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FLOW CHARACTERISTICS

OF UNDULAR HYDRAULIC JUMPS.


COMPARISON WITH NEAR-CRITICAL FLOWS

by

Hubert CHANSON
M.E., ENSHMG, INSTN, Ph.D. (Cant.), Eur. Ing., MIEAust., MIAHR
Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland
Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia

Report CH45/95
Department of Civil Engineering,
The University of Queensland, Australia
June 1995
ISBN No. 0 86776 612 3

Abstract

In open channels, the transition from supercritical to subcritical flows is called a hydraulic jump. For low
upstream Froude numbers, free-surface undulations develop downstream of the jump. Such a hydraulic jump is
called an undular jump. An earlier report (CHANSON 1993) described over 75 experiments on undular
hydraulic jumps, performed in a rectangular channel in which the upstream flows were fully developed turbulent
shear flows (both in terms of bottom and sidewall boundary layers). Visual and photographic observations
indicated five types of undular jumps. One of the main flow characteristics was the presence of lateral shock
waves for Froude numbers larger than 1.2.
The present document describes a second series of more than 20 new experiments. The experiments were
performed in the same flume previously used. The basic features of all the experiments are : a rectangular
channel cross-section, and the upstream flows were uniform turbulent flows with fully-developed bottom and
sidewall boundary layers. The experimental data include free-surface profiles, velocity distributions, pressure
distributions and local head profiles upstream and downstream of undular jumps. The measurements were taken
along the jump as well as across the flume width.
The results show a major three-dimensional flow redistribution immediately upstream of the first wave crest.
Velocity and pressure distributions were recorded at very close intervals in that region. And they provide some
understanding of the flow redistribution mechanisms. The analysis of all the data (first and second series of
experiments) shows that the energy dissipation occurs by the propagation of a train of stationary waves, lateral
shock waves and a breaking wave (roller) mechanism at the first wave crest. The disappearance of the undular
jump occurs for Froude numbers ranging from 1.5 to 2.9 and it is a function of the aspect ratio dc/W.
Further the flow field properties (pressure, velocity, free-surface height) are functions not only of the upstream
Froude number but also of the inflow conditions, the aspect ratio and the sidewall roughness.
The flow characteristics of undular hydraulic jumps are compared also with near-critical flows : undular surges,
free-surface undulations above broad-crested weirs, undulations downstream of backward-facing steps.

After an introduction, the reader will find a bibliographic review on undular hydraulic jumps. Then the
experimental apparatus is described. The experimental results are presented in two parts : the free-surface
characteristics and the flow field characteristics. Later an analogy with near-critical flows is developed.
At the beginning of the report, a table of contents, a list of symbols and a glossary can be found. At the end of
the report, the appendices include : 1- a list of constants and fluid properties (App. A), 2- a table of unit
conversions (App. B), 3- the experimental data of free-surface flow parameters (App. C, D, E) and 4- the data of
pressure, velocity and total head distributions (App. F). A summary of the experiments is presented in appendix
G. The experimental data of DARCY and BAZIN (1865), published in French, are given in appendix H.

II

Rsum

Pour des coulements surface libre, la transition entre un coulement amont torrentiel et un coulement fluvial
est appel un ressaut hydraulique. Quand le nombre de Reech-Froude est proche de l'unit, des ondes de surface
libre se propagent en aval du ressaut. Un tel ressaut est appel un ressaut hydraulique ondul. Dans un premier
rapport, l'auteur (CHANSON 1993) prsentait prs de 75 rsultats exprimentaux obtenus dans un canal
rectangulaire, avec un coulement amont compltement dvelopp (pour les couches limites des parois latrales
et du fond du canal). Ces rsultats dmontraient l'existence de cinq (5) classes de ressauts onduls. Une
caractrique importante des ressauts onduls est la prsence d'ondes de chocs la surface libre pour des nombres
de Reech-Froude suprieur 1,2.
Dans le prsent document, on prsente les rsultats d'une deuxime campagne exprimentale comportant plus de
20 nouvelles exprimentations. Toutes les exprimentations ont t faites dans le mme canal d'essai. Les
caractristiques de base de toutes les mesures sont les uivantes : un canal rectangulaire de 20 mtres de longueur,
et des coulements amonts torrentiels compltement dvelopps en terme de couches limites latrales et de fond.
Diffrentes mesures ont t faites : positions de la surface libre, distributions du champs des vitesses, des
pressions et de la charge totale (locale), en amont, au long du ressaut et plusieurs positions transversales.
L'analyse des mesures montre que l'coulement subit une importante re-distribution (tridimensionelle) juste en
amont de la premre crte de vague. De nombreuses mesures de vitesses, pressions et charge totales ont t
faites dans cette rgion. Les rsultats indiquent que l'nergie cintique (de l'coulement amont) est dissip par la
propagation (avale) d'un train d'ondes stationnaires et un petit rouleau de dferlement au centre du canal la
premire vague de crte. Le ressaut ondul disparait pour un nombre de Reech-Froude compris entre 1,5 et 2,9,
dpendant du rapport d'allongement dc/W.
De plus, toutes les mesures montrent clairement que les proprits de l'coulement sont des fonctions du nombre
de Reech-Froude mais aussi des conditions amonts, du rapport d'allongement et de la rugosit des parois
latrales.
Les caractriques des ressauts onduls son compars aussi avec des coulements quasi-critiques : ondes de
translation de Favre-Boussinesq, ondulations sur les dversoirs seuil pais, vagues stationnaires en aval de
marche ...

Aprs l'introduction, le lecteur trouvera une tude bibliographique dtaille sur les ressauts hydrauliques
onduls. Le systme exprimental est dcrit ensuite. Les rsultats exprimentaux sont prsents en deux parties :
les caractristiques de la surface libre puis les proprits de l'coulement. Ensuite, on dveloppe un analogie
avec les coulements quasi-critiques.
En dbut de rapport, on trouvera la table des matires, les notations et un glossaire de quelques termes
techniques. A la fin du rapport, les appendices comprennent : les proprits physiques des fluides (App. A), une
table de conversion d'units (App. B), les rsultats exprimentaux sur la surface libre (App. C, D et E) et sur les
champs de distribution de vitesses, pressions et charges totales (App. F). En appendice G, on rsume les
charactristiques de base de chaque exprimentation. Les donnes exprimentales de Messieurs DARCY et
BAZIN, publies en 1865, sont reports en appendice H.

III

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Abstract

II

Rsum

III

Table of contents

IV

List of Symbols

VII

Glossary

XI

1. Introduction

1-1

1.1 Presentation
1.2 Undular hydraulic jumps
1.3 Undular jump flow situations

2. Past and present investigations : myths and reality

2-1

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Bibliographic review (Myths)
2.3 Current 'state of the art' (Reality)

3. Experimental apparatus

3-1

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Experimental channel
3.3 Instrumentation
3.4 Pressure, velocity and total head measurements
3.5 Upstream flow conditions
3.6 Measurements locations

4. Experimental results (1). Flow patterns and free-surface characteristics


4.1 Introduction
4.2 Fundamental flow patterns
4.3 Free-surface characteristics
4.4 Discussion

IV

4-1

5. Experimental results (2). Flow field characteristics

5-1

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Pressure field
5.3 Velocity field
5.4 Discussion - Summary

6. Comparison with near-critical flows

6-1

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Undular surge (travelling bore)
6.3 Undular flow above a broad-crested weir
6.4 Free-surface undulations downstream of a backward-facing step and related cases
6.5 Undular flow in culverts
6.6 Discussion

7. Conclusion

7-1

7.1 Presentation
7.2 Basic results
7.3 Future research

8. Acknowledgments

8-1

References

R-1

Appendices

Appendix A. Constants and fluid properties

A-1

Appendix B. Unit conversions

B-1

Appendix C. Experimental data. Free-surface measurements

C-1

Appendix D. Experimental data. Free-surface undulations characteristics

D-1

Appendix E. Experimental data. Shock wave characteristics

E-1

Appendix F. Experimental data. Flow field measurements

F-1

Appendix G. Experimental data. Summary of flow field measurements

G-1

Appendix H. Experimental investigations of DARCY and BAZIN (1865)

VI

H-1

List of symbols

cross-section area (m2) : for a rectangular channel : A = W*d;

A1,A2

constants (see App. A);

A3,A4

constants (see App. A);

B1, B2, B3
Cs

constants (see App. A);

Cs(P)
Chl
DH

surge celerity (m/s) as seen by an observer standing on the channel bank;


gas saturation concentration in water (kg/m3) at a pressure P;
chlorinity;
hydraulic diameter (m) : DH = 4*A/Pw;

flow depth (m) measured perpendicular to the channel bottom;

dc

critical flow depth (m) : for a rectangular channel : dc =

do

flow depth (m) upstream of a hydraulic obstacle (e.g. weir, submerged body);

d1

flow depth (m) measured immediately upstream of the hydraulic jump;

d*

centreline flow depth (m) at the start of the lateral shock waves;

specific energy (m);

Em
(Em)CL

mean specific energy (m);


mean specific energy (m) on the centreline;

Eo
Fr

mean specific energy (m) upstream of a hydraulic obstacle (e.g. weir, submerged body);
Froude number; for a rectangular channel, it is defined as : Fr = qw/ g * d3 ; for a channel of

qw2/g ;

irregular cross-section, Fr is defined such as Fr = 1 when the specific energy is minimum : i.e.,

Fr1

Fr = V/ g*A/W where A is the cross-section area and W is the free-surface width;


upstream Froude number : Fr1 = qw/ g * d13 ;

FrA

Froude number characterising the apparition of lateral shock waves;

FrB

Froude number characterising the apparition of a small "cockscomb" roller at the top of the first
wave crest;

FrC

Froude number characterising the apparition of individual air bubble entrainment;

FrD

Froude number characterising the apparition of a formed roller in between the lateral shock waves
and a substantial air entrainment;

FrE

Froude number characterising the disappearance of undular jump;

Frm

Froude number corresponding to the maximum wave amplitude;

Fr

RFS

Froude number characterising the onset of free-surface recirculation at the first crest;

Fr

R1C

Froude number characterising the onset of corner recirculation at the first crest;

Fr

R2C

Froude number characterising the onset of corner recirculation at the second crest;

Fr

R3C

Froude number characterising the onset of corner recirculation at the third crest;

Fr*

Froude number defined in term of the flow depth at the inception of the lateral shock waves :
Fr* = qw/ g*d*3 ;

VII

Darcy friction factor;

gravity constant : g = 9.80 m/s2 in Brisbane, Australia;

total head (m);

Hm

mean total head (m);

(1)

total head manometer reading (m);

(2)

pressure head plus elevation reading (m) of the manometer;

wave length number;

Von Karman constant;

ks

equivalent sand roughness height (m);

Lw
L*

wave length (m);


shock wave length (m) : L* = W/tan*;

exponent of the power law velocity distribution;

Now

number of organised wave length;

pressure (Pa);

Pv
Pw

vapour pressure (Pa) (see App. A);


wetted perimeter (m) : for a rectangular channel : Pw = W + 2*d;

Qw

water discharge (m3/s);

Qwmax

maximum water discharge (m3/s) for a given specific energy : i.e., water discharge at critical flow
conditions;

qw
(qw)CL

water discharge per unit width (m2/s);


water discharge per unit width (m2/s) on the centreline;

qwmax

maximum water discharge per unit width (m2/s) for a given specific energy : i.e., water discharge
at critical flow conditions;

