1 an
X
1
4n+1 is equal to 11 .
n=1
4
n (2n)!
4. Show that lim
!1
n = e.
5. In 4ABC , R is the midpoint of BC . S is a point on AC such that
n
6.
1 ; xy
Z
7. Evaluate the integral I (k) = 01 sin(kx)xcosk(x) dx, where k 2 N.
Z 1 sin(x)
Hint: recall that
x dx = 2 .
0
Day 1 Problems
Problem 1. Let n be a positive integer. Consider an n n matrix with
entries 1, 2, : : : , n2 written in order starting top left and moving along each
row in turn left to right. We choose n entries of the matrix such that exactly
one entry is chosen in each row and each column. What are the possible
values of the sum of the selected entries?
Problem 2. Let r, s, t be positive integers which are pairwise relatively prime. If a and b are elements of a commutative multiplicative group
with unity element e, and ar = bs = (ab)t = e, prove that a = b = e.
Does the same conclusion hold if a and b are elements of an arbitrary
noncommutative group?
P
tn
Problem 3. Find limt%1 (1 ; t) 1
n=1 1+tn , where t % 1 means that
t approaches 1 from below.
Problem 4. Let k be a positive integer. Let p(x) be a polynomial of
degree n, each of whose coecients is ;1, 1 or 0, and which is divisible by
(x ; 1)k . Let q be a prime such that lnqq < ln(nk+1) . Prove that the complex
qth roots of unity are roots of the polynomial p(x).
Problem 5 Let A be an n n matrix such that A 6= I for all 2 C.
Prove that A is similar to a matrix having at most one nonzero entry on the
main diagonal.
Problem 6.Suppose that the dierentiable functions a, b, f , g : R ! R
satisfy
f (x) 0 , f 0 (x) 0 , g0 (x) > 0 for all x 2 R ,
xlim
!1 a(x) = A > 0 , xlim
!1 b(x) = B > 0 , xlim
!1 f (x) = xlim
!1 g(x) = 1 ,
and
f 0 (x) + a(x) f (x) = b(x) .
g0 (x)
g(x)
Prove that
f (x) = 2 B .
xlim
!1
g(x)
A+1
4
Day 2 Problems
Problem 1 Let r, s 1 be integers and a0 , a1 , : : : , ar;1 , b0 , b1 , : : : ,
bs;1 be real nonnegative numbers such that
(a0 +a1x+a2 x2 + +ar;1 xr;1 +xr )(b0 +b1 x+b2 x2 + +bs;1 xs;1 +xs )
= 1 + x + x2 + + xr+s;1 + xr+s .
Prove that each ai and each bj equals either 0 or 1.
q p
p
Problem 2 Let a0 = 2, b0 = 2, and an+1 = 2 ; 4 ; a2n ,
bn+1 = 2 + p2b4n+ b2 .
n
to 0.
(a) Prove that the sequences fan g, fbn g are decreasing and converge
(b) Prove that the sequence f2n an g is increasing, the sequence f2n bn g
is decreasing and that these two sequences converge to the same limit.
(c) Prove that there is a positive constant C such that for all n the
following inequality holds: 0 < bn ; an < 8Cn .
Problem 3.
Find the maximum number of points on a sphere of
radius 1 in Rn suchpthat the distance between any two of these points is
strictly greater that 2.
Problem 4. Let A = (ak;t )k;t=1;::: ;n be an n n complex matrix such
that for each m 2 f1, : : : , ng and 1 j1 < < jm n the determinant
of the matrix (ajk ;jt )k;t=1;::: ;m is zero. Prove that An = 0 and that there
exists a permutation 2 Sn such that the matrix
(a(k);(t))k;t=1;::: ;n .
has all of its nonzero elements above the diagonal.
Problem 5. Let R be the set of real numbers. Prove that there is no
function f : R ! R with f (0) > 0, and such that
f (x + y) f (x) + yf (f (x)) for all x, y 2 R .
Problem 6.
R.E. Woodrow
All communications about this column should be sent to Professor R.E.
Woodrow, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Calgary,
Calgary, Alberta, Canada. T2N 1N4.
Here we are at the beginning of a new year and a new volume of CRUX
with MAYHEM. My thanks go to our readers, problem solvers, commentators, and suppliers of Olympiad materials over the last year (and for some
decades!). Among those contributing last year are:
Mohammed Aassila
Murray S. Klamkin
Miguel Amengual Covas
Hojoo Lee
Ed Barbeau
Richard Nowakowski
Michel Bataille
LuyunZhongQiao
Pierre Bornsztein
HeinzJurgen Seiert
Rene Bornsztein
Toshio Seimiya
Christopher J. Bradley
Andrei Simion
Competitions Committee of the
Raul A. Simon Lamb
Greek Mathematical Society
Achilleas Sinefakopoulos
George Evagelopoulos
Christopher Small
Walther Janous
D.J. Smeenk
Athanasios Kalakos
Edward T.H. Wang
To start the new year we give the problems of the 1999 Vietnamese
Mathematical Olympiad. My thanks go to Ed Barbeau, Canadian Team Leader
to the IMO in Bucharest for forwarding them to us.
(1 + 42x;y )51;2x+y
= 1 + 22x;y+1
3
2
y + 4x + 1 + ln(y + 2x) = 0
6
triangle ABC . The sides BC , CA and AB intersect the pairs of segments
(C 0 A0 ; A0 B 0), (A0 B0 ; B0 C 0) and (B0 C 0 ; C 0A0 ) at the pairs of points (M; N ),
(P; Q) and (R; S ), respectively. Prove that MN = PQ = RS if and only if
the triangle ABC is equilateral.
3. Let (xn)1n=0 and (yn)1n=0 be two sequences dened recursively as
follows
x0 = 1 x1 = 4 , xn+2 = 3xn+1 ; xn ,
y0 = 1 y1 = 2 , yn+2 = 3yn+1 ; yn ,
for all n = 0, 1, 2, : : : .
(a) Prove that
x2n ; 5yn2 + 4 = 0
for all nonnegative integers n.
(b) Suppose that a, b are two positive integers such that a2 ; 5b2 + 4 = 0.
Prove that there exists a nonnegative integer k such that xk = a and yk = b.
4. Let a, b, c be real positive numbers such that abc + a + c = b.
Determine the greatest possible value of the following expression
P = a2 2+ 1 ; b2 2+ 1 + c2 3+ 1 .
6. Let T be the set of all nonnegative integers not greater than 1999
and N be the set of all nonnegative integers. Find all functions f : N ! T
satisfying the following conditions
f (t) = t for all t 2 T
f (m + n) = f (f (m) + f (n)) for all m, n 2 N
Category B
1. Let fung1n
be a sequence dened by
u1 = 1; u2 = 2 and un+2 = 3un+1 ; un
for all n = 1, 2, : : : .
Prove that
2
=1
un+2 + un 2 + uun+1
n
for all n = 1, 2, : : : .
2. Let ABC be a triangle inscribed in the circle O. Locate the
position of the points P , not lying in the circle O, of the plane (ABC )
with the property that the lines PA, PB , PC intersect the circle O again at
points A0 , B 0 , C 0 such that A0 B 0 C 0 is a rightangled isosceles triangle with
\A0 B 0 C 0 = 90 .
3. Consider real numbers a, b such that all roots of the equation
ax3 ; x2 + bx ; 1 = 0
8
(a) Prove that
(i) fxn g and fyn g are not equal to zero for all n = 1, 2, : : : .
(ii) The sequences fxn g and fyn g contain innitely many positive terms
and innitely many negative terms.
(b) Are the (19991945 )th terms of the sequence fxn g and the sequence fyn g
divisible by 7 or not?
As a second set for your problemsolving pleasure we give the
problems of the 16th Balkan Mathematical Olympiad, 1999, from Ohrid,
Macedonia. Thanks again go to Ed Barbeau, Canadian Team leader to the
IMO at Bucharest for collecting this set for our use.
16th BALKAN MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD
Ohrid, Macedonia, 1999
4. Let 0 x0 x1 x2 xn be a nondecreasing
sequence of nonnegative integers such that for every k, k 0, the number
of terms of the sequence which are less than or equal to k is nite, say yk .
Prove that for all positive integers m, n
n
X
i=0
xi +
m
X
j =0
yj (n + 1)(m + 1) .
9
Next we have some housekeeping to do  corrections to solutions published last year and an alternate solution. Corrections rst!
Murray Klamkin wrote to point out an error in one of his own solutions
given last April.
5. Third Macedonian Mathematical Olympiad [2001 : 178; 1999 : 198]
Find the biggest number n such that there exist n straight lines in space,
R3 , which pass through one point, and the angle between each two lines is
the same. (The angle between two intersecting straight lines is dened to be
the smaller one of the two angles between these two lines.)
Comment by Murray S. Klamkin, University of Alberta, Edmonton,
Alberta. Branko Grunbaum pointed out that there are six equiinclined lines
determined by the centre and the vertices of a regular icosahedron.
The result given in the published solution is for concurrent rays, not
concurrent lines.
Next we turn to a comment and correction for a solution given in the
September number.
3. St. Petersburg City Mathematical Olympiad, Selective Round, 11th
Grade [2001 : 307; 1999 : 263]
Prove that there are no positive integers a and b such that for all different primes p and q greater than 1000, the number ap + bq is also prime.
Comment and Correction by Greg Martin, Mathematics Department,
University of British Columbia.
The solution cites an incorrect version of Dirichlet's Theorem. For a
residue class modulo m to contain innitely many primes, it is not sucient
for the residue class to be nonzero modulo m, as the residue class 2 (mod 4)
demonstrates. Rather, it is necessary (and sucient) for the residue class to
be reduced, that is, for the integers in the residue class to be relatively prime
to m. The published solution can be rescued by choosing m to be relatively
prime to both a and b, for example, m = ab + 1.
Next we give an alternate solution to another problem, from the same
set, that is more visual, and thus may be simpler.
1. St. Petersburg City Mathematical Olympiad, Selective Round, 11th
Grade [200 1: 305306; 1999 : 263]
It is known about real numbers a1 , : : : , an+1 ; b1 , : : : , bn , that
0 bk 1 (k = 1, : : : , n) and a1 a2 an+1 = 0. Prove
the inequality:
10
n
X
i=1
ak b k
Pnj=1 bj ]+1
X
k=1
ak .
(1)
Figure 1
a3
a4
a5
a6
a1
a2
Figure 2
a3
a4
a5
a6
a7
a8
a7
a8
b1
b1 +b2
b1 +b2 +b3
Pn b
i=j j
11
Figure 3
12
Lee's solution also works for n = 2. Aassila and Bornsztein also give
proofs avoiding negative numbers. We give Bornsztein's solution in positive
integers.
We will prove that we may add the condition
(d) \A N and B N ".
First we note that A3 = f1, 5, 6g and B3 = f2, 3, 7g satisfy the four
conditions (a), (b), (c) and (d).
Let n be an integer, with n 3.
Suppose that the sets An = fx1 , : : : , xn g and Bn = fy1 , : : : , yn g
satisfy the conditions (a), (b), (c), and (d).
Let A0n = f8x1 , 8x2 , : : : , 8xn g and Bn0 = f8y1 , : : : , 8yn g. It is clear
that A0n and Bn0 satisfy (a), (b), (c) and (d).
Moreover, for each i 2 f1, : : : , ng, we have
n = 3, 4, 5.
For n = 3, we already have found A3 and B3 .
For n = 4, we may choose A4 = f1, 4, 6, 7g and B4 = f2, 3, 5, 8g.
For n = 5, we may choose A5 = f1, 5, 9, 17, 18g and B5 = f2, 3, 11,
15, 19g and the proof is complete.
2. Let L be a line in the plane of an acute triangle ABC . Let the lines
symmetric to L with respect to the sides of ABC intersect each other in the
points A0 , B 0 and C 0 . Prove that the incentre of triangle A0 B 0 C 0 lies on the
circumcircle of triangle ABC .
13
L C l
E
C0
D
B0
A0
= 90 + x + 90 ; x
2
2 = 180 .
14
3. 12k persons have been invited to a party. Each person shakes hands
with 3k+6 persons. Also, we know that the number of the persons who shake
hands with any two persons is constant. Find the number of persons invited.
Solution by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France.
Let the xed quantity referred to be n. Now consider a xed person a.
Let B be the set of people who have shaken hands with a, and C the set of
those that have not. Then jB j = 3k + 6 and jC j = 9k ; 7.
For any b 2 B , people who have shaken hands with a and b must be
in B . Hence, b has shaken hands with n people in B , and thus with 3k +5 ; n
people in C .
For any c 2 C , people who have shaken hands with a and c must be
in B . Hence, c has shaken hands with n people in B .
The total number of handshakes between B and C is given by
(3k + 6)(3k + 5 ; n) = (9k ; 7)n, which simplies to 9k2 ; 12kn +
33k + n + 30 = 0. It follows that n = 3m for some positive integer
m, and
9k+43
.
Since
3
is
not
a
divisor
of
44
,
we
have
=
6
1 for
4m = k + 3 + 912kk+43
;1
12k;1
any choice of k. Furthermore, if k > 3 then 2(12k ; 1) > 9k + 43 and thus,
9k+43
< 2. Therefore, we need only consider k = 1, 2, 3. Only k = 3 yields
12k;1
an integer value for 912kk+43
;1 , and there are 36 people at the party.
Comment by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France.
This problem was proposed to, but not used by, the jury of the 36th IMO
in Canada (1995). A solution may be found in \36th International Mathematical Olympiad" published by the Canadian Mathematical Society, p. 138{139.
4. Let n be a natural number. Prove that n can be written as a sum of
some distinct numbers of the form 2p 3q such that none of them divides any
other. For example 19 = 4 + 6 + 9.
Comments by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France; and by Pierre
Bornsztein, Pontoise, France.
This problem is the same as problem 6 of the 8th Korean Mathematical
Olympiad, First Round, for which a solution has appeared in CRUX with
MAYHEM [1999 : 462].
5. Prove that for any natural number n
dpn + pn + 1 + pn + 2e = dp9n + 8e :
15
3
8
n(n + 1)(n + 2) > n + 9
(consider the function (x ; 1)x(x + 1) ; (x ; 91 )3 ).
pn + pn + 1 + pn + 2
3
Hence,
q3 p p
n n + 1 pn + 2
r 8
> n+ 9.
>
pn + pn + 1 + pn + 2 > p9n + 8 .
pn + pn + 1 + pn + 2
3
Hence,
Consequently,
<
rn + n + 1 + n + 2
3
pn + pn + 1 + pn + 2 < p9n + 9 .
dpn + pn + 1 + pn + 2e = dp9n + 8e .
Next we look at solutions for the Final Round  First Exam, of the 13th
Iranian Mathematical Olympiad given on [1999 : 455].
1. Prove the following inequality
9
1
1
1
(xy + xz + yz) (x + y)2 + (y + z)2 + (x + z)2 4
A+B+C 0
16
where
X ; 5
4x y ; x4 y2 ; 3x3 y3
symmetric
X ; 5 24
B =:
4xy ; x y ; 3x3 y3
symmetric
X ; 4
C =:
2x yz ; 2x3 y2 z ; 2x3 yz2 + 2x2 y2 z2
symmetric
P
and
runs over all six permutations of x, y, z.
A =:
symmetric
and hence,
symmetric
symmetric
symmetric
X ; 5
4x y ; x4 y2 ; 3x3 y3 0 ,
symmetric
X ; 5 24
B =
4xy ; x y ; 3x3 y3 0 .
A =
symmetric
2. Prove that for every pair m, k of natural numbers, m can be expressed uniquely as
where
ak ak;1
a t
m = k + k ; 1 + + t
ak > ak;1 > > at t 1 .
Solutions by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France; by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France; and by Moubinool Omarjee, Paris, France. We give
Omarjee's solution.
Pour l'unicite, si il existe ak , : : : , at et bk , : : : , bs , en cherchant la
premiere place ou il diere, disons k et ak > bk , alors
bk
bk ; k + 1 bk + 1 ak
m k + +
<
k m,
1
k
17
ce qui est absurde.
;
Pour l'existence, on cherche le plus grand ak tel que akk m, puis
;onak;r1eapplique
;leak m^eme algorithme. On cherche le plus grand ;aakk; 1 tel; aque
k
k;1 m ; k . La decroissance de aj suit du fait que m ; k < k;1 .
A
I O
B0
B
C0
C
N
O F B0
EH Y
X
M
B
18
Now,
19
completing the induction step.
Now since a2m 2m ; 7, the sequence (am ) is unbounded and thus,
takes on innitely many values; that is, there are innitely many numbers m
for which one can nd an associated positive number nm such that nm 2m ; 7
(= a2m ) is a perfect square.
Now, given our (xed) number k, we simply consider the innitely many
m for which m k, and note that (nm 2m;k )2k ; 7 is a perfect square.
Comment by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France. This problem was
proposed to, and not used by, the jury at the 36th IMO in Canada (1995).
A solution may be found in \36th International Mathematical Olympiad",
published by the Canadian Mathematical Society, p. 332.
5. Let ABC be a nonisosceles triangle. Medians of the triangle ABC
intersect the circumcircle in points L, M , N . If L lies on the median of BC
and LM = LN , prove that 2a2 = b2 + c2 .
Solutions by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France; by Michel Bataille,
Rouen, France; by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France; and by Toshio Seimiya,
Kawasaki, Japan. We give Aassila's solution.
Let G be the centroid of 4ABC . Since 4ACG and 4NGL are similar, and since 4MLG and 4ABG are similar, we have
LN = LG , LM = GL .
AC CG AB
BG
Thanks to LM = LN , we obtain
We have
which yields
AB = BG .
AC CG
c2 = 2c2 + 2a2 ; b2 ,
b2 2b2 + 2a2 ; c2
(b2 ; c2 )(2a2 ; c2 ; b2 ) = 0 .
Finally, we have 2a2 = b2 + c2 .
That completes this number of the Corner. Olympiad season is
approaching. Send me your nice solutions as well as Olympiad Contests for
use in the Corner!
20
BOOK REVIEWS
JOHN GRANT McLOUGHLIN
ARMLNYSML Contests 1989{1994,
by Lawrence Zimmerman and Gilbert Kessler,
published by MathPro Press, 1995, (Contests in Mathematics, Volume 2),
ISBN 0{9626401{6{6, softcover, 189+ pages.
Reviewed by Jozsef
Pelik an
, Eotv
} os,
} Lorand University, Budapest,
Hungary.
The ARML in the title means American Regions Mathematics League
and NYSML means New York State Mathematics League. The rst is an
annual event for high school students with about 1000 participants coming
from all over the United States and Canada and the second one is a similar
event, teams coming primarily from New York State.
The format of the two contests is identical and quite dierent from most
other mathematics competitions. 15member teams are competing in four
basic rounds, each round being dierent in structure.
The TEAM ROUND consists of 10 short answer questions with varying
diculty which the team as a whole has to solve during a given time limit.
(They can choose any strategy, for example, working together, or smaller
groups working on dierent problems, etc.)
The POWER QUESTION is a challenging, multisection problem usually
focused about a single mathematical theme. A detailed, wellwritten
solution to it must be produced by the team as a whole within a time limit
of one hour.
The INDIVIDUAL ROUND resembles most of the usual mathematical
contests. The students, working independently, have to solve eight short
answer questions, ten minutes being allowed for each pair of questions.
The most unusual part of the contest is certainly the RELAY ROUND.
Here teams split into groups of three. Within each group the rst person has
to solve a problem, the answer being a number. This number is needed by
the second person to be able to solve his or her problem and this solution in
turn is needed by the third person. The score then depends on how quickly
this third person produces the nal answer.
I think, in this contest you can nd the most instructive problems
among the power questions and the most unusual ones in the relay round.
Therefore, I give a sample problem from both types.
21
Power Question  Lattice Points on a Parabola (ARML 1992)
Throughout this problem, the points A(a; a2 ), B (b; b2 ), C (c; c2 ), and
D(d; d2 ) represent distinct lattice points on the parabola y = x2 .
I. Let the area of the triangle ABC be K . It can be shown that
K = 12 (a ; b)(b ; c)(c ; a) .
1. Show that K must be an integer.
2. Show that K = 3 is the only possible prime value for K .
3. Show that K cannot be the square of a prime.
4. Show that the area of the quadrilateral ABCD cannot be 8.
II. It can be shown that the slope of AB is a + b.
1. A line passes through the point (3; 5) and through two lattice points on
y = x2 . Compute the coordinates of these two points. Be sure to nd
all possible pairs of such points.
2. A line passes through the point (2; 4) and through three other lattice
points on the \double parabola" y2 = x4 . Compute the coordinates of
these three points. Be sure to nd all possible triplets of such points.
III. Consider the quadrilateral ABCD. [Remember that the slope of AB ,
for example, is a + b.]
tan A = 1 + (a d+;b)(b a + d) .
2. A quadrilateral is \cyclic" if all four of its vertices lie on the same circle.
Show that: if quadrilateral ABCD is cyclic, then a + b + c + d = 0;
AND
if a + b + c + d = 0, then quadrilateral ABCD is cyclic.
3. Use the previous result to show that:
If a circle intersects the graph of y = x2 in four points, and three of
them are lattice points, then the fourth must also be a lattice point.
(Note to the reader of this review: The answer is, of course, too long
to be given here. Work it out for yourself!)
22
Relay from NYSML 1990
R1. Compute the area of the smallest square that goes through the points
(0; 0) and (4; 0).
R2. Let T = TNYWR, (Reviewer's remark: this is the acronym used in this
competition for `The Number You Will Receive'.) and let K = T ; 5.
The positive integer n is even, and all its divisors (except n itself) divide
n=2. Compute the largest K {digit number n with this property.
R3. Let N = TNYWR, and let K be the sum of the digits of N .
Two secants are drawn to a circle from an outside point, intercepting
arcs (between them) of lengths K and 2. If the angle between the
secants is 30 , compute the radius of the circle.
Solutions
R1. It is clear enough that we get the smallest square if we let the
segment (0; 0); (4; 0) be the diagonal of the square. This gives
Area = 12 (diagonal)2 = 8.
R2. (Reviewer's remark: Here comes a tough decision on the part of the
competitor which clearly indicates the peculiarities of this competition.
With some experimentation you easily come to the conjecture that n
must be a power of 2. As K = T ; 5 = 8 ; 5 = 3, your number is then
512. Should you pass it quickly on to the third person or spend some
time trying to nd a rigorous proof that your conjecture is indeed true?
There was some slight indication of the possibility of such a dilemma
already in R1. There the phrase `clear enough' would not be a satisfactory explanation in some rigorous mathematical competitions, but
in R1 the situation was intuitively so clear that it would have been a
serious mistake  competitionwise  to try to nd a rigorous proof.)
The conjecture that n must be a power of 2 is true, and a rigorous
proof is actually quite easy: if n had an odd prime divisor p then n=p
although a proper divisor would not divide n=2.
R3. As N = 512, K = 8. Since the dierence in the degree measures of the
arcs must be 2 30 = 60 , which corresponds to an arc length 2r=6,
we have 8 ; 2 = 2r=6 which gives r = 18.
23
If (
a; b; c)
is Heron, can ( ;
also be Heron?
s
a; s
b; s
c)
K.R.S. Sastry
Heron's name should be familiar to those who use the formula
p
= s(s ; a)(s ; b)(s ; c) , where s = (a + b + c)=2 ,
to calculate the area of a triangle in terms of the lengths a, b, c of its sides.
According to mathematical historians Heron lived in Alexandria in the rst
century, and according to [3] he introduced the denitions of point, straight
line, etc. into Euclid's Elements. His name is further associated with the
observation that the triangle with side lengths 13, 14, and 15 has area 84.
We use the quadruple (a; b; c; ) to denote the sides and the area of the
triangle, and when a, b, c, and are all integers we call the triangle a Heron
triangle.
Here we look at the triple a0 = s ; a, b0 = s ; b, c0 = s ; c, and ask
when these numbers can be the sides of a triangle, which we shall call the
derived triangle. Moreover, we will be interested when the triangle derived
from a Heron triangle is itself a Heron triangle. Certainly not always: in
the case ofpHeron's own triangle (13; 14; 15; 84) we have (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ; 0 ) =
(8; 7; 6; 214 15). Here (a0 ; b0 ; c0) is not Heron because 0 is not an integer.
Of course, (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) may even fail to form a triangle! (Consider (a; b; c) =
(4; 13; 15).) In the next section we derive a condition on (a; b; c) so that
(a0 ; b0 ; c0) too forms a triangle.
There are isosceles Heron triangles that provide an armative answer
to our question. But the determination of solutions of other types is an open
problem. Our aim is to determine the isosceles Heron triangles (a; b; c) for
which (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) = (s ; a; s ; b; s ; c) is also Heron. Also, we show that
a Heron triangle whose sides form an arithmetic progression cannot be a
solution to our problem.
Necessary Conditions
We rst establish a known fact about primitive Heron triangles; that is,
about Heron triangles that have the gcd of the sides equal to 1.
Theorem 1. In a primitive Heron triangle exactly one side is even.
