segments intersect at a common point

166
(except at the ends). The line segments connecting the dots intersect
at several points. (In the diagram below, the points of intersection of
the line segments are the small lled circles.) For example, when p = 2
and q = 3 there are three intersection points, as shown below.
c

c
s

s
c

s
c

When p = 3 and q = 4 the number of intersections is:


(a) 7
(b) 12
(c) 18
(d) 21

(e) 27

Soln. If we rst consider p = 2 and q = 4, we easily see that there are


1 + 2 + 3 = 6 points of intersection. If we now consider p = 3 and
q = 4 we see that by considering any pair of the p = 3 dots, together
with the q = 4 dots opposite, we get 6 points of intersection. Now
there are three such distinct pairs which gives us a total of 18 points of
intersection. c
8. At one time, the population of Petticoat Junction was a perfect square.
Later, with an increase of 100, the population was 1 greater than a
perfect square. Now, with an additional increase of 100, the population
is again a perfect square. The original population was a multiple of:
(a) 3
(b) 7
(c) 9
(d) 11
(e) 17
Soln. Let the rst-mentioned population be n. Then n = a2 for some integer a. We then also have n + 100 = b2 + 1 and n + 200 = c2 for
some integers b and c. That is, a2 + 99 = b2 and a2 + 200 = c2 , or
b2 ; a2 = 99 and c2 ; a2 = 200. Subtracting these, we get c2 ; b2 =
101. Thus (c ; b)(c + b) = 101. Since 101 is prime we see that
c ; b = 1 and c + b = 101, whence c = 51 and b = 50. Thus
n = a2 = b2 ; 99 = 2401 = 492 = 74 . b
9. The cashier at a local movie house took in a total of $100 from 100
people. If the rates were $3 per adult, $2 per teenager and 25 cents per
child, then the smallest number of adults possible was:
(a) 0
(b) 2
(c) 5
(d) 13
(e) 20
Soln. Let a be the number of adults, t be the number of teenagers, and c be
the number of children attending the movie. Then a + t + c = 100 is the
number of persons attending the movie, and 3a +2t + c=4 = 100 is the
number of dollars taken in by the movie house. Multiplying the second

167
equation by 4 to clear the fractions, and subtracting the rst equation
we get: 11a + 7t = 300, or t = (300 ; 11a)=7. Since we are seeking
integer solutions and we want the smallest possible value for a, we may
simply examine successive values of a starting with a = 0 until we nd
an integer solution for t. The rst (that is, the smallest) value of a is
a = 5, which gives t = 35 (and c = 60). c
10. The island of Aresia has 27 states, each of which belongs to one of two
factions, the white faction and the grey faction, who are sworn enemies.
The United Nations wishes to bring peace to Aresia by converting one
state at a time to the opposite faction; that is, converting one state
from white to grey or from grey to white, so that eventually all states
belong to the same faction. In doing this they must guarantee that no
single state is completely surrounded by states of the opposite faction.
Note that a coastal state can never be completely surrounded, and that
it may be necessary to convert a state from one faction to the other at
one stage and then convert it back to its original faction later. A map
of the state of Aresia is shown.

The ve shaded states belong to the grey faction, and all of the unshaded
states belong to the white faction. The minimum number of conversions
necessary to completely pacify Aresia is:
(a) 5
(b) 7
(c) 9
(d) 10
(e) 15
Soln. We can rst make a shaded \chain" to the coast by shading one coastal
region at the top left and one of the two interior unshaded regions linking the two shaded regions. This requires 2 conversions. This shaded
chain of 7 states can now be unshaded one at a time working from the
interior to the coast, requiring another 7 conversions for a total of 9
conversions. To see that there can never be fewer than 9 conversions,
we note rst that we must convert the shaded states to unshaded in
order to minimize the number of conversions, and secondly that it is

168
necessary to convert at least one unshaded coastal state and one unshaded interior state to shaded in order to avoid a shaded state being
ultimately surrounded by unshaded states. This means that we would
have a minimum of 7 shaded states to be converted to unshaded (in
addition to the minimum of 2 unshaded that need to be converted to
shaded). Thus we require at least 9 conversions. Thus, 9 is the minimum number of conversions needed to pacify Aresia. c

BRITISH COLUMBIA COLLEGES

1.
Soln.

2.

Soln.

Junior High School Mathematics Contest, 2001


Final Round { Part B
Friday May 4, 2001
Find the smallest 3{digit integer which leaves a non-zero remainder
when divided by any of 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 but not when divided by 7.
Let n be the 3{digit integer in question. Clearly n is a multiple of 7.
Since it has three digits, we may start with the smallest 3{digit multiple of 7 and examine successive multiples of 7 until the conditions are
satis ed. The rst 3{digit multiple of 7 is 105, which is also a multiple
of 5; the next is 112, which is a multiple of 2; the next is 119 = 7  17,
and this leaves a non-zero remainder when divided by any of 2, 3, 4, 5,
or 6. Thus n = 119.
Alternate Solution: There was at least one student who, in reading the
problem, recognized (unlike the problem posers!) that nowhere is there
a mention that the smallest 3{digit integer had to be positive. Since
any negative number is smaller than any positive one, the student then
found the smallest negative 3{digit integer satisfying the conditions.
Since 994 is a multiple of 7, so is ;994. Thus this represents the
starting point. Since ;994 is a multiple of 2, it is eliminated; the next
candidate is ;987, which is a multiple of 3 and is also eliminated; then
comes ;980, which is a multiple of 2 again; the next one is ;973, and
it satis es all the conditions.
Strictly speaking, ;973 is the only correct answer! However, since most
solvers, as well as the problem posers, read \positive" into the problem,
we also allowed 119 as a correct answer.
Assume that the land within two kilometres of the South Pole is at.
There are points in this region where you can travel one kilometre
south, travel one kilometre east along one circuit of a latitude, and
nally travel one kilometre north, and thus arrive at the point where
you started. How far is such a point from the South Pole?
In the vicinity of the South Pole all east-west travel is on a circle centred
about the South Pole. Since we wish to have the circumference of such

169
a circle equal to 1 km, we must have the radius equal to 1=2 km. The
original point from which the trip starts must be located a further 1 km
away from the south pole. Thus we must start 1 + (1=2) km from the
South Pole.
3. Cafe de la P^eche o ers three fruit bowls:




Bowl A has two apples and one banana;


Bowl B has four apples, two bananas, and three pears;
Bowl C has two apples, one banana, and three pears.