Sal

salinity;

temperature (K);

TC

temperature in Celsius;

TK

temperature in Kelvin;

velocity (m/s);

Vc

critical velocity (m/s);

Vfs

velocity (m/s) measured next to the free-surface;

Vmax

1- maximum velocity )m/s) on the centreline;

Vm

2- maximum velocity (m/s) over the flow depth;


mean velocity (m/s);

channel width (m); for a channel of irregular cross-section, W is the free-surface width;

longitudinal distance (m) measured along the channel bottom;

x1

distance (m) between the channel intake and the jump upstream flow location (where d1 is
measured);

distance measured perpendicular to the channel bed surface (m);

1- bed elevation (m) taken positive upward;

VIII

2- altitude (m) taken positive upward;


z

distance (m) across the channel width measured from the sidewall;

channel slope;

wave amplitude (m);

(d)max

maximum wave amplitude (m);

head loss (m);

drop height (m);

boundary layer thickness (m);

w
w
*

dynamic viscosity (Pa.s) of water (see App. A);


water kinematic viscosity (m2/s) (see App. A);

water density (kg/m3) (see App. A);

surface tension between air and water (N/m) (see App. A);

diameter (m);

angle between the lateral shock waves and the sidewalls at the start of the lateral shock waves;

Subscript
iB

i-th wave bottom;

iC

i-th wave crest;

CL

on the flume centreline;

wall

sidewall location;

i-th wave length (located between the i-th and (i+1)-th wave crests);

1- flow conditions upstream of the hydraulic jump;


2- initial flow conditions of a positive surge;

1- flow conditions downstream of the hydraulic jump;


2- new flow conditions after the passage of a positive surge;

start of the lateral shock waves;

Abbreviations
U/S (or US) upstream flow;
SW

location of the start of the lateral shock waves (see fig. 3-5);

SW1

at 1/3-distance between the start of the shock waves (SW) and the first wave crest (1C);

SW2

at 2/3-distance between the start of the shock waves (SW) and the first wave crest (1C);

1C

first wave crest;

1B

first wave bottom;

2C

second wave crest;

2B

second wave bottom;

3C

third wave crest;

CL

centreline (z/W = 0.5);

IX

1/4

half-distance between the centreline and the sidewall (z/W = 0.25);

10, 11.5, 13.5 measurements next to the sidewalls at z = 10, 11.5 and 13.5 mm respectively;

Wall

measurement at the wall (z/W = 0);

F/D

fully-developed shear flow; for a two-dimensional flow it implies = d;

P/D

partially-developed shear flow.

Glossary

Afflux : Rise of water level above normal level on the upstream side of a culvert or obstruction in a channel.
Aspect ratio : ratio of the characteristic flow dimensions in the plane perpendicular to the streamlines.
BAKHMETEFF : Boris Alexandrovitch BAKHMETEFF (1880-1951) was a Russian Hydraulician. In 1912, he
developed the concept of specific energy and energy diagram for open channel flows.
BAZIN : H. BAZIN was a French Hydraulician (1829-1917), engineer and member of the French 'Corps des
Ponts-et-Chausses'. He worked as an assistant of Henri P.G. DARCY at the beginning of his career.
BERNOULLI : Daniel BERNOULLI was a Swiss Mathematician (1700-1782) who developed the Bernoulli
equation in his 'Hydrodynamica' textbook (1st draft in 1733).
BIDONE : Giorgio BIDONE (1781-1839) was an Italian Hydraulician. His experimental investigations on the
hydraulic jump were published in 1820 and 1826.
Bore : A surge of tidal origin is usually termed a bore (e.g. the Mascaret in the Seine river, France).
Boundary layer : thin layer of fluid in the neighbourhood of a solid boundary where friction plays an essential
part (i.e. flow region affected by the presence of the boundary). A range of velocities exists across the
boundary layer from zero at the boundary to the free-stream velocity at the outer edge of the boundary layer.
BOUSSINESQ : J. BOUSSINESQ was a French Hydrodynamicist (1842-1929). His treatise "Essai sur la thorie
des eaux courantes" (1877) remains an outstanding contribution in hydraulics literature.
Boussinesq coefficient : momentum correction coefficient named after J. BOUSSINESQ, French Mathematician,
who first proposed it (BOUSSINESQ 1877).
Broad-crested weir : A weir with a flat long crest is called a broad-crested weir when the crest length over the
upstream head is greater than 1.5 to 3. If the crest is long enough, critical flow conditions occur on the crest.
And the weir can be used as a critical depth meter.
"Cockscomb" roller : smaller roller developing at the intersection of the lateral shock waves on the first wave
crest (CHANSON 1993).
CORIOLIS : Gustave C. CORIOLIS (1792-1843) was a French engineer and mathematician who first described
the Coriolis force (i.e. effect of motion on a rotating body).
Coriolis coefficient : kinetic energy correction coefficient named after G.C. CORIOLIS who introduced first the
correction coefficient (CORIOLIS 1836).
Critical flow conditions : In open channel flows, the flow conditions such as the specific energy (of the mean
flow) is minimum are called the critical flow conditions. With commonly-used Froude number definitions,
the critical flow conditions occur for Fr = 1. If the flow is critical, small changes in specific energy cause
large changes in depth. In practice, critical flow over a long reach of channel is unstable.
Culvert : covered channel of relatively short length installed to drain water through an embankment (e.g.
highway, railroad, dam).
DARCY : Henri P.G. DARCY (1805-1858) was a French civil engineer. He gave his name to the DarcyWeisbach friction factor.
Disappearance of undular jumps : In this study, the disappearance of undular hydraulic jump is defined as the
disappearance of the second and subsequent stationary wave lengths : i.e., when no energy is radiated

XI

forward into a train of stationary waves. Although a weak jump might show an initial undulation
immediately downstream of the roller, no subsequent undulation is observed with a weak jump.
Free-surface aeration : Natural aeration occurring at the free surface of high velocity flows is referred as free
surface aeration or self-aeration.
FROUDE : William FROUDE (1810-1879) was a English naval architect and hydrodynamicist who invented
the dynamometer and used it for the testing of model ships in towing tanks. He was assisted by his son
Robert Edmund FROUDE who, after the death of his father, continued some of his work. In 1868, he utilised
REECH's law of similarity to study the resistance of model ships.
Froude number : The Froude number is proportional to the square root of the ratio of the inertial forces over the
weight of fluid. The Froude number is used generally for scaling free surface flows and open hydraulic
structures Although the dimensionless number was named after William FROUDE, several French
researchers used it beforehand. DUPUIT (1848) and BRESSE (1860) highlighted the significance of the
number to differentiate the open channel flow regimes. BAZIN (1865a) conformed experimentally the
findings. Ferdinand REECH introduced the dimensionless number for testing ships and propellers in 1852.
The number is called the Reech-Froude number in France.
Hydraulic diameter : is defined as the equivalent pipe diameter.
Hydraulic jump : transition from a rapid (supercritical flow) to a slow flow motion (subcritical flow). First
described by LEONARDO DA VINCI, the first experimental investigation was published by Giorgio
BIDONE in 1820. The present theory of the jump has been verified experimentally by BAKHMETEFF and
MATZKE (1936).
Ideal fluid : is frictionless and incompressible. A frictionless fluid is non-viscous.
Inviscid flow : is a non-viscous flow.
Irrotational flow : is defined as a zero vorticity flow. Fluid particles within a region have no rotation. If a fluid is
at rest and is frictionless, any later motion of this fluid will be irrotational. In irrotational flow each element
of the moving fluid undergoes no net rotation, with respect to chosen coordinates axes, from one instant to
another.
KARMAN : Theodore von KRMN (1881-1963) was a Hungarian fluid dynamicist and aerodynamicist who
worked in Germany (1906 to 1929) and later in USA. He was a student of Ludwig PRANDTL in Germany.
He gave his name to the vortex shedding behind a cylinder (Karman vortex street).
Laminar flow : is characterised by fluid particles moving along smooth paths in laminas or layers, with one layer
gliding smoothly over an adjacent layer. Laminar flows are governed by Newton's law of viscosity which
relates the shear stress to the rate of angular deformation : = * dV/dy.
LEONARDO DA VINCI : Italian artist (painter and sculptor) who extended his interest to medicine, science,
engineering and architecture (A.D. 1452-1519).
Lining : coating on a channel bed to provide watertightness, to prevent erosion or to reduce friction.
MANNING : Robert MANNING (1816-1897) was Chief Engineer of the Office of Public Works, Ireland. In
1889, he presented two formula (MANNING 1890) : one became the 'Manning formula' but Robert
MANNING did prefer to use the second formula that he gave in his paper.
MEL culvert : see Minimum Energy Loss culvert.

XII

Minimum energy loss culvert : The design of a minimum energy loss culvert is associated with the concept of
constant total head. The inlet and outlet must be streamlined in such a way that significant form losses are
avoided (APELT 1983).
Mixing length : The mixing length theory is a turbulence theory developed by L. PRANDTL, first published in
1932. PRANDTL assumed that the mixing length is the characteristic distance travelled by a particle of fluid
before its momentum is changed by the new environment.
Positive surge : A positive surge results from a sudden change in flow that increases the depth. It is an abrupt
wave front. The unsteady flow conditions can be solved as a quasi-steady flow situation.
PRANDTL : Ludwig PRANDTL (1875-1953) was a German physicist and aerodynamicist who introduced the
concept of boundary layer in 1904 and developed the turbulent "mixing length" theory.
REECH : Ferdinand REECH (1805-1880) was a French naval instructor who proposed first the Reech-Froude
number in 1852 for the testing of model ships and propellers.
Renaissance : period of great revival of art, literature and learning in Europe in the 14-th, 15-th and 16-th
centuries.
REYNOLDS : Osborne REYNOLDS (1842-1912) was a British physicist and mathematician who expressed first
the 'Reynolds number' in 1883 and later the Reynolds stress (i.e. the turbulent shear stress).
Reynolds number : dimensionless number proportional to the ratio of the inertial force over the viscous force.
Roller : large-scale turbulent eddy.
Shock waves : With supercritical flows, a flow disturbance (e.g. change of direction, contraction) induces the
development of shock waves propagating at the free-surface across the channel (e.g. IPPEN and
HARLEMAN 1956, HAGER 1992a). Shock waves are called also lateral shock waves, oblique hydraulic
jumps, Mach waves, crosswaves.
Slope : 1- side of a hill. 2- inclined face of a canal (e.g. trapezoidal channel). 3- inclination of the channel bottom
from the horizontal.
Specific energy : is proportional to the energy per unit mass, measured with the channel bottom as the elevation
datum. It is expressed in metre of water. The concept of specific energy, first developed by B.A.
BAKHMETEFF in 1912, is commonly used in open channel flows.
Stagnation point : is defined where the velocity is zero. When a streamline intersects itself, the intersection is a
stagnation point. For irrotational flow a streamline intersects itself at right-angle.
Stilling basin : A stilling basin is structure for dissipating the energy of the flow below a spillway, outlet work,
chute or canal structure. In the majority of cases, a hydraulic jump is used as the energy dissipator within the
stilling basin.
Streamline : is the line drawn so that the velocity vector is always tangential to it (i.e. no flow across a
streamline). When the streamlines converge the velocity increases.
Subcritical flow : For mean flow velocities less than the critical flow velocity, the flow is defined as subcritical.
The Froude number is less than unity. In practice, subcritical flows are controlled by the downstream flow
conditions.
Supercritical flow : When the flow depth is less than the critical flow depth, the flow is supercritical and the
Froude number is larger than one. Supercritical flows are controlled from upstream (e.g. gate, bottom outlet).