Proof. Since a, b, c are integers, s = (a + b + c)=2 is either an integer
or a halfinteger. If s is an integer, then a + b + c must be even. Since
c 2002 Canadian Mathematical Society
Copyright
24
next theorem shows more generally that a Hoppe's triangle (that is, a triangle
whose sides form an arithmetic progression, see [2], p. 197) does not make
(a0 ; b0 ; c0) Heron.
Theorem 4. Let (a; b; c) be a Heron triangle in which the sides are in arithmetic progression. Then (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) is not Heron.
Proof. For deniteness, we let a = 2a1 be the even side and b and c be
odd. If d is the common dierence of the progession, then b = 2a1 ; d and
c = 2a1 + d. This shows that d is odd. However, s = 3a1 must be even by
Theorem 3. Let
p a1 = 2a2 . This gives a = 4a2 , b = 4a2 ; d, c = 4a2 + d
and = 2a2 3(4a22 ; d2 ). Since is an integer, we must have
25
The solution of the above equation for k = 3 from (1) is
m2 ; n2 , 2mn , m2 + n2 ,
(2)
where m, n are natural numbers such that m > n, gcd(m; n) = 1 and one
of m, n is even and the other is odd. We can generate an isosceles Heron
m2 + n2
2
mn
m2 ; n2 2 m22 ; n2
 2(m ; n )
Figure 1
We note that s and a0 are even and b0 and c0 are odd in agreement with
Theorems 1 and 3. Hence we may hope for a solution to our problem.
The second juxtaposition given by Figure 2 has (a; b; c) = (4mn; m2 + n2 ;
m2 + n2 ), s = (m + n)2 , and (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) = ((m ; n)2 ; 2mn; 2mn).
26
m2 + n2
m2 ; n2
2mn
mn
Figure 2
0
We note that s and a are odd and b0 and c0 are even, contradicting Theorems 1
and 3. Hence this case does not lead to primitive solutions at all.
We are now in a position to establish our main result.
Theorem 5. Both the triangle (a; b; c) = (2(m2 ; n2 ); m2 + n2 ; m2 + n2 )
and its derived triangle (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) = (2n2 ; m2 ; n2 ; m2 ; n2 ) are Heron if
and only if m = u2 + 2v2 and n = 2uv, where u is odd and gcd(u; v) = 1.
p
Proof. Heron's formula yields 0 = mn2 m2 ; 2n2 . Therefore, 0 will be
an integer if and only if m2 ; 2n2 = l2 is a perfect square. That is
m2 = l2 + 2n2 ,
an instance of equation (1) when k = 2. Hence the solution
m = (u2 + 2v2 ) , l = ju2 ; 2v2 j , n = (2uv) .
Our interest is in the primitive solutions (a; b; c). Hence the presence of is
unnecessary. Furthermore, if u is even, then l, m, n have gcd 2. Therefore,
we require that u be odd. Thus
m = u2 + 2v2 , n = 2uv .
(3)
We leave the verication that (a; b; c) and (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) as determined by (3) are
both Heron to the reader. This completes the proof.
We illustrate Theorem 5 with a couple of examples. If we put u = v = 1
in (3), we get m = 3, n = 2, (a; b; c) = (10; 13; 13) and (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) =
(8; 5; 5). Also u = 3, v = 1 gives m = 11, n = 6, (a; b; c) = (170; 157; 157)
and (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) = (72; 85; 85). One can also observe that if u is even, say
u = 2, v = 1, then m = 6, n = 4, (a; b; c) = (40; 52; 52) and (a0 ; b0 ; c0) =
(32; 20; 20). This is just a multiple of our rst illustration.
Conclusion. The present discussion determined a partial solution to our general problem: For which Heron triangles (a; b; c) is (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) also Heron.
We invite the reader to provide other solutions to our general problem.
This may take the form of determining another class of Heron triangles
2
mn
27
(a; b; c) that also have (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) Heron. A proof that the Pythagorean triangles (a; b; c) = (m2 ; n2 ; 2mn; m2 + n2 ) can or cannot have (a0 ; b0 ; c0 )
Heron would be another step. By chance if one meets with a Heron triangle (p; q; r) for which pqr(p + q + r) is a perfect square, then that would
be an example to our problem: Take (a0 ; b0 ; c0 ) = (p; q; r). Then one has
(a; b; c) = (q + r; r + p; p + q). (Can you see why?) In the references the
reader can nd many interesting problems on Heron triangles.
Acknowledgement: The author thanks the referee and the editor for their
suggestions to improve the presentation.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
References
J.R. Carlson, Determination of Heronian Triangles, Fibonacci Quarterly, 8 (1970), 499{506.
L.E. Dickson, History of the Theory of Numbers, Vol. II, Chelsea, New
York, N.Y. (1971).
Lucio Russo, La Rivoluzione Dimenticata (The Forgotten Revolution),
Reviewed in Notices of the American Math. Society, 45 (May, 1998),
601{605.
K.R.S. Sastry, Heron Problems, Math. and Comput. Ed., 29 (1995),
192{202.
K.R.S. Sastry, Heron Triangles: A New Perspective, Aust. Math. Soc.
Gazette, 26 (1999), 160{168.
K.R.S. Sastry, Heron Angles, Math. and Comput. Ed., 35 (2001), 51{60.
K.R.S. Sastry, A Heron Dierence, Crux Mathematicorum with Mathematical Mayhem, 27 (2001), 22{26.
D. Singmaster, Some Corrections to Carlson's \Determination of
Heronian Triangles", Fibonacci Quarterly, 11 (1973), 157{158.
K.R.S. Sastry
Jeevan Sandhya
Doddakalsandra Post
Raghuvana Halli
Bangalore 560062, India
28
MATHEMATICAL MAYHEM
Mathematical Mayhem began in 1988 as a Mathematical Journal for and by
High School and University Students. It continues, with the same emphasis,
as an integral part of Crux Mathematicorum with Mathematical Mayhem.
All material intended for inclusion in this section should be sent to
Mathematical Mayhem, Cairine Wilson Secondary School, 977 Orleans Blvd.,
Gloucester, Ontario, Canada. K1C 2Z7 (NEW!). The electronic address is
mayhemeditors@cms.math.ca
The Assistant Mayhem Editor is Chris Cappadocia (University of Waterloo). The other sta member is Jimmy Chui (University of Toronto).
MAYHEM TAUNT
As promised, at various times in 2001, 2002 is going to be a year of prizes
here at MAYHEM. Since we have decided that the focus of MAYHEM will be on
preuniversity mathematics, the prizes will be awarded to students enrolled in elementary or secondary schools or equivalent. Solutions from other people are always
welcomed, and the featured solution may not necessarily come from this age group.
To be eligible, each solution to a MAYHEM Problem must be handwritten on a
sheet of paper (one question per sheet). Attached to each solution of each problem
must be a completed student information sheet signed by the student and a representative of the student's school (teacher or administrator). A copy of the information
sheet is included in this issue, and on the Canadian Mathematical Society's web site
at journals.cms.math.ca/CRUX/MAYHEMTaunt.
Students may work alone, or in groups. If the problem is solved by a group
please submit one solution with the information of all the group members.
Prizes will be awarded based on the following criteria:
rst solution to a problem;
most correct solutions from a single person;
youngest solver;
most elegant solution.
Other prizes may be awarded at the discretion of the MAYHEM Editors. In all cases
the decision of the MAYHEM Editors is nal!
Our purpose is also to support schools, and as a result we will have some prizes
for schools. To aid us in this process, we would ask that the school information for
the student is lled out with care.
29
Prizes will range from past copies of MAYHEM to subscriptions to CRUX with
MAYHEM to book prizes from the Canadian Mathematical Society. The prizes are
made possible from a grant from the Endowment Fund of the Canadian Mathematical
Society, and we thank the board of the Endowment Grants Committee for providing
us with the money to make this possible.
Problems and information will be available on the Canadian Mathematical Society's web site at journals.cms.math.ca/CRUX/MAYHEMTaunt.
MAYHEM
LE DEFI
30
Mayhem Problems
Please include in all correspondence your name, school, grade, city, province or state
and country. We are especially looking for solutions from high school students. Please
send your solutions to the problems in this edition by 1 August 2002. Solutions
received after this time will be considered if there is time before publication of the
solutions.
Starting this issue, problems will be printed in English and French.
31
32
(a1 + an)
n
=
(a1 + an )2
k=1 (ak + an;k+1 )
Since 4ak an;k+1 (ak + an;k+1 )2 we have
n
n
X
X
1
4
2
k=1 ak an;k+1 k=1 (ak + an;k+1 )
1
(1)
(2)
pak an;k
+1
k=1 ak an;k+1
>
n
X
4
4n .
=
2
(a1 + an)2
k=1 (a1 + an )
[Note that, as pointed out by Wang, the ak 's do not have to be distinct;
thus, the \>" must be replaced by \". Ed.]
Also solved by Mihaly Bencze, Brasov, Romania and the proposer.
33
) .
1 (nn!)2 (n(4+n1)
2n
nk ; k2 ; k + n = (n ; k)(k + 1) n ,
and nally
nY
;1
k=0
(n ; k)(k + 1) = (n!)2 nn .
nn (4n)n
(n!)2
(n + 1)2n
is equivalent to
n + 1 2n
2
(n!) .
2
n + 1 2
2
so that
nY
;1
k=0
(n ; k) + (k + 1) 2
2
(n ; k)(k + 1) = (n!)
2
(n ; k)(k + 1) ,
n + 1 2n
2
34
35
Now, notice that the corner subcube is black, and the centre subcube is white. But as the mouse goes through from subcube to subcube,
the destination subcube is a dierent colour from his original cube. Since
there are 13 white cubes and 14 black cubes, the mouse's path must go
BWBW : : : BWB. The last cube must be black. Thus, he cannot end up in
the centre subcube last.
H287. Suppose we want to construct a solid polyhedron using just n
pentagons and some unknown number of hexagons (none of which need be
regular), so that exactly three faces meet at every vertex on the polyhedron.
For what values of n is this feasible?
Solution by Gottfried Perz, Pestalozzigymnasium, Graz, Austria.
Let the number of the hexagonal faces of the polyhedron be m, and let
be v, f , and e the numbers of the vertices, faces and edges of the polyhedron,
respectively. Then we have, according to Euler's formula,
v + f ; e = 2.
(1)
Since all the faces of the polyhedron must be either pentagons or hexagons,
f = n + m.
Each of the n pentagonal faces has 5 edges; each of the m hexagonal faces has
6 edges. Taking into account that every edge belongs to 2 faces, this yields
e = 5n +2 6m .
Since exactly three faces meet at every vertex, three edges meet at every
vertex. Each of the edges connects two vertices of the polyhedron, so that
10n + 12m + n + m ; 5n + 6m = 2 ,
6
2
which simplies to
n = 12 .
Two examples of polyhedra that meet the requirements are the pentagondodecahedron (where m = 0) and the truncated icosahedron (with m = 20).
36
(1)
cosh(y ; z) + cosh(2x + y + z)
1
2 sinh(x + z)
cosh(x + y + z)
sinh(
x
+
y
)
(2)
= cosh(x + y + z) .
Since (2) is symmetric in x and y; from it we obtain the right side of our
identity and we are done.
SKOLIAD No. 59
Shawn Godin
Eective this issue, the Skoliad Corner is now incorporated into Mathematical Mayhem. This is to consolidate High School level material into one section. We envisage little change in the actual material!
Solutions may be sent to Shawn Godin, Cairine Wilson S.S., 975 Orleans
Blvd., Orleans, ON, CANADA, K1C 2Z5, or emailed to
mayhemeditors@cms.math.ca
37
Please include on any correspondence your name, school, grade, city,
province or state and country. We are especially looking for solutions from
high school students. Please send your solutions to the problems in this
edition by 1 June 2002. A copy of MATHEMATICAL MAYHEM Vol. 1 will be
presented to the preuniversity reader(s) who send in the best set of solutions
before the deadline. The decision of the editor is nal.
This issue's items come to us from South Africa. My thanks go out to
John Webb of the University of Cape Town for forwarding the material to me.
For more information on the math competitions visit the University of Cape
Town Mathematics Department's web site
http://www.mth.uct.ac.za
The rst contest is the 2001 contest for grades 9 and 10 students. Students are given 75 minutes, no calculators are allowed. Participants are
awarded 0 points for an incorrect answer, 1 point for each question not answered and for correct answers the points are: 5 points for questions 1  10,
6 points for questions 11  20 and 7 points for questions 21  30.
1. 85 is equal to
(1) 0:625
(2) 1:667
(3) 1:8
2. In the diagram, the value of x is
(4) 1:6
(5) 0:6
x
55
44
(1) 99
(2) 98
(3) 101
(4) 109
3. 70 0:02 is equal to
(1) 3:5
(2) 35
(3) 350
(4) 0:35
4. (3y + x) ; (y ; 2x) + (x ; y) is equal to
(1) 2y + 4x (2) y + 4x
(3) 2y
(4) y
5. The area of the gure, in square centimetres, is
(5) 111
(5) 3500
(5) 5y
10
12
(1) 80
(2) 88
(3) 100
6. What is the last digit of 22001?
(1) 1
(2) 2
(3) 4
(4) 120
(5) 160
(4) 6
(5) 8
38
(1) 7
6 9
9 2
9 8 9
(3) 13
(2) 11
(4) 14
(5) 16
9. What is the sum of all the prime numbers which are greater than
20 and less than 40?
(1) 115
(2) 120
(3) 131
(4) 133
(5) 140
10. The three circles in the gure have the same centre; their radii
are 3 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm. What percentage of the large circle is shaded?
(1) 20%
(2) 25%
(3) 28%
(4) 30%
(5) 33 13 %
11. On a 26 question test, 8 points were given for each correct answer
and 5 points were deducted for each wrong answer. Tom answered all the
questions and scored zero. How many questions did he get correct?
(1) 8
(2) 9
(3) 10
(4) 12
(5) 13
12. Ahmed, Bongani, Cyril, Delia and Evan have their birthdays on
successive days, but not necessarily in that order. Ahmed's birthday is as
many days before Cyril's as Bongani's is after Evan's. Delia is two days
39
older than Evan. Cyril's birthday is on a Wednesday. On what day of the
week is Evan's birthday?
(1) Tuesday (2) Monday (3) Thursday (4) Friday
(5) Sunday
(1) 7 : 5 : 3
(2) 3 : 2 : 1
x
b
(3) 4 : 2 : 1
(4) 8 : 5 : 2
(5) 6 : 5 : 4
(1) 10
(2) 15
(3) 20
D F
(4) 30
(5) Not
enough
information.
40
17. A die rests on a table. Ali, sitting on one side of the table, sees
two sides of the die and its top, and can see 7 dots altogether. Benni, sitting
on the opposite side of the table, can see the top and the other two faces
and sees 11 dots altogether. How many dots are on the bottom face of the
die resting on the table?
(1) 1
(2) 2
(3) 3
(4) 4
(5) 5
18. A point P is inside a regular octagon ABCDEFGH , such that
triangle ABP is equilateral. What is the size of \APC ?
(1) 120
(2) 135
(3) 90
(4) 112 12
(5) 97 12
19. The gure shown is to be drawn without lifting the pencil from the
paper and without going over any line twice. What is the smallest number
of straight line strokes needed to draw the gure?
(1) 20
(2) 22
(3) 25
(4) 30
(5) 35
20. Sizwe and Thabo sit down to eat sausages. Sizwe has four
sausages and Thabo has three. Vuyo joins them. He has no sausages, but
has R7 [means 7 Rand, the South African currency. Ed.]. He oers to give
the money to Sizwe and Thabo if they will share the sausages with him.
They agree, and the three boys cut up the sausages and share them equally.
When Vuyo gives the R7 to Sizwe and Thabo, how should they divide the
money?
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Sizwe R6,
Sizwe R5:50, Sizwe R5,
Sizwe R4:50, Sizwe R4,
Thabo R1
Thabo R1:50 Thabo R2
Thabo R2:50 Thabo R3
21. A fraction has a fourdigit numerator and a vedigit denominator
and simplies to exactly 12 . The nine digits are all dierent. Which of the
following could be the numerator of the fraction?
(1) 5314
(2) 6729
(3) 7341
(4) 7629
(5) 8359
41
(2) 63
(3) 73
(4) 43
(5) Not
enough
information.
23. Fourfths of the children in a school are boys. Threequarters of
the boys are expelled for misbehaviour, but none of the girls. What fraction
of the children remaining are girls?
(2) 201
(3) 15
(4) 101
(5) 14
(1) 21
24. In an acuteangled triangle each angle is a whole number of
degrees and the smallest angle is onesixth of the largest angle. What is the
sum of the two smaller angles?
(1) 96
(2) 90
(3) 102
(4) 84
(5) 108
25. If a = 2250, b = 3200 and c = 5150, which of the following is true?
(1) a > b > c (2) a > c > b (3) c > a > b (4) b > c > a (5) c > b > a
26. The natural numbers are arranged in the pattern below. In which
row does 2001 lie?
Row 1
3
11
19
Row 2
2
6
10
14
18
22
Row 3 1
5
9
13
17
21
Row 4
4
8
12
16
20
24
Row 5
7
15
23
(1) Row 1
(2) Row 2
(3) Row 3
(4) Row 4
(5) Row 5
27. Moving East or South all the time, how many routes are there
from A to B through at most one star?
A
(1) 14
(2) 12
(3) 11
(4) 10
(5) 9
28. In triangle ABC , AB = 25, BC = 23 and AC = 24. A
perpendicular BD is dropped onto AC , with D on AC . Then AD ; DC is
equal to
p
p
p
p p
(1) 4
(2) 3 2
(3) 1 + 2 3 (4) 17
(5) 1+ 2+ 3
42
29. A number of unit cubes are put together to make a larger cube
and then some of the faces of the larger cube are painted. After the paint
dries the larger cube is taken apart. It is found that 45 small cubes have no
paint on any face. How many faces of the large cube were painted?
(1) 1
(2) 2
(3) 3
(4) 4
(5) 5
30. A rectangular prism has a tetrahedron ACED cut out of it. The
ratio of the volume of the tetrahedron to the volume of the prism is
B
D
G
(1) 13
(2) 41
(3) 121
(4) 81
(5) 16
S1.
43
S9. ABCD is a 22 square and E and F are the midpoints of AB and
BC , respectively. If AF intersects ED and BD at G and H , respectively,
what is the area of quadrilateral BEGH ?
S10. Points A, B and C lie on a circle. The line AP is perpendicular
to BC , with P on BC . If AP = 6, BP = 4 and CP = 17, nd the radius
of the circle.
Next we give the solutions to the contest presented in [2001 : 315].
First is the 2000 National Bank Junior Mathematics Competition.
1. In this problem, we will be placing various arrangements of 10c and
20c coins on the nine squares of a 3 3 grid. Exactly one coin will be placed in
each of the nine squares. The grid has four 2 2 subsquares each containing
a corner, the centre, and the two squares adjacent to these.
(a) Find an arrangement where the totals of the four 2 2 subsquares
are 40c, 60c, 60c and 70c in any order.
Solution
m m
10 10
20
10m 10m
20
20
20
20
.
(b) Find an arrangement where the totals of the four 2 2 subsquares
are 50c, 60c, 70c and 80c in any order.
Solution m m m
10 10 10
10m
20
20
20
20
20
44
(c) What is the maximum amount of money which can be placed on the
grid so that each of the 2 2 subsquares contains exactly 50c?
m
20 10
20
10m 10m 10m
m
20 10
20
.
(d) What is the minimum amount of money which can be placed on the
grid so that the average amount of money in each of the 2 2 subsquares is
exactly 60c?
10m
20 10m
m
10m
20 10
10m
20 10m
.
2. (Note: In this question an \equal division" is one where the total
weight of the two parts is the same.)
(a) Belinda and Charles are burglars. Among the loot from their latest
caper is a set of 12 gold weights of 1g, 2g, 3g, and so on, through to 12g. Can
they divide the weights equally between them? If so, explain how they can
do it; if not, why not?
Solution. Yes, it can be done. There are many possible solutions, for
example Belinda gets 1g, 3g, 5g, 6g, 7g, 8g, 9g and Charles gets the rest.
(b) When Belinda and Charles take the remainder of the loot to Freddy
the Fence, he demands the 12g weight as his payment. Can Belinda and
Charles divide the remaining 11 weights equally between them? If so, explain
how they can do it; if not, why not?
Solution. Yes, it can be done. There are many possible solutions, for
example Belinda gets 1g, 3g, 5g, 7g, 8g, 9g and Charles gets the rest.
(c) Belinda and Charles also have a set of 150 silver weights of 1g, 2g, 3g,
and so on, through to 150g. Can they divide these weights equally between
them? If so, explain how they can do it; if not, why not?
Solution. No, it cannot be done. There are 75 even weights and 75 odd
weights so that the total weight is odd. Thus, they cannot split it up evenly .
45
46
127
51
76
21
30
25
12
4
13
are acceptable.)
(a) The Jones family lives in a perfectly square house, 10m by 10m,
which is placed exactly in the middle of a 40m by 40m section, entirely covered (except for the house) in grass. They keep the family pet, Dolly the
sheep, tethered to the middle of one side of the house on a 15m rope. What
is the area of the part of the lawn (in m2 ) in which Dolly is able to graze?
(See shaded area.)
Solution. The area is made up of a semicircle of radius 15m and two
quarter circles of radius 10m. Thus, Area = 21 152 + 2 14 102 = 3252 .
40m
40m
Dolly
The Jones
Daisy
The Smiths
(b) The Jones' neighbours, the Smiths, have an identical section to the
Jones but their house is located 5m to the North of the centre. Their pet
sheep, Daisy, is tethered to the middle of the southern side of the house on
a 20m rope. What is the area of the part of the lawn (in m2 ) in which Daisy
is able to graze?
47
Solution. The area that Daisy can graze is given above. It is made up of
one semicircle and four quarter circles. Thus, Area = 12 202 + 2 41 152 +
2 14 52 = 325.
r p p
p
p
x = 3+2 2;2 3+2 2 3;2 2 +3;2 2
q
p
= 6 ; 2 3 ; (2 2) = 6 ; 2p9 ; 8 = 6 ; 2 = 4 .
2
Thus, x = 2.pHowever, p
it is clear from the denition of x that it is
positive, since 3 + 2 2 > 3 ; 2 2. Therefore, x = 2. The answer is b
4. Draw lines through P parallel to the sides of the rectangle ABCD,
cutting o lengths x, y, z, w, as shown in the diagram.
48
D
C
z
y
A
x2 + y 2 = 9 ,
y2 + z2 = 16 ,
z2 + w2 = 25 .
(1)
(2)
(3)
If we now subtract (2) from the sum of (1) and (3) we get: x2 + w2 = 18. But
we also have (from
the Theorem
of Pythagoras): x2 + w2 = PB2 , whence,
p
p
PB has length 18 = 3 2. The answer is b
5. Consider a crosssection through the centres of the two spheres as
shown in the diagram below. Let A be the centre of the sphere of radius
40mm, and let B be the centre of the sphere of radius 30mm. Let C be one
of the points in this crosssection which lie where the two spheres join. Since
the distance AB is 50mm, we see by the Theorem of Pythagoras that 4ABC
is right angled with the right angle at point C . The altitude of this triangle
is clearly the radius of the circle of intersection of the two bubbles. Let us
denote this altitude by r.
40
C
r
50
30
Then the area (in mm2 ) of 4ABC can be computed in 2 dierent ways:
A = 12 30 40 = 12 50 r ,
from which we see that r = 24mm. Thus, the diameter of the circle of
intersection of the spheres is 48mm. The answer is b
49
Case (ii): there are three Ls among the rst four positions. Since the rst
position must be L, there are three places where one can put the T that belongs to the rst four positions. Thus, there are three possible arrangements
for the rst four positions. But by symmetry, there are also three possible
arrangements for the last four positions, and the rst four positions and the
last four positions can be arranged independently, for a total of 3 3 = 9
possibilities for case (ii).
Case (iii): there are two Ls among the rst four positions. Again the rst position must be L. It is easy to see that there are only two possible arrangements among the rst four positions, namely LLTT and LTLT . By symmetry, we have the same number of possibilities for the last four positions, for
a total of 2 2 = 4 arrangements for case (iii).
Thus, we have a total of 1 + 9 + 4 = 14 acceptable arrangements, and
the probability we seek is 14=70 = 1=5. The answer is d
7. Consider the diagram below, where the three circles represent the
applicants with design skills (D), writing skills (W), and programming skills
(P). We have used the letters a through g to represent the various subsets of
these people having dierent combinations (or lack) of skills. We are interested in the value of e.
Since 80% of the 45 applicants have at least one of the desired skills,
there are 36 such applicants. From the remaining information in the problem
statement we conclude that
50
D
a
d
b
e
c
f
g
P
a + b + c + d + e + f + g = 36
b + c + e + f = 20
a+b +d+e
= 25
d + e + f + g = 21
b
+e
= 12
d+e
= 14
e + f = 11
Adding the second, third, and fourth equations above and subtracting
the rst we get b + d + 2e + f = 30, while adding the last three equations
together yields b + d +3e + f = 37. Comparing these we see that e = 7. This
is all we need to answer the question. However, the interested reader may
be curious to nd all the remaining values as well; therefore, we continue.