Your doctor tells you to eat exactly 16 apples, 8 bananas and 6 pears
each day. How many of each type of bowl should you buy so there is no
fruit left over? Find all possible answers. (The numbers of bowls must
be non-negative integers.)
Soln. Since the number of apples is twice the number of bananas in each bowl
as well as in the doctor's dictum, we can ignore the apple constraint,
and simply solve the problem for bananas and pears. Since we have in
each bowl either 0 or 3 pears, we see that the condition on the pears can
be met in exactly one of three ways: two of bowl B and none of bowl
C; one of each of bowls B and C; or none of bowl B and two of bowl
C. In each case we can then add the number of A bowls to ll out the
requirements. Thus, there are three solutions: (A; B; C ) = (4; 2; 0),
(5; 1; 1), and (6; 0; 2).
A
4. In the triangle shown, \BAD = ,
AB = AC and AD = AE .
Find \CDE in terms of .
B

E
D

Soln. Let \B = \C = x. Let \CDE = y. Since \AED is an exterior angle


to 4EDC , we have \AED = x + y. Since 4ADE is isosceles, we
also have \ADE = x + y, whence \ADC = x + 2y. But \ADC is
an exterior angle of 4ABD, which means that \ADC = x + . Thus,
we have x + 2y = x + , or y = 21 . Therefore, \CDE = 21 .
5. In the multiplication below each of the letters stands for a distinct digit.
Find all values of JEEP .

JEEP
BEEBEEP

 JEEP

170
Soln. Since P 2 = P + 10k for some integer k, 0  k  8, we see that P
is one of 0, 1, 5, or 6. Now by considering the last two digits of each
factor and the product we have (10E + P )2 = 100n + 10E + P for
some integer n < 100.
This means that 20PE + P 2 ; 10E ; P = 10E (2P ; 1) + P (P ; 1) is
a multiple of 100. Let us consider P = 6. Then 110E +30 is a multiple
of 100, implying that E = 7. This means that 7762 must end in the
digits 776, but 7762 actually ends in the digits 176. Thus, P 6= 6.
Next try P = 5. Then 90E + 20 is a multiple of 100, implying that
E = 2. This means that 2252 must end in the digits 225, but 2252
actually ends in the digits 625. Thus P 6= 5. Therefore, P = 0 or 1.
In either case we have P (P ; 1) = 0, which means that 10E (2P ; 1)
is a multiple of 100. Since 2P ; 1 = 1, we conclude that E = 0,
implying that P = 1, since it must be di erent from E . Thus, we
have P = 1 and E = 0. Then we have B = J 2 and B = 2J , since
(J 001)2 = (J )2 00(2J )001 = B 00B001. Since J 2 = 2J and J 6= 0,
we conclude that J = 2, whence JEEP = 2001.

BRITISH COLUMBIA COLLEGES


Senior High School Mathematics Contest, 2001
Final Round { Part B
Friday May 4, 2001

1. See question #4 above.


Soln. See question #4 on the Junior Final (Part B).
2. A semicircle BAC is mounted on the side BC of the triangle ABC .
Semicircles are also mounted outwardly on the sides BA and AC , as
shown in the diagram. The shaded crescents represent the area inside
the smaller semicircles and outside the semicircle BAC . Show that the
total shaded area equals the area of the triangle ABC .
A

171
Soln. To obtain the area of the shaded region we will compute the sum of
the areas of triangle ABC , the area of the semicircle on AB , and the
area of the semicircle on AC , and then we will subtract from this sum
the area of the semicircle on BC . Let a, b, and c be the lengths of the
sides BC , AC , and AB , respectively. Since 4ABC is inscribed in a
semicircle on BC , we see that \BAC = 90 . Thus by the Theorem of
Pythagoras we have a2 = b2 + c2 . If we now denote the area of 4ABC
by [ABC ], then our desired area is:

A = [ABC ] +  ; c  +  ; b  ;  ; a 
= [ABC ] + (b + c ; a ) = [ABC ] .
1
2
1
8

2
2

1
2
2

2
2

1
2

3. Five schools competed in the nals of the British Columbia High School
Track Meet. They were Cranbrook, Duchess Park, Nanaimo, Okanagan
Mission, and Selkirk. The ve events in the nals were: the high jump,
shot put, 100{metre dash, pole vault and 4{by{100 relay. In each event
the school placing rst received ve points; the one placing second, four
points; the one placing third, three points; and so on. Thus, the one
placing last received one point. At the end of the competition, the
points of each school were totalled, and the totals determined the nal
ranking.
(a) Cranbrook won with a total of 24 points.
(b) Sally Sedgwick of Selkirk won the high jump hands down (and feet
up), while Sven Sorenson, also of Selkirk, came in third in the pole
vault.
(c) Nanaimo had the same number of points in at least four of the ve
events.
Each school had exactly one entry in each event. Assuming there were
no ties and the schools ended up being ranked in the same order as the
alphabetical order of their names, in what position did Doug Dolan of
Duchess Park rank in the high jump?
Soln. Since each school had exactly one entry in each event, we conclude by
(a) that Cranbrook had four rst place nishes and one second place
nish. By (b) it becomes clear that the one second place nish they had
was in the high jump. Thus Doug Dolan of Duchess Park could nish
no higher than third place in the high jump. Of the total of 75 available
points, 24 went to Cranbrook, which leaves 51 points to be shared by
the other four schools.
Since they all received di erent totals, Duchess Park, who came in second must have obtained at least 15 points (since 14+13+12+11 = 50,
which is too small). A similar argument shows that last place Selkirk
must have obtained at most 11 points (since 12 + 13 + 14 + 15 = 54,