XIII

Surge : A surge in an open channel is a sudden change of flow depth (i.e. abrupt increase or decrease in depth).
An abrupt increase in flow depth is called a 'positive surge' while a sudden decrease in depth is termed a
'negative surge'. A surge is also called (improperly) a 'moving hydraulic jump' or a 'hydraulic bore'.
Total head : The total head is the total energy per unit mass and per gravity unit. It is expressed in metre of
water.
Turbulent flow : in turbulent flows the fluid particles move in very irregular paths, causing an exchange of
momentum from one portion of the fluid to another.
Undular hydraulic jump : hydraulic jump characterised by the steady stationary free-surface undulations
downstream of the jump and by the absence of a formed roller. The undulations can extend far downstream
of the jump with decaying wave lengths and a undular jump occupies a significant length of the channel.
Undular surge : positive surge characterised by a train of secondary waves (or undulations) following the surge
front. The undular surge waves are sometimes called Favre-waves after the Frenchman H. FAVRE who
wrote an authoritative treaty on undular surges (FAVRE 1935). HAGER (1995) argued correctly that the
name 'Boussinesq waves' (after BOUSSINESQ's (1877) "Thorie des eaux courantes") would more
appropriate.
Upstream flow conditions : Flow conditions measured immediately upstream of the jump. In this study, the
upstream flow is defined at the minimum upstream flow depth location or as the uniform supercritical flow.
Von Karman constant : 'universal' constant of proportionality between the Prandtl mixing length and the distance
from the boundary. Experimental results indicate that = 0.40.
Wake region : separation region downstream of the streamline that separates from a boundary, called a wake.
Wave amplitude : equals half of the elevation difference between crest and through.
Wave length : The wave length of free-surface undulations is measured from crest-to-crest. The first wave length
is located between the first and second crests. The i-th wave length is measured between the i-th wave crest
and the (i+1)-th wave crest.
Weak jump : A weak hydraulic jump is characterised by a marked roller, no free-surface undulation and low
energy loss. It is usually observed after the disappearance of undular hydraulic jump with increasing
upstream Froude numbers.
Weir : low river dam used to rise the upstream water level. Measuring weirs are built across a stream for the
purpose of measuring the flow.

XIV

CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSION

7.1 Presentation
The present study presents new information on the undular hydraulic jump flow. Several new experiments
investigated the flow properties of undular hydraulic jumps with fully-developed inflows1. For each experiment
the upstream flow was uniform or quasi-uniform and the channel cross-section was rectangular. The roughness
of the bottom and sidewalls was identical in one configuration (smooth-wall channel) and different in the second
setup (rough-sidewall channel).
A similarity with other types of near-critical flows is developed in chapter 6.

Flow patterns
For the investigated flow configurations (with smooth-wall channel), five (5) types of undular hydraulic jumps
are observed (fig. 2-4). For upstream Froude numbers slightly above unity, the free-surface flow appears twodimensional. For Froude numbers large than a characteristic value FrA (equal to 1.2 for the present series of
experiments), lateral shockwaves develop from the sidewalls upstream of the first wave crest and they intersect
on the centreline near the first wave crest. With increasing Froude numbers, a breaking wave is observed on the
first wave crest and later some air bubble entrainment. The transition Froude numbers between the various
undular jump types are functions of the aspect ratio dc/W.
Flow visualisation showed further some recirculation mechanisms : (1) at the free-surface immediately
downstream of the shockwave start and (2) at the bottom corners at the wave crest locations.

Design consideration
For design purposes, the main free-surface characteristics are detailed in the chapter 4. It is shown that the wave
amplitude can reach very large values depending upon the upstream Froude number and aspect ratio. The freesurface undulations might overtop and damage the channel banks. This problem is particularly acute in the
chaotic flow region (fig. 4-1). The propagation of larges waves downstream of the jump over very long distances
might also disrupt navigation, pump or turbine operation, induce unnecessary vibrations to downstream
structures (e.g. locks and gates) or disturb discharge measurements at downstream discharge meter structures.
The presence of a undular hydraulic jump modifies considerably the flow field and hence the turbulent mixing in
the channel. Existing softwares and numerical models of turbulent mixing and transport should not be used for
undular jump flows.

1in terms of both the bottom and sidewall boundary layers.

7-1

7.2 Basic results


Velocity and pressure distributions were recorded for a wide range of flow configurations (table 5-1). The
measurements were performed for several upstream Froude numbers, aspect ratio and undular jump types at
various longitudinal and transverse locations (fig. 5-2).
The main results of the investigation can be summarised as following :

1. The vertical pressure distribution is not hydrostatic along the undular hydraulic jump (although the upstream
pressure distribution was hydrostatic for each experiment).
1.1 The magnitude of the pressure gradient is larger than hydrostatic when the free-surface is concave (i.e.
curved upwards) and less than hydrostatic for a convex free-surface (i.e. 2d/x2 < 0). E.g., the pressure gradient
is larger than hydrostatic at each wave trough and larger at each wave crest.
1.2 The lateral shock waves mark a clear discontinuity in the shape of the pressure gradient (up to the first wave
crest). The pressure gradient is larger than hydrostatic immediately upstream of the crosswaves and less than
hydrostatic immediately downstream. This observation is consistent with the curvature of the free-surface
immediately upstream and downstream of the shockwaves (i.e. concave and convex respectively).
1.3 As the free-surface undulations are larger on the centreline than near the walls, the pressure deviations from
hydrostatic pressure distribution are more pronounced on the centreline than next to the walls.
1.4 The re-analysis of bottom pressures at partially-developed undular jumps suggests that the pressure redistributions are different from those with a fully-developed undular jump. Hence the entire process of pressure
redistribution (along the jump) is affected by the upstream flow conditions (section 5.2.2).

2. The three-dimensional velocity field departs substantially from the upstream velocity profiles.
2.1 A small (but not negligible) velocity redistribution is observed between the upstream flow location (U/S) and
the start of the shock waves (location SW).
2.2 A major three-dimensional velocity redistribution occurs between the start of the shock waves (location SW)
and the first wave crest (location 1C).
2.3 Upstream of the first wave crest, large free-surface decelerations are observed next to the free-surface
immediately downstream of the shock waves. The largest flow decelerations next to the free-surface are
observed at the first intersection of the shock waves (i.e., on the centreline at the first wave crest). The shock
waves (or oblique jumps) act as energy dissipators.
2.4 Downstream of the first wave crest, the velocity fields at the second and third crests (locations 2C and 3C)
are very similar. The same observation is noted at the first and second wave bottoms (locations 1B and 2B).

3. For identical upstream Froude number and aspect ratio, a modification (even small) of the sidewall roughness
modifies substantially the shape and properties of the undular hydraulic jumps.

All the experiments show a major flow redistribution immediately upstream of the first wave crest : i.e., between
the start of the shock waves (location SW) and the first wave crest (location 1C). The entire flow redistribution

7-2

was closely examined during the present study. At the first wave crest, the velocity distributions exhibit an
unique shape that is not observed at the subsequent wave crests.
Further, the study shows clearly that the flow characteristics of a undular hydraulic jump are not only functions
of : 1) the upstream Froude number but also 2) the inflow conditions, 3) the aspect ratio dc/W and 4) the
sidewall roughness (ks)wall/W.
An analogy has been developed between several near-critical flow situations. For Froude numbers near unity,
the undular flow properties are similar. These results might provide some order of magnitude of free-surface
undulations to other near-critical flows. The generalisation of the results should not be extended to precise
calculations. The basic flow patterns are strongly affected by the upstream flow conditions (velocity and
pressure fields), the wall friction and the related developing boundary layers, and by possible flow separation
and wake region (e.g. downstream of a backward-facing step).

7.3 Future research


With fully-developed undular hydraulic jumps, the investigation show the strong effect of the sidewall
roughness. For identical upstream Froude number and aspect ratio, a (small) change of wall roughness modify
substantially the pressure and velocity fields along the jump. The effect appears to be the largest (i.e. maximum)
immediately upstream of the first wave crest. Further investigations are necessary to confirm this unique set of
observations. Some experimental quantification of the sidewall roughness effects are required also.
The study of partially-developed undular hydraulic jumps is also a subject of great interest. The present study
suggests that partially-developed undular jumps must be investigated in terms of both the bottom and sidewall
boundary layer developments. The three-dimensionality of undular jump flow is a very important aspect of the
problem. The author feels that additional experiments must be performed before three-dimensional analytical or
numerical studies can be successfully conducted.
RYABENKO (1990) showed that the upstream pressure distributions (if non-hydrostatic) can affect
consequently the flow patterns. But some of his experiments were performed with partially-developed boundary
layers. An experimental investigation with a decoupling between the boundary layer development and the
pressure distribution effect might add new understanding of the flow field redistributions.

7-3

CHAPTER 8
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author wants to thank particularly : Professor C.J. APELT, University of Queensland, who supported
strongly the project and reviewed this report; and Dr J.S. MONTES, University of Tasmania, for his support and
suggestions along all the project. He thanks Professor J. FENTON, Monash University, for his helpful
discussion and comments, and Professor M.P. TULIN, University of California, for his discussion.

The help and assistance of the following students and colleagues must be acknowledged : Ms E. WARREN,
MM. H. MAROULIER, B. TREVILYAN, L. TOOMBES and J. ZAKARAS, MM. G. ILLIDGE and J.
CRACKNELL, and Drs D. BRADY and D. LOCKINGTON; and the staff members of the Electron Microscopy
Centre and the Engineering Library at the University of Queensland.

The author acknowledges the support of the Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland
which provided the experimental facility and the financial support of The University of Queensland through a
1994 Special Project Grant.

Further the author thanks Dr W.H. HAGER (ETH-Zrich), Professor T. NAKAGAWA (Kanazawa Institute
of Technology) and Dr Y. YASUDA (Nihon University) for providing their experimental data.

At last the author indicates that the report was prepared during a Special Study Program at the National
Cheng Kung University (Taiwan R.O.C.). And he acknowledges the support of the Department of Hydraulics
and Ocean Engineering, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan R.O.C.) and the assistance of Professor LEE
Jaw-Fang (NCKU) during his stay in Tainan.