With this value of e we can use the last three equations displayed above to
determine b = 5, d = 7, and f = 4. With these values we can use the
second, third, and fourth equations displayed above to determine c = 4,
a = 6, and g = 3. One can simply check that the rst equation is satised
for these values. The answer is b
8. Let us label the critical equation:
a S (b S c) = (a S b) L (a S c) ,
(1)
where we are assuming that a, b, c are three distinct numbers. Clearly, the
left hand side of this expression is always the smallest of the three values a,
b, c. If the smallest of the three values is b, then the left hand side of (1) is b,
while the right hand side simplies to b L (a S c), which is denitely a or c;
thus, b cannot be the smallest of the three values. Similarly, c cannot be the
smallest of the three values. This means that a is the smallest values. This
eliminates all but choice (a) and choice (e) from the set of possible answers.
Now, if we examine (1) with a the smallest value, then both sides resolve
51
to a, and we have (1) holding true. This describes choice (a). We note that
choice (e) imposes a further restriction, namely b < c, which is unnecessary.
We are asked to determine which must hold. Thus, our solution is simply
that a must be the smallest of the three values. The answer is a
9. Consider also the point D with coordinates (;7; 4) (see diagram
below).
D
C
A
B
is c
10. Observe that the unshaded portion of the quarter circle is also
1
2
of its area. Let us then compute the area of the unshaded regions. We will
solve the more general problem using a radius of r units. Clearly, the area
of triangle CBX is 21 xr. Now drop a perpendicular from A to the line CD
1
meeting it at E . Since \ACD = 30 , we see
p3 that AE = 2 r, and by the
Theorem of pPythagoras
1 we then get CE = 2 r. Thus, the area of triangle
1
3
AXE is 2 2 r ; x 2 r. The remaining unshaded region is the curved piece
AED. This is obviously the dierence between
the circular sector ACD and
triangle ACE . The sector ACD has area 121 r2 , since pit is one twelfth part
of a circle of radius r. The triangle ACE has area 21 23 r 12 r. Putting all
the pieces together we see that the area of the unshaded part is:
12
24
52
PROBLEMS
Problem proposals and solutions should be sent to Bruce Shawyer, Department
of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's,
Newfoundland, Canada. A1C 5S7. Proposals should be accompanied by a solution,
together with references and other insights which are likely to be of help to the editor.
When a proposal is submitted without a solution, the proposer must include sucient
information on why a solution is likely. An asterisk (?) after a number indicates that
a problem was proposed without a solution.
In particular, original problems are solicited. However, other interesting problems may also be acceptable provided that they are not too well known, and references are given as to their provenance. Ordinarily, if the originator of a problem can
be located, it should not be submitted without the originator's permission.
To facilitate their consideration, please send your proposals and solutions
on signed and separate standard 8 12 "11" or A4 sheets of paper. These may be
typewritten or neatly handwritten, and should be mailed to the EditorinChief,
to arrive no later than 1 September 2002. They may also be sent by email to
cruxeditors@cms.math.ca. (It would be appreciated if email proposals and solutions were written in LATEX). Graphics les should be in epic format, or encapsulated
postscript. Solutions received after the above date will also be considered if there
is sucient time before the date of publication. Please note that we do not accept
submissions sent by FAX.
Starting with this issue, we will be giving each problem twice, once in each of
the ocial languages of Canada, English and French. In issues 1, 3, 5 and 7,
English will precede French, and in issues 2, 4, 6 and 8, French will precede
English.
In the solutions section, the problem will be given in the language of
the primary featured solution.
53
where a, b and c are the sides of a triangle, and R, r and s are the circumradius, the inradius
and the semiperimeter of a triangle, respectively.
..........................................................
Montrer que 0
1
2
2
X
p
s
+
r
+
bRr
1
A 0,
2(b2 + c2 ) ; a2 ;
R ; 2r 12 @
R
cyclique
ou a, b et c sont les c^otes d'un triangle, et R, r et s sont respectivement
le rayon du cercle circonscrit, le rayon du cercle inscrit et le demiperimetre
d'un triangle.
2705. Proposed by Angel Dorito, Geld, Ontario.
The interior of a rectangular container is 1 metre wide and 2 metres
long, and is lled with water to a depth of 12 metre. A cube of gold is placed
at in the tub, and the water rises to exactly the top of the cube without
over
owing.
Find the length of the side of the cube.
54
L'interieur d'un bassin rectangulaire mesure 1m de largeur et 2m de
longueur ; il est rempli d'eau jusqu'a une hauteur d'un demimetre. Un cube
en or est pose au fond du bassin et le niveau d'eau monte jusqu'a concider
exactement avec la hauteur du cube.
Trouver la longueur de l'ar^ete du cube.
2706. Proposed by Walther Janous, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria.
Suppose that ;1 and ;2 are two circles having at least one point S in
common. Take an arbitrary line ` through S . This line intersects ;k again at
Pk (if ` is tangent to ;k , then Pk = S ).
Let be a (xed) real number, and let R = P1 + (1 ; )P2 .
Determine the locus of R as ` varies over all possible lines through S .
..........................................................
Soient ;1 et ;2 deux cercles ayant au moins un point S en commun.
Une droite ` passant passant S coupe ;k en un point Pk (si ` est tangente a
;k , alors Pk = S ).
Soit un nombre reel xe, et soit R = P1 + (1 ; )P2 .
Trouver le lieu des points R lorsque ` parcourt l'ensemble des droites
par S.
2707. Proposed by Walther Janous, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria.
Let ABC be a triangle and P a point in its plane. The feet of the
perpendiculars from P to the lines BC , CA and AB are D, E and F respectively.
Prove that
55
2. OA < OC and OD < OB ,
3. M and N are the midpoints of AC and BD, respectively,
4. MN meets AB and CD at E and F , respectively, and
5. P is the intersection of BF and CE .
Prove that OP bisects the line segment EF .
..........................................................
On suppose que
1. O est l'intersection des diagonales AC et BD d'un quadrilatere
ABCD,
2. OA < OC et OD < OB ,
3. M et N sont respectivement les points milieu de AC et BD,
4. MN coupe AB et CD en E et F , respectivement, et
5. P est l'intersection de BF avec CE .
Montrer que OP coupe le segment EF en son milieu.
2709. Proposed by Toshio Seimiya, Kawasaki, Japan.
Suppose that
1. P is an interior point of 4ABC ,
2. AP , BP and CP meet BC , CA and AB at D, E and F , respectively,
3. A0 is a point on AD produced beyond D such that DA0 : AD = : 1,
where is a xed positive number,
4. B 0 is a point on BE produced beyond E such that EB 0 : BE = : 1,
and
5. C 0 is a point on CF produced beyond F such that FC 0 : CF = : 1.
2
Prove that [A0 B 0 C 0] (3+1)
[ABC ], where [PQR] denotes the area of
4
4PQR.
..........................................................
On suppose que
1. P est un point interieur du triangle ABC ,
2. AP , BP et CP coupent BC , CA et AB en D, E et F , respectivement,
3. A0 est un point sur AD situe audela de D de sorte que
DA0 : AD = : 1, ou est un nombre positif xe,
4. B 0 est un point sur BE situe audela de E de sorte que
EB0 : BE = : 1, et
5. C 0 est un point sur CF situe audela de F de sorte que
FC 0 : CF = : 1.
2
Montrer que [A0 B 0 C 0 ] (3+1)
[ABC ], ou [PQR] designe l'aire du
4
4 PQR.
56
57
SOLUTIONS
My, the gremlins have been at work ! We apologise to Michel Bataille, Rouen,
France, for omitting his name as a solver of problem 2571 ; to David Loeffler, student,
Trinity College, Cambridge, UK, for omitting his name as a solver of problem 2563 ;
and to Walther Janous, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria, for omitting his
name as a solver of problems 2495, 2559, 2569 and 2572.
58
show
(2)
If all the xi 's are equal to zero, the inequality is clear. If not, we may put
(due to homogenuity) x1 + + xn = 1, and (2) then reads
(3)
x1 x2 + x2 x3 + + xn;1 xn + xn x1 14 .
The case of n = 4 was settled already by Howard.
Therefore, suppose that (3) is valid up to n. Now, suppose that
x1 + + xn + xn+1 = 1. Because the LHS of (3) is cyclically homogenous,
we may let xn+1 = maxfx1 , : : : , xn+1 g.
By the induction hypothesis, we have (on \gluing together" x1 and x2 !)
(x1 + x2 )x3 + x2 x3 + + xn xn+1 + xn+1 (x1 + x2 ) 41 ;
that is,
x2 x3 + x2 x3 + + xnxn+1 + xn+1x1 + x1 x3 + xn+1x2 14 .
But x1 x3 + xn+1 x2 xn+1 x2 x1 x2 , and the proof is complete.
un+1 ; un = ;2rn
un ; un;1 = ;2rn;1
u1 ; u0 = ;2
n
n
Adding these we get un+1 = u0 ; 2 r r ;;1 1 = 4r ; r2r; 1 ; 2 . Substituting this expression into the recurrence and multiplying by r ; 1, we
+1
obtain :
+1
59
for all n 0. This can be rearranged as
Also solved by AUSTRIAN IMO TEAM 2001 ; BRIAN D. BEASLEY, Presbyterian College, Clinton,
SC, USA ; VINAYAK GANESHAN, student, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario ; RICHARD I. HESS,
Rancho Palos Verdes, CA, USA ; MITKO KUNCHEV, Baba Tonka School of Mathematics, Rousse, Bulgaria;
KEEWAI LAU, Hong Kong, China ; HENRY LIU, student, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA ; JOEL
SCHLOSBERG, student, New York University, NY, USA ; HEINZJ URGEN
SEIFFERT, Berlin, Germany ; CHRIS
WILDHAGEN, Rotterdam, the Netherlands ; and the proposer. There were four incorrect solutions.
60
pN
0 v p y1
2(x1 + 1)
and
(2)
1 (x1 + 1)N .
2
From (2) we get, for our equation (1), the inequality
p
p
0 y p22 6 6 = 2 .
But (1) has no solution when y = 0 or 1. Thus, it has no solution at all.
pD = [a ; a ; a ; : : : ; a ] be the continued fraction develop(b) Let
0
1
2
n
p
ment for D ; it is known (see, for example, Baker, A., A Concise Introduction in the Theory of Numbers, Cambridge, 1984, p. 122) that if n is even, the
equation x2 ; Dy2 = ;1 has no solution in integers, so that Q(D; 0; ;1)
shall be square{free in such cases.
Examples.
p
1. Q(15; 0; ;1) is square{free, because 15 = [3; 1; 6].
p
2. For , 2 N, let D = 2 2 + 2 ; since D = [; ; 2], we have
that Q(2 2 + 2; 0; ;1) is square{free.
p
3. For , 2 N, let D = 2 2 + ; since D = [; 2; 2], we have
that Q(2 2 + ; 0; ;1) is also square{free.
0 < juj
Also solved by CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK part (a) only ; RICHARD
I. HESS, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA, USA ; and JOEL SCHLOSBERG, student, New York University, NY, USA.
2603. [2001 : 48] Proposed by Hojoo Lee, student, Kwangwoon University, KangwonDo, South Korea.
Suppose that A, B and C are the angles of a triangle. Prove that
r
sin A+sin B +sin C 154 + cos(A ; B ) + cos(B ; C ) + cos(C ; A) .
Solution by Henry Liu, University of Memphis, Tennessee, USA.
Since sin A + sin B + sin C > 0 and
15 + cos(A ; B ) + cos(B ; C ) + cos(C ; A) > 0 ,
4
it suces to show that
(sin A + sin B + sin C )2 154 + cos(A ; B ) + cos(B ; C ) + cos(C ; A) .
61
We have
0
12
X
@ sin AA 154 + X cos(A ; B)
cyclic
cyclic
X 2
X
(=)
sin A + 2 sin A sin B
cyclic
cyclic
X
154 + (cos A cos B + sin A sin B)
cyclic
X
X 2
(=) 3 ; cos A 154 + (cos A cos B ; sin A sin B)
cyclic
X cyclic
X 2
(=)
cos(A + B ) +
cos A + 34 0
cyclic
cyclic
X
X 2
(=)
cos( ; A) +
cos A + 34 0
cyclic
X
Xcyclic2
(=) ; cos A + cos A + 34 0
cyclic
cyclic
2
X
1
(=)
cos A ; 2 0 .
cyclic
62
xj
; x1 x+1 xn
x
j + xj +1
j =1
2
2
2
f (a; b; c) = a2 b + b2 a a+ bb2+c b+ cc2+b c+ ac2+a abc
+ a2c + 2abc .
Hence, 0 < f (a; b; c) < 1. Now, f (a; b; c) can be made arbitrarily close to 1
by letting c = b and b = a, when is suciently small.
Further, f (a; b; c) can be made arbitrarily close to 0 by letting a = b
and b = c, when is suciently small.
Therefore, the greatest lower bound and least upper bound values of
(b) Let
g = x1 x+1 x2 + x2 x+2 x3 + + xn;x1n;+1 xn ; x1 x+1 xn
= f (x1 ; x2 ; x3 ) + f (x1 ; x3 ; x4 ) + f (x1 ; x4 ; x5 ) + + f (x1 ; xn;1 ; xn ) ,
which has values between 0 and n ; 2.
By letting x2 = x1 , x2 = x2 , : : : , we can make g arbitrarily close to
n ; 2, when is suciently small.
Similarly, by letting x1 = x2 , x2 = x3 , : : : , we can make g arbitrarily
close to 0, when is suciently small.
Therefore, the greatest lower bound and least upper bound values of g
are 0 and n ; 2, respectively.
Also solved by MICHEL BATAILLE, Rouen, France ; MANUEL BENITO and EMILIO FERNANDEZ,
I.B. Praxedes Mateo Sagasta, Logro~no, Spain ; CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK ;
NIKOLAOS DERGIADES, Thessaloniki, Greece ; OLEG IVRII, Cummer Valley Middle School, North York,
Ontario ; MURRAY S. KLAMKIN, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta ; DAVID LOEFFLER, student,
MATH CLUB, Gyor,
Cotham School, Bristol, UK ; REVAI
} Hungary ; JOEL SCHLOSBERG, student, New York
University, NY, USA ; HEINZJ URGEN
SEIFFERT, Berlin, Germany (part (a) only) ; CHRIS WILDHAGEN,
Rotterdam, the Netherlands (2 solutions to part (a) only) ; LI ZHOU, Polk Community College, Winter Haven,
FL, USA ; and the proposer. There was one incorrect and one incomplete solution.
MATH CLUB was a very good solution, but was in such detail that it would
The solution by the REVAI
have required four pages in print ! This editor also awarded an A+ grade to the solutions of Christopher
J. Bradley and of Manuel Benito and Emilio Fernandez Moral.
63
3(b + c ; a) = 2b .
(1)
3(c + a ; b) = 2c .
(2)
Similarly,
Solving the system (1) and (2) we nd that
a = b = c.
5
6
3
II. Solution by Vinayak Ganeshan, student, University of Waterloo.
Menelaus's theorem to 4AMC with BE as transversal
h Applying
AP
MB
1 1 s;c
that is, PM BC CE
EA = 1 2 s ; a = 1 (P being where AM interi
sects BE ) , we get
(s ; a) 2 1 = (s ; c) 1 1 ,
which implies that b = 3a ; 3c. Similarly [using 4BNA with transversal
CF ], c = 3b ; 3a. Together, these equations give a : b : c = 5 : 6 : 3, which
solves the problem.
University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina ;
Also solved by SEFKET
ARSLANAGIC,
MICHEL BATAILLE, Rouen, France ; FRANCISCO BELLOT ROSADO, I.B. Emilio Ferrari, Valladolid, Spain ;
CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK ; PAUL JEFFERYS, student, Berkhamsted Collegiate
School, UK ; GEOFFREY A. KANDALL, Hamden, CT, USA ; GERRY LEVERSHA, St. Paul's School, London,
England ; DAVID LOEFFLER, student, Trinity College, Cambridge, UK ; JOEL SCHLOSBERG, student, New
York University, NY, USA ; HEINZJ URGEN
SEIFFERT, Berlin, Germany ; PETER Y. WOO, Biola University,
La Mirada, CA, USA ; LI ZHOU, Polk Community College, Winter Haven, FL, USA ; and by the proposer.
64
Also solved by the AUSTRIAN IMOTEAM, 2001 ; MICHEL BATAILLE, Rouen, France ; BRIAN D.
BEASLEY, Presbyterian College, Clinton, SC, USA ; PIERRE BORNSZTEIN, Pontoise, France ; CHRISTOPHER
J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK ; SCOTT H. BROWN, Auburn University at Montgomery, Montgomery, AL, USA ; JAMES T. BRUENING, Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, MO, USA ;
CHARLES R. DIMINNIE, Angelo State University, San Angelo, TX, USA ; VINAYAK GANESHAN, student, University of Waterloo, Waterloo ; C. FESTRAETSHAMOIR, Brussels, Belgium ; RICHARD I. HESS, Rancho Palos
Verdes, CA, USA ; JOHN G. HEUVER, Grande Prairie Composite High School, Grande Prairie, Alberta ; JOE
HOWARD, Portales, NM, USA ; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria ; PAUL JEFFERYS, student, Berkhamsted Collegiate School, UK ; KEEWAI LAU, Hong Kong ; GERRY LEVERSHA, St. Paul's
School, London, England ; HENRY LIU, student, University of Memphis, TN, USA ; DAVID LOEFFLER,
student, Cotham School, Bristol, UK ;DAVID E. MANES, SUNY at Oneonta, Oneonta, NY, USA ; REVAI MATH
CLUB, Gyor, Hungary ; JUANBOSCO ROMERO M ARQUEZ,
Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain ;
JOEL SCHLOSBERG, student, New York University, NY, USA ; ROBERT P. SEALY, Mount Allison University,
Sackville, New Brunswick ; HEINZJ URGEN
SEIFFERT, Berlin, Germany ; CHRIS WILDHAGEN, Rotterdam,
the Netherlands ; KENNETH M. WILKE, Topeka, KS, USA ; LI ZHOU, Polk Community College, Winter Haven,
FL, USA (second solution) ; PETER Y. WOO, Biola University, La Mirada, CA, USA ; and the proposer.
Many solvers proved the statement by showing that F3n + (;1)n Fn = Ln F2n where Ln is the
nth term of the Lucas sequence fLn g dened
by Ln = Ln;1 + Ln;2 for n 3, and L1 = 1; L2 = 3.
Since it is also well known that Ln = an + nbn , the solution
given above yields the same result. However,
some solvers only showed that F3n + (;1) Fn = (an + bnn)F2n nand then claimed that the conclusion
follows. This logic is clearly
awed since it is not obvious that a + b is an integer, though it is clear that
it must be a rational number. Nonetheless, we are willing to give the benet of doubt to these solvers since
as it turns out, an + bn an integer.
Crux Mathematicorum
is
Mathematical Mayhem
65
\
\
\ \
3. The points of a circle are coloured by three colours. Prove that there
exist innitely many isosceles triangles with vertices on the circle and of the
same colour.
Second Day  December 12, 1998 (Time: 4.5 hours)
4. Determine all positive integers x, n satisfying the equation
5. Given the angle XOY , variable points M and N are considered on
x + 3367 = 2n .
3
the arms [OX ] and [OY ], respectively, so that jOM j + jON j is constant.
Determine the geometric locus of the midpoint of [MN ].
6. Some of the vertices of unit squares of an n n chessboard are
coloured so that any k k square formed by these unit squares on the chess
board has a coloured point on at least one of its sides. If l(n) stands for the
minimum number of coloured points required to satisfy this condition, prove
that
2
l(n)
nlim
!1 n2 = 7 .
66
As a second set for this issue we give the Turkish Team Selection
Examination for the 40th IMO, 1999. Thanks again to Ed Barbeau for collecting them at the IMO in Romania.
f (x) : x 6= 0 and x 2 R
x
is nite, and for all x 2 R
f (x ; 1 ; f (x)) = f (x) ; x ; 1 .
67
5. Each of A, B, C , D, E and F knows a piece of gossip. They communicate by telephone via a central switchboard, which can connect only two of
them at a time. During a conversation, each side tells the other everything
he or she knows at that point. Determine the minimum number of calls for
everyone to know all six pieces of gossip.
6. Prove that the plane is not a union of the inner regions of nitely
many parabolas. (The outer region of a parabola is the union of the lines not
intersecting the parabola. The inner region of a parabola is the set of points
of the plane that do not belong to the outer region of the parabola.)
As a nal contest for this issue we give the Final Round of the Japanese
Mathematical Olympiad 1999. Thanks go to Ed Barbeau for collecting this
when he was Canadian Team Leader to the IMO in Romania.
1. You can place a stone at each of 1999 1999 squares on a grid pattern. Find the minimum number of stones to satisfy the following condition.
Condition: When an arbitrary blank square is selected, the total number of
stones placed in the corresponding row and column shall be 1999 or more.
2. Let f (x) = x + 17. Prove that for each natural number n, n 2,
there is a natural number x, for which f (x) is divisible by 3n but not by
3n .
3. Let 2n + 1 weights (n is a natural number, n 1) satisfy the
following condition.
Condition: If any one weight is excluded, then the remaining 2n weights can
be divided into a pair of n weights that balance each other.
Prove that all the weights are equal in this case.
4. Prove that
3
+1
68
Next, we turn to readers' comments and solutions to problems of the
13th Iranian Mathematical Olympiad 1995, given [1999 : 456].
1. Find all real numbers a a an satisfying
1
n
X
i=1
ai = 96 ,
n
X
i=1
n
X
ai = 144 ,
2
i=1
ai = 216 .
3
P
D
O2
q
O1
q
;2
K
C
Q
Let ; and ; be the circumcircles of 4PDG and 4PFE , respectively,
so that O and O are centres of ; and ; , respectively. Let Q be the
intersection of ; and ; other than P . Then O O ? PQ.
Let H and K be the intersections of AP with DE and BC , respectively.
;1
69
Since DE kBC , we get
DH : BK = AH : AK = HE : KC , so that
DH : HE = BK : KC .
(1)
FH : HG = BK : KC .
(2)
DH : HE = FH : HG .
Thus,
DH HG = FH HE .
Note that DH HG and FH HE are the powers of H with respect to ;
and ; , respectively. Hence, H is a point on the radical axis of ; and ; .
Since P and Q are intersections of ; and ; , we have that PQ is the
radical axis of ; and ; . Therefore, H is a point on the line PQ, so that A,
P , Q are collinear.
Since, PQ ? O O , we have AP ? O O .
3. Let P (x) be a polynomial with rational coecients such that
P ; (Q) Q. Show that P is linear.
1
70
Claim: If P 2 Z[x] is a monic polynomial, with degree greater than 1, then
there exists an integer a such that P (x) ; a has a positive real irrational root.
Proof. Let p be a prime such that p > P (1) ; P (0) and greater than the
largest real roots of P (x) ; P (0) ; x.
Let a = p + P (0). Then P (1) ; a = P (1) ; P (0) ; p < 0 and
P (p) ; a = P (p) ; P (0) ; p > 0.
From the Intermediate Value Theorem, it follows that P (x) ; a has a
real root in (1; p), say .
Since P (x) ; a is a monic polynomial with integer coecients, it is well
known that, if is a rational root of P (x) ; a, then divides P (0) ; a = ;p.
Whence, = 1 or = p. Thus, is irrational.
This ends the proof of the claim.
It follows from the claim that if P 2 Z[x] is a monic polynomial satisfying (2), then P cannot have a degree greater than 1. That is, P is linear.
4. Let S = fx , x , : : : , xng be an n{element subset of the set
fx 2 R j x 1g. Find the maximum number of elements of the form
n
X
"i xi , "i = 0, 1
i
which belong to I , where I varies over all open intervals of length 1,
and S over all n{element subsets.
Solutions by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France; by Pierre
Bornsztein, Pontoise, France; and by Moubinool Omarjee, Paris, France. We
give Bornsztein's argument.
We will prove that the desired maximum, denoted by M , is
1
=1
M = nn where bc is the integer part function.
2
Let S be an n{element subset of (1; +1). Denote by s(A) the sum of the
elements of the subset A of S , with s(;) = 0. Let I be an open interval of
length one.
Claim: If A, B are two subsets of S with A 6 B then s(A) or s(B ) does not
belong to I .
Proof. Since A 6 B there exists x 2 B nA. Thus,
s(B) = x + s(B ; fxg) x + s(A) 1 + s(A) .
Then, s(B ) ; s(A) 1.
It follows that the numbers s(B ) and s(A) cannot belong to a common
open interval of length one.
71
From the claim, it follows immediately that the number of elements of
the form Pni "i xi , with "i = 0, 1, (that is the number of s(A) where A S )
which belong to I is not greater than the maximum number of subsets A ,
A , : : : , of S which may be constructed such that none of the Ai 's is included
in another.
Such a family of subsets
is a Sperner family. It is well known that a
Sperner family has at most nn2 elements (see [1]).
Since it is true for any I , S under the assumptions of the exercise, we
deduce that
=1
M
n .
(1)
n
2
Conversely: Let p be an integer such that n < p.
For i = 1, : : : , n, let xi = 1 + p i .