172
which is too large). Since Selkirk obtained 5 points for the high jump
and 3 points for the pole vault by (b), and at least 1 point for each of the
other three events, they must have a total of at least 11. This, together
with our previous remark shows that Selkirk had exactly 11 points. This
leaves only 40 points to be shared by Duchess Park, Nanaimo, and
Okanagan Mission, and each of them must have at least 12 points.
The only possibility is that Duchess Park had 15 points, Nanaimo had 13
points and Okanagan Mission had 12 points. Since Nanaimo received
the same number of points in four of the ve events and had a total of
13 points, they must have nished third four times and last once (since
four second place nishes would give them too many points, while four
fourth place nishes would require them to nish rst in the other event
to get 13 points, but all the rst place nishes went to Cranbrook and
Selkirk).
Thus Nanaimo had to nish last in the pole vault, as Selkirk nished
third. At this point we have determined that all 1{point, 3{point, and
5{point nishes (except for last place in the high jump) have gone to
one of Cranbrook, Nanaimo, or Selkirk. Since the only remaining odd
point will generate an odd total, it must go to Duchess Park, which has
a total of 15 points.
Thus Doug Dolan of Duchess Park must have nished last in the high
jump.
4. A box contains tickets of two di erent colours: blue and green. There
are 3 blue tickets. If two tickets are to be drawn together at random
from the box, the probability that there is one ticket of each colour is
exactly 21 . How many green tickets are in the box? Give all possible
solutions.
Soln. Let g be the number of green tickets in the box. Then the total number
of tickets in the box is g +3. The number
of ways of drawing two tickets

g
+
3
(g + 3)(g + 2)
from the box (together) is 2
=
. The number of
2
ways of drawing one ticket of each colour is by drawing one of 3 blue
tickets and one of g green tickets, which is 3  g. Thus the probability
of drawing one of each colour when drawing two tickets together is
3g
6g
g + 3)(g + 2)=2 = (g + 3)(g + 2) .

We are told that this probability is 21 . Therefore, we have

=
g2 + 5g + 6 =
g2 ; 7g + 6 =
(g ; 6)(g ; 1) =
1
2

6g
g 2 + 5g + 6
12g
0
0,

173
which means that g = 1 or g = 6. Both of these solutions can be
veri ed.
5. In (a), (b), and (c) below the symbols m, h, t, and u can represent any
integer from 0 to 9 inclusive.
(a) If h ; t + u is divisible by 11, prove that 100h +10t + u is divisible
by 11.
(b) If h + u = m + t, prove that 1000m + 100h + 10t + u is divisible
by 11.
(c) Is it possible for 1000m + 100h + 10t + u to be divisible by 11 if
h + u 6= m + t? Explain.
Soln. (a) Note that
100h +10t + u = 99h +11t +(h ; t + u) = 11(9h + t)+(h ; t + u) .
Clearly, if h ; t + u is divisible by 11, the entire right hand side is also
divisible by 11, which means that 100h + 10t + u is divisible by 11.
(b) In this case we observe

1000m + 100h + 10t + u


= 1001m + 99h + 11t + (;m + h ; t + u)
= 11(91m + 9h + t) + (h + u ; m ; t)
(1)
Again, if h + u = m + t we see that the right hand side is simply
11(91m + 9h + t), which is clearly divisible by 11, implying that the
right hand is also divisible by 11.
(c) If we examine (1) in part (b) above, we see that to have the right
hand side divisible by 11 all we need is that h + u ; m ; t is divisible
by 11. This can happen without h + u = m + t as the following example
shows: h = 9, u = 8, m = 4, and t = 2; h + u = 17 and m + t = 6,
which means that h + u 6= m + t, but h + u ; m ; t = 11 and the
expression in (1) above is then divisible by 11.

174

PROBLEMS
Problem proposals and solutions should be sent to Bruce Shawyer, Department
of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's,
Newfoundland, Canada. A1C 5S7. Proposals should be accompanied by a solution,
together with references and other insights which are likely to be of help to the editor.
When a proposal is submitted without a solution, the proposer must include sucient
information on why a solution is likely. An asterisk (?) after a number indicates that
a problem was proposed without a solution.
In particular, original problems are solicited. However, other interesting problems may also be acceptable provided that they are not too well known, and references are given as to their provenance. Ordinarily, if the originator of a problem can
be located, it should not be submitted without the originator's permission.
To facilitate their consideration, please send your proposals and solutions
on signed and separate standard 8 12 "11" or A4 sheets of paper. These may be
typewritten or neatly hand-written, and should be mailed to the Editor-in-Chief,
to arrive no later than 1 November 2002. They may also be sent by email to
crux-editors@cms.math.ca. (It would be appreciated if email proposals and solutions were written in LATEX). Graphics les should be in epic format, or encapsulated
postscript. Solutions received after the above date will also be considered if there
is sucient time before the date of publication. Please note that we do not accept
submissions sent by FAX.

Each problem is given in English and French, the ocial languages of Canada.
In issues 1, 3, 5 and 7, English will precede French, and in issues 2, 4, 6 and
8, French will precede English. In the solutions section, the problem will be
given in the language of the primary featured solution.

2704. Proposed by Mihaly Bencze, Brasov, Romania. Correction.


Prove that

0
1
2 + r2 + 4Rr
X
p
s
A  0,
R ; 2r  12 @
2(b2 + c2 ) ; a2 ;
R
1

cyclic

where a, b and c are the sides of a triangle, and R, r and s are the circumradius, the inradius and the semi-perimeter of the triangle, respectively.
.................................................................
Montrer que

0
1
2 + r2 + 4Rr
X
p
s
A  0,
R ; 2r  12 @
2(b2 + c2 ) ; a2 ;
R
1

cyclique

ou a, b et c sont les c^otes d'un triangle, et R, r et s sont respectivement


le rayon du cercle circonscrit, le rayon du cercle inscrit et le demi-perimetre
du triangle.

175

2724?. Proposed by Walther Janous, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria.


Let a, b, c be the sides of a triangle and ha , hb , hc , respectively, the
corresponding altitudes. Prove that the maximum range of validity of the
inequality
hta + htb + htc 1=t  p3  at + bt + ct 1=t ,
3
2
3
ln 4
where t 6= 0 is ; ln 4 < t <
ln 4 ; ln 3
ln 4 ; ln 3 .