8-1

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APPENDIX A
CONSTANTS AND FLUID PROPERTIES

A.1 Acceleration of gravity


Standard acceleration of gravity
The standard acceleration of gravity is :
g = 9.80665 m/s2

(A-1)

This "standard" gravity corresponds roughly to that at sea level and 45-degree latitude. The gravitational
acceleration varies with latitude and elevation owing to the form and rotation of the earth. ROUSE (1938)
proposed the empirical correlation :
g = 9.806056 - 0.025027 * cos(2 * Latitude) - 3E-6 * Z (in m/s2)

(A-2)

where Z is the altitude positive upwards (in metres) with the sea level as the origin.
Geographic altitude
Z

Standard acceleration of
gravity g
m/s2
(2)
9.810
9.807
9.804
9.801
9.797
9.794
9.791
9.788
9.785
9.776

m
(1)
-1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
10000

Absolute gravity values


Location

(1)
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Algiers, Algeria
Anchorage, USA
Ankara, Turkey
Aswan, Egypt
Bangkok, Thailand
Bogota, Colombia
Brisbane, Australia
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Christchurch, N.Z.
Denver, USA
Guatemala, Guatemala

Reference :

m/s2
(2)
9.7743
9.79896
9.81925
9.79925
9.78854
9.7830
9.7739
9.794
9.7949
9.8050
9.79598
9.77967

Location
(1)
Helsinki, Finland
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
La Paz, Bolivia
Lisbon, Portugal
Manilla, Philippines
Mexico city, Mexico
Nairobi, Kenya
New Delhi, India
Paris, France
Perth, Australia
Port-Moresby, P.N.G.
Pretoria, South Africa

MORELLI (1971)

A-1

m/s2
(2)
9.81090
9.78034
9.7745
9.8007
9.78382
9.77927
9.77526
9.79122
9.80926
9.794
9.782
9.78615

Location
(1)
Qubec, Canada
Quito, Ecuador
Sapporo, Japan
Reykjavik, Iceland
Taipei, Taiwan
Teheran, Iran
Thule, Greenland
Tokyo, Japan
Vancouver, Canada
Ushuaia, Argentina

m/s2
(2)
9.80726
9.7726
9.80476
9.82265
9.7895
9.7939
9.82914
9.79787
9.80921
9.81465

A.2 Properties of water


Temperature

Density

Celsius
(1)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40

w
kg/m3
(2)
999.9
1000.0
999.7
999.1
998.2
997.1
995.7
994.1
992.2

Reference :

Dynamic
viscosity
w
Pa.s
(3)
1.792E-3
1.519E-3
1.308E-3
1.140E-3
1.005E-3
0.894E-3
0.801E-3
0.723E-3
0.656E-3

Surface tension

Vapour pressure

N/m
(4)
0.0762
0.0754
0.0748
0.0741
0.0736
0.0726
0.0718
0.0710
0.0701

Pv
Pa
(5)
0.6E+3
0.9E+3
1.2E+3
1.7E+3
2.5E+3
3.2E+3
4.3E+3
5.7E+3
7.5E+3

STREETER and WYLIE (1981)

A.3 Salinity and chlorinity


The salinity characterises the amount of dissolved salts in the water : e.g, carbonates, bromides, organic
matter. The definition of the salinity is based on the electrical conductivity of water relative to a specified
solution of KCl and H2O (BOWIE et al. 1985). The scale is dimensionless but the salinity is defined often
in parts per thousand (ppt).
The chlorinity Chl is defined in relation to salinity Sal as :
Sal = 1.80655 * Chl

References :

(A-3)

BOWIE et al. (1985)

A.4 Solubility of nitrogen, oxygen and argon in water


Solubility of oxygen
The solubility of oxygen in water at equilibrium with water saturated air Cs(Pstd) at standard pressure (i.e.
1.0 atm) is calculated as:
1.575701E+5
LN(1000 * Cs(Pstd)) = - 139.34411 +
TC
-

6.642308E+7
1.243800E+3 8.621949E+11
+
2
TC
TC3
TC4

- Chl * 3.1929E-2 -

19.428
3.8673E+3

TC +
TC2

A-2

(A-4)

where Cs(Pstd) is the solubility of oxygen at standard pressure in kg/m3, TC is the temperature in Celsius
and Chl is the chlorinity in ppt. The saturation concentration of dissolved oxygen at non-standard pressure
is :

Pv
1 - P * (1 - Teta*P)
Cs(P) = Cs(Pstd) * P * (1 - P ) * (1 - Teta)
v

(A-5)

where P is the absolute pressure in atm (within 0 to 2 atm), Pv is the partial pressure of water vapour in atm
and TK is the temperature in Kelvin. In equation (A-5), the expression of Teta is :
Teta = 0.000975 - 1.426E-5 * TC + 6.436E-8 * TC2

(A-6)

The partial pressure of water vapour may be computed as :


3840.70 216961
LN(Pv) = 11.8571 - TK TK2

(A-7)

where Pv is in atm.
References :

APHA (1985,1989), BOWIE et al. (1985)


Temperature

kg/m3
(2)
14.621E-3
12.770E-3
11.238E-3
10.084E-3
9.0982E-3
8.263E-3
7.559E-3
6.950E-3
6.412E-3

Celsius
(1)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40

Reference :

Cs(Pstd) Oxygen
[Chl = 0]
[Chl = 10 ppt]

[Chl = 20 ppt]

kg/m3
(3)
12.388E-3
11.320E-3
10.058E-3
9.027E-3
8.174E-3
7.457E-3
5.845E-3
6.314E-3
5.842E-3

kg/m3
(4)
11.355E-3
10.031E-3
8.959E-3
8.079E-3
7.346E-3
6.728E-3
6.197E-3
5.734E-3
5.321E-3

BOWIE et al. (1985)

Volumetric solubility of nitrogen, oxygen and argon


WEISS (1970) proposed an expression of the volumetric solubility of nitrogen, oxygen and argon at one
atmosphere total pressure (i.e. standard pressure) :
TK
100
TK
LN(Cs(Pstd)) = A1 + A2 * TK + A3 * LN100 + A4 * 100

2

TK
TK
+ Sal * B1 + B2 * 100 + B3 * 100

(A-8)

where Cs(Pstd) is the solubility in ml/kg, TK is the temperature in Kelvin and Sal is the salinity in ppt. The
constants A1, A2, A3, A4, B1, B2 and B3 are summarised in the next table for nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2)
and argon (Ar).
Gas

A1

A2

A3

A4

A-3

B1

B2

B3

(1)
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Argon

Reference :

(2)
-172.4965
-173.4292
-173.5146

(3)
248.4262
249.6339
245.4510

(4)
143.0738
143.3483
141.8222

WEISS (1970)

A-4

(5)
-21.7120
-21.8492
-21.8020

(6)
-0.049781
-0.033096
-0.034474

(7)
0.025018
0.014259
0.014934

(8)
-0.0034861
-0.0017000
-0.0017729

APPENDIX B
UNIT CONVERSIONS

B.1 Introduction
The systems of units derived from the metric system have gradually given way to a single system, called the
Systme International d'Units (SI) and the present report presents results expressed in SI Units.
Since some countries continue to use British and American units, this appendix gives their equivalents
against the SI units.

References : DEGREMONT (1979), International Organization for Standardization (1979)

B-1

B.2 Units and conversion factors


Quantity

Unit (symbol)

Conversion

(1)

(2)

(3)

Length :

Area :
Volume :

Velocity :
Acceleration :
Mass :

Density :
Force :
Moment of force :
Pressure :

Temperature :

Dynamic viscosity :

25.4 10-3 m
0.3048 m
0.9144 m
1.609.344 m
6.4516 10-4 m2
0.09290306 m2
16.387064 10-6 m3
28.3168 10-3 m3
4.54609 10-3 m3
3.78541 10-3 m3
158.987 10-3 m3

1 inch (in)
1 foot (ft)
1 yard (yd)
1 mile
1 square inch (in2)
1 square foot (ft2)
1 cubic inch (in3)
1 cubic foot (ft3)
1 gallon UK (gal UK)
1 gallon US (gal US)
1 barrel US
1 foot per second (ft/s)
1 mile per hour (mph)
1 foot per second squared (ft/s2)
1 pound (lb or lbm)
1 ton UK
1 ton US
1 pound per cubic foot (lb/ft3)
1 kilogram-force (kgf)
1 pound force (lbf)
1 foot pound force (ft.lbf)
1 Pascal (Pa)
1 standard atmosphere (atm)
1 bar
1 Torr
1 conventional metre of water (m
of H2O)
1 conventional meter of Mercury
(m of Hg)
1 Pound per Square Inch (PSI)
T (Celsius)

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

T (Fahrenheit)

9
= T (Celsius) * 5 + 32

T (Rankine)

9
= 5 * T (Kelvin)
= 0.006720 lbm/ft/s
= 10 Poises
= 0.0929030 m2/s
= 10.7639 ft2/s
= 104 Stokes
= 1 N.m
= 1 W.s
= 3.600 103 J
= 1.60219 10-19 J
= 1.35582 J
= 1 J/s
= 1.35582 W

1 Pa.s
1 Pa.s
Kinematic viscosity : 1 square foot per second (ft2/s)
1 m2/s
1 m2/s
Work energy :
1 Joule (J)
1 Joule (J)
1 Watt hour (W.h)
1 electronvolt (eV)
1 foot pound force (ft.lbf)
Power :
1 Watt (W)
1 foot pound force per second
(ft.lbf/s)
1 horsepower (hp)

0.3048 m/s
0.44704 m/s
0.3048 m/s2
0.45359237 kg
1016.05 kg
907.185 kg
16.0185 kg/m3
9.80665 N (exactly)
4.4482216152605 N
1.35582 N.m
1 N/m2
101325 Pa
105 Pa
133.322 Pa
9.80665 103 Pa

Comments
(4)
Exactly.
Exactly.
Exactly.
Exactly.
Exactly.
Exactly.
Exactly.
Exactly.

Petroleum,...
Exactly.
Exactly.
Exactly.
Exactly.

Exactly.

Exactly.
Exactly.
Exactly.

= 1.33322 105 Pa
= 6.8947572 103 Pa
= T (Kelvin) - 273.16

= 745.700 W

B-2

0 Celsius is 0.01 K
below the
temperature of the
triple point of water.

Exactly.

APPENDIX C
EXPERIMENTAL DATA. FREE-SURFACE MEASUREMENTS

C.1 Introduction
Notation :
d

flow depth measured perpendicular to the channel bottom;

Qw

water discharge;

distance along the channel measured from the intake of the glass channel;

distance across the channel width measured from the sidewall;

channel width : W = 0.25 m (smooth-wall channel); W = 0.248 m (rough-sidewall channel).

Comments :
US

upstream of the undular jump

1C

first crest

1B

first bottom (wave through)

2C

second crest

2B

second bottom (wave through)

C.2 Experiments with smooth-wall channel configuration


C.2.1 Centreline free-surface profiles

Ref.:

CHANSON (1993)

(Starting next page)

C-1

Run
No.
HCUH1a

HCUH1b

HCUH1c

HCUJ1d

HCUJ2a

HCUJ2b

Run
No.

Qw
L/s
15.4

10.4

10.4

10.4

10.5

10.6

Qw
L/s

x
m
7.65
8.02
8.21
8.49
8.65
8.84
10.92
11.00
11.61
11.84
12.06
12.28
12.45
12.62
12.81
12.92
13.09
14.13
15.81
11.00
11.83
12.06
12.27
12.40
12.60
12.76
12.94
14.25
16.84
11.00
11.83
12.01
12.21
12.41
12.54
12.70
12.88
14.47
11.00
11.48
11.87
12.04
12.24
12.42
12.57
12.73
12.89
13.06
13.18
14.45
11.00
11.68
11.87
12.09
12.26
12.43
12.60
12.75
13.78

x
m

d
mm
66.1
95.3
77.7
97.2
81.4

HCUJ2c

Comments

U/S
1st Crest
1st Bottom
2nd Crest
2nd
Bottom
100.0 3rd Crest
9th Crest
52.8 U/S
68.0 1C
63.0 1B
71.2 2C
65.0 2B
73.8 3C
69.1 3B
77.0 4C
70.3 4B
77.2 5C
9C
16C
50.7 U/S
75.0 1C
60.5 1B
77.3 2C
65.4 2B
82.7 3C
70.0 3B
83.9 4C
10C
22C
48.4 U/S
81.0 1C
59.2 1B
81.4 2C
64.8 2B
90.3 3C
71.0 3B
90.3 4C
10C
46.9 U/S
47.1 U/S
88.9 1C
60.9 1B
89.0 2C
66.0 2B
96.2 3C
72.1 3B
95.5 4C
73.1 4B
98.0 5C
10C
45.3 U/S
88.0 1C
62.0 1B
91.6 2C
68.3 2B
99.4 3C
74.0 3B
99.0 4C
8C

d
mm

HCUJ3a

10.2

HCUJ3b

10

HCUJ3c

10

HCUJ4a

29.93

HCUJ4b

29.8

Run
No.