2
1
+
j k
Let A be any n2 {subset of S = fx , : : : , xn g. Then,
1
n < s(A) =
2
j k
n +
2
j k
< n2 +
=
Thus,
s(A) 2 I =
xi 2i A
X
xi 2i A
1
p+i
1
n + 1 jnk .
2
p 2
j k
n ; n + 1 .
2
2
j k j k
I is clearly an open interval of length one, and I contains all s(A) where
A S with Card(A) = n .
Then, at least nn2 elements of the form P "i xi , "i = 0, 1, belong
to I .
2
It follows that
M
n .
n
2
(2)
72
2
f x + x 2 = f (x ) + f x
1
f x = f x + x2 ; f (x) < n ; (n ; 1) = 1 ,
and thus, f ( x ) > ;1. Now, substituting x for x in the original equation,
1
we have
x+y+z = a+b+c
4xyz ; (a x + b y + c z) = abc .
2
a2 + b2 + c2 + abc
4 = yz
zx xy xyz
and also to
where
4 = x +y +z +x y z ,
2
1
2
1
2
1
73
Setting x = 2 sin u, 0 < u < , and y = 2 sin v, 0 < v < , we have
1
Hence,
2
1
and then,
Thus,
pyz sin u ,
a = 2p
b = 2pzx sin v ,
c = 2 xy(cos u cos v ; sin u sin v) .
From x + y + z = a + b + c, we get
;p
x cos v ; py cos u + ;px sin v + py sin u ; pz = 0
2
which implies
pz = px sin v + py sin u = px y + py x .
2
2
1
Therefore,
pz = px pb + py a ,
2 zx
2pyz
and thus, z = a b . Similarly, x = a b , y = c a .
The triple
(x; y; z) = b +2 c ; c +2 a ; a +2 b
74
x2 + y2 + 6 is a perfect cube.
xy
Solutions by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France; by Pierre Bornsztein, Courdimanche, France; and by Edward T.H. Wang, Wilfrid Laurier
University, Waterloo, Ontario. We give Wang's writeup and comment.
2 y2 + 6
Suppose x +xy
= k for some positive integers x, y and k. We
prove that necessarily k = 8.
Consider
x2 + y 2 + 6 = k
xy
(1)
and
2+ 2+6
2+6
ka ; b = a bb
; b = a b > 0,
we see that (ka ; b; a) is also a solution of (1) in natural numbers. Note
that
2
a
a +6;ab a +6;a(a+1) = 6;a < 0 if a > 6. Thus, ka;b = b < a
if a > 6, contradicting the minimality of a. Hence, a 6. It remains to show
that a =
6 3, 5. If a = 3, then we get b + 15 = 3kb, which implies that 3
divides b and thus, b + 15 6, while 3kb 0 (mod 9). If a = 5, then we
get b +31 = 5kb. Since b is an integer and 31 is a prime we deduce from the
relation between roots and coecients that 5k = 32, which
is impossible.
2
b
Therefore, we conclude that a = 1, which implies k = b = b + b .
Hence, b = 7 and k = 8, which is a cube.
2
+6
+7
75
18Rr a + b + c .
or
The product Rr can be neatly expressed by comparing two wellknown formulae for the area of the triangle: abc
and rs = r(a +2b + c) . Equating
4R
these gives Rr = 2(a +abcb + c) .
Thus, the required inequality becomes:
9abc
a+b+c a +b +c ,
9abc (a + b + c )(a + b + c) .
2
that is,
and
3(abc) 23 a + b + c ,
2
(abc) 13 a + 3b + c ,
or 3(abc) 13 a + b + c .
Multiplying these together it follows that 9abc (a + b + c)(a + b + c ),
which we showed to be equivalent to the required inequality.
Now we give Klamkin's generalization and comment.
Since a = 2R sin , etc., where R is the circumradius, the inequality is
now
a + b + c 18Rr .
We prove the stronger inequality
a + b + c xRr ; (2x ; 36)r 18Rr ,
where 18 x 24. The righthand inequality reduces to (x;18)(R;2r)
2
76
which is the wellknown ChappleEuler inequality. For the lefthand
inequality, we use an identity [1; p. 52].
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
77
Now, using P 0n = P n , we see that P n (x) is a minimum when
x = xn . Hence, for all x
2
+2
+1
+2
2n+2
P n (x) P n (xn) = P n (xn ) + xnn
2
+2
+2
+1
x2nn+2
n + 2)!
(2
(2
+ 2)!
n+1 )2
= (2xnn+ 2)!
> 0.
(
+2
+3
+3
P n (;2n;3) =
2
+1
n+1
X
k=0
; n;
k
+2
3)
n
X
(2n+3) p
p=0
+3
3
; (2pn++1)!
.
(2p)!
1
+1
2n+2
1 + nxn > 0 ,
P n (xn ) = P n (xn) ; P n (xn ) = xnn
which implies xn > xn . Therefore, (xn ) is a decreasing sequence of real
numbers and, as such, either limn!1 xn = ;1 or (xn ) converges to a real
number m. Assume that the latter does occur. Note that m xn < 0 for
all n. Since for all n 0 we have P n (x) ex P n (x) for all x 0
2
+3
+3
+1
(2
+ 2)!
+3
+1
+1
2n+1
0 exn P n (xn) = P n (xn ) ; (2xnn+ 1)!
2n+1
2n+1
= ; (2xnn+ 1)! ; (2mn + 1)! .
m2n+1 = 0) while, by the
But then, limn!1 exn = 0 (because nlim
!1 (2n + 1)!
xn
m
continuity of the exponential function, we must have nlim
!1 e = e 6= 0.
This contradiction shows that nlim
!1 xn = ;1.
2
+1
78
t1
B1
;1
A1
t3
;3
C
The lines HA, HB , HC meet BC , CA, AB at D, E , F , respectively.
Then, AD ? BC , BE ? AC and CF ? AB .
Let ; , ; , ; be circles with diameters AA , BB , CC , respectively.
Since \ADA = \BEB = CFC = 90 , we have that ; , ; , ;
pass through D, E , F , respectively.
Let t , t , t be the tangent segments from H to ; , ; , ; , respectively.
Since \ADB = \AEB = 90 , A, D, B , E are concyclic, so that
HA HD = HB HE .
Hence, we have
t = HA HD = HB HE = t .
Thus, t = t .
Similarly, we have t = t . Therefore, t = t = t .
5. Find all functions f : R ! R satisfying the following conditions for
all x 2 R.
(a) f (x) = ;f (;x);
(b) f (x + 1) = f (x) + 1;
(c) f x1 = x12 f (x), if x 6= 0.
1
2
1
2
2
79
= ;(x + 1) g ; x
g(x) = g(x + 1) = (x + 1) g x
= ;(x + 1) g 1 ; x
= ;(x + 1) g x x
2
= ;(x + 1) x x 2 g x x = ;x g 1 + x = ;x g x
= ;g(x) .
Hence, g(x) 0, and f (x) = x for all x 2 R.
2
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+ 1)
80
Let m = a + n. Then, a 2 N and (a; n) = 1.
We have
Sm ; 5a Sn = 7nUa .
(1)
7an = (S l ; 5n )a = S L ; 5an
and
7an = (S k + 5a )n = S K + 5an
S (K ; L) = 2 5an .
It follows that S divides 2 5an . Since (S ; 5) = 1, we deduce (using Gauss'
theorem) that S divides 2.
Moreover, Sm , Sn are even. Thus, 2 divides S . Then, S = 2.
Case 2. a is even.
Let a = 2b, where b 2 N and (b; n) = 1.
Moreover, m and n are odd, since m = 2b + n and (m; n) = 1. Then
S divides SnUn = U n = 7 n ; 5 n and S divides Ua = 7 b ; 5 b .
From the lemma, we deduce that S divides
7 ; 5 = 24 .
(2)
Since m, n are odd, we have 7m ;1 (mod 8) and 5m 5 (mod 8).
It follows that 4 divides Sm and Sn , but 8 does not divide either Sm
or Sn .
In the same way, Sm Sn 1m + (;1)m 0 (mod 3). Since 3 and
2
Sm Sn 0 (mod 12)
but
Sm 6 0 (mod 24) .
81
From (2), we may conclude that S = 12. Then:
if m, n are odd, we have (Sm ; Sn ) = 12;
if m, n have opposite parities, we have (Sm ; Sn ) = 2.
Reference.
[1] Math. Magazine, Exercise no 1091, vol. 54, no. 2, March 1981, pp. 86{87.
3. Let x be a real number with x > 1 and such that x is not an integer.
Let an = bxn c ; xbxn c (n = 1, 2, 3, : : : ). Prove that the sequence
of numbers fan g is not periodic. (Here byc denotes, as usual, the largest
integer y.)
Solutions by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France; and by Michel
Bataille, Rouen, France. We give Bataille's solution.
Suppose for purpose of contradiction, that there exists a positive integer
p such that ann pp = ann for all positive integers n. Dening the integer un
by un = bx c ; bx c, we would have un = xun for all n. We now
distinguish the following mutually exclusive cases:
Case 1. u = bxp c ; bxc 6= 0.
Then, x = uu12 is a rational number that we can also write as x = kl
where k, l are coprime integers. Note that k > l > 1 (since x > 1 and
x 62 N). For alln n,n un = xnu so that lnun = knu and, ln being
coprime with k , l divides u . This would mean that u has an innite
number of divisors (since l > 1), which is clearly impossible.
Case 2. u = bxp c ; bxc = 0.
Then, un = 0 for all n, and an easy induction shows that, for all positive
integers m,
+1
+
+
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+2
p;1 c =
bxp; c ) (1)
1
+1
+1
periodic.
+1
82
5.
n = 2k + ak; 2k; + + a 2 + a
(here ai = 0 or 1), we dene pn by
pn = qk + ak; qk; + + a q + a :
1
Prove that there exist innitely many positive integers k which satisfy
the following condition: There exists no positive integer l such that
p k < pl < p k .
Solution by Mohammed Aassila, Strasbourg, France.
By induction on n, we can prove that k = qn satises the required
condition, where qn is dened by
2
2 +1
8
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
:
qm =
2
qm
2
+1
m
X
2k
km
=0
X
2k .
2 +1
k=0
That completes the Corner for this issue of CRUX with MAYHEM. We
are entering Olympiad season. Send me your nice solutions and generalizations as well as Olympiad Contests.
83
BOOK REVIEWS
84
Very irritating is the sloppiness in grammar, especially in the use of
the word data which appears inconsistently presented as both a plural and
a singular noun. Indeed, within the same paragraph in the volume, this
word appears as a singular noun in one sentence and plural in another, and
authors inconsistently refer to these data and this data quite interchangeably.
Careful editing of the articles accepted for this publication would at least have
resulted in consistently using (incorrectly, asserts this reviewer) the word
data in singular form if it were impossible to use it correctly as a plural noun.
In the editor's own contribution (on page 31, Implications for Statistics
Teaching) it is stated that \Statistics faculty need to learn new skills. We
now have to grade grammar and writing style as well as statistical thinking."
In a volume intended to give advice and guidance to statistics teachers, it is
regrettable that the editor/author failed to take his own pronouncement to
heart to produce a better quality contribution to the MAA Notes Series.
85
review of the 1997 NCTM Yearbook, an algebra text and the PBS videoseries
Life by the Numbers in The New York Review of Books provides the occasion to vent his displeasure at the \fuzzy new math". He skewers it for its
faddishness and dilution with much that is mathematically irrelevant. If the
Yearbook is any guide, reformers seem to be completely ignorant of fascinating and challenging mathematical material available in a number of ne
books published in recent years by established mathematicians. It is hard to
argue with his assessment of the PBS series as \high on special eects, low
on mathematical content". This is an important article, that well deserves
its more permanent place in this volume.
Those who want to enliven the modern school classroom will nd many
riches in this book. Four successive chapters treat, in whole or in part, magic
squares, with some new material. A prize of $100 has not yet been claimed
for a 3 3 magic square whose entries are all squares. There are many
squares that almost do the job, but getting the complete solution is equivalent to nding rational points on certain cubic curves. There are numerous
dissection problems, a genre which I have found encourages my own undergraduate students to think of geometry in more structural terms. A Quantum
article deals with decomposing both squares and equilateral triangles into
three similar parts, all three of which, two of which and none of which are
congruent. Is it true that there is a unique solution to the triangle problems
with one and no congruent pairs of parts? In the magazine, Cubism for Fun,
Gardner oered a $50 prize for anyone who could, for any integer n exceeding
1, cover the surface of a cube by n congruent polygons without overlapping.
In an addendum, he tells us that this was won by a reader, Anneke Treep,
who without any technical complications applied the right perspective and
degree of imagination.
Other problems, however, are denitely not for the classroom. Consider the problem, due to Gardner himself from the initial chapter of the
book; it asks for the minimum area of a surface placed inside a transparent
cube to render it opaque from any direction. The best answer seems to be
4:2324. \I believe the opaque cube problem to be extremely dicult," he
writes, \it is keeping me awake at nights."A substantial essay treats minimal Steiner trees (spanning trees of minimum length) on a rectangular array
of nodes, and includes a table of the best known results for n n when
2 n 14.
The pace is varied by a discussion of directed graphs to analyze propositional calculus, and by some word play. Can you provide a square array of
nine letters for which, each row, column and diagonal, spell out a word? Or
provide a chain of words, each altered by a single letter from its predecessor,
that converts BLACK to WHITE?
The eectiveness of this book derives in large part from the passion
with which Gardner shares his mathematical enthusiasm and on the breadth
and erudition of his discussions. This is another winner!
86
F (a ) + F (a ) + + F (an ) F (b ) + F (b ) + + F (bn ) .
1
of the incircle. Thus, we have the following implications for any triangle
inequality or identity:
F (a; b; c) 0 (=) F (y + z; z + x; x + y) 0 ,
F (x; y; z) 0 (=) F ((s ; a); (s ; b); (s ; c)) 0
(here s is the semiperimeter). This transformation eliminates the troublesome triangle constraints and lets one use all the machinery for a set of three
nonnegative numbers.
c 2002 Canadian Mathematical Society
Copyright
87
Another big plus for the Majorization Inequality is that we can obtain
both upper and lower bounds subject to other kinds of constraints. Here are
two examples:
(1) Consider thePbounds on sin a + sin a + + sin an where n 4,
ai 0 and ai = S 2. Since
1
; ; ; ; 0; 0; : : : ; 0 (a ; a ; : : : ; an ) S ; S ; : : : ; S ,
2 2 2 2
n n
n
1
we have
4 sin a + sin a + + sin an n sin Sn .
P
(2) Consider the bounds on a + a + + an where ai = S ( n) and
1
2
1
2
2
(S ; n + 1; 1; 1; ; 1) (a ; a ; ; an) Sn ; Sn ; ; Sn ,
1
we have
(S ; n + 1) + n ; 1 a + a + + an n Sn .
2
2
1
2
2
88
89
n
X
i=1
ai bi =
n
X
j
X
j =1 i=1
ai (bj ; bj ) ,
+1
setting bn = 0.
The Majorization Inequality is well known, but unfortunately, this
generic name does not reveal its source: this inequality is due to Karamata, 1932 [4], and should therefore be called the Karamata Inequality, as
in [1, pp. 3132]. It turns out to be a strong tool with various applications,
some of which can be found in [7] and [8, Chapter VIII]). We also note that
before [6], the inequality (1) appeared in [3] (a paper in Hebrew) as an
example (probably well known even before) of a case where the Karamata
Inequality is a useful approach.
+1
90
for the convex function f (x) = ; ln x.
Returning to history, it turns out that inequality (3) to which the IMO
2000 problem is reduced/equivalent, is not really a new one: it is due to
A. Padoa, in 1925 (Period. Mat. (4)5 : 80{85). Moreover, (3) is equivalent to
a (b + c ; a) + b (c + a ; b) + c (a + b ; c) 3abc, which is IMO 1964
Problem 2. Could you guess what substitution is helpful for proving these
inequalities easily?
2
References
[1] E. Beckenbach and R. Bellman. Inequalities. Springer, Berlin (1965).
[2] A. Engel Problem solving strategies. Springer, Berlin (1997).
[3] S. Gueron and R. Tessler. Majorization and the Karamata Inequality.
EtgarGilionot Mathematica 4849: 410 (1999).
[4] J. Karamata. Sur une inegalite relative aux fonctions convexes Publ.
Math. Univ. Belgrade 1:145148 (1932).
[5] M.S. Klamkin. Duality in triangle inequalities. Notices of the
Amer. Math. Soc. p. 782 (1971).
[6] M.S. Klamkin. On a Problem of the Month. Crux Mathematicorum,
Vol 28, p. 86 (2002) .
[7] A.W. Marshall and I. Olkin. Inequalities: Theory of Majorization and
its Applications. Academic Press, N.Y. (1979).
[8] D.S. Mitrinovic, J.E. Pecaric and V. Volenec. Recent advances in geometric inequalities. Kluwer, London (1989).
[9] T.B. Soulami. Les Olympiades de mathematiques ; Re
exes et
strategies. Ellipse, Paris (1999).
Shay Gueron
University of Haifa
Israel
shay@math2.haifa.ac.il
91
MATHEMATICAL MAYHEM
Mathematical Mayhem began in 1988 as a Mathematical Journal for and by
High School and University Students. It continues, with the same emphasis,
as an integral part of Crux Mathematicorum with Mathematical Mayhem.
All material intended for inclusion in this section should be sent to
Mathematical Mayhem, Cairine Wilson Secondary School, 977 Orleans Blvd.,
Gloucester, Ontario, Canada. K1C 2Z7 (NEW!). The electronic address is
mayhemeditors@cms.math.ca
The Assistant Mayhem Editor is Chris Cappadocia (University of Waterloo). The other sta member is Jimmy Chui (University of Toronto).
MAYHEM PROBLEMS
Envoyez vos propositions et solutions a MATHEMATICAL MAYHEM,
Faculte de mathematiques, Universite de Waterloo, 200 University Avenue
West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, ou par courriel a
mayhemeditors@cms.math.ca
N'oubliez pas d'inclure a toute correspondance votre nom, votre annee scolaire, le nom de votre e cole, ainsi que votre ville, province ou e tat et pays.
Nous sommes surtout interesses par les solutions d'etudiants du secondaire.
Veuillez nous transmettre vos solutions aux problemes du present numero
avant le 1er septembre 2002. Les solutions recues apres cette date ne seront
prises en compte que s'il nous reste du temps avant la publication des solutions.
Chaque probleme sera publie dans les deux langues ocielles du Canada
(anglais et francais). Dans les numeros 1, 3, 5 et 7, l'anglais precedera le
francais, et dans les numeros 2, 4, 6 et 8, le francais precedera l'anglais.
MAYHEM de ce moisci, les solutions doivent
Pour e^ tre admissibles au DEFI
avoir e te postees avant le 1er juillet 2002, cachet de la poste faisant foi.
Les nombres 1 a 2002 sont e crits au tableau noir et l'on decide de jouer
au jeu suivant :
On lance une piece de monnaie et on eace deux nombres x et y du
tableau. Si l'on tombe sur pile, on e crit x + y au tableau, sinon on e crit
jx ; yj ; on continue le processus jusqu'a ce qu'il ne reste plus qu'un nombre.
Montrer que ce dernier nombre est impair.
.................................................................
92
The numbers 1 to 2002 are written on a blackboard so you decide to
play a fun game. You
ip a coin, then erase two numbers, x and y, from the
board. If the coin was heads you write the number x + y on the board, if the
coin was tails you write the number jx ; yj. You continue this process until
only one number remains. Prove that the last number is odd.
35. Propose par l'equipe de Mayhem.
On denit deux suites par x = 4732, y = 847, xn = xn yn and
yn = xnxnyynn . Trouver
1
+1
+
2
+1
nlim
!1 xn
nlim
!1 yn .
et
.................................................................
Two sequences are dened by: x = 4732, y = 847, xn
and yn = xnxn yynn . Find
1
+1
+1
= xn yn
+
2
nlim
!1 xn
and
nlim
!1 yn .
+
2
93
94
to one of the other two pegs, which are originally empty. No disc is ever allowed to rest on a larger disc, and the discs must be moved one at a time. If bd
is the number of moves required for d discs, one shows that bd = 2bd + 1
(that is, to move the bottom disc, rst move the other discs onto a single
peg, then after the bottom disc is moved, the others are moved back onto
it). However, all we need for our present purpose is that bd > bd .
The connection between the given problem and the \Towers of Hanoi"
problem can be seen by writing n as a sum of distinct powers of 2. Then, n
can be written as such a sum in exactly one way.
The distinct powers of 2 correspond to the discs in the \Towers of
Hanoi" problem, but larger powers of 2 correspond to smaller discs. The
condition for moving 2k pebbles corresponds to the fact that the top disc
must be moved before any of the discs underneath.
Note that d corresponds to the number of distinct powers of 2 that add
up to n (or the number of 1's in the binary expansion of n). So our problem
boils down to: what numbers n 100 have the most digits 1 in their binary
expansion?
The powers of 2 that can be used in the binary expansion of numbers
n 100 are 2 , 2 , 2 , 2 , 2 , 2 , 2 . However, they cannot all be used
since their sum is 127 > 100. It is possible to use all but one of them in just
two ways:
2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 95 ,
2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 63 .
Hence, 63 and 95 are the desired values of n.
3. (a) Begin with a string of 10 A's, B's, and C's, for example
+1
+1
A B C C B A B C B A
95
Prove that the letters at the corners of the resulting triangle are always either
all the same or all dierent.
Solution: Think of the letters A, B, C as representing the numbers 0,
1, 2, respectively, (mod 3). Then, if in some row we have x y
where x and y are integers (mod 3), we get ; x ; y in the next row,
where ;x ; y is computed (mod 3). If the original row corresponds to the
integers x x x (mod 3), then the next rows are:
1
10
:::
;x ; x
;x ; x
;x ; x
x + 2x + x
x + 2x + x
:::
;x ; 3x ; 3x ; x
1
:::
and we see the pattern (which can be proved by induction): apart from the
signs, the coecients are those of Pascal's triangle, the binomial coecients. In particular, the tenth (bottom) row will consist of the single entry
;x ; 91 x ; 92 x ; ; 98 x ; x
1
10
(mod 3) .
;9 ;9
10
10
10
k
k
k
3
3
3
;x ; 1 x ; 2 x ; ; 3k ; 1 xn; ; xn ;x ; xn (mod 3) ,
because the binomial coecients are divisible by 3.
4. When Mark climbs a staircase, he ascends either 1, 2, or 3 stairsteps
with each stride, but in no particular pattern from one foot to the next. In
how many ways can Mark climb a staircase of 10 steps? (Note that he must
nish on the top step. Two ways are considered the same if the number of
steps for each stride are the same; that is, it does not matter whether he puts
his best or his worst foot forward rst.) Suppose that a spill has occurred on
the 6th step and Mark wants to avoid it. In how many ways can he climb the
staircase without stepping on the 6th step?
Solution: Let an be the number of ways for Mark to climb a staircase of
n steps. Then a = 1, a = 2 and a = 4. For n > 3, consider Mark's last
1
96
stride. If his last stride was 1{step, then before that he climbed an n ; 1{step
staircase, and there are an; ways in which that can be done. Using a similar
argument for 2{ and 3{step last steps, we get an = an; + an; + an; for
n > 3. Using this we can calculate a = 274. Thus there are 274 ways that
Mark can climb the stairs before the spill has occurred.
Once the spill has occurred, we can work through the same way. If bn
is the number of ways to get to step n and not step on step 6, then we have:
bn = an for n 5, b = 0. Thus, using the recurrence relation for an we
get b = 0 + 13 + 7 = 20, b = 20 + 0 + 13 = 33, b = 0 + 20 + 33 = 53
and b = 20 + 33 + 53 = 106. Thus, there are 106 ways to go up the stairs
and avoid the spill.
5. Number the vertices of a cube from 1 to 8. Let A be the 8 8 matrix
whose (i; j ) entry is 1 if the cube has an edge between vertices i and j , and
is 0 otherwise. Find the eigenvalues of A, and describe the corresponding
eigenspaces.
Solution:Let the vertices be numbered as shown.
1
10
10
Then we have
A=
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
97
vertex in Sj for i, j 2 f1; 2g, i 6= j . We now have the observation, whose
proof follows from the denition of A given in the problem:
Let S = S [ S be any decomposition of S = f1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
7, 8g into disjoint subsets S , S such that there exist integers k and l with
k + l = 3 such that each vertex in Si is connected to k vertices in Si and l
vertices in Sj for i, j 2 f1, 2g, i 6= j . Then the vector with entries 1 in the
positions corresponding to S and ;1 in the positions corresponding to S
is an eigenvector of A for the eigenvalue k ; l.
Note that while we could interchange the subsets S and S , that would
just change the eigenvector to its opposite. Except for this, there are eight
dierent decompositions of S of the desired type, as shown in the table
below.