.................................................................
Soit a, b, c les c^otes d'un triangle et ha , hb , respectivement, les hauteurs
correspondantes. Montrer que le domaine de validite maximal de l'inegalite

hta + htb + htc 1=t  p3  at + bt + ct 1=t ,


3
2
3
ln 4 .
ou t 6= 0 est ; ln 4 < t <
ln 4 ; ln 3
ln 4 ; ln 3


2725. Proposed by Walther Janous, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck,


Austria.
n
P
For k  1, let Sk (n) = (2j ; 1)k be the sum of the kth powers of
j =1
the rst n odd numbers.
1. Show that the sequence fS3 (n), n  1g contains in nitely many squares.
2.? Prove that this sequence contains only nitely many squares of other
exponents k.
.................................................................
n
P
Pour k  1, soit Sk (n) = (2j ; 1)k la somme des k-iemes puisj =1
sances des n premiers nombres impairs.
1. Montrer que la suite fS3 (n), n  1g contient une in nite de carres.
2.? Montrer que cette suite ne contient qu'un nombre ni de carres d'autres
exposants k.
2726. Proposed by Armend Shabini, University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo, Serbia.
Given the nite sequence of real numbers, fak g, 1  k  2n, where
the terms satisfy
a2k ; a2k;1 = d , 1  k  n , and a2k+1 = q , 1  k  n ; 1 ,

prove that, when q 6= 1,

a2k

176
(a)

2n
X

k=1

ak = 2qa2n ; 2qa1;;1nd(1 + q) ,

(b) a2n = a1 q

n;2
n

and

n
2
+ d 11;;qq .

.................................................................
On donne la suite nie de nombres reels fak g, 1  k  2n, satisfaisant

a2k ; a2k;1 = d , 1  k  n ,

a2k+1 = q , 1  k  n ; 1:
a2k

et

Montrer que si q 6= 1,
(a)

2n
X

k=1

ak = 2qa2n ; 2qa1;;1nd(1 + q) ,

(b) a2n = a1 q

n;2
n

et

n
2
1
;
q
+d 1;q .

2727. Proposed by Armend Shabini, University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo, Serbia.


Given the nite sequence of real numbers, fak g, 1  k  n, where the
terms satisfy
ak ; ak;1 = ak;1 ; ak;2 + d , k > 2 , d 2 R ,
nd a closed form expression for

n
P

ak .
k=1
nX
;1 2k + 2

Use this to nd the value of

2k

k=0

.................................................................
On donne la suite nie de nombres reels fak g, 1  k  n, satisfaisant

ak ; ak;1 = ak;1 ; ak;2 + d , k > 2 , d 2 R:


Trouver une expression explicite pour

n
P
k=1

ak .

Utiliser le resultat pour trouver la valeur de

nX
;1 2k + 2
k=0

2k

177

2728. Proposed by Eckard Specht, Otto-von-Guericke University,


Magdeburg, Germany.
The distance between two well-known points in 4ABC is
bc p2(cos A + 1):
a+b+c

What are the points ?


.................................................................
La distance de deux points bien connus dans un triangle ABC est

bc p2(cos A + 1):
a+b+c

Quels sont ces points ?


2729. Proposed by Vaclav Kone cny, Ferris State University, Big Rapids, MI, USA.
Let Z (n) denote the number of trailing zeros of n!, where n 2 N.
(a) Prove that Z (n) < 1 .

1
Z (n)
(b) ? Prove or disprove that nlim
!1 n = 4 .
.................................................................
Soit Z (n) le nombre de zeros apparaissant en queue de n!, ou n 2 N.

(a) Montrer que Z (n) < 1 .

Z (n)
1
(b) ? Montrer si oui on non, nlim
!1 n = 4 .
USA.

2730.

Proposed by Peter Y. Woo, Biola University, La Mirada, CA,

Let AM(x1 ; x2 ; : : : ; xn ) and GM(x1 ; x2 ; : : : ; xn ) denote the arithmetic mean and the geometric mean of the real numbers x1 , x2 , : : : , xn , respectively.
Given positive real numbers a1 , a2 , : : : , an , b1 , b2 , : : : , bn , prove that
(a) GM(a1 + b1 ; a2 + b2 ; : : : ; an + bn )
 GM(a1; a2; : : : ; an) + GM(b1; b2; : : : ; bn).
For each real number t  0, de ne f (t) = GM(t + b1 ; t + b2 ; : : : ; t + bn ) ; t.
(b) Prove that f (t) is a monotonic increasing function of t, and that
tlim
!1 f (t) = AM(b1 ; b2 ; : : : ; bn ) .

178
Soit AM(x1 ; x2 ; : : : ; xn ) et GM(x1 ; x2 ; : : : ; xn ) la moyenne arithmetique, respectivement la moyenne geometrique des nombres reels x1 , x2 ,
: : : , xn . Etant donne des nombres reels positifs a1, a2, : : : , an, b1 , b2 , : : : ,
bn , montrer que
(a) GM(a1 + b1 ; a2 + b2 ; : : : ; an + bn )
 GM(a1; a2; : : : ; an) + GM(b1; b2; : : : ; bn).
Pour tout nombre reel t  0, soit f (t) = GM(t + b1 ; t + b2 ; : : : ; t + bn ) ; t.
(b) Montrer que f (t) est une fonction monotone croissante de t, et que
tlim
!1 f (t) = AM(b1 ; b2 ; : : : ; bn ) .

2731. Proposed by Juan-Bosco Romero Marquez, Universidad de


Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.
Let C be a conic with foci F1 , F2 , and directrices D1 , D2 , respectively.
Given any point M on the conic, draw the line passing through M , perpendicular to the directrices, intersecting D1 , D2 , at M1 , M2 , respectively.
Let R be the point of intersection of the lines M1 F1 and M2 F2 . Prove that
(a) F1 R is independent of the choice of M ;
M1 R
(b) the normal to the conic at M passes through R.
.................................................................
Soit C une conique de foyers F1 , F2 et de directrices D1 , D2 , respectivement. Par un point donne quelconque M sur la conique, on dessine la
perpendiculaire aux directrices, et soit M1 , M2 les points d'intersection respectifs. Si R est le point d'intersection des droites M1 F1 et M2 F2 , montrer
que
(a) F1 R est independant du choix de M ;
M1 R
(b) la normale a la conique en M passe par R.
2732. Proposed by Mihaly Bencze, Brasov, Romania.
Let ABC be a triangle with sides a, b, c, medians ma , mb , mc , altitudes
ha , hb , hc, and area . Prove that


p
m
m
m
a
b
c
a + b + c  4 3 max h , h , h .
a b c
2

.................................................................
Soit ABC un triangle de c^otes a, b, c, de medianes ma , mb , mc , de
hauteurs ha , hb , hc , et d'aire . Montrer que


p
m
m
m
a
b
c
a + b + c  4 3 max h , h , h .
a b c
2

179

2733?. Proposed by Murray S. Klamkin, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.