Comments

C-1

10.6

Qw
L/s

11.00
11.49
11.95
12.15
12.34
12.50
12.67
12.85
13.00
13.15
13.69
11.00
11.47
11.67
11.83
12.00
12.15
12.29
12.44
13.16
11.00
11.58
11.77
11.93
12.08
12.25
12.38
12.52
13.01
11.00
12.14
12.31
12.47
12.62
12.78
12.91
13.01
10.00
10.50
11.48
11.68
12.14
12.40
12.72
13.02
13.40
13.50
13.74
15.12
16.14
9.00
9.50
9.70
10.12
10.42
10.87
11.08
11.45
11.62
11.99
13.52
14.75
x
m

44.0
44.0
45.8
92.6
65.2
97.9
71.8
99.4
75.7
102.6
39.8
87.0
61.0
93.0
68.0
93.5
73.3
100.0
38.4
87.0
63.0
93.0
70.0
95.0
76.5
98.5
37.4
85.0
66.3
92.7
74.0
106.3
80.7
100.9
110.0
108.6
138.0
127.0
144.0
133.3
147.1
137.8
157.0
150.0
152.0

105.1
104.9
105.9
144.2
125.2
151.3
132.7
154.6
143.0
155.5

d
mm

U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
6C
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
7C
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
6C
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
8C
10C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
7C
10C
Comments

HCUJ5a

30.1

HCUJ5b

30.1

HCUJ5c

30.1

HCUJ6a

HCUJ7a

Run
No.
HCUJ7b

29.9

Qw
L/s
7

9.50
10.00
10.20
10.55
10.85
11.20
11.40
11.81
12.07
12.30
13.29
14.28
15.19
9.00
9.30
10.04
10.35
10.72
10.92
11.27
11.51
11.78
12.76
13.67
9.00
9.20
9.85
10.12
10.51
10.73
11.03
12.01
12.91
12.00
12.40
13.09
13.22
13.53
13.76
14.04
14.30
14.60
11.00
12.00
12.50
13.00
13.62
13.77
13.93
14.11
14.24
14.36
14.50
15.01
15.46
15.89
16.25
16.64

100.5
100.1
104.4
160.5
129.2
162.5
135.0
151.6
141.1
165.8

x
m
12.00
12.20

d
mm
36.2
36.3

97.1
96.9
164.0
128.5
162.3
138.7
166.2
146.9
171.8

95.0
95.0
162.9
132.5
160.0
142.5
167.0

91.3
90.5
154.8
147.0
164.0
155.0
166.2
163.0
171.5
39.3
39.9
38.8
37.9
62.0
44.4
59.0
49.3
64.8
52.4
64.5

U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
6C
8C
10C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
6C
8C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
5C
7C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
U/S
U/S
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
6C
8C
10C
12C
14C

Comments
U/S
U/S

C-2

HCUJ7c

HCUJ8a

HCUJ8b

HCUJ8c

12.75
13.10
13.22
13.41
13.52
13.68
13.84
13.98
14.48
14.89
15.34
15.70
12.40
12.70
13.24
13.37
13.54
13.69
13.81
13.95
14.10
14.58
15.02
15.42
15.80
12.40
13.20
13.70
13.93
14.07
14.23
14.39
14.53
14.65
14.80
12.40
12.70
13.10
13.60
13.78
13.93
14.06
14.19
14.31
14.45
12.40
12.70
13.20
13.79
13.94
14.10
14.22
14.36
14.48
14.60

37.0
61.1
44.9
62.9
50.7
69.2
53.2
68.7

36.0
35.0
70.0
46.0
70.0
49.2
77.1
51.9
74.1

34.4
33.6
34.1
74.0
44.9
71.9
49.9
80.8
53.9
79.0
33.1
32.0
31.8
74.0
46.7
78.2
50.8
82.4
55.9
85.0
31.9
30.5
30.3
74.7
49.6
80.9
54.0
83.7
59.2
89.7

U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
6C
8C
10C
12C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
6C
8C
10C
12C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
U/S
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
U/S
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C

Run
No.
HCUJ8d

Qw
L/s
7

HCUJ8e

HCUJ9a

20

HCUJ9b

20

HCUJ9c

20

HCUJ9d

20

Run

Qw

x
m
12.40
12.70
13.20
13.91
14.07
14.21
14.33
14.47
14.59
14.70
12.40
14.00
15.60
16.10
16.25
16.41
16.57
16.71
10.00
10.40
11.18
11.42
11.70
11.91
12.14
12.37
12.58
12.81
13.03
10.00
10.50
11.16
11.39
11.64
11.88
12.10
12.27
12.50
10.00
10.30
10.96
11.19
11.41
11.62
11.88
12.06
12.28
10.00
10.30
10.90
11.11
11.36
11.56
11.76
11.97
12.20

d
mm
30.8
29.4
29.2
74.1
52.8
82.5
58.1
83.1
63.3
89.5
39.9
41.0
41.5
52.8
48.0
54.1
50.1
57.8
74.2
73.8
130.1
95.0
127.0
100.3
128.3
107.8
134.7
112.8
135.2
71.2
70.8
127.8
98.1
128.0
107.1
132.9
110.3
137.6
68.8
68.7
126.7
103.4
127.5
112.9
132.0
117.4
137.0
67.1
66.6
124.2
109.6
126.9
119.0
133.8
124.6
138.7

Comments
U/S
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C

No.
HCUJ10a

L/s
20

HCUJ10b

20

HCUJ10c

Comments

C-3

20

m
10.00
10.30
11.06
11.28
11.55
11.75
11.97
12.16
12.40
12.60
12.83
9.00
9.60
9.90
10.48
10.71
11.03
11.22
11.44
11.67
11.95
12.10
12.27
13.08
13.70
14.35
8.70
9.00
9.40
9.70
10.09
10.34
10.69
10.90
11.11
11.32
11.55
11.76
12.01

mm
77.8
77.7
122.7
94.9
121.3
98.8
121.2
106.8
128.9
111.4
128.5
82.7
81.4
82.4
104.7
96.3
110.9
102.3
113.1
106.1
115.8
110.0
118.9

84.1
84.8
84.2
85.2
99.0
96.1
105.0
102.0
108.3
105.2
110.7
108.9
114.3

U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
7C
9C
11C
U/S
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C

Run
No.
HMUP3a

Qw
L/s
10.02

x
m
10.10
10.58
11.08
11.31
11.57
11.76
11.88
12.08
12.22
12.40
12.54
13.38
13.47
13.61
14.35
14.48
14.53
HMUP3b 10.06 10.10
11.12
11.90
12.21
12.47
12.58
12.76
12.93
13.09
13.21
13.33
14.34
14.44
14.59
HMUP3c 10.025 10.10
11.07
11.58
11.74
11.93
12.11
12.34
12.60
12.72
12.83
12.94
13.50
13.64
13.75
14.45
14.55
14.66
HMUP3d 9.99 10.10
11.13
11.57
11.70
11.90
11.00
12.20
12.33
12.51
12.63
12.75
13.29
13.42
13.54

d
mm
52.8
51.0
62.0
58.0
64.0
60.0
65.5
62.5
68.0
65.0
69.8
74.0
70.0
75.3
78.5
75.8
79.0
50.5
48.8
64.5
59.0
68.0
63.0
71.0
65.5
72.5
66.5
74.0
79.0
74.0
80.5
48.0
47.0
71.5
55.0
73.0
59.0
78.5
64.0
80.5
65.0
82.5
85.0
71.3
86.3
91.0
78.0
91.0
46.0
45.0
78.0
54.5
76.5
58.5
85.5
63.5
84.5
64.0
90.0
93.0
71.5
92.0

Run
No.
HMUP3e

x
m
10.10
10.60
11.32
11.48
11.67
11.83
11.98
12.14
12.30
12.44
12.58
13.12
13.23
13.35
HMUP3f 10.065 10.10
10.64
11.28
11.46
11.63
11.78
11.94
12.09
12.23
12.37
12.50
13.00
13.10
13.22
HMUP3g 10.05 10.10
10.60
11.40
11.58
11.74
11.90
10.04
12.18
12.33
12.47
12.58
HMUP3h 9.985 10.10
10.47
11.02
11.19
11.37
11.52
11.66
11.80
11.94
12.06
12.19
HMUP3i 10.065 10.10
10.67
11.01
11.18
11.34
11.48
11.63
11.75
11.89

Comments
U/S
U/S
1st Crest
1st Bottom
2nd Crest
2nd Bottom
3rd Crest
3B
4C
4B
5C
8C
8B
9C
12C
12B
13C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
8C
8B
9C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
7C
7B
8C
11C
11B
12C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
7C
7B
8C

Run
No.

C-4

Qw
L/s
9.985

Qw
L/s

12.12

d
mm
44.2
43.8
87.8
55.0
83.0
58.8
94.0
64.0
90.5
66.0
96.3
99.5
74.0
100.0
42.0
41.4
90.8
56.0
90.3
61.3
94.8
66.0
97.0
69.3
101.0
103.5
77.3
104.5
40.0
39.2
88.5
60.0
94.8
65.0
95.8
70.3
101.5
74.0
103.0
38.0
37.6
87.0
64.0
95.0
70.5
98.0
75.5
101.5
79.0
105.5
36.4
36.0
86.5
67.0
94.0
73.0
98.5
79.5
103.0
84.0
106.0

x
m

d
mm

Comments
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
7C
7B
8C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
7C
7B
8C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
Comments

HMUP3j

12.06
12.21
12.31
12.00
12.64
13.00
13.18
13.30
13.43
13.55
15.28
15.89
16.07
16.20
16.36
16.45

35.2
34.5
88.5
69.0
100.0
77.0
103.5
83.0
108.0
80.5
111.0
33.8
33.4
91.0
72.0
102.5
82.0
108.0
88.0
112.0
32.4
32.0
94.5
73.0
108.0
85.0
111.0
93.0
114.0
31.8
31.4
97.8
72.0
107.3
84.5
111.5
94.0
116.5
30.6
99.0
77.0
114.0
91.0
118.0
30.2
29.8
98.0
75.0
112.0
90.0
117.0
28.0
106.0
79.0
117.0
96.0
121.0

Run
Qw
x
No.
L/s
m
HMUP3q 10.055 16.01

d
mm
27.4

HMUP3k

9.96

10.06

10.10
10.38
10.70
10.85
11.02
11.15
11.29
11.41
11.54
11.64
11.75
10.10
10.77
11.10
11.26
11.42
11.57
11.70