S
S
k l
Eigenvector
S
3 0 3
(1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1)T
f1, 2, 3, 4g f5, 6, 7, 8g 2 1 1 (1; 1; 1; 1; ;1; ;1; ;1; ;1)TT
f1, 2, 5, 6g f3, 4, 7, 8g 2 1 1 (1; 1; ;1; ;1; 1; 1; ;1; ;1)T
f1, 4, 5, 8g f2, 3, 6, 7g 2 1 1 (1; ;1; ;1; 1; 1; ;1; ;1; 1)T
f1, 2, 7, 8g f3, 4, 5, 6g 1 2 ;1 (1; 1; ;1; ;1; ;1; ;1; 1; 1)T
f1, 4, 6, 7g f2, 3, 5, 8g 1 2 ;1 (1; ;1; ;1; 1; ;1; 1; 1; ;1)T
f1, 3, 5, 7g f2, 4, 6, 8g 1 2 ;1 (1; ;1; 1; ;1; 1; ;1; 1; ;1)T
f1, 3, 6, 8g f2, 4, 5, 7g 0 3 ;3 (1; ;1; 1; ;1; ;1; 1; ;1; 1)
(Geometrically, the eigenvectors for = 1 in this table can be thought
of as corresponding to pairs of opposite faces of the cube; the eigenvectors
for = ;1 can be thought of as corresponding to pairs of diagonal planes
through the cube.) It is easily checked that the eigenvectors for = 1 (similarly for = ;1) listed above are linearly independent. Therefore, for matrix
A we have eigenvalues = 3, = 1 (with multiplicity 3), = ;1 (with
multiplicity 3) and = ;3, and the eigenspaces are spanned by the vectors
in the table.
6. Let f (x) be a twicedierentiable function on the open interval (0; 1)
such that
1
98
Thus, we must have f 00 (x) > 0 for some x in (0; 1) as well as f 00 (x) < 0
for some x in (0; 1), and we are done.
7. Three stationary sentries are guarding an important public square
which is, in fact, square, with each side measuring 8 rods (recall that one rod
equals 5:5 yards). (If any of the sentries see trouble brewing at any location
on the square, the sentry closest to the trouble spot will immediately cease to
be stationary and dispatch to that location. And like all good sentries, these
three are continually looking in all directions for trouble to occur.) Find the
maximum value of D, so that no matter how the sentries are placed, there
is always some spot in the square that is at least D rods from the closest
sentry.
Solution: Divide the square into rectangles as shown, in such a way
that QY = Y R = 4 and PZ = XY . We claim once this has been done
D = 21 XY is the maximum value of D.
0
Proof: One way to place the sentries is at the centres of the rectangles
99
midpoint O of XQ is too far from Z and R to be guarded by 2 and 3, respectively, which will provide a contradiction.
Let PX = a , XQ = 8 ; a. Then
PZ = XY
(=) PX + XZ = XQ + QY ,
2
100
since stops 1, a, b, N +1 could be arranged successfully, and d(1; N +1) is the
largest distance, we must have either d(1; a) = d(1; b) + d(a; b) or
d(1; b) = d(1; a) + d(a; b) (but we cannot have d(a; b) = d(1; a) + d(1; b)).
Now, ignore stop N + 1 for the moment and arrange stops 1, 2, : : : , N successfully along the track, which is possible by the induction hypothesis. Since
we cannot have d(a; b) = d(1; a) + d(1; b) for any a, b 2 f2, 3, : : : , N g,
we have that 1 cannot be between any two other stops in this successful
arrangement; that is, all stops 2, 3, : : : , N must be the same side of stop 1.
Since they all have the proper distances to stop 1 and d(1; N + 1) is larger
than all those distances, we can place stop N + 1 on the track in such a way
that all stops 2, 3, : : : , N are between stop 1 and stop N + 1, that stops 1
and N + 1 are the proper distance apart, and that all stops 1, 2, : : : , N are
still in the same places.
All we now need to do is to check that stop N +1 is the correct distance
d(a; N + 1) to each of the stops a, 2 a N . Then, since d(1; N + 1) is
less than the distance from Cambridge to Northeld, we can arrange for the
stops to follow each other in this order between Cambridge and Northeld,
and we will be done.
Consider any stop a, 2 a N . Since it has the correct distance
d(a; 1) to stop 1, in the above placement its distance to stop N + 1 is given
by d(1; N + 1) ; d(a; 1). But since d(1; N + 1) is the largest of the required
distances between stops 1, a, N + 1, we have
d(1; N + 1) = d(a; 1) + d(a; N + 1) ,
so that
d(1; N + 1) ; d(a; 1) = d(a; N + 1) ,
and we are done.
101
=1
=1
=1
=1
=1
=1
=1
=1
=1
=1
=1
1 X a = 1 15 ;1000 ; b ; (100 ; b)
ai ; 15
i
15
;
1
8 (b ; 25) (2b + 25) 0 .
= 15 ;16b + 200b + 5000 = ; 15
Since b is a positive value, the inequality holds true if and only if b 25. In
other words, the largest of the ai 's must not exceed 25, QED.
X
2
102
SKOLIAD No. 60
Shawn Godin
Solutions may be sent to Shawn Godin, Cairine Wilson S.S., 975 Orleans
Blvd., Orleans, ON, CANADA, K1C 2Z5, or emailed to
mayhemeditors@cms.math.ca
Please include on any correspondence your name, school, grade, city, province
or state and country. We are especially looking for solutions from high school
students. Please send your solutions to the problems in this edition by
1 July 2002. A copy of MATHEMATICAL MAYHEM Vol. 2 will be presented
to the preuniversity reader(s) who send in the best set of solutions before
the deadline. The decision of the editor is nal.
This issue's item comes to us from Manitoba. My thanks go to Diane
Dowling at St.Paul's College in Winnipeg for forwarding the material to me.
(b) Find real numbers a and b such that (2a )(4b ) = 8 and a+7b = 4.
2. (a) Find all real numbers x such that 25jxj = x + 144.
p
(b) If x is a real number and p 5 p = 7 ; 3px what is the
7+3 x
value of x?
3. (a) If two of the roots of x + px + qx + r = 0 are equal in absolute
value but opposite in sign, prove that pq = r. (p, q and r are real numbers.)
(b) If a, b and c are real numbers such that a + b + c = 14,
c = a + b and ab = 14, nd the numerical value of c.
4. (a) If 0 < < 180 and 2 sin + 3 sin 2 what is the largest
possible value of ?
2
103
(b) Let O be the origin, P the point whose
coordinates are (2; 3)
x
and F a point on the line whose equation is y = 2 . If PF is perpendicular
to OF nd the coordinates of F .
5. How many consecutive zeros are there at the end of the product of
all the integers from 16 to 100 inclusive?
6. In triangle ABC , \ACB = 135 , CA = 6 and BC = p2. If M is
the midpoint of the side AB , nd the length of CM .
7. A circle of radius 2 has its centre in the rst quadrant and has both
coordinate axes as tangents. Another smaller circle also has both coordinate
axes as tangents and has exactly one point in common with the larger circle.
Find the radius of the smaller circle.
8. A parallelogram has an area of 36 and diagonals whose lengths are
10 and 12. Find the lengths of its sides.
9. a, b, c, d are distinct integers such that (x;a)(x;b)(x;c)(x;d)=4
has an integral root r. Prove that a + b + c + d = 4r.
10. If x, y and z are positive real numbers, prove that
(x + y ; z)(x ; y) + z(x ; z)(y ; z) 0 .
2
104
Solution.
Let the twodigit number n be t u . If u is not 9, then the number obtained by adding one and reversing the digits is u + 1 t . Since
this potential divisor; cannot equal n, it must be half of n or less, so that
2(u + 1) t and 2 (u + 1) 10 + t t 10 + u. This restricts us to
the numbers n = 30, 40, 50, 51, 60, 61, 70, 71, 80, 81, 82, 90, 91, or 92. A
quick check shows that none of these numbers works. Hence, u must be 9.
If n = t 9 , then n + 1 = t + 1 0 (unless t = 9), so that the divisor
would be t + 1. But n equals 10(t + 1) ; 1, which cannot be a multiple of
t + 1. Thus t must also be 9, yielding n = 99 , making the divisor equal to
001, or 1.
3. Ten slips of paper, numbered 1 through 10, are placed in a hat.
Three numbers are drawn out, one after another. What is the probability
that the three numbers are drawn in increasing order? (2 points)
Solution.
Let the numbers chosen be A, B , and C . There are six orders in which
the slips can be chosen: ABC , ACB , BAC , BCA, CAB , CBA. Of these
six, only one is in the increasing order we desire. Hence, the probability
is 16 .
4. The three marked angles are right angles. If \a = 20 , then what
is \b? (2 points)
b
a
Solution.
Note that \b is complementary to an angle which is complementary
to \a; hence, \b = \a, so that \b = 20 .
5. Vicky asks Charlene to identify all noncongruent triangles 4ABC
given:
(a) the value of \A
(b) AB = 10, and
(c) length BC equals either 5 or 15.
105
Charlene responds that there are only two triangles meeting the given conditions. What is the value of \A? (2 points)
Solution.
Consider AB to be a xed segment of length 10. Since BC is either 5
or 15, C must lie on one of the two circles with center B and radii 5 and 15,
as in the diagram.
R
S
X
B
There are many possible values for \A; the possible positions for point C
are the points where \A intersects the two circles. For some angles, as with
\A = \BAR in the diagram, there is only one possible point C ; for others,
as with \A = \BAT , there are three. The only value which gives exactly
two points C is that which makes the angle tangent to the inner circle, as
with \A = \BAS . Call the point of tangency X . Since AB = 10, BX = 5,
and \BXA is a right angle, we conclude that triangle ABX is a 30 60 90
triangle. Hence, \A = 30 .
6. Five pirates nd a cache of ve gold coins. They decide that the
shortest pirate will become bursar and distribute the coins  if half or more
of the pirates (including the bursar) agree to the distribution, it will be accepted; otherwise, the bursar will walk the plank and the next shortest pirate
will become bursar. This process will continue until a distribution of coins is
agreed upon. If each pirate always acts so as to stay aboard if possible and
maximize his wealth, and would rather see another pirate walk the plank
than not (all else being equal), then how many coins will the shortest pirate
keep for himself? (3 points)
Solution.
Call the pirates p , p , : : : , p , with p the shortest and p the tallest.
Consider what would happen if only p and p remained. Whatever division
strategy p suggested would hold, since p 's vote alone would constitute half
the total vote. Thus, p would simply allot himself all the gold. Next consider
1
106
the situation where three pirates remained. Whatever distribution p chose,
p would have to agree, as long as he got one or more coins. His only alternative would be to go to the twopirate situation, in which p gets nothing
at all. Hence, p would simply take 4 coins for himself and allot 1 coin to
p , getting a majority vote from himself and p . Similarly, with four pirates
remaining, p , the bursar, would take 4 coins for himself and allot 1 coin
to p . Again, since p would have otherwise gotten nothing, he would have
to support the plan. With ve pirates, the bursar, p , would allot himself 3
coins and give one coin each to p and p . Since each of p and p gets more
3
than they would get by vetoing the plan, they must support it. The shortest
pirate gets 3 coins.
7. The twelve positive integers a a a have the property
that no three of them can be the side lengths of a nondegenerate triangle.
Find the smallest possible value of aa121 . (3 points)
Solution.
If a, b and c can be sides of a nondegenerate triangle with a b c,
we always must have c < a + b. Hence, if no three of our integers can form
a nondegenerate triangle, we must have ai aj + ak for any three with
i > j , k. Since the numbers are increasing, it suces to show that
1
12
a +a a , a +a a , a +a a
1
and so on. Substituting the rst inequality into the second, we have
a + 2a a .
1
Substituting this and the second inequality into the third, we get
2a + 3a a .
1
3a + 5a a .
1
12
12
12
12
107
December 1997
FACTS: A polynomial p(x) of degree n or less is determined by its value
at n + 1 x{coordinates. For n = 1 this is a familiar statement; a line (degree
one polynomial) is determined by two points. Moreover, the value of p(x) at
any other x{value can be computed in a particularly nice way using Lagrange
interpolation, as outlined in the essay An Interpretation of Interpolation.
We will also need a result from linear algebra which states that a system
of n \dierent" linear equations in n variables has exactly one solution. For
example, there is only one choice for x; y, and z which satises the equations
x + y + z = 1, x + 2y + 3z = 4, and x + 4y + 9z = 16.
SETUP: Let p(x) be a degree three polynomial for which we know the
values of p(1), p(2), p(4), and p(8). By the facts section there is exactly one
such polynomial. According to Lagrange interpolation the number p(16) can
be deduced; it equals
p(16) = A p(1) + A p(2) + A p(4) + A p(8) ,
for some constants A through A . The goal of this team test will be to
compute the Ai and use them to nd information about p(16) without ever
nding an explicit formula for p(x).
Problems:
Part i: (4 points) We claim that the Ai can be found by subtracting
x ; (x ; 1)(x ; 2)(x ; 4)(x ; 8) = A x + A x + A x + A .
(1)
Implement this claim to compute A through A .
Solution.
Apparently we have been handed a magic formula which generates the
constants Ai needed for computing p(16). It is referred to frequently in this
solution, so we reproduce it here:
x ; (x ; 1)(x ; 2)(x ; 4)(x ; 8) = A x + A x + A x + A . (2)
Rather than marvel at this stroke of good fortune so early on, we set about
computing the values A through A . Carefully multiplying out the lefthand
side yields
0
108
Therefore we should use A = 15, A = ;70, A = 120, and A = ;64.
Part ii: (4 points) To show that these Ai are in fact the correct numbers
we must show that they correctly predict p(16) for four \dierent" polynomials. We begin with the case p(x) = x. Show that the value of p(16) agrees
with the prediction A p(1) + A p(2) + A p(4) + A p(8). (HINT: try x = 2
in (1).)
Solution.
According to Lagrange Interpolation, if p(x) is a polynomial of degree
three or less, then we should be able to predict p(16) based on the values of p(x) at x = 1, 2, 4 and 8. We will now show that the constants
Ai just computed do the job by showing that p(16) always equals the sum
A p(8) + A p(4) + A p(2) + A p(1). According to the facts section we
need only verify that the Ai work in four dierent cases to know that they
will always work. In checking these four cases we employ a somewhat clever
method that never actually uses the numbers calculated in part i, just the
equation (2) that produced them.
First suppose that p(x) = x. Then clearly p(1) = 1, p(2) = 2,
p(4) = 4, and p(8) = 8. Let us check whether or not A p(8) + A p(4) +
A p(2) + A p(1), which is the same as 8A + 4A + 2A + A , correctly
predicts p(16). Substituting x = 2 into equation (2) gives us
2 ; (2 ; 1)(2 ; 2)(2 ; 4)(2 ; 8) = 8A + 4A + 2A + A .
The lefthand side equals 16 since the (2 ; 2) factor causes the second term
to vanish. However, the right hand side is our prediction for p(16). Sure
enough, we get p(16) = 16, just as we should for the function p(x) = x.
Part iii: (5 points) Continuing the previous part, show that the Ai
correctly predict p(16) for the three other polynomials p(x) = 1,
p(x) = x and p(x) = x .
Solution.
In all cases the prediction for p(16) is A p(8) + A p(4) + A p(2) +
A p(1). Continuing our work from part ii we try p(x) = 1, so our prediction
becomes A + A + A + A . Using x = 1 in (2) yields
1 ; (1 ; 1)(1 ; 2)(1 ; 4)(1 ; 8) = A + A + A + A .
The lefthand side reduces to 1, so that the prediction is p(16) = 1, which
again is correct. When p(x) = x the prediction for p(16) becomes
64A + 16A + 4A + A . This can be found quickly by substituting x = 4
into equation (2):
4 ; (4 ; 1)(4 ; 2)(4 ; 4)(4 ; 8) = 64A + 16A + 4A + A .
The now familiar cancellation occurs on the left hand side, leaving us with a
prediction of 4 for p(16). Since p(x) = x we expect to have p(16) = 16 ,
3
109
and indeed 16 = (4 ) = 4 . The case of p(x) = x works in exactly
the same manner, substituting x = 8 into equation (2), so we encourage
the reader to try it as practice. (Naturally teams were expected to show the
details for this case as well in their solutions!)
Notice that we were able to do all of our checking without ever using
the numerical values of A through A . The other more obvious method is
to plug in the values for the Ai and do the arithmetic. However, the slick
technique can be generalized, while the more routine method cannot.
Part iv: (4 points) Suppose that p(x) is a third degree polynomial with
p(1) = 0, p(2) = 1, and p(4) = 3. What value should p(8) have to guarantee
that p(x) has a root at x = 16?
Solution.
We have now veried that A = 15, A = ;70, A = 120, and
A = ;64 are the correct values needed to interpolate p(16). We are also
told in this problem that p(1) = 0, p(2) = 1, and p(4) = 3. Furthermore,
we want p(16) = 0 so that p(x) has a root at x = 16. Substituting all of
these values into our interpolation formula produces
2
2 2
110
PROBLEMS
Faire parvenir les propositions de problemes et les solutions a Bruce Shawyer,
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland,
St. John's (TerreNeuve), Canada, A1C 5S7. Les propositions de problemes doivent
e^ tre accompagnees d'une solution ainsi que de references et d'autres indications qui
pourraient e^ tre utiles a la redaction. Si vous envoyez une proposition sans solution,
vous devez justier une solution probable en fournissant susamment d'information.
Un numero suivi d'une asterisque (?) indique que le probleme a e te propose sans
solution.
Nous sollicitons en particulier des problemes originaux. Cependant, d'autres
problemes interessants pourraient e^ tre acceptables s'ils ne sont pas trop connus et si
leur provenance est precisee. Normalement, si l'auteur d'un probleme est connu, il
faut demander sa permission avant de proposer un de ses problemes.
Pour faciliter l'etude de vos propositions, veuillez taper ou e crire a la main
(lisiblement) chaque probleme sur une feuille distincte de format 8 12 "11" ou A4, la
signer et la faire parvenir au redacteur en chef. Les propositions devront lui parvenir
au plus tard le 1er octobre 2002. Vous pouvez aussi les faire parvenir par courriel a
cruxeditors@cms.math.ca. (Nous apprecierions de recevoir les problemes et solutions envoyes par courriel au format LATEX). Les chiers graphiques doivent e^ tre de
format epic ou eps (encapsulated postscript). Les solutions recues apres la date
cidessus seront prises en compte s'il reste du temps avant la publication. Veuillez
prendre note que nous n'acceptons pas les propositions par telecopieur.
Chaque probleme sera publie dans les deux langues ocielles du Canada
(anglais et francais). Dans les numeros 1, 3, 5 et 7, l'anglais precedera le francais,
et dans les numeros 2, 4, 6 et 8, le francais precedera l'anglais.
Dans la section des solutions, le probleme sera publie dans la langue de la
principale solution presentee.
111
112
8 sin A2 sin B2 sin C2 cos A ;2 B cos B ;2 C cos C ;2 A .
.................................................................
For any triangle ABC , prove that
8 sin A2 sin B2 sin C2 cos A ;2 B cos B ;2 C cos C ;2 A .
det Im +
n ;
X
xk Ak + xk Ak
k=1
0.
.................................................................
Let Ak 2 Mm (R) with Ai Aj = Om , i, j 2 f1, 2, : : : , ng, with i < j
and xk 2 R , (k = 1, 2, : : : , n). Prove that
det Im +
n ;
X
k=1
xk Ak + xk Ak
2
0.
et
1 (;k ; 2 + j )n
k + j )n = (;1)n X
j!
j!
j
j =0
1
X
=0
(;1)j (k +j !j ) = (;1)n
n
j =0
1
X
j =0
j =0
1 (;k ; 2 + j )n
k + j )n = (;1)n X
j!
j!
j
=0
113
and
1
X
(;1)j (k +j !j ) = (;1)n
n
j =0
1
X
j =0
for n = 1 and n = 2.
Are these equalities true or false for other positive integral values of n?
2720. Propose par Antal E. Fekete, Memorial University, St. John's,
Newfoundland.
Soit k un entier et n un entier non negatif.
1
P
=0
somme.
=0
.................................................................
Let k be an integer and n be a nonnegative integer.
1
P
=0
=0
;2 31 cos , ; 2 13 cos , et ; 2 31 cos ,
2
ou 13 =
19
3
et cos = 15
3
19
32
114
Consider the cubic equation x ; 19x + 30 = 0. It is easily veried
that the roots of this equation are ;5, 2 and 3. If one tries to solve the
above equation using trigonometry, the roots come out as
3
;2 31 cos , ; 2 13 cos , and ; 2 31 cos ,
2
3
2
3
.
and cos = 15 19
3
Show, without the use of a calculator, that
where 31
19
;2 13 cos = ;5, ;2 31 cos = 2, and ;2 31 cos = 3 .
2
2722. Propose par Vaclav Kone cny, Ferris State University, Big
Rapids, MI, USA.
On considere deux triangles pythagoriciens comme indique dans la gure. Les longueurs de AC , CB , AD
et DE sont des nombres impairs et les longueurs des
c^otes superposes, AE et AB , sont des nombres pairs.
C
Existetil une conguration semblable telle que la
longueur de CD soit un entier ?
................................................................. A
E
B
Consider two Pythagorean triangles as indicated in
the gure. The lengths of AC , CB , AD and DE are
D
odd integers and the lengths of the overlapping sides,
AE and AB, are even integers.
Does there exist such a conguration of Pythagorean
triangles such that the length of CD is an integer?
2723. Propose par Walther Janous, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck,
Austria.
Soit n , n , : : : , nk (1 k N ) des entiers non negatifs tels que
n + n + + nk = N . Trouver la valeur minimale de la somme
k ;nj
P
lorsque (a) m = 2 ; (b)? m 3.
m
j =1
.................................................................
For 1 k N , let n , n , : : : , nk be nonnegative integers such
that n + n + + nk = N . Determine the minimum value of the sum
k ;nj
P
when (a) m = 2;
(b)? m 3.
m
j =1
1
115
SOLUTIONS
No problem is ever permanently closed. The editor is always pleased to
consider for publication new solutions or new insights on past problems.
Thus
37
BM = 18 ; 125
9 = 9:
AC ; AB = (MC + AM ) ; (MB + AM ) = MC ; MB .
2
Therefore,
2
2
37
AC = AB + 125
;
9
9
; 37) = 49 + 162 88 = 225 ,
= 49 + (125 + 37)(125
81
81
2
JND
116
which implies that 4JDE is isosceles, whence \CDE = \BJE = \BAE .
Therefore, 4CDE and 4CAB are similar. Set y = EA = ED. Then
and
UK.
9 = AC ==)
y
7
AC ; y = 18 ==)
9
AC
==)
==)
AC y = 63
AC ; AC y = 162
AC = 162 + 63 = 225
AC = 15 .
2
2
AE = 7 and EC = 18 AC:
(1)
EC 18
25
Let = \BAC and = \ABC . By the Law of Sines on 4ABE , we have
AE = BE
(=) AE sin = BE sin(=2):
sin(=2)
sin
Applying the Law of Sines to 4BDE yields:
BE
DE =
sin(=2)
sin(\BDE ) (=) DE sin(\BDE ) = BE sin(=2) .
Since AE = ED we have sin(\BDE ) = sin . If \BDE = , then 4BAE
is similar to 4BDE . Since BD = 9 =
6 7 = BA, we get a contradiction,
whence we have \BDE = 180 ; . Thus BDEA is a cyclic quadrilateral.
Since \BDE = 180 ; , we also have \CDE = , which implies that
4CDE is similar to 4CAB. Therefore, 9=AC = EC=18. From (1), we
have
9 = 18 AC , so that 9 25 = AC .
AC 25 18
Thus, AC = 15.
2
University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and
Also solved by SEFKET
ARSLANAGIC,
Herzegovina; AUSTRIAN IMO TEAM 2001; MICHEL BATAILLE, Rouen, France; FRANCISCO
L OPEZ
BELLOT ROSADO, I.B. Emilio Ferrari, and MAR I A ASCENSI ON
CHAMORRO, I.B.
Leopoldo Cano, Valladolid, Spain; CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK;
SCOTT BROWN, Auburn University, Montgomery, AL; NIKOLAOS DERGIADES, Thessaloniki,
Greece; CHARLES DIMINNIE and KARL HAVLAK, Angelo State University, San Angelo, TX;
C. FESTRAETSHAMOIR, Brussels, Belgium; VINAYAK GANESHAN, student, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario; RICHARD I. HESS, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA, USA; JOE HOWARD,
Portales, NM, USA; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria; GEOFFREY
Y,
Ferris State University, Big Rapids, MI,
A. KANDALL, Hamden, CT, USA; V ACLAV
KONECN
USA; MITKO KUNCHEV, Baba Tonka School of Mathematics, Rousse, Bulgaria; KEEWAI LAU,
Hong Kong, China; GERRY LEVERSHA, St. Paul's School, London, England; DAVID LOEFFLER,
117
student, Cotham School, Bristol, UK; DAVID E. MANES, SUNY at Oneonta, Oneonta, NY, USA;
REVAI MATH CLUB, Gyor,
} Hungary; JOEL SCHLOSBERG, student, New York University, NY,
USA; HEINZJURGEN
SEIFFERT, Berlin, Germany (2 solutions); ECKARD SPECHT, OttovonGuericke University, Magdeburg, Germany; KENNETH M. WILKE, Topeka, KS, USA; LI ZHOU,
Polk Community College, Winter Haven, FL, USA; and the proposer. There was one incorrect
solution.