It is a known result that if O is the circumcentre of 4A1A2 A3 , and if
O1 , O2 , O3, are the circumcentres of 4OA2A3 , 4OA3A1 , 4OA1A2 , respectively, then the lines A1 O1 , A2 O2 and A3 O3 are concurrent.
Does the corresponding result hold for simplexes ? That is, if O is the
circumcentre of a simplex A0 A1 : : : An and Ok is the circumcentre of the
simplex determined by O and the face opposite Ak , are the lines Ok Ak ,
k = 0, 1, : : : , n, concurrent ?
.................................................................
On conna^t le resultat armant que si O est le centre du cercle circonscrit du triangle A1 A2 A3 , et si respectivement O1 , O2 , O3 sont les centres
des cercles circonscrits aux triangles OA2 A3 , OA3 A1 et OA1 A2 , alors les
droites A1 O1 , A2 O2 et A3 O3 sont concourantes.
Le resultat ci-dessus reste-t-il valable pour des simplexes ? En d'autres
termes, si O est le centre de la sphere circonscrite au simplexe A0 A1 : : : An
et si Ok est le centre de la sphere circonscrite au simplexe determine par O
et la face opposee Ak , est-ce que les droites Ok Ak , k = 0, 1, : : : , n sont
concourantes ?
2734. Proposed by Murray S. Klamkin, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.
Prove that
(bc)2n+3 + (ca)2n+3 + (ab)2n+3  (abc)n+2 (an + bn + cn ) ,
where a, b, c, are non-negative reals, and n is a non-negative integer.
.................................................................
Montrer que

(bc)2n+3 + (ca)2n+3 + (ab)2n+3  (abc)n+2 (an + bn + cn ) ,


ou a, b, c sont des reels non negatifs et n un entier non negatif.
2735?. Proposed by Richard I. Hess, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA,
USA.
Given three Pythagorean triangles with the same hypotenuse, is it possible that the area of one triangle is equal to the sum of the areas of the other
two triangles ?
.................................................................
Etant donne trois triangles pythagoriciens ayant la m^eme hypotenuse,
est-il possible que l'aire de l'un des triangles soit e gale a la somme des aires
des deux autres ?

180

2736. Proposed by Juan-Bosco Romero Marquez, Universidad de


Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.
Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral. From points A and B , draw lines
parallel to sides BC and AD, respectively, giving points G and F on CD,
respectively.
Let P and Q be the points of the intersection of the diagonals of the
trapezoids ABFD and ABCG, respectively.
Prove that PQ k CD.
.................................................................
Soit ABCD un quadrilatere convexe. Des sommets A et B , on trace
des paralleles aux c^otes BC et AD, determinant respectivement des points
G et F sur CD.
Soit P et Q les points d'intersection des diagonales des trapezes ABFD
et ABCG, respectivement.
Montrer que PQ et CD sont paralleles.
2737. Proposed by Lyubomir Lyubenov, teacher, and Ivan Slavov,
student, Foreign Language High School \Romain Rolland", Stara Zagora, Bulgaria.
Find all solutions of the equation
xn ; 2nxn;1 + 2n(n ; 1)xn;2 + axn;3 + bxn;4 +    + c = 0 ,
given that there are n real roots.
.................................................................
Trouver toutes les solutions de l'equation
n
x ; 2nxn;1 + 2n(n ; 1)xn;2 + axn;3 + bxn;4 +    + c = 0 ,
sachant qu'il y a n racines reelles.

2738. Proposed by Sefket
Arslanagic, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Let x, y and z be positive real numbers satisfying x2 + y2 + z2 = 1.
Prove that
x + y + z  3p3 .
1 ; x2 1 ; y2 1 ; z2
2

.................................................................
Soit x, y et z des nombres reels positifs satisfaisant x2 + y2 + z2 = 1.
Montrer que

x + y + z  3p3 .
1 ; x2 1 ; y2 1 ; z2
2

181

SOLUTIONS

No problem is ever permanently closed. The editor is always pleased to


consider for publication new solutions or new insights on past problems.

2608?. [2001 : 49] Proposed by Faruk Zejnulahi and Sefket
Arslanagic,

University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.


Suppose that x, y, z  0 and x2 + y2 + z2 = 1. Prove or disprove that

p3
x
y
z
3
(a) 1 
1 ; yz + 1 ; zx + 1 ; xy  2 ;
p
(b) 1  x + y + z  2 .
1 + yz 1 + zx 1 + xy

I. Solution to (a) by Michel Bataille, Rouen, France.


p
Let S = 1 ;x yz + 1 ;y zx + 1 ;z xy . We show that S  3 2 3 .

If one of x, y or z is 0, say, x = 0, then S = y + z < 2 < 3 2 3 .


Now, suppose that xyz 6= 0, so that x, y, z 2 (0; 1).
Note that 1 ;xyz = x + 1 xyz
; yz . Hence,

S = x + y + z + xyz

; yz + ; zx + ; xy .
1

(1)

Since

;

;

1 ; yz  1 ; 21 y2 + z2 = 12 1 + x2
p
;

= 21 2x2 + y2 + z2  2 4 x2 x2 y2 z2 = 2xpyz ,

we have, using the AM{GM Inequality several times, that

xyz

+ 1 ;1 zx + 1 ;1 xy
1 ; yz


1
1
1
 xyz
+
+
p
p
p
2
x yz y zx z xy 


1 ;p
= 2 yz + pzx + pxy  12 y +2 z + z +2 x + x +2 y
= 21 (x + y + z) .
1

(2)

From (1) and (2), we have, using the Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, that

S  (x + y + z) 
3

; 2

1 +1 +1
2

 12 ; 2

x +y +z
2

 21

182
[Ed : Bataille also gave a proof of the left inequality of part (b), which,
obviously, implies the left inequality of part (a).]
II. Composite of essentially the same solution to (a) by Walther Janous,
Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck,
Austria, and the proposers.
Let f (x; y; z) = 1 ;xyz + 1 ;y zx + 1 ;z xy . The left inequality is trivial since the given assumptions imply that 0  x, y, z  1, and thus,
f (x; y; z)  x + y + z  x2 + y2 + z2 = 1. Clearly, equality holds if and
only if (x; y; z) = (1; 0; 0), (0; 1; 0) or (0; 0; 1).
;