11.93
10.10
10.67
11.20
11.36
11.51
11.64
11.77
11.85
11.99
HMUP3m 9.945 10.00
10.50
10.81
10.97
11.11
11.25
11.38
11.49
11.60
HMUP3n 10.065 10.10
11.76
HMUP3l

10.09

HMUP3o

10.0

HMUP3p

10.08

U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C

16.41
16.60
16.70

HMUP2a

4.98

HMUP2b

4.92

HMUP2c

4.985

16.93
10.10
10.68
11.30
11.41
11.57
11.69
11.83
11.93
12.05
12.17
12.28
12.67
12.74
12.84
13.50
13.59
13.64
10.10
11.12
11.50
11.60
11.74
11.85
11.97
12.07
12.17
12.85
12.38
12.71
12.81
12.89
13.52
13.58
13.66
10.10
11.12
11.96
12.07
12.18
12.29
12.41
12.52
12.60
12.70
12.79
13.25
13.31
13.77
13.91

Comments
U/S

C-5

109.0
80.0
123.0
100.0
126.0
32.7
31.4
39.2
35.7
40.0
37.8
42.4
39.1
42.2
40.6
43.8
45.8
44.0
46.5
48.7
47.4
49.2
31.0
29.8
41.4
35.5
43.0
38.3
45.5
39.5
46.5
42.0
48.4
50.4
45.4
51.5
54.7
48.5
55.0
29.6
28.8
44.9
35.6
48.3
39.5
50.3
40.5
52.5
43.8
52.3
55.3
45.6
56.8
60.3
50.6
60.5

1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
7C
7B
8C
12C
12B
13C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
7C
7B
8C
12C
12B
13C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
7C
7B
8C
12C
12B
13C

Run
No.
HMUP2d

HMUP2e

HMUP2f

HMUP2g

Qw
L/s
4.98

4.935

4.935

4.975

x
m
10.66
11.13
12.33
12.44
12.54
12.66
12.77
12.89
12.97
12.75
13.17
13.52
13.59
13.68
14.17
14.24
14.32
10.10
11.14
12.03
12.12
12.26
12.36
12.49
12.59
12.69
12.78
12.88
13.26
13.35
13.42

10.10
11.24
11.91
12.02
12.16
12.28
12.38
12.50
12.60
12.69
12.78
13.16
13.32
10.60
11.15
12.00
12.13
12.24
12.36
12.45
12.56
12.66
12.75
12.85
13.16
13.24
13.30

d
mm
28.2
28.0
50.4
33.4
54.0
38.5
56.2
39.0
60.0
41.0
59.2
63.0
46.0
64.0
67.0
51.0
68.0
27.0
26.0
57.4
32.0
57.8
38.2
65.2
39.0
67.0
43.0
68.4
69.2
48.0
73.4
75.0
57.0
75.0
24.8
24.4
64.4
326.0
63.8
37.0
70.4
40.4
71.0
42.8
74.0
74.0
51.0
74.8
23.5
23.2
63.2
34.4
68.2
37.6
73.0
42.0
74.6
45.0
77.0
77.0
54.0
77.8

Comments
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
7C
7B
8C
11C
11B
12C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
7C
7B
8C
12C
12B
13C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
7C
7B
8C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
7C
7B
8C

Run
No.
HMUP2h

Qw
L/s
4.99

HMUP2i

4.97

HMUP2j

4.99

HMUP2k

4.985

HMUP2l

4.955

Run
No.
HMUP2m

C-6

Qw
L/s
4.96

x
m
10.40
11.18
12.06
12.17
12.29
12.40
12.49
12.59
12.68
12.77
12.85
13.16

12.97

d
mm
22.6
22.4
60.6
38.0
68.6
42.0
73.0
46.0
74.6
49.6
76.0
77.8
58.0
78.0
21.0
61.0
41.0
68.0
45.0
71.5
49.5
75.0
53.0
76.0
78.0
62.8
78.0
20.1
20.0
63.2
42.0
72.0
47.0
74.0
52.8
77.3
57.0
79.0
19.0
66.2
42.0
74.0
49.0
75.5
55.0
79.5
61.0
80.5
18.9
18.7
69.0
43.9
76.5
52.0
79.0
58.5
80.5
63.0
83.4

x
m
10.15

d
mm
17.7

13.29
11.20
12.48
12.61
12.71
12.82
12.91
13.01
13.09
13.18
13.25
13.55
13.66
11.00
11.10
12.27
12.39
12.49
12.60
12.70
12.79
12.87
12.95
13.02
11.16
12.18
12.31
12.40
12.51
12.60
12.70
12.76
12.84
12.92
10.20
10.55
12.23
12.35
12.44
12.56
12.65
12.74
12.81

Comments
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
7C
7B
8C
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
7C
7B
8C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C

Comments
U/S

HMUP2n

4.965

10.60
12.09
12.22
12.30
12.40
12.48
12.58
12.66
15.20
16.09
16.29

HMUP1a

1.995

16.48
10.00
10.69
11.33
11.45
11.59
11.71

HMUP1b

1.99

11.81
10.00
10.68
11.16
11.22
11.28
11.40
11.52

HMUP1c

1.995

11.64
10.00
10.70
11.44
11.57
11.69
11.80

HMUP1f

1.985

11.90
10.16
10.66
10.75
10.81
10.97
11.11

Run
HMUP1d

Qw
L/s
1.996

x
m
10.1
10.61

17.6
73.0
45.5
78.5
55.0
82.0
62.0
83.0
16.8
76.0
46.0
78.0
60.0
83.5
17.2
16.4
22.4
19.4
23.2
21.2
23.5
22.2
24.2
22.8
24.6
16.4
15.4
26.6
18.8
28.4
20.3
28.2
22.8
28.8
23.5
29.5
14.2
13.8
33.0
17.4
34.8
20.0
36.8
22.6
36.5
23.6
36.7
10.4
38.6
26.0
38.6
28.0
43.0
32.0
43.0

d
mm
13.2
13

11.5

U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C

HMUP1e

Comments
U/S
U/S

C-7

1.996

11.645
10.13

33.8
18.4
35
11.4
38

1C
1B
2C
U/S
1C

Free-surface profiles with centreline pressure and


velocity distribution measurements

Run
HMTJ1b

HMTJ2b

Qw
L/s
4.96

4.96

HMTJ3b

9.92

HMTJ4b

10.0

Run

Qw

x
m
10.1
11.12
12.11
12.23
12.33
12.455
12.57
12.67
12.76
12.845
12.945
13.295
13.375
13.445
10.10
11.05
11.97
12.085
12.21
12.33
12.42
12.53
12.62
12.72
12.8
13.16
13.31
10.1
11.155
11.81
11.965
12.17
12.36
12.49
12.65
12.80
12.95
13.075
13.465
13.59
13.69
10.1
11.11
11.785
11.955
12.115
12.265
12.42
12.565
12.695
12.815
12.93

d
mm
30.4
29.2
44
36
46
39.5
49
40.3
51.1
42
51.5
53.2
45.4
53.6
24.2
24
63.4
32.5
64
36.6
71
47.0
71
43
72
76.5
51
76.5
48.2
46.8
69.2
55.6
70.4
59.6
76
63
77.4
64.4
80
83
71
84
39
38.4
87
62
94.6
68
97
72.8
103
75
104

HMTJ5b

L/s
5.0

HMTJ6b

4.96

HMTJ7b

9.975

Comments
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
7C
7B
8C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
7C
7B
8C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
7C
7B
8C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C

Comments

C-8

m
10.1
11.13
11.77
11.89
12
12.11
12.21
12.305
12.38
12.48
12.55
10.1
11.095
11.945
12.085
12.16
12.28
12.365
12.45
12.53
12.68
10.1
11.205
11.85
12.02
12.205
12.375
12.495
12.65
12.78
12.92
13.04
13.57
13.68
13.79

mm
21.2
21
60.4
42.8
69.3
48
73.3
52.6
76
56.5
78
19.3
19.1
64.5
44
72
52.5
75.5
59.5
77
65
79.5
42.7
42
88
55.2
85.6
59
91.6
64.8
92
67.4
97.4
99.2
74
100

U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C
7C
7B
8C

C.2.2 Three-dimensional free-surface profiles


x

distance along the channel measured from the intake of the glass channel;

distance across the channel width measured from the sidewall;


Run

Qw
L/s

x
m

z (mm)
z/W
TT1_1

15
10.64
10.785
10.855
10.925
11
11.2
11.385
11.585
11.77
11.935
12.08

TT1_2

15
10.5
10.665
10.745
10.825
10.91
11.1
11.3
11.47
11.64
11.78
11.93

TT1_3

15
10.38
10.56
10.635
10.71
10.785
11.005
11.19
11.395
11.57
11.8
11.95

TT1_4

15
10.24
10.42
10.48
10.54
10.6
10.84
11.025
11.245
11.425
11.62
11.795

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

Comments

125
0.5

62.5
0.25

11.5
0.046

0
0

W=0.25 m

54.6
54.6
57.3
63.9
100
106.8
92.6
112
100.9
116.6
106.8
122.9
52.4
52.4
54
56.9
97
105.6
100
116
108
121
115
128
57.5
57.5
59.4
63.6
78.5
111.6
80.7
112
88.2
116
92.8
117.5
60.4
60.4
63.7
66.4
80
112.4
82.3
108.6
84.3
110.6
90
116.2

51.5
53
81
71
74.5
94
98
100
105
106
110
48
52
68
85
87
98
105
108
112
113
118
55
60
67
82
88
85
97
91
101
96
106
58
63
76
82
89
85
95
92
99
93
102

C-9

U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C

Run

Qw
L/s

x
m

z (mm)
z/W
TT1_5

15
10.4
10.64
10.71
10.775
10.84
11
11.28
11.46
11.64
11.84
12.04

TT1_6

15
10.2
10.5
10.6
10.73
10.84
11.07
11.25
11.46
11.7
11.85
12.02

z (mm)
z/W
WZ1_1

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

Comments

125
0.5

62.5
0.25

11.5
0.046

0
0

W=0.25 m

63.5
63.5
69.6
79.6
93.7
101.3
77.2
101.9
83
105.8
89.6
108
67.4
67.4
70
75.6
83.2
90
78.6
92.8
82.2
95.2
86.8
99.2

61
71
72
72
75
74
92
88
94
89
96
65
68
75
80
83
79
87
74
88
86
90

125
0.5
25
7
9
10.5
10.6
10.68
10.75
10.83
11.12
11.46
11.66
11.85
12.06
12.26

WZ1_2

d
mm

25
10.22
10.5
10.57
10.63
10.7
10.96
11.28
11.5
11.82
12.1
12.32

62.5
0.25

84.4
84.5
84.4
84.4
86.1
96
132.3
149.2
115.6
143.2
124.2
149.2
132
153
91
91
103.8
113.6
119
138.6
112
143.2
117
142
122
147.8

