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"Human resource" and "Manpower" redirect here.

For other uses, see Human resourc e (disambiguation) and Manpower (disambiguation). Human resources is the set of individuals who make up the workforce of an organi zation, business sector or an economy. "Human capital" is sometimes used synonym ously with human resources, although human capital typically refers to a more na rrow view; i.e., the knowledge the individuals embody and can contribute to an o rganization. Likewise, other terms sometimes used include "manpower", "talent", "labor" or simply "people". The professional discipline and business function that oversees an organization' s human resources is called human resource management (HRM, or simply HR). Contents [hide] 1 Overview 1.1 The term in practice 1.2 Concerns about the terminology 2 See also 3 References [edit]Overview [edit]The term in practice In the corporate vision, employees are viewed as assets to the enterprise, whose value is enhanced by development.[1] Hence, companies will engage in a barrage of human resource management practices to capitalize on those assets. In governing human resources, three major trends are typically considered: Demographics: the characteristics of a population/workforce, for example, age, g ender or social class. This type of trend may have an effect in relation to pens ion offerings, insurance packages etc. Diversity: the variation within the population/workplace. Changes in society now mean that a larger proportion of organizations are made up of "baby-boomers" or older employees in comparison to thirty years ago. Advocates of "workplace dive rsity" advocate an employee base that is a mirror reflection of the make-up of s ociety insofar as race, gender, sexual orientation etc. Skills and qualifications: as industries move from manual to more managerial pro fessions so does the need for more highly skilled graduates. If the market is "t ight" (i.e. not enough staff for the jobs), employers must compete for employees by offering financial rewards, community investment, etc. In regard to how individuals respond to the changes in a labor market, the follo wing must be understood: Geographical spread: how far is the job from the individual? The distance to tra vel to work should be in line with the pay offered, and the transportation and i nfrastructure of the area also influence who applies for a post. Occupational structure: the norms and values of the different careers within an organization. Mahoney 1989 developed 3 different types of occupational structure , namely, craft (loyalty to the profession), organization career (promotion thro ugh the firm) and unstructured (lower/unskilled workers who work when needed). Generational difference: different age categories of employees have certain char acteristics, for example, their behavior and their expectations of the organizat ion. [edit]Concerns about the terminology One major concern about considering people as assets or resources is that they w ill be commoditized and abused. Some analysis suggests that human beings are not "commodities" or "resources", but are creative and social beings in a productiv e enterprise. The 2000 revision of ISO 9001, in contrast, requires identifying t he processes, their sequence and interaction, and to define and communicate resp onsibilities and authorities. In general, heavily unionised nations such as Fran ce and Germany have adopted and encouraged such approaches. Also, in 2001, the I nternational Labour Organization decided to revisit and revise its 1975 Recommen dation 150 on Human Resources Development.[2] One view of these trends is that a strong social consensus on political economy and a good social welfare system f acilitates labor mobility and tends to make the entire economy more productive, as labor can develop skills and experience in various ways, and move from one en

terprise to another with little controversy or difficulty in adapting. Another important controversy regards labor mobility and the broader philosophic al issue with usage of the phrase "human resources". Governments of developing n ations often regard developed nations that encourage immigration or "guest worke rs" as appropriating human capital that is more rightfully part of the developin g nation and required to further its economic growth. Over time, the United Nati ons have come to more generally support the developing nations' point of view, a nd have requested significant offsetting "foreign aid" contributions so that a d eveloping nation losing human capital does not lose the capacity to continue to train new people in trades, professions, and the arts.[3] [edit]See also Human resource management Chief human resources officer [edit]References ^ Elwood F. Holton II, James W. Trott, Jr., 1996, Trends Toward a Closer Integra tion of Vocational Education and Human Resources Development, Journal of Vocatio nal and Technical Education, Vol. 12, No. 2, p7 ^ http://www-ilo-mirror.cornell.edu/public/english/employment/skills/recomm/ques t/qr_1b.htm Broken link, needs repair ^ [a broad inter-sectoral approach to developing human resourcefulness see Unite d Nations Expert Meeting on Human Resources Development. `Changing Perspectives on Human Resources Development. ST/TCD/SER.E/25. June 1994 http://ann.sagepub.co m/cgi/content/abstract/520/1/42]