For the right inequality, rst note that 1 ; yz  1 ; 12 y2 + z2 =

1 ;
2
1
+
x
and, hence, 1 ;x yz  1 +2xx2 . Therefore,
2

x + 2y + 2z .
x2 1 + y2 1 + z2

f (x; y; z) 

Next, we claim that

(3)

1+

x  3p3 ;1 + x2  .
1 + x2
8

(4)

To show that (4) holds, note that


;

1+x


2 2

16

x =

9x4 + 18x2 ; 16 3x + 9




p
p
= 91 3x2 ; 2 3x + 1 3x2 + 2 3x + 9
p
2 

p
= 91 3x ; 1 3x2 + 2 3x + 9  0 .
p
Hence, (4) holds, and we have equality if and only if x = 33 .
9

Summing (4) with the two corresponding inequalities in y and z then


yields

x + 2y + 2z  3p3 ;3 + x2 + y2 + z2  = 3p3 .
(5)
1 + x2
1 + y2
1 + z2
8
2
p
3 3
From (3) and (5), we conclude that f (x; y; z)  2 , with equality if and
p
only if x = y = z = 33 .
2

III. Solution to the left inequality in (b) by Walther Janous, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria.
Note rst that

x + xyz  x + 12 x ;y2 + z2 = x + 12 x ;1 ; x2  = 21 ;3x ; x3   1 ,


since x3 ; 3x + 2 = (x ; 1)2 (x + 2)  0.

183
Hence, with all summations being cyclic, we have
X

=
1 + yz

x2 
x + xyz

x2 = 1 .

IV. Solution to the right inequality in (b) by the proposers, modi ed


slightly by the editor.
Due to complete symmetry in x, y and z, we may assume, without loss
of generality, that x  y  z. Then,

x + y + z  x+y+z .
yz 1 + zx 1 + xy
1 + xy
+z
 p2, or
Hence, it suces to prove that x 1++yxy
p
p
x + y + z ; 2xy  2 .
1+

(6)
We now use the method of Lagrange Multiplierspto determine the extreme
values of the function g(x; y; z) = x + y + z ; 2xy in the region
B = f(x; y; z) j x, y, z  0 and x2 + y2 + z2 = 1g .
p
;

We let G(x; y; z) = x + y + z ; 2xy ;  x2 + y2 + z2 ; 1 , and set
@G = @G = @G = 0. Then, we have
@x @y @z

1 ; p2y ; 2x = 0 ,
(7)
(8)
1 ; 2x ; 2y = 0 ,
1 ; 2z = 0 ,
(9)
2
2
2
x + y + z = 1.
(10)

p
From (7) and (8), we get 2 ; 2 (x ; y) = 0, and hence, either
p2
 = 2 or x = y.
p
p
If  = 22 , then z = 22 from (9). Hence, from (10), we get

x2 + y 2 = .

(11)

On the other hand, from (7), we have 1 ; 2(x + y) = 0, and hence,

x+y =

From (11) and (12), we easily have x = 0 and y =

(12)
.

Clearly, equality holds in (6) when x = 0 and y = z =

184
If x = y, then (6) becomes

2x + z ; 2 x 2  2 .

(13)

Since (2x + z)2  2 4x2 + z2 , we have


;

2x + z ; 2x2  2 4x2 + z2 ; 2x2 ,


and hence, (13) is true if
p

or

4x2 + z2  x2 + 1 ,

2x2 + x2 + y2 + z2  x2 + 1 2 ,
;

or

2x2 + 1  x4 + 2x2 + 1 ,

which is clearly true. This shows that (13) is true, and hence, (6) holds.
Finally, we check the points on the boundary of B . Without loss of
generality, we may assume that x = 0. Then,

x + y + z ; 2xy = y + z  2 (y2 + z2 ) = 2 .
p

Hence, (6) holds.


Therefore, the given inequality
to see
 pand itp is easy p

 p pisvalid,
p that
equality holds for (x; y; z) = 0; 22 ; 22 , or 22 ; 0; 22 , or 22 ; 22 ; 0 .

Also solved (both parts) by MANUEL BENITO and EMILIO FERNANDEZ,
I.B. Praxedes
Mateo Sagasta, Logro~no, Spain. Part (a) only was also solved by NIKOLAOS DERGIADES, Thessaloniki, Greece ; DAVID LOEFFLER, student, Cotham School, Bristol, UK ; JOEL SCHLOSBERG,
student, New York University, NY, USA ; and LI ZHOU, Polk Community College, Winter Haven,
FL, USA.
There were also two imcomplete solutions, both of which employed the method of
@G @G
Lagrange Multipliers, but claimed, without proof, that the solutions to @G
@x = @y = @z = 0
must be x = y = z by symmetry.

2619. [2001 : 137] Proposed by Edward T.H. Wang, Wilfrid Laurier


University, Waterloo, Ontario, dedicated to Murray S. Klamkin, on his 80th
birthday.
$
%
n
For natural numbers n, de ne functions f and g by f (n) = pn
'
n
and g(n) = pn . Determine all possible values of f (n) ; g(n), and
characterize all those n for which f (n) = g(n). [See [2000 : 197], Q. 8.]
&

185

Solution by David Loeffler, student, Cotham School, Bristol, UK.


If n is a perfect square, say n = m2 , then f (m2 ) = g(m2 ) = m. If
this is not the case, set n = m2 + k, where 0 < k < 2m + 1. We then have


j k
2
2
f (m + k) = pmm2++kk = m m+ k = m + mk


l
m
2+k 
2 + k
m
m
2
g(m + k) = pm2 + k = m + 1 = m ; 1 + mk ++11


j k
k = 0 and k + 1 = 1 and we get f (m2 + k) =
If k < m, then m
m+1
g(m2 + k) = m.
If k = m, then both fractions are 1, which implies f (m2 + k) = m + 1
and g(m2 + k) = m.
k < 2, so that j k k = 1 and
If m < k < 2m, then we have 1 < m
m
f (m2 + k) = m +1 ; this also implies
m
+1
<
k
+1
<
2
m
+1
< 2(m +1),
l
m
k
+
1
k
+1
2
implying 1 <
m + 1 < 2. Thus mj + 1k = 2 and gl(m + km) = m + 1.
k = 2 and k + 1 = 2, yielding
If k = 2m, then we have m
m+1
f (m2 + k) = m + 2 and g(m2 + k) = m + 1.
Thus, f (n) ; g(n) is always either 0 or 1. Also, f (n) = g(n) for all
integers n which are not of the form m2 + m or m2 + 2m for some integer
m, (that is, those n for which neither n + 1 nor 4n + 1 are perfect squares).
2

Comment : We may extend the problem by de ning




h(n) = pnn

and

j (n) = pnn  :

This case may be analysed in exactly the same way as above ; we nd that
h(n) ; j (n) 2 f0; 1; 2g, with h(n) = j (n) if and only if n is a perfect square.
Also h(n) ; j (n) = 1 if and only if n = m2 + m for some m.