C-10

11.5
0.046

0
0

85.2
92.8
117.2
123.8
131.2
121.6
144.2
132.8
149.2
132
152.6

86.6
93.8
114.6
120
130
125.4
141.8
132.8
146.6
137.8
152.2

85
92
109
117
122
120
136
131
140
134
146

91
105.4
118
125.2
126.6
116
130.6
122.4
143.8
130
142.2

94.8
101.4
120.8
123
125
116.8
130.4
125.2
140
132.4
142.4

91
106
114
119
121
110
126
125
134
129
141

U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
U/S
U/S

1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
W=0.25 m

U/S
U/S
U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C

Run

Qw
L/s

x
m

z (mm)
z/W
WZ1_3

25
9.5
9.79
9.89
9.99
10.1
10.3
10.7
11.1
11.35
11.64
11.8

WZ1_4

25
10.7
10.87
10.95
11.02
11.1
11.26
11.5
11.8
12
12.3
12.54

WZ1_5

25
11.1
11.16
11.23
11.3
11.37
11.6
11.85
12.09
12.32
12.62
12.79

WZ1_6

25
11.27
11.38
11.49
11.59
11.7
11.9
12.1
12.34
12.52
12.7
12.86

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

Comments

125
0.5

62.5
0.25

11.5
0.046

0
0

W=0.25 m

91.6
99.4
104
114
120
114
127.6
122
131.6
126.8
135.8

93.6
98
103
114
119.4
115
125.8
121.8
131.6
125.8
134

95
100
101
110
117
114
124
120
130
123
132

83.4
88.8
94.6
120
138
126.4
141
135.8
146
139.8
155.2

83
89.8
105
120
129
127.8
138.4
136
147.4
140.8
154.4

79.2
84.8
87
108.8
131
127.6
146.4
141.8
152
148.8
157

79.8
84.8
98.4
108.8
123.8
132
141.8
140
152
148.8
152

75.8
79
106.8
133.6
143
135.8
146
146
153.6
153.4
160

76
81
106.8
129
137.6
135.6
146
146
153.6
153.4
160

95.6
95.6
100.2
102
110.4
118.6
113.8
127
120.6
131.8
122.8
134.6
82.4
82.4
89.6
92
104
142.4
119.2
144.6
130
151
138.2
155.6
78.8
78.8
82
84.6
98
137.6
131.4
146
138.4
150
146.4
157.8
74.8
74.8
77.8
109
131.6
140.6
138
150.2
147.4
154
154
159

C-11

U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C

Three-dimensional free-surface profiles with pressure and velocity distribution measurements


Run

Qw
L/s

x
m

z (mm)
z/W
TT2_1

15
10.38
10.62
10.69
10.75
10.82
11.02
11.22
11.42
11.62
11.81
12
12.36
13.72
14.8

z (mm)
z/W
TT2_2

15
9
10
10.13
10.27
10.4
10.6
10.85
11.02
11.2
11.4
11.55
11.92
12.55
13.45
16

TT2_3

15
10.5
11.15
11.23
11.3
11.38
11.57
11.8
11.97
12.18
12.34
12.5
12.83
14.14

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

Comments

125
0.5

62.5
0.25

11.5
0.046

0
0

W=0.25 m

58.7
58.7
61.5
66.8
79.6
112.2
86.6
115.7
95
120
100.6
121.8

58.2
63.68
80
91.1
100.6
91.3
106.6
99.2
112.3
103.6
116

57.5
64.6
83.1
88.5
94.4
95.9
104.3
102.8
111.1
108.2
114.1

57
63
79
86
88
94
99
98
105
103
110

125
0.5

62.5
0.25

13.5
0.054

0
0

65.6
65.6
66.6
67.4
78
96.8
78.2
99.1
84.2
101.8
90
106.7

66
66.2
67.6
77.3
90
84.5
98
90.4
100.2
91.2
101.9

66.4
67
71.8
82.6
88
85.4
95.4
91.6
98.2
92.8
99.7

66.5
67.6
72
83
88
85
95
92
96
94
99

55.9
55.8
58
63.2
98
109
88
113
97
117
103
124

56
56.2
65.8
87
97
92
106
100
112
107
118

56
59.8
74
84
93
96
104
103
109
109
114

56
61
73
84
90
95
101
102
107
110
112

C-12

U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
5C
10C
15C
W=0.25 m

U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
5C
7C
10C
20C
U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
5C
10C

Run

Qw
L/s

x
m

z (mm)
z/W
TT2_4

15
10
10.23
10.3
10.37
10.44
10.66
10.87
11.08
11.24
11.44
11.63
11.96
13.51

z (mm)
z/W
WZ2_1

25

10

z (mm)
z/W
WZ3_1

25
9.68
9.87
9.93
10
10.06
10.34
10.66
10.88
11.1
11.38
11.62

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

Comments

125
0.5

62.5
0.25

13.5
0.054

0
0

W=0.25m

61.7
61.8
67.3
76.8
90
110
77.7
106
81.6
112.3
90.5
114

61.6
67.4
78.3
88.9
91.1
81.8
99.7
91.2
102.9
92.7
107.6

61.9
67.9
81.6
86
90.8
85.5
98
94.6
102.3
96
106.1

62
69
83
86
90
86
98
95
101
96
105

125
0.5

62.5
0.25

11.5
0.046

0
0

85.7

U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
5C
10C
W=0.25 m

U/S

125
0.5

62.5
0.25

10
0.04

0
0

84
84
92
94.6
105.8
147
120.8
146.4
126.8
152
133.4
158

85
93.6
94
114
127.6
122
140.8
132.8
146.8
136.2
150.4

85.4
93
103
112
127
124
140
133
146
138
150

84
94
105
115
120
124
136
134
140
135
145

C-13

W=0.25 m

U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C

C.3 Experiments with rough-sidewall channel configuration

distance along the channel measured from the intake of the glass channel;

distance acroos the channel width measured from the sidewall;

Sidewalls : 1-mm thick embossed aluminium sheets (0.3-mm roughness).


Channel width : 0.248 m.

Three-dimensional free-surface profiles with pressure and velocity distribution measurements

Run

Qw
L/s

x
m

ROUGH
SIDEWALLS
z (mm)
z/W
WZ3_2

25
10.1
10.44
10.49
10.55
10.6
10.9
11.19
11.44
11.6
11.88
12.14
12.34
12.56

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

125
0.5

62.5
0.25

10
0.0403

0
0

86
86
91
97.2
108.2
146.6
121
147.2
127.2
153.2
138
156.2
143.6
158.8

84.6
94.6
100.2
120.8
134.6
122.8
143
132.2
146.4
140.6
152.6
144
156.2

86.4
99.2
109.8
114.2
129.4
127.4
142
135.6
147
141
152.2
146.2
155.4

88
100
112
115
131
127
145
137
148
14.3
155
148
156

C-14

Comments
Embossed
aluminium
W=0.248 m

U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
3B
4C
4B
5C

APPENDIX D
EXPERIMENTAL DATA. FREE-SURFACE UNDULATIONS
CHARACTERISTICS

D.1 Introduction
The free-surface characteristics of undular hydraulic jumps with fully-developed inflow conditions were
investigated with smooth-wall and rough-sidewall channel configurations. The results are presented below.
The main parameters are :
qw

discharge per unit width (the channel width is : 0.25-m and 0.248-m for the smooth-wall and
rough-sidewall configurations respectively,

d1

upstream flow depth,

UJ type

type of undular hydraulic jump as defined by CHANSON (1993) (see section 2.3),

Now

number of organised wave (see section 4.2.2),

Lw
d

wave length of the first wave length measured on the channle centreline (fig. D-1),
wave amplitude of the first wave length measured on the centreline (fig. D-1),

dc

critical depth (dc =

qw2/g).

Fig. D-1 - Definition of wave length and wave amplitude

D-1

D.2 Experimental data


Run

qw

m2/s
(1)
(2)
Smooth-wall experim.
HMUP3a
0.040
HMUP3b
0.040
HMUP3c
0.040
HMUP3d
0.040
HMUP3e
0.040
HMUP3f
0.040
HMUP3g
0.040
HMUP3h
0.040
HMUP3i
0.040
HMUP3j
0.040
HMUP3k
0.040
HMUP3l
0.040
HMUP3m
0.040
HMUP3n
0.040
HMUP3o
0.040
HMUP3p
0.040
HMUP3q
0.040
HMTJ3b
0.040
HMTJ4b
0.040
HMTJ7b
0.040
HMUP2a
0.020
HMUP2b
0.020
HMUP2c
0.020
HMUP2d
0.020
HMUP2e
0.020
HMUP2f
0.020
HMUP2g
0.020
HMUP2h
0.020
HMUP2i
0.020
HMUP2j
0.020
HMUP2k
0.020
HMUP2l
0.020
HMUP2m
0.020
HMUP2n
0.020
HMTJ1b
0.020
HMTJ2b
0.020
HMTJ5b
0.020
HMTJ6b
0.020
HMUP1a
0.008
HMUP1b
0.008
HMUP1c
0.008
HMUP1d
0.008
HMUP1e
0.008
HMUP1f
0.008
HCUH1a
0.062
HCUH1b
0.042
HCUH1c
0.042
HCUJ1d
0.042
HCUJ2a
0.042
HCUJ2b
0.042
HCUJ2c
0.042
HCUJ3a
0.041

Slope

d1

Fr1

UJ

Now

Lw/dc

d/dc

Type

Nb of
Organis.
Waves
(7)

(8)

(9)

8.95
10.39
6.30
5.50
6.32
6.52
6.29
6.22
6.01
5.87
5.65
5.64
5.51
5.37
5.31
5.46
5.56
6.62
6.04
6.51
7.86
7.19
6.40
5.97
6.60
6.97
6.99
6.83
7.00
6.54
6.70
6.43
6.57
5.99
6.20
7.08
6.68
6.35
6.69
6.98
7.33
7.76

0.046
0.066
0.157
0.209
0.278
0.318
0.288
0.247
0.211
0.231
0.226
0.256
0.281
0.270
0.274
0.297
0.328
0.131
0.263
0.290
0.057
0.098
0.160
0.274
0.375
0.457
0.456
0.387
0.343
0.372
0.409
0.422
0.442
0.453
0.131
0.456
0.320
0.354
0.091
0.234
0.441
0.428

8.05

9
7
5
6

8.02
8.02
6.77
6.55
7.22
6.16
6.50

0.338
0.188
0.059
0.139
0.196
0.248
0.245
0.264
0.262

degrees
(3)

m
(4)

(5)

(6)

0.193
0.218
0.256
0.286
0.325
0.380
0.443
0.512
0.569
0.647
0.741
0.831
0.878
0.985
0.985
1.146
1.260
0.248
0.477
0.353
0.191
0.231
0.267
0.301
0.382
0.458
0.533
0.613
0.701
0.804
0.907
1.012
1.184
1.419
0.254
0.487
0.754
0.993
0.230
0.310
0.460
0.570
0.880
1.150
0.267
0.212
0.248
0.286
0.325
0.363
0.401
0.439

0.0510
0.0488
0.0470
0.0450
0.0438
0.0414
0.0392
0.0376
0.0360
0.0348
0.0334
0.0320
0.0314
0.0306
0.0298
0.0280
0.0274
0.0468
0.0384
0.0420
0.0314
0.0298
0.0288
0.0280
0.0260
0.0244
0.0232
0.0224
0.0210
0.0200
0.0190
0.0187
0.0176
0.0168
0.0292
0.0240
0.0210
0.0191
0.0164
0.0154
0.0138
0.0130
0.0114
0.0104
0.0610
0.0528
0.0507
0.0484
0.0469
0.0453
0.0440
0.0398

1.11
1.19
1.26
1.33
1.39
1.51
1.65
1.75
1.88
1.96
2.11
2.25
2.28
2.40
2.48
2.75
2.83
1.25
1.70
1.48
1.14
1.22
1.30
1.36
1.50
1.68
1.80
1.90
2.09
2.25
2.43
2.47
2.71
2.91
1.27
1.70
2.10
2.40
1.22
1.33
1.58
1.72
2.10
2.40
1.31
1.10
1.16
1.25
1.32
1.40
1.47
1.64

A
A
B
B-C
C
C
D
D
D
D
D-E
D-E
E
E
E
E
E
B
D
C
A
A-B
B
B
B
C
C-D
D
D
D
D
E
E
E
B
C
D
E
A-B
B
B
C
D
E

D-2

2
2
1

11
11
7
6
6
6
4
3
2
2
1
7
3

A
A
A

C?