Most solvers used a variation of solution III above. Kandall observes \It is easy to show
that if a = 2c, then EA = ED regardless of the length of AC ", where a and c, of course, are
the lengths of the sides opposite A and C , respectively.
Kandall, Kone cny, and Seiert all consider the
q more general problem with BC = a,
AB = c and DE = EA, and conclude that AC = 12 a(a + c).
2607. [2001 : 49] Proposed by Vaclav Konecny, Ferris State University, Big Rapids, MI, USA.
(a) Suppose that q > p are odd primes such that q = pn +1, where n is an
integer greater than 1. Let z be a complex number such that zq = 1.
qX
;
p;1
z
b j;p 1 czj .
Prove that p
z + 1 = j (;1)
(b) Suppose that q > 3 is an odd prime such that q = 3n + 2, where n is
an integer greater than 1. Let z be a complex number such that zq = 1.
qX
;
(;1)b j;3 3 czj .
Prove that z ; 1 =
z +1
1
=1
qX
;1
j =1
j =1
(;1)b j;p 1 c zj =
=
pn
X
(;1)b j;p 1 c zj
j =1
p
X
j =1
zj ;
p
X
j =1
X
X
zj p + zj p ; ; zj n; p.
+
+2
j =1
j =1
+(
1)
1) +1
1)
118
(the latter, using zq; = z1 ). Thus, we have (a). Note that it is not necessary
to suppose that p and q are primes  it is sucient to require that p and q
are odd.
(b) This time, n is necessarily odd. We have
1
S =
qX
;1
j =1
n+1
X
(;1)b j;3 3 c zj =
j =1
= ;z ; z + z + z + z ; z + z + z +
; z n; + z n; + z n;
+z n+z n
= ;z ; z + z n + z n
;
+z 1 + z + z 1 ; z + z ; ; z n; .
;
3(
1)
3(
1)+1
3(
1)+2
+1
+1
3(
2)
1
If z = 1, we have S = 0 = zz3 ;
.
+1
If z 6= 1, we have
3 n;1
3
S = ;z ; z + zq; + zq; + zz ;; z ; ;zz3 .
2
3 1
1+
S = zz3 ;
+1
;z
(
z3 + 1) + z3 1 ; 1 = z3 ; 1 .
2
z
z;1
z5
z3 + 1
+ 1)(
This completes the proof of (b). Similarly to (a), it is sucent to require that
q is odd.
Also solved by AUSTRIAN IMO{TEAM 2001; VINAYAK GANESHAN, student, University
of Waterloo, Walerloo, Ontario; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria;
GERRY LEVERSHA, St. Paul's School, London, England; HENRY LIU, student, University of
Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA; DAVID LOEFFLER, student, Cotham School, Bristol, UK; JOEL
SCHLOSBERG, student, New York University, NY, USA; HEINZJURGEN
SEIFFERT, Berlin,
Germany; CHRIS WILDHAGEN, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; and the proposer.
In fact, only Janous and Seiert considered the case: z = 1. The other solvers ignored
it. The editor was generous in not classing their solutions as incomplete.
119
?
n + k (k < n)
(There are n levels in total; there are k levels such that there is no
\intersection" between the levels emanating from A and B .)
Let two balls start at the same time from A and B . Each ball moves
either . or & with probability .
Determine the probability P (n; k) (1 k < n) such that the two balls
reach the bottom level without colliding.
Solution by Li Zhou, Polk Community College, Winter Haven, FL, USA.
Denote by c(n; k), the number of pairs of colliding paths. Then,
c(n; k) = 0 if k n, c(n; n ; 1) = 1, and c(n; 0) = 2n; 2n; = 2 n; .
Also, there are c(n ; 1; k) pairs of colliding paths starting with (.; .),
c(n ; 1; k + 1) with (.; &), c(n ; 1; k ; 1) with (& ; .), and c(n ; 1; k)
with (& ; &). Therefore,
c(n; k) = c(n ; 1; k ; 1) + 2c(n ; 1; k) + c(n ; 1; k + 1) .
1
2
n;X
k ; 2n ; 2
+
2
n;k;1
i .
i
m
m
;
2
m
;
2
m
;
2
Indeed, using the identity
j = j;2 +2 j;1 + j ,
2n ; 2
=1
; 2n ; 2
n 2n ; 2
X
2n ; 2 + 2 nX
=
= 2 n; ,
n;1
i
i
i
i
=0
=0
we see that all three boundary conditions are satised as well. Hence,
nX
k; 2n ; 2
n;
P (n; k) = 1 ; c2(n;n;k) = 2 2 ;n;c(n; k) = 2 n1;
i .
i n;k
2
Also solve by MANUEL BENITO and EMILIO FERNANDEZ,
I.B. Praxedes Mateo Sagasta,
Logro~no, Spain; KEITH EKBLAW, Walla Walla, WA, USA; RICHARD I. HESS, Rancho Palos
120
Verdes, CA, USA; ERIC POSTPISCHIL, Nashua, NH, USA; and JOEL SCHLOSBERG, student,
New York University, NY, USA. There was one incomplete solution.
The submitted solutions varied in length from the above to one of ten pages. Postpischil
noted that, in the CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA
(1999), p. 138, Eric Weisstein shows how to write the sum in terms of the Beta Function (also
known as the Eulerian Integral of the Second Kind) and the incomplete Beta Function.
The last equation holds if and only if the given triangle is isosceles.
(ii) Standard references tell us that when P is the Lemoine point,
2
121
Once again, the last equation holds if and only if the given triangle is
isosceles.
122
contains E and AC contains D, the two sides of 4ABC coincide, and the
triangle is therefore degenerate (with \A = 0 and the vertices B and C
coincident).
(iii) As in problem 2613, when P is the Lemoine point,
2
CE = a b
2
Similarly, we have
a2 + 2b2 ; c2 .
(a2 + b2 )2
AD = a2bc c2 and BD = a c
2
a2 + 2c2 ; b2 .
(a2 + c2 )2
AE = BD , so that
The given conditions imply AD
CE
2
2
Note that the rst three terms in the factor on the right satisfy
b = a (2a + b ) .
4
123
3
4
x +
2
1
(x x ) = n(n2+ 1) ,
1
where the sums here and subsequently are symmetric over the subscripts
1, 2, : : : , n.
(a) Determine the maximum of P x .
r
P
(b)? Prove or disprove that the minimum of x is n(n2+ 1) .
Solution by HeinzJurgen Seiert, Berlin, Germany.
(a) The given equation,
1
n
X
k=1
xk +
(xj xk ) = n(n2+ 1) ,
j<kn
X
(1)
X
2
1
=
=
n
X
k=1
n
X
k=1
xk
!2
xk + 2
j<kn
j<kn
X
j < kn
2xj xk ; (xj xk )
j<kn
1 = n ,
2
j<kn
(xj xk ) ; (xj xk )
X
X
xj xk
xj xk +
n(n2+ 1) +
or
k=1
xk + 2
= n(n2+ 1) +
n
X
124
(b) Clearly, if n = 1, then the minimum of x is 1.
Let n = 2. From the condition x + x + (x x ) = 3, we have
x x pp
3 < 2, so that (x + x ) = 3 + x x (2 p
; x x ) 3, or
x + x 3. Since an equality
is
attained
when
x
=
3 and x = 0, it
p
P
follows that the minimum of x is 3.
Let n = 3. First, suppose that maxfx x p
,x x p
, x x g > 2. If x x > 2,
then x + x + x x + x 2px x > 2 2 > 6. Otherwise, we have
(x +x +x ) = 6+px x (2;x x )+x x (2;x x )+x x (2;x xp) 6,
or x + x + x 6. Since an equality is attained
when x = 6 and
x = x = 0, we conclude that the minimum of P x is p6.
We choose
disprove for n 4. The equation (1) is satised when
r to
p
x =x =
2n(n + 1) + 4 ; 2 and x = x = = xn = 0.
P
2
1
2
2
1
2
r
p
1
2
Also solved by PETER Y. WOO, Biola University, La Mirada, CA, USA. Part (a) only was
solved by the proposer. One solver sent an incomplete solution. Another solver misinterpreted
the condition and solved a dierent problem.
125
(The \angle between the opposite segments" is a slightly ambiguous
phrase which could refer to either of the two supplementary angles. However, this does not aect the problem, since the [absolute values of the]
cosines of two supplementary angles are the same.)
1. A counterexample to the rst result is the tetrahedron with
vertices (0; 0; 0), (0; 2u; 0), (u; u; v), (;u; u; v), where 2u 6= v , so that
a = (0; 2u; 0), b = (u; u; v) and c = (;u; u; v). A simple calculation shows
that
jc ; bj = j(;2u; 0; 0)j = j(0; 2u; 0)j = jaj ,
ja ; cj = j(u; u; ;v)j = j(u; u; v)j = jbj ,
jb ; aj = j(u; ;u; v)j = j(;u; u; v)j = jcj ,
so that the tetrahedron is isosceles. However,
2
but
To prove the second result, suppose that the three angles formed
by opposite sides are equal. Without loss of generality, assume that
a b a c b c. Then
j cos X j = j cos Y j = j cos Z j ,
and thus,
ac;ab = bc;ab = bc;ac.
jajjc ; bj
jbjja ; cj
jcjjb ; aj
However, any equation of the form D(x ; y) = E (z ; y) = F (z ; x)
has the unique solution x = y = z. (The equivalent homogeneous linear
system Dx + (E ; D)y ; Ez = 0, Fx ; Ey + (E ; F )z = 0, has the
solution set x = y = z; these are the only solutions, since any solution to a
given n{equation, (n +1){variable system of homogeneous linear equations
126
and thus,
;a a + b b + c c = 2b c .
Similarly
a a ; b b + c c = 2a c
and a a + b b ; c c = 2a b .
If the tetrahedron is orthocentric, then a (c;b) = b (a;c) = c (b;a) = 0,
and further, we have a b = a c = b c. Combining this with the previous
equations gives us
;a a + b b + c c = a a ; b b + c c = a a + b b ; c c .
Combining these equations pairwise allows us to deduce that a a = b b =
c c, and hence that jaj = jbj = jcj. Combining this with the equations
jaj = jc ; bj, jbj = ja ; cj and jcj = jb ; aj shows us that all six sides are
equal in length, so that the tetrahedron is regular.
Also solved by JOHN G. HEUVER, Grande Prairie Composite High School, Grande
Prairie, Alberta; PETER Y. WOO, Biola University, La Mirada, CA, USA; and the proposer.
R2 + x2 ; a2
4R2 + x2 ; b2
4R2 + x2 ; c2
p
p
4R2 + x2 ; a2 +
4R2 + x2 ; b2 +
4R2 + x2 ; c2 + a + b + c ,
+
p
where a, b, c and R are the sides and circumradius of a given triangle ABC .
Solution by the proposer.
We show that x is the altitude to the face ABC of an orthocentric
tetrahedron of maximum isoperimetric quotient, EV3 , where V and E are
the volume and total edge length of the tetrahedron, respectively.
If PABC is an orthocentric tetrahedron, then P must lie on a line
through H , the orthocentre of ABC , and perpendicular to the plane of
ABC . Then
p
p
PA = 4R cos A + x = 4R + x ; a , etc.,
2
d V
and 3V = x[ABC ]. The given equation corresponds to dx
E3
= 0.
That the maximum is unique follows by dividing both sides of the given equation by x, and then noting that the left hand side is an increasing function
of x, whereas the right hand side is a decreasing one.
No other solutions were received.
127
2620. Proposed by Bill Sands, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, dedicated to Murray S. Klamkin, on his 80th birthday.
Three cards are handed to you. On each card are three nonnegative
real numbers, written one below the other, so that the sum of the numbers
on each card is 1. You are permitted to put the three cards in any order
you like, then write down the rst number from the rst card, the second
number from the second card, and the third number from the third card.
You add these three numbers together.
Prove that you can always arrange the three cards so that your sum lies
in the interval ; . (Corrected)
Solution by Michel Bataille, Rouen, France.
Denote by (a ; a ; a ), (b ; b ; b ), (c ; c ; c ) the triples of numbers
respectively written on each of the cards. By hypothesis, these numbers are
nonnegative and
a + a + a = b + b + b = c + c + c = 1.
Following the process described in the statement of the problem, we can form
six sums, namely
s = a +b +c ,
s = a +c +b ,
s = b +a +c ,
s = b +c +a ,
s = c +a +b ,
s = c +b +a .
For the purpose of contradiction we will suppose that si 2= ; for i = 1,
2, : : : , 6. Since s + s + s = 3, one of the numbers s , s , s must be at
least 1, and one must be at most 1. Say, s 1 and s 1. By supposition,
we even have s < and s > . The latter implies that we cannot have
s > (otherwise s + s > 3); hence s < . Now, s + s < 1, which
means that we actually have s > 2, or
c + b + a > 2.
(1)
Similarly, since s + s + s = 3, two of the numbers s , s , s are less
than (and the third is greater than 2).
If s < and s < , then b < and a < , which implies b +a < 1.
From (1) we have c > 1, contradicting c c + c + c = 1.
If s < and s < , then b < and c < , which implies b + c < 1.
From (1) we have the contradiction a > 1.
If s < and s < , then a < and c < , which implies a + c < 1.
From (1) we have the contradiction b > 1.
In the same way it is readily checked that we are also led to a contradiction when the condition (1) is replaced by s > 2 or s > 2. The conclusion
follows.
1
2
3
2
1
2
1
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
128
[Editor's comment: When this problem was originally printed, the interval that appeared was ; . (This problem is impossible since the interval is too restricted.)
A subsequent issue, [2001 : 213], (incorrectly) corrected
the interval to ; . This new problem can now be proven, but is not as
sharp as it could be, since we can improve the lower bound on the interval. In
the next issue, [2001 : 267], the problem was further corrected to the (correct) interval listed in the problem statement above. Unfortunately, some
solvers missed this last correction, and solved the previously stated (weaker)
problem. As a result, we have split the solvers into two groups: those who
have solved the intended problem, and those who solved the weaker problem.]
1
3
1
3
2
3
3
2
Also solved by CHARLES R. DIMINNIE, Angelo State University, San Angelo, TX, USA;
RICHARD I. HESS, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA, USA; KEEWAI LAU, Hong Kong; JOEL
SCHLOSBERG, student, New York University, NY, USA; LI ZHOU, Polk Community College,
Winter Haven, FL, USA; and the proposer. The weaker version of the problem was correctly solved by CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK; ERIC POSTPISCHIL,
Nashua, NH; and CHRIS WILDHAGEN, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. There was one incorrect
solution.
Both Dimminie and the proposer show that these bounds are the best possible:
; 21 ; 12 ; 0, ; 12 ; 21 ; 0, (0; 0; 1) can give a sum of 12 or 2, and
; 21 ; 12 ; 0, (0; 0; 1), (0; 0; 1) can give a sum of 0 or 32 .
The proposer also asks about generalizing the problem to n cards of n numbers each. He
conjectures that the best intervals for achievable sums appear to be
1 ; 2 ; 1 + 2 for n even,
1 ; 2 ;1+ 2
n
n
n+1
n + 1 for n odd,
but he has no proof. Perhaps our readers can check these bounds and supply proofs!
Crux Mathematicorum
Mathematical Mayhem
129
y2 = z ,
1 + 4y 2
4
z2 = x .
1 + 4z 2
4
130
1.
i=1
ai = 96 ,
n
X
i=1
a2i = 144 ,
n
X
i=1
a3i = 216 .
4. Prove that for every polynomial P (x) of degree 10 with integer coecients there is an (in both directions) innite arithmetic progression which
does not contain P (k) for any integer k.
5. Prove that the product of ve consecutive positive integers is never
a perfect square.
Next we give the problems of the Final Round of the 50th Polish Mathematical Olympiad, April 1415, 1999. Thanks go to Ed Barbeau for collecting
the contests when he was Canadian Team Leader to the IMO at Bucharest.
131
DAY 2, April 15, 1999  (Time: 5 hours)
..
.
..
.
i;jn
AB CD EF = 1 .
\A + \C + \E = 360 , BC
DE FA
FD EC
Prove that AB
BF DE CA = 1.
132
d on one of
2. Two circles intersect at A and B. P is a point on arc AB
the circles. PA and PB intersect the other circle at R and S (see gure). If
P 0 is any point on the same arc as P and if R0 and S 0 are the points in which
d = R0 S 0 .
P 0A and P 0B intersect the second circle, prove that RS
R0
P
P0
S0
S
ax + b)(cx + d)
in the form
r
s
ax + b + cx + d ,
+ +
1
1
1
10
+ + 1993 1 1996 .
133
(i) If ABCD is a parallelogram, then E and F are the midpoints of BC and
CD, respectively.
(ii) If E and F are the midpoints of BC and CD, respectively, then ABCD
is a parallelogram.
Solutions by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France; and by Toshio Seimiya,
Kawasaki, Japan. We give Seimiya's writeup.
A
D
Q
F
P
B
C
E
(i) Since ABCD is a parallelogram ADkBC and AD = BC . Thus, we
have BE : AD = BP : PD = 1 : 2.
Therefore, BE = 21 AD = 12 BC , so that BE = EC . Similarly, we get
DF : DC = DF : AB = DQ : QB = 1 : 2. Thus, DF = 21 DC ; that is
DF = FC .
Therefore, E and F are midpoints of BC and CD, respectively.
A
D
Q
F
P
c
B
C
E
(ii) Since E , F are midpoints of BC , CD, respectively, we get EF kBD
and EF = 12 BD.
Since PQkEF we have
AP : AE = PQ : EF = BD : BD = 2 : 3 = DP : DB .
Therefore, ADkBE ; that is, ADkBC . Similarly we have AB kDC .
Hence, ABCD is a parallelogram.
1
134
3
4
11
14
5
6
13
12
7
8
15
10
135
A
C0
A0
Solutions by Michel Bataille, Rouen, France; and by Toshio Seimiya,
Kawasaki, Japan. We give Seimiya's solution.
Br 0
H
B
C0
C
A0
136
Thus, AB 0 = C 0 A and \AB 0 B = \C 0AC . Since BB 0 ? AC we have
k=1
1997
Y
k=1
xk .
k=1
1997
Y
k=1
xk ,
then x1 is even.
Substituting 2y1 for x1 in (1) and dividing both sides by 2, we get:
(x2 )1997 + 2(x3 )1997 + !+ 21995 (x1997 )1997 + 21996 (y1 )1997
= 1996
1997
Y
k=2
xk y1 .
This means that the sequence (x2 ; : : : ; x1997 ; y1 ) also satises (1).
Iterating, we obtain successively:
(1)
137
Thus, we have obtained the following
result: if (x 1 ; x2 ; : : : ; x1997 )
;
satises (1), then the xk 's are even and x21 ; x22 ; : : : ; x1997
also satises (1).
2
It follows that all the xk 's are 0. Indeed, if xj 6= 0 (say), then we might
write xj = 2r z with r 1 and z odd; iterating the previous process r
times would yield a sequence satisfying (1) and containing the odd term z,
which is impossible, as we have seen. Conversely, the null sequence obviously satises (1) so that we may conclude that the only sequence satisfying
(1) is the null sequence.
2. Let n > 2 be an integer, and suppose that n2 can be represented as
the dierence of the cubes of two consecutive positive integers. Prove that
n is the sum of two squares. Prove that such an n really exists.
Solution by Michel Bataille, Rouen, France.
Let m be a positive integer such that n2 = (m + 1)3 ; m3 . Then we
have (2n)2 ; 3(2m + 1)2 = 1, so that (2n; 2m + 1) is one of the pairs (x; y)
satisfying
x is even and > 4; y is odd; x2 ; 3y2 = 1 .
As is well known, the solutions topx2 ; 3y2 =p 1 in positive integers are
the pairs (xk ; yk ) given by xk + yk 3 = (2 + 3)k or equivalently by the
relations
2n = x2j+1 =
1
2
2j +1
2+ 3
+ 2; 3
2j +1
+1
138
that is,
x1 + x2 + + xj = xj+1 ; xj ; .
1
and
139
a1 b1 + a2 b2 + + anbn
= A1 b1 + (A2 ; A1 )b2 + + (An ; An;1 )bn
= A1 (b1 ; b2 ) + A2 (b2 ; b3 ) + + An;1 (bn;1 ; bn ) + An bn ,
we obtain:
ja b + a b + + anbnj
jA j jb ; b j + jA j jb ; b j + + jAn; j jbn; ; bnj + jAnj jbnj
M (jb ; b j + jb ; b j + + jbn; ; bnj + jbnj)
= M (b ; b + b ; b + + bn; ; bn + bn )
= Mb M , as desired.
1 1
2 2
Next we move to the April 2000 number of the Corner and solutions
from our readers to problems of the Finnish High School Mathematics Contest, Final Round, 1997 given [2000 : 132].
1. Determine all numbers a, for which the equation
a3x + 3;x = 3
ln
;2
ln(3)
x ;1
+
f 0 (x)
f (x)
;
;
;
;1
x0
0
f (x0 )
@@
@R
140
2
2. Two circles, of radii R and r, R > r, are externally tangent. Consider the common tangent of the circles, not passing through their common point. Determine the maximal radius of a circle drawn in the domain
bounded by this tangent line and the circles.
Solutions by Michel Bataille, Rouen, France; and by D.J. Smeenk, Zaltbommel, the Netherlands. We give Bataille's writeup.
We will denote by D the domain bounded by the given circles C , ;
(with respective centres O,
) and their common tangent T .
Solution I. We take for granted that the circle
m with maximal radius m
contained in D is the one that is tangent to C , ; and T (which may seem
obvious).
We shall make use of the following result (R) [see proof below]: If Ci ,
with centre Oi and radius Ri , (i = 1; 2) are two circles tangent externally at
I , and T is their common
p tangent (not through I ) touching C1 at K1 and C2
at K2 , then K1 K2 = 2 R1 R2 .
Applying (R) to the three pairs of circles (C; ;), (
m ; C ), (
m ; ;), we
readily obtain
p
p
2 rR = 2prm + 2 Rm ,
so that m = p rRp 2 .
( r +
R)
K1
O1
K2
M
I
O2
We introduce the point M where the tangent at I to the circles intersects T . Then MI = MK1 = MK2 so that 4K1 IK2 is rightangled at I .
It follows that 4O1MO2 is rightangled at M . Since MI is the altitude
from M in this triangle, we get:
p
141
Solution II. Consider an arbitrary circle
with radius contained in D. We
may suppose that
is tangent to C and ; [otherwise we take instead the
circle with the same radius and centre at the point of intersection in D of
the circles with centres O,
and radii r + , R + ].
Now invert the gure in a circle with centre the common point I of C
and ; and radius k, cutting C at A, B and ; at E , F .
Thus, C , ; invert into the parallel lines AB , EF respectively, T inverts
into a circle passing through I and
into a circle
0 . Note that and
0
are both tangent to AB and EF with
0 exterior to .
2
2
Since d(I; AB ) = 2kr and d(I; EF ) = 2kR , the common radius of
and
0 is given by
2
u = d(AB; EF ) = k r + R .
From a known formula, is related to u by the relation
= k2 d2 ;u u2 ,
1
(1)
where d is the distance from I to the centre of
0 . Clearly, the maximal value
m of is obtained when d is minimal; that is, when
0 is tangent (externally)
to the circle . In this case, some simple calculations give (see gure below)
2
4
and d2 ; u2 = l2 + (2u + l0 )2 ; u2
l2 = k r ; R
4
where l0 2 = u2 ; l2 = krR . Hence,
1
4
d ; u = k4 1r + R1 p1r + p1R
2
2
m =
rRp .
=
p
2
( r +
R)2
p1r + p1R
1
l0
142
3. Twelve knights sit around a round table. Every knight hates the two
knights sitting next to him, but none of the other nine knights. A task group
of ve knights is to be sent to save a princess in trouble. No two knights
who hate each other can be included in the group. In how many ways can
the group be selected?
Solution by Edward T.H. Wang, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo,
Ontario.
We solve the more general problem when there are n knights and a
group of k compatible knights has to be selected for the task. Recall rst
that by a wellknown formula in elementary combinatorics, the number of
ways of selecting k objects from a row of n distinct objects so that no two
of the selected
! objects could be adjacent, is given by the binomial coecient
n;k+1 .
k
Consider one particular knight, say, Sir Lancelot. Then the group to be
selected either includes him or excludes him.
If Lancelot is chosen, then his two neighbours cannot be chosen and
hence, we must choose k ; 1 more knights from the remaining n ; 3 knights
in such a way that no two adjacent knights are selected.
! By the formula
quoted above, this can be done in n ; 3 ;k(;k ;1 1) + 1 ways. If Lancelot
is not chosen, then we must select all k knights from the n ; 1 remaining!
k+1
knights subject to the same constraint. This can be done in n ; 1 ;
k
ways.
Therefore, the total number of possible teams is
f (n; k) =
=
=
=
n ; 3 ; (k ; 1) + 1 + n ; 1 ; k + 1
k;1
k
n ; k ; 1 + n ; k
k;1
k
n ; k ; 1 + n ; k n ; k ; 1
k;1
k;1 k
n n;k;1 .
k k;1
j k
Note that f (n; k) 0 if and only if k n2 .