 University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and HerAlso solved by SEFKET
ARSLANAGIC,
zegovina ; MICHEL BATAILLE, Rouen, France ; CHARLES R. DIMINNIE, Angelo State University, San Angelo, TX, USA ; RICHARD I. HESS, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA, USA ; OLEG IVRII,
Cummer Valley Middle School, Toronto, Ont ; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria ; PAUL JEFFREYS, student, Berkhamsted Collegiate School, UK ; KEE-WAI LAU,
Hong Kong ; CRAIG CHAPMAN, RICHARD CRAMMER, students, and CARL LIBIS, Richard
Stockton Collegiate of HJ, Pomona, NJ ; HENRY LIU, student, University of Memphis, TN ;
WILLIAM MOSER, McGill University, Montreal, Que ; JOEL SCHLOSBERG, student, New York

University, NY, USA ; HEINZ-JURGEN
SEIFFERT, Berlin, Germany ; TREY SMITH, Angelo State
University, San Angelo, TX ; SOUTHWEST MISSOURI STATE PROBLEM SOLVING GROUP ;
CHRIS WILDHAGEN, Rotterdam, the Netherlands ; KENNETH M. WILKE, Topeka, KS, USA ;
LI ZHOU, Polk Community College, Winter Haven, FL ; and the proposer.
Zhou points out that the above solution also shows that f (n) > f (n + 1) if and only
if n = k2 ; 1, which answers problem 8 from the Olympiad Corner from 2000, p. 197. Sei ert
also considered the extended problem de ned in Loeer's comment.

186

2621. [2001 : 137] Proposed by J. Chris Fisher, University of Regina,


Regina, Saskatchewan, and Bruce Shawyer, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, dedicated to Murray S. Klamkin, on
his 80th birthday.
You are given :
(a) xed real numbers  and  in the open interval (0; 1) ;
(b) circle ABC with xed chord AB , variable point C , and points L and
M on BC and CA, respectively, such that BL : LC =  : (1 ; ) and
CM : MA =  : (1 ; ) ;
(c) P is the intersection of AL and BM .
Find the locus of P as C varies around the circle ABC . (If  =  = 21 , it is
known that the locus of P is a circle.)
Solution by Peter Y. Woo, Biola University, La Mirada, CA, USA.
C
L

Let the lines CP and AB intersect at N . Then by Ceva's Theorem,

AM CL
AN
NB = MC  LB =

(1

; ; ,

)(1

which is a constant. Hence, N is a xed point ; moreover,

; ;
;  ;   .
By Menelaus's Theorem applied to 4NBC with line AL,
NP = NA  BL =
; 
PC
AB LC
;  ;   .
AN =
AB

(1

(1

)(1

)(1

)+

(1

(1

It follows that

NP =
NC

(1

(1

; ;
)(1

; 


)+

)(1

)+

; 
;   = ;  
(1

+ (1

187
is a constant. Hence, as C travels along circle ABC , P will travel along a
circle whose circumference is divided by line AB into the same ratio as is the
original circle ; speci cally, the locus of P is obtained from the locus of C by
a dilatation centred at N with ratio of magnitude
QED.

(1 ; )
NP
NC = 1 ;  +  .

Editor's comments. Technically speaking, P is not de ned for positions


of C at A or B , so the locus of P is a circle minus its two points on AB .
Two solvers noted that more generally, were C constrained to move about
an arbitrary curve, the above argument establishes that P would trace out a
homothetic image of that curve shrunk by the factor

NP
(1 ; )
NC = 1 ;  +  .

Also solved by MICHEL BATAILLE, Rouen, France ; CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK ; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria ; DAVID
LOEFFLER, student, Trinity College, Cambridge, UK ; THEOKLITOS PARAGIOU, Limassol, Cy
prus, Greece ; HEINZ-JURGEN
SEIFFERT, Berlin, Germany ; D.J. SMEENK, Zaltbommel, the
Netherlands ; and by the proposers.

2622. [2001 : 139] Proposed by Christopher J. Bradley, Clifton


College, Bristol, UK.
1
n+1
X
2
;2n .
Find the exact value of
(2n + 1) n
n=0

A combination of almost identical solutions by Jan Ciach, Ostrowiec


 etokrzyski, Poland and Kee-Wai Lau, Hong Kong, China.
Swi
1 2n !)2 x2n+2
From the identity (arcsin x)2 = P (22n +(n1)!(
n + 1) , which is valid
n=0
for jxj  1, we have, by di erentiation,
1 22n+2 (n!)2 x2n+2
1 (2x)2n+2
X
x = X
;2n .
4x parcsin
=
1 ; x2
n=0 (2n + 1)!
n=0 (2n + 1) n
p2
n+1
1
P
2
;2n = .
By taking x = 2 , we conclude that
(2n + 1)
n=0

Also solved by MICHEL BATAILLE, Rouen, France ; PAUL BRACKEN, CRM, Universite
de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec ; CHARLES R. DIMINNIE, Angelo State University, San Angelo,
TX, USA ; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria ; MURRAY S. KLAMKIN, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta ; CARL LIBIS, Richard Stockton College of NJ,
Pomona, NJ, USA ; HENRY LIU, student, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA ; DAVID LOEFFLER, student, Cotham School, Bristol, UK ; DAVID E. MANES, SUNY at Oneonta,

Oneonta, NY, USA ; HEINZ-JURGEN
SEIFFERT, Berlin, Germany ; CHRIS WILDHAGEN, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (two solutions) ; PETER Y. WOO, Biola University, La Mirada, CA,
USA ; LI ZHOU, Polk Community College, Winter Haven, FL, USA ; and the proposer.