For the given
! problem, n = 12, k = 5 and thus, the number is
12 6
f (12; 5) = 5 4 = 36.
143
4. Determine the sum of all 4{digit numbers, all the digits of which
are odd.
Solutions by Michel Bataille, Rouen, France; by Pierre Bornsztein, Pontoise, France; by Stewart Metchette, Gardena, CA, USA; and by Edward
T.H. Wang, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario. We give Wang's
solution.
We solve the general problem of determining the sum of all n{digit
integers, all the digits of which are odd, where n 2 N. Let Tn denote the
set of all such integers, and let Sn denote the corresponding sum. Clearly,
jTnj = 5n. List all the integers in Tn in a row in increasing order and then in
a second row in decreasing order as shown below:
1 1 1 ::: 1, 1 1 1 ::: 3, :::::: , 9 9 9 ::: 9
9 9 9 ::: 9, 9 9 9 ::: 7, :::::: , 1 1 1 ::: 1
P1
r
r
r
r
r
P4
P3
P2
144
P2 Pn = 1
and
145
operation dened on [0; 1] such that for any x, y, z from [0; 1] the following
equalities hold:
(i) x
1 = 1
x = x,
(ii) x
(y
z) = (x
y)
z,
(iii) (zx)
(zy) = zk (x
y).
For all such k dene the corresponding algebraic operation.
Solutions by Michel Bataille, Rouen, France; and by Pierre Bornsztein,
Pontoise, France. We give Bataille's writeup.
We rst show that 1 and 2 are the only possible values for the positive
number k.
Firstly, for any a, b (with b 6= 0) such that 0 a b 1, we have
a
b = abk;1
(1)
Indeed, ab 2 [0; 1] and a
b = b ab
(b1) = bk ab
1 = abk;1 . Now,
choose a, b such that 0 < a < b < 1 with a < b2k;1 and a < bk2 ;k+1 .
Then,
(a
b)
(b
b) = (abk;1 )
bk = abk;1 (bk )k;1 = ab(k;1)(k+1) . (2)
[since abk;1 < bk ].
On the other hand (a
b)
(b
b) = a
(b
b
b) with either,
if k 1 , b
b
b = b
(b
b) = b
bk = bbk(k;1) = bk2 ;k+1 (since b bk )
or,
if k 1 , b
b
b = (b
b)
b = bk
b = bk bk;1 = b2k;1 (since bk b) .
;
This gives (a
b)
(b
b) = a(bk2 ;k+1 )k;1 (if k 1), or a b2k;1 k;1
(if k 1).
Comparing with (2) immediately yields k = 1 or k = 2.
Using (1), we note that necessarily a
b = min(a; b) if k = 1 and
a
b = ab if k = 2.
Conversely, it is readily checked that the algebraic operation dened
by a b = min(a; b) [respectively, a
b = ab] is actually dened on [0; 1]
and satises (i), (ii) and (iii) with k = 1 [respectively, with k = 2].
In conclusion, the desired algebraic operation exists if and only if
k = 1 and then a
b = min(a; b) for all (a; b) 2 [0; 1] [0; 1]
or k = 2 and then a
b = ab for all (a; b) 2 [0; 1] [0; 1] .
That completes the Corner for this issue. Send me your nice comments
and generalizations as well as Olympiad contests!
146
BOOK REVIEWS
One of the biggest, and most dicult, jobs facing mathematicians and teachers
of mathematics is to restore the study of geometry to its proper role in the curriculum.
For the uncomfortable fact we have to face is that, in the United States at least, the
teaching of geometry is largely neglected at the precollege level. Not only do our
students arrive at university often unable to carry out a geometric proof or even to
recognize a valid (or invalid) one when they see it, but they are also largely without
the benet of very reliable and useful geometric intuition.
A reason why this sorry state has come about is that our mathematical education is highly compartmentalized, so that it is administratively very convenient to
neglect a subject which seems to stand alone. Indeed, we should recognize that we
have, for a long time, failed to recognize the fundamental unity of mathematics and
thus to understand that we should present geometry primarily as a source of ideas
and questions and not of methods and answers. Thus we should not, at the secondary
and early undergraduate levels, regard geometry and algebra as two distinct subjects,
but rather see geometry as providing the concepts and the questions, and algebra as
providing the methods and the answers. Thus, geometry and algebra are interactive
and complementary.
That is the point of view adopted by Hans Walser, the author of this very stimulating monograph. He is very largely concerned with symmetry as a geometric concept, although his last two chapters deal with certain aspects of its applicability outside geometry. But the methods he employs to study the symmetry concept are certainly not conned to those of synthetic geometry. Thus, in the reviewer's judgment,
the author is correctly assigning to geometry its proper role in the integrated curriculum. The book is full of applications of the symmetry concept within mathematics
and in the real world.
The reviewer must now declare an interest  it was I who, with the assistance of the geometer, Jean Pedersen, translated Walser's text from German into
English. Moreover it was I who recommended that the Mathematical Association of
America should authorize a translation and place it in their excellent Spectrum Series.
In fact, my enthusiastic endorsement of the translation project is published on the
back cover of the book. Thus I cannot claim to have approached the writing of this
review in an objective spirit. Nevertheless, I do claim that Englishspeaking, nonGermanspeaking students must surely benet greatly from the availability of this
very stimulating text with its fascinating and unusual examples of symmetry. The
mathematics will not be dicult for the bright high school student: but the wealth of
applications  to mirrors, centres of gravity, parquet
oors, errorcorrecting, minimal supply channels, palindromes and rhyming schemes  will surely provide a real,
and welcome, challenge.
147
148
Any two polyominoes have a greatest common divisor, since we can
always fall back on the monomino. When the greatest common divisor is the
monomino, we say that these two polyominoes are relatively prime to each
other. The monomino is relatively prime to every other polyomino. A prime
polyomino is one which is divisible only by itself and the monomino, and it
is also relatively prime to every other polyomino. Note that the monomino
is not considered to be a prime polyomino.
If the area of a polyomino is a prime number, then it must be a prime
itself. The converse is not true. The smallest counterexample is the
T {tetromino. It has area 4, but is a prime polyomino.
A polyomino is said to be a common multiple of two other polyominoes if it is a multiple of both. If two polyominoes have common multiples,
they are said to be compatible. A least common multiple of two compatible
polyominoes is a common multiple with minimum area. As shown earlier,
the I {tromino and the V {tromino have at least two least common multiples.
Clearly, neither multiple divides the other. These two trominoes even have
a common multiple whose area is not divisible by 6, the area of their least
common multiple.
149
Suppose we wish to nd a least common multiple of the O{tetromino
with either the T {tetromino or the N {tetromino. Clearly, the area of any
multiple of a tetromino is a multiple of 4. Since the tetrominoes in question
are distinct, the smallest possible area of a common multiple is 8.
Note that two copies of the O{tetromino can abut in essentially two
ways as shown below. Neither gure can be assembled from copies of either
the T {tetromino or the N {tetromino. Hence a common multiple has area at
least 12.
If we paint the squares of the innite grid black and white in the usual
checkerboard fashion as shown below, then three copies of the O{tetromino
always cover an even number of white squares, while three copies of the
T {tetromino always cover an odd number of white squares. Hence they have
no common multiples with area 12.
If we paint the squares of the innite grid black and white in the checkered pattern shown below, then three copies of the O{tetromino always cover
an even number of white squares, while three copies of the N {tetromino always cover an odd number of white squares. Hence they have no common
multiples with area 12 either.
150
multiple of the ith and j th polyominoes can be constructed from the ith polyomino.
Note that the minimum possible area is attained in all but two cases,
between the O{tetromino on the one hand, and the T {tetromino and the
N {tetromino on the other. We have dealt with these cases earlier.
The structure considered in this paper is an example of a Normed Division Domain considered by Solomon W. Golomb in his paper with that title,
published on pages 680 to 686 in Volume 88 of the American Mathematical
Monthly in 1981.
Andris Cibulis
Andy Liu
Bob Wainwright
Riga
Edmonton
New Rochelle
Latvia
Canada
USA
Andrejs.Cibulis@mii.lu.lv aliu@math.ualberta.ca
life1ine@aol.com
Note that the fth character in \line1ine" is the digit 1 and not the letter `l'
151
MATHEMATICAL MAYHEM
Mathematical Mayhem began in 1988 as a Mathematical Journal for and by
High School and University Students. It continues, with the same emphasis,
as an integral part of Crux Mathematicorum with Mathematical Mayhem.
All material intended for inclusion in this section should be sent to
Mathematical Mayhem, Cairine Wilson Secondary School, 977 Orleans Blvd.,
Gloucester, Ontario, Canada. K1C 2Z7 (NEW!). The electronic address is
mayhemeditors@cms.math.ca
The Assistant Mayhem Editor is Chris Cappadocia (University of Waterloo). The other sta member is Jimmy Chui (University of Toronto).
Mayhem Problems
Proposals and solutions may be sent to Mathematical Mayhem, c/o
Faculty of Mathematics, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West,
Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, or emailed to
mayhemeditors@cms.math.ca
Please include in all correspondence your name, school, grade, city, province or state
and country. We are especially looking for solutions from high school students. Please
send your solutions to the problems in this edition by 1 October 2002. Solutions
received after this time will be considered only if there is time before publication of
the solutions.
Starting this issue, problems will be printed in English and French.
x = 2002 + 2002 + 1 1
1
2002+
2002+
1
2002+ x1
nd x.
.................................................................
Trouver x si x est un nombre reel positif et
x = 2002 + 2002 + 1 1
1
2002+
2002+
1
2002+ x1
152
n = n + + n
+
+
n +1
n
a+1
b
b
a
Here bxc denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x.
For example, if n = 24, a = 3, and b = 6, this says:
24 + 24 + 24 = 24 + 24 + 24 + 24 ,
4
5
6
5
6
7
8
which evaluates to the identity 6 + 4 + 4 = 4 + 4 + 3 + 3.
.................................................................
Soit a et b deux diviseurs de l'entier n tels que a < b. Montrer que
$
n = n + + n
+
+
n +1
n
a+1
b
b
a
Ici, bxc designe le plus grand entier plus petit ou e gal a x.
Par exemple, si n = 24, a = 3, et b = 6, ceci signie :
24 + 24 + 24 = 24 + 24 + 24 + 24 ,
4
5
6
5
6
7
8
qui se reduit a l'identite 6 + 4 + 4 = 4 + 4 + 3 + 3.
153
The diagram below represents the net of a polyhedron. The faces of the
solid are divided into smaller polygons. The task is to colour the polygons
(or number them), so that each face of the original solid is a dierent colour.
.................................................................
Le diagramme cidessus represente le developpement d'un polyedre
sur un plan. Les faces du solide sont divisees en polygones plus petits. Le
probleme consiste a colorer les polygones (ou a les numeroter) de telle sorte
que chaque face du solide original soit d'une couleur dierente.
M43. Proposed by the Mayhem sta.
Prove that
29 ; 5 29 7 + 29
58
2
!2002
+ 29 +585 29 7 ;2 29
!2002
is an integer.
.................................................................
Montrer que
29 ; 5 29 7 + 29
58
2
!2002
+ 29 +585 29 7 ;2 29
!2002
est un entier.
M44. Proposed by K.R.S. Sastry, Bangalore, India.
ABCD is a Heron parallelogram (in which the sides, the diagonals and
the area are natural numbers). The diagonals AC and BD have measures 85
and 41 respectively. Determine the measures of the sides AB and BC .
.................................................................
Soit ABCD un parallelogramme de Heron (dont les c^otes, les diagonales et l'aire sont des nombres naturels). Les diagonales AC et BD mesurent
respectivement 85 et 41. Trouver les longueurs des c^otes AB et BC .
154
B
R
13
155
2
soon leads to CQ = a ab
, QA = a b+ b . Now, we use that BQ is an
+b
altitude, so that by Pythagoras' Theorem, BC 2 ; CQ2 = AB 2 ; QA2 ,
which leads to
(a ; 13)(a + 13)(a + b) = b2 (a ; b) .
We need to nd a solution to this equation in positive integers a, b so that
there exists a triangle with sides 13, a, b, and 13, a, b are all distinct. Note
that any prime factor, p, of a + b must be a factor of b2 (a ; b) and hence
such a prime must divide either b or a ; b. This suggests that a and b might
have common factors. On the other hand, if p is a common factor of a and
b, then p3 divides b2 (a ; b) = (a ; 13)(a + 13)(a + b), and unless p = 13
(which is easily seen to be impossible) p cannot divide a ; 13 or a + 13,
so that p3 divides a + b. This suggests that the common factors of a and b
cannot be too large!
Specically, if we try p = 3, we need 27 to divide a + b. Let us try
a + b = 27, a = 3x, b = 27 ; 3x. Substituting this into our equation yields
156
Since t4 = 12, the rst dozen digits form S4 = 121121212112. As
for the 100th \1", if we calculate xk , yk , tk a bit further, we get x7 = 99,
y7 = 70, tk = 169. Thus, after 169 digits, S7 is complete and we have
99 \1". The next digit must be a \1" (it is the start of a new \1 2" or \1 1
2"), so that it is the 100th \1" and the 170th digit.
To help nd the 1000th digit, we can use the recurrence:
which is a \1".
(b) Let An be the number of \1"s among the rst n digits of the
sequence. Given that the ratio An =n approaches a limit, nd that limit.
An
Solution: Given that xlim
!1 n exists, we can nd this limit by looking
only at the integers n = tk , which has the advantage that An = Atk = xk .
xk
Thus, we are looking for klim
!1 tk . Since xk = tk ; yk = tk ; tk;1 , this limit
equals:
157
Taking the limit as k ! 1 yields: L1 = 2 + L .
p
Therefore, L2 + 2L ; 1 = 0, L = ;1 2, but since 13 < L < 12 , we
p
An = 1 ; L = 2 ; p2.
have L = ;1 + 2. Thus, our nal answer is nlim
!1 n
(c) (Tiebreaker) Show that the limit from part (b) actually exists.
Solution: Consider two sequences (k ) and (k ) for k 4 such that:
(1) (k ) is (monotonically) increasing and (k ) is decreasing;
(2) For all n with tk;1 + 1 n tk , we have k Ann k .
Furthermore, it will turn out that
; x , k+1 = f (k ) and k+1 = f (k ) 1 + 1 .
(3) For f (x) = 32 ;
x
tk + 1
Once we succeed in doing all this, we can argue as follows. The bounded
monotonic sequences (k ) and (k ) have limits, say and respectively.
By (3), the continuity of f , and the fact that 1 + tk 1+ 1 ! 1 as k ! 1, we
p
get = f () and = f (), so that =pf (f ()). This gives =p2 2,
but since 1, we must have = 2 ; 2 and = f () = 2 ; 2.
p
But (2) now shows that all values of Ann approach 2 ; 2 as n ! 1,
so that we will be done once we prove that (1), (2) and (3) can be arranged.
To get started, we let 4 , 4 be the minimum, maximum values of Ann
for t3 + 1 n t4 , respectively. Recall that t3 = 5, t4 = 12, and hence,
we get 4 = 95 and 4 = 32 .
We now construct the sequences (k ) and (k ) inductively. Suppose
we have k and k for some k, and we want to dene k+1 and k+1 ; in
particular, we want to nd bounds for An where tk + 1 n tk+1 . Note
that the lowest value of Ann on that interval occurs for some n so that the
nth digit is a 2. Such an n corresponds to the end
of a \piece" 1 2 or 1
1 2; in fact, it corresponds to the end of the mth piece for some m with
tk;1 + 1 m tk . In the sequence through the mth digit we have Am \1"
and m ; Am \2", which convert to Am pieces 12 and m ; Am pieces 112
for a total of 2m ; Am \1" and m \2" in the sequence through the nth digit.
Thus,
Am
An = 2m ; Am = 2 ; m = f Am .
Am
n
3m ; Am
m
3;
m
Since the function f is decreasing and Amm k , we have Ann f (k ).
Thus, as stated in (2) and (3), we can take k+1 = f (k ) as a lower bound
158
for all Ann with tk + 1 n tk+1 . The proof that we can take k+1 =
f (k ) 1 + tk 1+ 1 as an upper bound for those same Ann is similar, using
the fact that the highest value for Ann on the interval occurs just before a
digit 2 and that 1 + n1 1 + tk 1+ 1 on the interval.
7
. Note that
From 4 = 59 , 4 = 23 we get 5 = 47 , 5 = 11
4 < 5 and 4 > 5. We can now show by induction that both sequences
are monotonic. Since f is decreasing, k > k+1 implies f (k ) < f (k+1 );
that is, k+1 < k+2 . Similarly, k < k+1 implies f (k ) > f (k+1 ) and
since 1+ tk 1+ 1 > 1+ tk+11+ 1 , it follows that k+1 > k+2 . This concludes
the verication of properties (1), (2) and (3), and thus, the proof.
159
A Trigonometric Equation
Nicolea Gusita
with a, b 6= 0 .
Solution 1: Let us divide both sides by a in (1) and then denote
a sin x + b cos x = c
(1)
b
(2)
a = tan .
This yields sin x + tan cos x = ac or
sin (x + )
= ac .
(3)
cos
1 , which becomes
Since 1 + tan2 = cos12 , we have cos = p1+tan
2
a
cos = pa2 +b2 , taking into consideration (2).
Therefore, equation (3) becomes:
c
sin (x + ) = c cos
(4)
a = pa2 + b2 ,
with the solution x + = arcsin pa2c+b2 + 2k or x = ; arctan ab
arcsin pa2c+b2 + 2k, where k 2 Z. From (4) there is the restriction
;1 pa2c+b2 1 so that ;pa2 + b2 c pa2 + b2 or simply
a2 + b2 c2 .
(5)
tan x2 = t
or
x
2x
cos 2
sin
= t.
(6)
160
Case 1: Equation (1) does not have solutions of the form x = (2k + 1).
Therefore, a sin (2k + 1) + b cos (2k + 1) 6= c. Since we have
sin (2k + 1) = sin ( + 2k) = sin = 0 and cos (2k + 1) =
cos ( + 2k) = cos = ;1, the last relation will be converted to
b + c 6= 0 .
(7)
But, sin x = 1+2tt2 , and cos x = 11+;tt22 . Therefore, we have a 1+2tt2 + b 11+;tt22 = c
or (b + c)t2 ; 2at ; b + c = 0; that is, a quadratic equation since b + c 6= 0
from (7). This quadratic equation will have real roots if the discriminant
0. This gives us:
= (;a)2 + (b + c)(b ; c) = a2 + b2 ; c2 0
aX + bY = c ,
X2 + Y 2 = 1 .
I will leave this solution for the readers to have fun. Good luck!
Nicolae Gusita
Scarlett Heights Entrepreneurial Academy
15 Trehorne Drive, Etobicoke, Ontario
Canada M9P 1N8
gusnick@hotmail.com
161
SKOLIAD No. 61
Shawn Godin
Solutions may be sent to Shawn Godin, Cairine Wilson S.S., 975 Orleans
Blvd., Orleans, ON, CANADA, K1C 2Z5, or emailed to
mayhemeditors@cms.math.ca
Please include on any correspondence your name, school, grade, city, province
or state and country. We are especially looking for solutions from high school
students. Please send your solutions to the problems in this edition by
1 August 2002. A copy of MATHEMATICAL MAYHEM Vol. 3 will be presented to the preuniversity reader(s) who send in the best set of solutions
before the deadline. The decision of the editor is nal.
Our item this issue is the 2001 W.J. Blundon Mathematics Contest.
My thanks go out to Don Rideout of Memorial University for forwarding the
material to me.
162
10. If 1997
product?
1998
1. The integer 9 is a perfect square that is both two greater than a prime
number, 7, and two less than a prime number, 11. Another such perfect
square is:
(a) 25
(b) 49
(c) 81
(d) 121
(e) 169
Soln. If n = 3k 1, then n2 + 2 = 9k2 6k + 3 = 3(3k2 2k + 1), which is
not prime. Thus we must have n a multiple of 3 in order to have n2 +2
prime. This eliminates all but 81. If we check 81, we see that 79 and
83 are both prime. c
163
2. Three circles, a, b, and c, are tangent to each other at point P , as shown.
a
c P
70
x
y
20
200
400
200
30
Assuming that no car stops or parks and that no cars were there at the
beginning of the day, the value of the variable W is:
(a) 30
(b) 200
(c) 250
(d) 350
(e) 600
Soln. Clearly the number of cars entering the diagram must equal the number
of cars exiting the diagram; that is,
164
(b) 2x 2 + 2 (c) p x
(a) 22 x
2;1
p
p
(d) x 2 ; 1
(e) x 2 + 1
Soln. Let the length of the removed corner piece be a (see diagram below).
Then a side of the resulting octagon is equal to x ; 2a.
aa6
6
?
x;2a
?

?
x
Using the Theorem of Pythagoras on the rightangled triangle in any
corner gives us:
p
p
x ; 2a = x ; xp = x x p ; x = x p
p
p
p ;
p
=x
= x( 2 ; 1) .
= x ;;
Alternate approach: Let b be the side length of the regular octagon.
Since thepremoved corners are 45 45 90 triangles, the legs have
length b= 2. Thus
p
b
x = p +b = p b
p
or b =
p x.
2
2+
2(2
4
2+
2)
(2
2+
2)
2+
2+
165
Rationalizing the denominator we get:
b=
2+
p
p ;; p x =
p ;
;
x=
p2 ; 1 x .
5. The value of 0:01 ;1 + 1 is: (The line over the digit 1 means that it is
repeated indenitely.)
1
(a) 91
(b) 90
(c) 91
(d) 10
(e) 91
91
90
;
Soln. Let x = 0:01. Then we note that 10x = 0:1, which can also be written
as 10x = 0:11. Comparing this form of 10x with x we see that the
decimal fraction expansions agree except for the rst digit following the
decimal point. Thus we may subtract to obtain 9x = 0:1, which means
that x = 1=90. Then
(0:01);1 + 1 =
1
90
;1
+ 1 = 90 + 1 = 91 .
1
Alternate method: We rst note that 0:01 < x < 0:02 or 100
< x < 501 ,
which means that 100 > x1 > 50, and there is only one possible answer
in this range. e
6. The people living on Sesame Street all decide to buy new house numbers from the same store, and they purchase the digits for their house
numbers in the order of their addresses: 1, 2, 3, : : : . If the store has 100
of each digit, then the rst address which cannot be displayed occurs at
house number:
(a) 100
(b) 101
(c) 162
(d) 163
(e) 199
Soln. In order to cover the addresses from 1 to 99, we need 20 of each nonzero digit and 9 zeros. From 100 to 199, we will have the greatest call
on the digit 1 since every such address will have at least one digit 1 in
it. Therefore, let us examine only the digit 1 rst. From 100 to 109
we use 11 ones; from 110 to 119 we use 21 ones; for each subsequent
group of ten (up to the address 199) we use a further 11 ones. Thus we
want 20 + 11 + 21 + k(11) 100, implying that k 4. That is, up to
address 159 we have 20 + 11 + 21 + 4(11) = 96 ones. Addresses 160,
161, and 162 use up a further 4 ones and we have exhausted the 100
ones we started with. Thus the rst address which cannot be displayed
is 163. d
7. Given p dots on the top row and q dots on the bottom row, draw line
segments connecting each top dot to each bottom dot. (In the diagram
below, the dots referred to are the small open circles.) The dots must be
arranged such that no three line segments intersect at a common point
166
(except at the ends). The line segments connecting the dots intersect
at several points. (In the diagram below, the points of intersection of
the line segments are the small lled circles.) For example, when p = 2
and q = 3 there are three intersection points, as shown below.
c
c
s
s
c
s
c
(e) 27
167
equation by 4 to clear the fractions, and subtracting the rst equation
we get: 11a + 7t = 300, or t = (300 ; 11a)=7. Since we are seeking
integer solutions and we want the smallest possible value for a, we may
simply examine successive values of a starting with a = 0 until we nd
an integer solution for t. The rst (that is, the smallest) value of a is
a = 5, which gives t = 35 (and c = 60). c
10. The island of Aresia has 27 states, each of which belongs to one of two
factions, the white faction and the grey faction, who are sworn enemies.
The United Nations wishes to bring peace to Aresia by converting one
state at a time to the opposite faction; that is, converting one state
from white to grey or from grey to white, so that eventually all states
belong to the same faction. In doing this they must guarantee that no
single state is completely surrounded by states of the opposite faction.
Note that a coastal state can never be completely surrounded, and that
it may be necessary to convert a state from one faction to the other at
one stage and then convert it back to its original faction later. A map
of the state of Aresia is shown.
The ve shaded states belong to the grey faction, and all of the unshaded
states belong to the white faction. The minimum number of conversions
necessary to completely pacify Aresia is:
(a) 5
(b) 7
(c) 9
(d) 10
(e) 15
Soln. We can rst make a shaded \chain" to the coast by shading one coastal
region at the top left and one of the two interior unshaded regions linking the two shaded regions. This requires 2 conversions. This shaded
chain of 7 states can now be unshaded one at a time working from the
interior to the coast, requiring another 7 conversions for a total of 9
conversions. To see that there can never be fewer than 9 conversions,
we note rst that we must convert the shaded states to unshaded in
order to minimize the number of conversions, and secondly that it is
168
necessary to convert at least one unshaded coastal state and one unshaded interior state to shaded in order to avoid a shaded state being
ultimately surrounded by unshaded states. This means that we would
have a minimum of 7 shaded states to be converted to unshaded (in
addition to the minimum of 2 unshaded that need to be converted to
shaded). Thus we require at least 9 conversions. Thus, 9 is the minimum number of conversions needed to pacify Aresia. c
1.
Soln.
2.
Soln.
169
a circle equal to 1 km, we must have the radius equal to 1=2 km. The
original point from which the trip starts must be located a further 1 km
away from the south pole. Thus we must start 1 + (1=2) km from the
South Pole.
3. Cafe de la P^eche oers three fruit bowls:
Your doctor tells you to eat exactly 16 apples, 8 bananas and 6 pears
each day. How many of each type of bowl should you buy so there is no
fruit left over? Find all possible answers. (The numbers of bowls must
be nonnegative integers.)
Soln. Since the number of apples is twice the number of bananas in each bowl
as well as in the doctor's dictum, we can ignore the apple constraint,
and simply solve the problem for bananas and pears. Since we have in
each bowl either 0 or 3 pears, we see that the condition on the pears can
be met in exactly one of three ways: two of bowl B and none of bowl
C; one of each of bowls B and C; or none of bowl B and two of bowl
C. In each case we can then add the number of A bowls to ll out the
requirements. Thus, there are three solutions: (A; B; C ) = (4; 2; 0),
(5; 1; 1), and (6; 0; 2).
A
4. In the triangle shown, \BAD = ,
AB = AC and AD = AE .
Find \CDE in terms of .
B
E
D
JEEP
BEEBEEP
JEEP
170
Soln. Since P 2 = P + 10k for some integer k, 0 k 8, we see that P
is one of 0, 1, 5, or 6. Now by considering the last two digits of each
factor and the product we have (10E + P )2 = 100n + 10E + P for
some integer n < 100.
This means that 20PE + P 2 ; 10E ; P = 10E (2P ; 1) + P (P ; 1) is
a multiple of 100. Let us consider P = 6. Then 110E +30 is a multiple
of 100, implying that E = 7. This means that 7762 must end in the
digits 776, but 7762 actually ends in the digits 176. Thus, P 6= 6.
Next try P = 5. Then 90E + 20 is a multiple of 100, implying that
E = 2. This means that 2252 must end in the digits 225, but 2252
actually ends in the digits 625. Thus P 6= 5. Therefore, P = 0 or 1.
In either case we have P (P ; 1) = 0, which means that 10E (2P ; 1)
is a multiple of 100. Since 2P ; 1 = 1, we conclude that E = 0,
implying that P = 1, since it must be dierent from E . Thus, we
have P = 1 and E = 0. Then we have B = J 2 and B = 2J , since
(J 001)2 = (J )2 00(2J )001 = B 00B001. Since J 2 = 2J and J 6= 0,
we conclude that J = 2, whence JEEP = 2001.
171
Soln. To obtain the area of the shaded region we will compute the sum of
the areas of triangle ABC , the area of the semicircle on AB , and the
area of the semicircle on AC , and then we will subtract from this sum
the area of the semicircle on BC . Let a, b, and c be the lengths of the
sides BC , AC , and AB , respectively. Since 4ABC is inscribed in a
semicircle on BC , we see that \BAC = 90 . Thus by the Theorem of
Pythagoras we have a2 = b2 + c2 . If we now denote the area of 4ABC
by [ABC ], then our desired area is:
A = [ABC ] + ; c + ; b ; ; a
= [ABC ] + (b + c ; a ) = [ABC ] .
1
2
1
8
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
2
3. Five schools competed in the nals of the British Columbia High School
Track Meet. They were Cranbrook, Duchess Park, Nanaimo, Okanagan
Mission, and Selkirk. The ve events in the nals were: the high jump,
shot put, 100{metre dash, pole vault and 4{by{100 relay. In each event
the school placing rst received ve points; the one placing second, four
points; the one placing third, three points; and so on. Thus, the one
placing last received one point. At the end of the competition, the
points of each school were totalled, and the totals determined the nal
ranking.
(a) Cranbrook won with a total of 24 points.
(b) Sally Sedgwick of Selkirk won the high jump hands down (and feet
up), while Sven Sorenson, also of Selkirk, came in third in the pole
vault.
(c) Nanaimo had the same number of points in at least four of the ve
events.
Each school had exactly one entry in each event. Assuming there were
no ties and the schools ended up being ranked in the same order as the
alphabetical order of their names, in what position did Doug Dolan of
Duchess Park rank in the high jump?
Soln. Since each school had exactly one entry in each event, we conclude by
(a) that Cranbrook had four rst place nishes and one second place
nish. By (b) it becomes clear that the one second place nish they had
was in the high jump. Thus Doug Dolan of Duchess Park could nish
no higher than third place in the high jump. Of the total of 75 available
points, 24 went to Cranbrook, which leaves 51 points to be shared by
the other four schools.
Since they all received dierent totals, Duchess Park, who came in second must have obtained at least 15 points (since 14+13+12+11 = 50,
which is too small). A similar argument shows that last place Selkirk
must have obtained at most 11 points (since 12 + 13 + 14 + 15 = 54,
172
which is too large). Since Selkirk obtained 5 points for the high jump
and 3 points for the pole vault by (b), and at least 1 point for each of the
other three events, they must have a total of at least 11. This, together
with our previous remark shows that Selkirk had exactly 11 points. This
leaves only 40 points to be shared by Duchess Park, Nanaimo, and
Okanagan Mission, and each of them must have at least 12 points.
The only possibility is that Duchess Park had 15 points, Nanaimo had 13
points and Okanagan Mission had 12 points. Since Nanaimo received
the same number of points in four of the ve events and had a total of
13 points, they must have nished third four times and last once (since
four second place nishes would give them too many points, while four
fourth place nishes would require them to nish rst in the other event
to get 13 points, but all the rst place nishes went to Cranbrook and
Selkirk).
Thus Nanaimo had to nish last in the pole vault, as Selkirk nished
third. At this point we have determined that all 1{point, 3{point, and
5{point nishes (except for last place in the high jump) have gone to
one of Cranbrook, Nanaimo, or Selkirk. Since the only remaining odd
point will generate an odd total, it must go to Duchess Park, which has
a total of 15 points.
Thus Doug Dolan of Duchess Park must have nished last in the high
jump.
4. A box contains tickets of two dierent colours: blue and green. There
are 3 blue tickets. If two tickets are to be drawn together at random
from the box, the probability that there is one ticket of each colour is
exactly 21 . How many green tickets are in the box? Give all possible
solutions.
Soln. Let g be the number of green tickets in the box. Then the total number
of tickets in the box is g +3. The number
of ways of drawing two tickets
g
+
3
(g + 3)(g + 2)
from the box (together) is 2
=
. The number of
2
ways of drawing one ticket of each colour is by drawing one of 3 blue
tickets and one of g green tickets, which is 3 g. Thus the probability
of drawing one of each colour when drawing two tickets together is
3g
6g
g + 3)(g + 2)=2 = (g + 3)(g + 2) .
=
g2 + 5g + 6 =
g2 ; 7g + 6 =
(g ; 6)(g ; 1) =
1
2
6g
g 2 + 5g + 6
12g
0
0,
173
which means that g = 1 or g = 6. Both of these solutions can be
veried.
5. In (a), (b), and (c) below the symbols m, h, t, and u can represent any
integer from 0 to 9 inclusive.
(a) If h ; t + u is divisible by 11, prove that 100h +10t + u is divisible
by 11.
(b) If h + u = m + t, prove that 1000m + 100h + 10t + u is divisible
by 11.
(c) Is it possible for 1000m + 100h + 10t + u to be divisible by 11 if
h + u 6= m + t? Explain.
Soln. (a) Note that
100h +10t + u = 99h +11t +(h ; t + u) = 11(9h + t)+(h ; t + u) .
Clearly, if h ; t + u is divisible by 11, the entire right hand side is also
divisible by 11, which means that 100h + 10t + u is divisible by 11.
(b) In this case we observe
174
PROBLEMS
Problem proposals and solutions should be sent to Bruce Shawyer, Department
of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's,
Newfoundland, Canada. A1C 5S7. Proposals should be accompanied by a solution,
together with references and other insights which are likely to be of help to the editor.
When a proposal is submitted without a solution, the proposer must include sucient
information on why a solution is likely. An asterisk (?) after a number indicates that
a problem was proposed without a solution.
In particular, original problems are solicited. However, other interesting problems may also be acceptable provided that they are not too well known, and references are given as to their provenance. Ordinarily, if the originator of a problem can
be located, it should not be submitted without the originator's permission.
To facilitate their consideration, please send your proposals and solutions
on signed and separate standard 8 12 "11" or A4 sheets of paper. These may be
typewritten or neatly handwritten, and should be mailed to the EditorinChief,
to arrive no later than 1 November 2002. They may also be sent by email to
cruxeditors@cms.math.ca. (It would be appreciated if email proposals and solutions were written in LATEX). Graphics les should be in epic format, or encapsulated
postscript. Solutions received after the above date will also be considered if there
is sucient time before the date of publication. Please note that we do not accept
submissions sent by FAX.
Each problem is given in English and French, the ocial languages of Canada.
In issues 1, 3, 5 and 7, English will precede French, and in issues 2, 4, 6 and
8, French will precede English. In the solutions section, the problem will be
given in the language of the primary featured solution.
0
1
2 + r2 + 4Rr
X
p
s
A 0,
R ; 2r 12 @
2(b2 + c2 ) ; a2 ;
R
1
cyclic
where a, b and c are the sides of a triangle, and R, r and s are the circumradius, the inradius and the semiperimeter of the triangle, respectively.
.................................................................
Montrer que
0
1
2 + r2 + 4Rr
X
p
s
A 0,
R ; 2r 12 @
2(b2 + c2 ) ; a2 ;
R
1
cyclique
175
.................................................................
Soit a, b, c les c^otes d'un triangle et ha , hb , respectivement, les hauteurs
correspondantes. Montrer que le domaine de validite maximal de l'inegalite
a2k
176
(a)
2n
X
k=1
ak = 2qa2n ; 2qa1;;1nd(1 + q) ,
(b) a2n = a1 q
n;2
n
and
n
2
+ d 11;;qq .
.................................................................
On donne la suite nie de nombres reels fak g, 1 k 2n, satisfaisant
a2k ; a2k;1 = d , 1 k n ,
a2k+1 = q , 1 k n ; 1:
a2k
et
Montrer que si q 6= 1,
(a)
2n
X
k=1
ak = 2qa2n ; 2qa1;;1nd(1 + q) ,
(b) a2n = a1 q
n;2
n
et
n
2
1
;
q
+d 1;q .
n
P
ak .
k=1
nX
;1 2k + 2
2k
k=0
.................................................................
On donne la suite nie de nombres reels fak g, 1 k n, satisfaisant
n
P
k=1
ak .
nX
;1 2k + 2
k=0
2k
177
bc p2(cos A + 1):
a+b+c
1
Z (n)
(b) ? Prove or disprove that nlim
!1 n = 4 .
.................................................................
Soit Z (n) le nombre de zeros apparaissant en queue de n!, ou n 2 N.
Z (n)
1
(b) ? Montrer si oui on non, nlim
!1 n = 4 .
USA.
2730.
Let AM(x1 ; x2 ; : : : ; xn ) and GM(x1 ; x2 ; : : : ; xn ) denote the arithmetic mean and the geometric mean of the real numbers x1 , x2 , : : : , xn , respectively.
Given positive real numbers a1 , a2 , : : : , an , b1 , b2 , : : : , bn , prove that
(a) GM(a1 + b1 ; a2 + b2 ; : : : ; an + bn )
GM(a1; a2; : : : ; an) + GM(b1; b2; : : : ; bn).
For each real number t 0, dene f (t) = GM(t + b1 ; t + b2 ; : : : ; t + bn ) ; t.
(b) Prove that f (t) is a monotonic increasing function of t, and that
tlim
!1 f (t) = AM(b1 ; b2 ; : : : ; bn ) .
178
Soit AM(x1 ; x2 ; : : : ; xn ) et GM(x1 ; x2 ; : : : ; xn ) la moyenne arithmetique, respectivement la moyenne geometrique des nombres reels x1 , x2 ,
: : : , xn . Etant donne des nombres reels positifs a1, a2, : : : , an, b1 , b2 , : : : ,
bn , montrer que
(a) GM(a1 + b1 ; a2 + b2 ; : : : ; an + bn )
GM(a1; a2; : : : ; an) + GM(b1; b2; : : : ; bn).
Pour tout nombre reel t 0, soit f (t) = GM(t + b1 ; t + b2 ; : : : ; t + bn ) ; t.
(b) Montrer que f (t) est une fonction monotone croissante de t, et que
tlim
!1 f (t) = AM(b1 ; b2 ; : : : ; bn ) .
.................................................................
Soit ABC un triangle de c^otes a, b, c, de medianes ma , mb , mc , de
hauteurs ha , hb , hc , et d'aire . Montrer que
p
m
m
m
a
b
c
a + b + c 4 3 max h , h , h .
a b c
2
179
180
.................................................................
Soit x, y et z des nombres reels positifs satisfaisant x2 + y2 + z2 = 1.
Montrer que
x + y + z 3p3 .
1 ; x2 1 ; y2 1 ; z2
2
181
SOLUTIONS
p3
x
y
z
3
(a) 1
1 ; yz + 1 ; zx + 1 ; xy 2 ;
p
(b) 1 x + y + z 2 .
1 + yz 1 + zx 1 + xy
S = x + y + z + xyz
; yz + ; zx + ; xy .
1
(1)
Since
;
;
1 ; yz 1 ; 21 y2 + z2 = 12 1 + x2
p
;
= 21 2x2 + y2 + z2 2 4 x2 x2 y2 z2 = 2xpyz ,
xyz
+ 1 ;1 zx + 1 ;1 xy
1 ; yz
1
1
1
xyz
+
+
p
p
p
2
x yz y zx z xy
1 ;p
= 2 yz + pzx + pxy 12 y +2 z + z +2 x + x +2 y
= 21 (x + y + z) .
1
(2)
From (1) and (2), we have, using the CauchySchwarz Inequality, that
S (x + y + z)
3
; 2
1 +1 +1
2
12 ; 2
x +y +z
2
21
182
[Ed : Bataille also gave a proof of the left inequality of part (b), which,
obviously, implies the left inequality of part (a).]
II. Composite of essentially the same solution to (a) by Walther Janous,
Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck,
Austria, and the proposers.
Let f (x; y; z) = 1 ;xyz + 1 ;y zx + 1 ;z xy . The left inequality is trivial since the given assumptions imply that 0 x, y, z 1, and thus,
f (x; y; z) x + y + z x2 + y2 + z2 = 1. Clearly, equality holds if and
only if (x; y; z) = (1; 0; 0), (0; 1; 0) or (0; 0; 1).
;
For the right inequality, rst note that 1 ; yz 1 ; 12 y2 + z2 =
1 ;
2
1
+
x
and, hence, 1 ;x yz 1 +2xx2 . Therefore,
2
x + 2y + 2z .
x2 1 + y2 1 + z2
f (x; y; z)
(3)
1+
x 3p3 ;1 + x2 .
1 + x2
8
(4)
1+x
2 2
16
x =
9x4 + 18x2 ; 16 3x + 9
p
p
= 91 3x2 ; 2 3x + 1 3x2 + 2 3x + 9
p
2
p
= 91 3x ; 1 3x2 + 2 3x + 9 0 .
p
Hence, (4) holds, and we have equality if and only if x = 33 .
9
x + 2y + 2z 3p3 ;3 + x2 + y2 + z2 = 3p3 .
(5)
1 + x2
1 + y2
1 + z2
8
2
p
3 3
From (3) and (5), we conclude that f (x; y; z) 2 , with equality if and
p
only if x = y = z = 33 .
2
III. Solution to the left inequality in (b) by Walther Janous, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria.
Note rst that
183
Hence, with all summations being cyclic, we have
X
=
1 + yz
x2
x + xyz
x2 = 1 .
x + y + z x+y+z .
yz 1 + zx 1 + xy
1 + xy
+z
p2, or
Hence, it suces to prove that x 1++yxy
p
p
x + y + z ; 2xy 2 .
1+
(6)
We now use the method of Lagrange Multiplierspto determine the extreme
values of the function g(x; y; z) = x + y + z ; 2xy in the region
B = f(x; y; z) j x, y, z 0 and x2 + y2 + z2 = 1g .
p
;
We let G(x; y; z) = x + y + z ; 2xy ; x2 + y2 + z2 ; 1 , and set
@G = @G = @G = 0. Then, we have
@x @y @z
1 ; p2y ; 2x = 0 ,
(7)
(8)
1 ; 2x ; 2y = 0 ,
1 ; 2z = 0 ,
(9)
2
2
2
x + y + z = 1.
(10)
p
From (7) and (8), we get 2 ; 2 (x ; y) = 0, and hence, either
p2
= 2 or x = y.
p
p
If = 22 , then z = 22 from (9). Hence, from (10), we get
x2 + y 2 = .
(11)
x+y =
(12)
.
184
If x = y, then (6) becomes
2x + z ; 2 x 2 2 .
(13)
or
4x2 + z2 x2 + 1 ,
2x2 + x2 + y2 + z2 x2 + 1 2 ,
;
or
2x2 + 1 x4 + 2x2 + 1 ,
which is clearly true. This shows that (13) is true, and hence, (6) holds.
Finally, we check the points on the boundary of B . Without loss of
generality, we may assume that x = 0. Then,
x + y + z ; 2xy = y + z 2 (y2 + z2 ) = 2 .
p
185
j k
2
2
f (m + k) = pmm2++kk = m m+ k = m + mk
l
m
2+k
2 + k
m
m
2
g(m + k) = pm2 + k = m + 1 = m ; 1 + mk ++11
j k
k = 0 and k + 1 = 1 and we get f (m2 + k) =
If k < m, then m
m+1
g(m2 + k) = m.
If k = m, then both fractions are 1, which implies f (m2 + k) = m + 1
and g(m2 + k) = m.
k < 2, so that j k k = 1 and
If m < k < 2m, then we have 1 < m
m
f (m2 + k) = m +1 ; this also implies
m
+1
<
k
+1
<
2
m
+1
< 2(m +1),
l
m
k
+
1
k
+1
2
implying 1 <
m + 1 < 2. Thus mj + 1k = 2 and gl(m + km) = m + 1.
k = 2 and k + 1 = 2, yielding
If k = 2m, then we have m
m+1
f (m2 + k) = m + 2 and g(m2 + k) = m + 1.
Thus, f (n) ; g(n) is always either 0 or 1. Also, f (n) = g(n) for all
integers n which are not of the form m2 + m or m2 + 2m for some integer
m, (that is, those n for which neither n + 1 nor 4n + 1 are perfect squares).
2
h(n) = pnn
and
j (n) = pnn :
This case may be analysed in exactly the same way as above ; we nd that
h(n) ; j (n) 2 f0; 1; 2g, with h(n) = j (n) if and only if n is a perfect square.
Also h(n) ; j (n) = 1 if and only if n = m2 + m for some m.
University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and HerAlso solved by SEFKET
ARSLANAGIC,
zegovina ; MICHEL BATAILLE, Rouen, France ; CHARLES R. DIMINNIE, Angelo State University, San Angelo, TX, USA ; RICHARD I. HESS, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA, USA ; OLEG IVRII,
Cummer Valley Middle School, Toronto, Ont ; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria ; PAUL JEFFREYS, student, Berkhamsted Collegiate School, UK ; KEEWAI LAU,
Hong Kong ; CRAIG CHAPMAN, RICHARD CRAMMER, students, and CARL LIBIS, Richard
Stockton Collegiate of HJ, Pomona, NJ ; HENRY LIU, student, University of Memphis, TN ;
WILLIAM MOSER, McGill University, Montreal, Que ; JOEL SCHLOSBERG, student, New York
University, NY, USA ; HEINZJURGEN
SEIFFERT, Berlin, Germany ; TREY SMITH, Angelo State
University, San Angelo, TX ; SOUTHWEST MISSOURI STATE PROBLEM SOLVING GROUP ;
CHRIS WILDHAGEN, Rotterdam, the Netherlands ; KENNETH M. WILKE, Topeka, KS, USA ;
LI ZHOU, Polk Community College, Winter Haven, FL ; and the proposer.
Zhou points out that the above solution also shows that f (n) > f (n + 1) if and only
if n = k2 ; 1, which answers problem 8 from the Olympiad Corner from 2000, p. 197. Seiert
also considered the extended problem dened in Loeer's comment.
186
AM CL
AN
NB = MC LB =
(1
; ; ,
)(1
; ;
; ; .
By Menelaus's Theorem applied to 4NBC with line AL,
NP = NA BL =
;
PC
AB LC
; ; .
AN =
AB
(1
(1
)(1
)(1
)+
(1
(1
It follows that
NP =
NC
(1
(1
; ;
)(1
;
)+
)(1
)+
;
; = ;
(1
+ (1
187
is a constant. Hence, as C travels along circle ABC , P will travel along a
circle whose circumference is divided by line AB into the same ratio as is the
original circle ; specically, the locus of P is obtained from the locus of C by
a dilatation centred at N with ratio of magnitude
QED.
(1 ; )
NP
NC = 1 ; + .
NP
(1 ; )
NC = 1 ; + .
Also solved by MICHEL BATAILLE, Rouen, France ; CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK ; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria ; DAVID
LOEFFLER, student, Trinity College, Cambridge, UK ; THEOKLITOS PARAGIOU, Limassol, Cy
prus, Greece ; HEINZJURGEN
SEIFFERT, Berlin, Germany ; D.J. SMEENK, Zaltbommel, the
Netherlands ; and by the proposers.
Also solved by MICHEL BATAILLE, Rouen, France ; PAUL BRACKEN, CRM, Universite
de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec ; CHARLES R. DIMINNIE, Angelo State University, San Angelo,
TX, USA ; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria ; MURRAY S. KLAMKIN, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta ; CARL LIBIS, Richard Stockton College of NJ,
Pomona, NJ, USA ; HENRY LIU, student, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA ; DAVID LOEFFLER, student, Cotham School, Bristol, UK ; DAVID E. MANES, SUNY at Oneonta,
Oneonta, NY, USA ; HEINZJURGEN
SEIFFERT, Berlin, Germany ; CHRIS WILDHAGEN, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (two solutions) ; PETER Y. WOO, Biola University, La Mirada, CA,
USA ; LI ZHOU, Polk Community College, Winter Haven, FL, USA ; and the proposer.
188
Most solutions submitted were similar to the above one. Janous started with a more
general power series representation and mentioned other results that can be obtained from it.
Manes gave an expanded version of a solution by G. Klambauer in Problems and Propositions
in Analysis, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1979, problem 151, pp. 317{318. Stan Wagon wrote
to point out that there are algorithms for doing problems such as these, and his philosophy,
still a minority in the problemsolving community, is to use computers to do such problems.
189
W (j ) < B(j ). Then W (j ; 1) > B(j ; 1), but this is impossible since C (j )
could have at most 1 white object less than, and 1 more black object, than
C (j ; 1), and
W (j ) < B(j ) ==) W (j ) + 2 B(j ) ,
since W (i) and B (i) have the same parity for all i, 1 i 2n. Thus, we
have W (i) k + 1 for every i, 1 i 2n. This implies that
W (1) + W (2) + + W (2n) 2n(k + 1) > 2kn;
which is a contradiction. Therefore, there is a good 2k{chain.
p
Theorem (b) : Fix natural numbers k and n with k 2n + 5 ; 2. Then there
exist at least two good disjoint 2k{chains.
Proof : If 2n ; 4k + 1 < 0, then
2n < 4k ; 1 =) 2n + 5 < 4k + 4
=) p
2n + 5 < k2 + 4k + 4
=)
2n + 5 < k + 2
=) p2n + 5 ; 2 < k ,
which is a contradiction. Thus we may assume (since k and n are integers)
2n ; 4k + 1 > 0.
By the previous theorem we may x a good 2k{chain and label it C (1).
Observe that there are 2n ; 4k + 1 many 2k{chains which are disjoint from
C (1). They are, in particular,
C (2k + 1), C (2k + 2), : : : , C (2n ; 2k), C (2n ; 2k + 1).
Now suppose that none of these are good. We must derive a contradiction. By the same argument as that used in the previous theorem, it cannot be
the case that some of the chains have more black objects than white objects
while others have more white objects than black objects. We may assume,
without loss of generality, that all of the chains have at least k + 1 many
whites. Thus,
190
We must, nally, sum up all of the white objects that fall outside of
C (2k ; (k ; 1))
2kn
2kn
k + 2k ; 1
< k + 4k ; 1
2
2
< k2 + 4k + 4
< k,
which is a contradiction. Thus, there are at least two good disjoint 2k{chains.
Also solved by HENRY LIU, student, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA ;
LI ZHOU, Polk Community College, Winter Haven, FL, USA ; and the proposer. Part (a) only
was solved by RICHARD I. HESS, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA, USA ; and JOEL SCHLOSBERG,
student, New York University, NY, USA.
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