188
Most solutions submitted were similar to the above one. Janous started with a more
general power series representation and mentioned other results that can be obtained from it.
Manes gave an expanded version of a solution by G. Klambauer in Problems and Propositions
in Analysis, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1979, problem 151, pp. 317{318. Stan Wagon wrote
to point out that there are algorithms for doing problems such as these, and his philosophy,
still a minority in the problem-solving community, is to use computers to do such problems.

2624. [2001 : 138]

Proposed by H.A. Shah Ali, Tehran, Iran.


Let n black objects and n white objects be placed on the circumference
of a circle, and de ne any set of m consecutive objects from this cyclic sequence to be an m{chain.
(a) Prove that, for each natural number k  n, there exists at least one
2k{chain consisting of k black objects and k white objects.
p
(b) Prove that, for each natural number k  2n + 5 ; 2, there exist at
least two such disjoint 2k{chains.
Solution by Elsie Campbell and Trey Smith, Angelo State University,
San Angelo, TX, USA.
For ease of notation, a 2k{chain will be called good if it consists of
k black and k white objects. We may label the objects M (1), M (2), : : : ,
M (2n) where M (1) is arbitrarily chosen and the objects are taken in a clockwise order. Then we observe that for k  n there are 2n di erent 2k{chains
which will be labelled

C (1) = ;;M (1); M (2); : : : ; M (2k) 


C (2) = M (2); M (3); : : : ; M (2k + 1)





C (2n) = M (2n); M (1); : : : ; M (2k ; 1) .


For each chain C (i) let W (i) and B (i) be the number of white objects and
;

the number of black objects, respectively, in the chain.


Notice that each object will be in exactly 2k di erent 2k{chains. Since
there are n white objects we have that
W (1) + W (2) +    + W (2n) = n  2k = 2kn .
We may now prove :
Theorem (a) : Fix natural numbers n and k with k  n. Then there exists at
least one good 2k{chain.
Proof : Suppose that no good 2k{chain exists. We must derive a contradiction.
Arbitrarily x a 2k{chain C (1). We may assume, without loss of generality,
that W (1) > B (1). Since there are no good 2k{chains, we conclude that for
all natural numbers i such that 1  i  2n we have W (i) > B (i). If this
were not the case, then we could let j be the least natural number such that

189

W (j ) < B(j ). Then W (j ; 1) > B(j ; 1), but this is impossible since C (j )
could have at most 1 white object less than, and 1 more black object, than
C (j ; 1), and
W (j ) < B(j ) ==) W (j ) + 2  B(j ) ,
since W (i) and B (i) have the same parity for all i, 1  i  2n. Thus, we
have W (i)  k + 1 for every i, 1  i  2n. This implies that
W (1) + W (2) +    + W (2n)  2n(k + 1) > 2kn;
which is a contradiction. Therefore, there is a good 2k{chain.
p
Theorem (b) : Fix natural numbers k and n with k  2n + 5 ; 2. Then there
exist at least two good disjoint 2k{chains.
Proof : If 2n ; 4k + 1 < 0, then
2n < 4k ; 1 =) 2n + 5 < 4k + 4
=) p
2n + 5 < k2 + 4k + 4
=)
2n + 5 < k + 2
=) p2n + 5 ; 2 < k ,
which is a contradiction. Thus we may assume (since k and n are integers)
2n ; 4k + 1 > 0.
By the previous theorem we may x a good 2k{chain and label it C (1).
Observe that there are 2n ; 4k + 1 many 2k{chains which are disjoint from
C (1). They are, in particular,
C (2k + 1), C (2k + 2), : : : , C (2n ; 2k), C (2n ; 2k + 1).
Now suppose that none of these are good. We must derive a contradiction. By the same argument as that used in the previous theorem, it cannot be
the case that some of the chains have more black objects than white objects
while others have more white objects than black objects. We may assume,
without loss of generality, that all of the chains have at least k + 1 many
whites. Thus,

W (2k + 1) + W (2k + 2) +    + W (2n ; 2k + 1)  (k + 1)(2n ; 4k + 1) .


In addition, each of the k white objects in C (1) will be in 2k many 2k{chains.
Hence the sum of the white objects from C (1) that are in the chains
C (2n ; 2k + 2), : : : , C (2n), C (1), : : : , C (2k)
is k  2k = 2k2 .

190
We must, nally, sum up all of the white objects that fall outside of

C (1) from the chains


C (2n ; 2k + 2), : : : , C (2n), C (1), : : : , C (2k).
Since W (2k + 1)  k + 1, then
C (2k) contains at least k white objects outside of C (1),
C (2k ; 1) contains at least k ; 1 white objects outside of C (1),



C (2k ; (k ; 1))



contains at least 1 white object outside of C (1),


for a total of at least 12 k(k +1). Similarly, the sum of the white objects outside
of C (1) from
C (2n ; 2k + 2), C (2n ; 2k + 3), : : : , C (2n)
is at least 12 k(k + 1).
Using the fact that W (1) + W (2) +    + W (2n) = 2kn, we get

(k + 1)(2n ; 4k + 1) + 2k2 + 12 k(k + 1) + 21 k(k + 1)


2kn + 2n ; k2 ; 2k + 1
2n
2n
2
n
+
p2n + 5 ; 52

 2kn
 2kn
 k + 2k ; 1
< k + 4k ; 1
2
2

< k2 + 4k + 4
< k,
which is a contradiction. Thus, there are at least two good disjoint 2k{chains.

Also solved by HENRY LIU, student, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA ;
LI ZHOU, Polk Community College, Winter Haven, FL, USA ; and the proposer. Part (a) only
was solved by RICHARD I. HESS, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA, USA ; and JOEL SCHLOSBERG,
student, New York University, NY, USA.

Crux Mathematicorum

Founding Editors / Redacteurs-fondateurs : Leopold Sauve & Frederick G.B. Maskell


Editors emeriti / Redacteur-emeriti : G.W. Sands, R.E. Woodrow, Bruce L.R. Shawyer

Mathematical Mayhem

Founding Editors / Redacteurs-fondateurs : Patrick Surry & Ravi Vakil


Editors emeriti / Redacteurs-emeriti : Philip Jong, Je Higham,
J.P. Grossman, Andre Chang, Naoki Sato, Cyrus Hsia














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