Run

(1)
HCUJ3b
HCUJ3c
HCUJ4a
HCUJ4b
HCUJ5a
HCUJ5b
HCUJ5c
HCUJ6a
HCUJ7a
HCUJ7b
HCUJ7c
HCUJ8a
HCUJ8b
HCUJ8c
HCUJ8d
HCUJ8e
HCUJ9a
HCUJ9b
HCUJ9c
HCUJ9d
HCUJ10a
HCUJ10b
HCUJ10c
TT1_1
TT1_2
TT1_3
TT1_4
TT1_5
TT1_6
TT2_1
TT2_2
TT2_3
TT2_4
WZ1_1
WZ1_2
WZ1_3
WZ1_4
WZ1_5
WZ1_6
WZ2_1
WZ3_1
Rough-wall
HC94_X1
HC94_X2
HC94_X3
HC94_X4
HC94_X5
WZ3_2

qw
m2/s
(2)
0.040
0.040
0.120
0.119
0.120
0.120
0.120
0.120
0.028
0.028
0.028
0.028
0.028
0.028
0.028
0.028
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
experim.
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100

Slope

d1

Fr1

degrees
(3)
0.477
0.516
0.248
0.286
0.325
0.363
0.382
0.413
0.248
0.286
0.325
0.363
0.420
0.477
0.535
0.229
0.325
0.363
0.401
0.439
0.286
0.248
0.229
0.451
0.554
0.371
0.336
0.283
0.233
0.401
0.283
0.435
0.328
0.382
0.306
0.264
0.409
0.451
0.512
0.382
0.382

m
(4)
0.0384
0.0374
0.1086
0.1049
0.1001
0.0969
0.0950
0.0905
0.0379
0.0363
0.0350
0.0336
0.0318
0.0303
0.0292
0.0410
0.0738
0.0708
0.0687
0.0666
0.0777
0.0814
0.0842
0.0546
0.0524
0.0575
0.0604
0.0635
0.0674
0.0587
0.0656
0.0558
0.0618
0.0844
0.0910
0.0956
0.0824
0.0788
0.0748
0.0857
0.0840

(5)
1.70
1.77
1.07
1.12
1.21
1.28
1.31
1.40
1.21
1.29
1.37
1.45
1.58
1.70
1.79
1.08
1.27
1.36
1.42
1.49
1.18
1.10
1.05
1.50
1.60
1.39
1.29
1.20
1.10
1.35
1.14
1.45
1.25
1.30
1.16
1.08
1.35
1.44
1.56
1.27
1.31

0.573
0.497
0.420
0.382
0.325
0.386

0.0768
0.0800
0.0852
0.0880
0.0949
0.0860

1.50
1.41
1.28
1.22
1.09
1.27

D-3

Lw/dc

d/dc

D (C)
B (A)
A
D (E)
E
E

(8)
6.40
6.04
5.81
6.63
5.70
5.97
5.79
4.32
7.19
7.19
6.96
6.96
7.66
7.31
6.96
7.19
5.99
5.53
5.19
5.30
5.65
6.34
6.92
5.38
5.45
5.65
5.93
6.14
5.72
5.59
6.28
5.86
6.00
6.26
5.76
5.96
3.97
4.77
3.97

(9)
0.247
0.206
0.062
0.100
0.142
0.152
0.127
0.055
0.187
0.198
0.278
0.325
0.341
0.327
0.296
0.063
0.193
0.172
0.137
0.092
0.156
0.066
0.034
0.117
0.075
0.217
0.197
0.170
0.089
0.191
0.138
0.161
0.212
0.152
0.144
0.045
0.121
0.052
0.037

5.96

0.129

D (?)

5.86

0.129

UJ

Now

Type

Nb of
Organis.
Waves
(7)
5
3

(6)
D
D
A
A
C
C
C-D
A

B
C
C
D
A
C
D
D-E
B-C
A-B
A
D
E
C
B-C
B
A

3
5

APPENDIX E
EXPERIMENTAL DATA. SHOCK WAVE CHARACTERISTICS

E.1 Introduction
At undular hydraulic jumps with fully-developed inflow conditions, lateral shock waves develop upstream
of the first wave crest and interesect near the first wave crest.
The centreline flow depth d* at the location SW (start of the shock waves) and the angle * of the shock
waves with the walls (fig. E-1) were recorded for a number of experimental runs. The results are presented
in the next section in terms of Fr* = qw/ g*d*3 and * as functions of Fr1. Most data were obtained in
the smooth-wall channel. Experiments with the embossed-aluminium sidewalls are indicated.
The shock wave length L* = W/tan* is compared with the wave length Lw on figure E-2.

Fig. E-1 - Sketch of lateral shock waves (top view)

E-1

E.2 Experimental data


Run

qw

m2/s
(1)
(2)
Smooth- sidewall
HMUP1c
0.0080
HMUP2e
0.0197
HMUP2l
0.0198
HMUP2m
0.0198
HMTJ1b
0.0198
HMTJ2b
0.0198
HMTJ6b
0.0198
HMUP2d
0.0199
HMUP2g
0.0199
HMUP2k
0.0199
HMUP2h
0.0200
HMUP2j
0.0200
HMUP2f
0.0200
HMTJ5b
0.0200
HMTJ3b
0.0397
HMUP3f
0.0398
HMUP3m
0.0398
HMUP3j
0.0398
HMUP3d
0.0399
HMTJ7b
0.0399
HMUP3e
0.0400
HMUP3h
0.0400
HMTJ4b
0.0400
HMUP3g
0.0402
HMUP3k
0.0402
HMUP3q
0.0402
HMUP3i
0.0403
HMUP3n
0.0403
HMUP3p
0.0403
HMUP3l
0.0404
TT1_1
0.06
TT1_2
0.06
TT1_3
0.06
TT1_4
0.06
TT1_5
0.06
TT2_1
0.06
TT2_2
0.06
TT2_3
0.06
TT2_4
0.06
WZ1_1
0.1000
WZ1_2
0.1000
WZ1_3
0.1000
WZ1_4
0.1000
WZ1_5
0.1000
WZ1_6
0.1000
WZ3_1
0.1000
Rough- sidewall
WZ3_2
0.1000

Fr1
(3)
experiments
1.58
1.50
2.47
2.71
1.27
1.70
2.40
1.36
1.80
2.43
1.90
2.25
1.68
2.10
1.25
1.51
2.28
1.96
1.33
1.48
1.39
1.75
1.70
1.65
2.11
2.83
1.88
2.40
2.75
2.25
1.50
1.60
1.39
1.29
1.20
1.35
1.14
1.45
1.25
1.30
1.16
1.08
1.35
1.44
1.56
1.31
experiments
1.27

E-2

Fr*

dc/W

(4)

deg.
(5)

(6)

1.51
1.34
2.36
2.50
1.09
1.57
2.38
1.22
1.66
2.25
1.77
2.17
1.52
2.07
1.13
1.42
2.17
1.86
1.17
1.35
1.26
1.67
1.60
1.58
1.96
2.77
1.76
2.33
2.61
2.15
1.40
1.53
1.32
1.19
1.04
1.26
1.12
1.37
1.10
1.26
0.96
1.01
1.19
1.36
1.47
1.14

38.0
39.8
39.8
34.0
37.1
38.0
34.0
38.0
40.8
39.8
41.8
37.1
41.8
34.8
22.3
40.8
38.0
30.2
36.3
36.3
39.8
39.8
38.9
38.9
30.2
38.9
48.7
30.2
41.8
30.2
27.0
29.1
34.8
32.0
32.0
17.4
28.5
30.8
28.5
32.0
22.0
28.5
30.8
21.3
33.3

0.07477
0.136
0.137
0.137
0.137
0.137
0.137
0.137
0.137
0.137
0.138
0.138
0.138
0.138
0.2175
0.2177
0.2179
0.218
0.2182
0.2183
0.2185
0.2185
0.2186
0.2193
0.2195
0.2195
0.2196
0.2196
0.2198
0.2199
0.286
0.286
0.286
0.286
0.286
0.286
0.286
0.286
0.286
0.4027
0.4027
0.4027
0.4027
0.4027
0.4027
0.4027

1.16

38.0

0.4027

Fig. E-2 - Relationship between the first wave length Lw (data, app. D), the shock wave length
L* = W/tan* (data) and the upstream Froude number

E-3

APPENDIX F
EXPERIMENTAL DATA. FLOW FIELD MEASUREMENTS

F.1 Notation
dc

critical flow depth

H(1)

total head manometer reading (m) : H(1) =

H(2)

pressure head plus elevation reading (m) of the manometer : H(2) =

pressure

Qw

water discharge

velocity

Vc

critical flow velocity

distance along the channel from the channel intake

depth measured perpendicular to the channel bottom

distance measured from the sidewall and normal to the sidewall

P
V2
+ Z + 2*g
w * g
P
+ Z
w * g

F.2 Centreline flow field measurements


Ref.:

CHANSON (1993)

Experiment HMTJ1
Summary
Ref.
(1)
HMTJ1a
HMTJ1c
HMTJ1d
HMTJ1e
HMTJ1f
HMTJ1g

Qw

dCL

L/s
(2)
4.96

m
(3)
10.92
11.06
12.17
12.10
12.45
12.69

m
(4)
0.0304
0.0292
0.044
0.036
0.046
0.0395

No.

mm

U/S HMTJ1a 10.922

1.65
2.15

H(1)

H(2)

mm

mm

198.74 182.14
198.99 182.01

V
m/s

P
w*g
mm

0.57
0.58

28.70
28.07

(5)
Upstream (U/S).
Upstream (U/S).
First crest (1C).
First bottom (1B).
Second crest (2C).
Second bottom (2B).
2.65
3.65
4.65
5.65
7.65
11.65
16.65
21.65
25.15

Experimental data
Run

Comments

F-1

199.73
200.85
201.96
203.32
205.18
207.91
210.51
212.37
213.24

182.01
182.01
182.01
182.01
182.14
182.14
182.14
182.14
182.26

0.59
0.61
0.63
0.65
0.67
0.71
0.75
0.77
0.78

27.57
26.57
25.57
24.57
22.70
18.70
13.70
8.70
5.32

H(1)

H(2)

mm

mm

mm

m/s

P
w*g
mm

1.65
2.15
2.65
3.65
4.65
5.65
7.65
10.65
14.65
18.65
22.65
27.15

198.62
199.11
199.24
200.85
202.09
203.20
204.93
206.92
209.02
211.13
212.12
212.99

181.64
181.52
181.39
181.52
181.39
181.52
181.52
181.52
181.39
181.52
181.52
181.64

0.58
0.59
0.59
0.62
0.64
0.65
0.68
0.71
0.74
0.76
0.77
0.78

27.65
27.03
26.40
25.53
24.40
23.53
21.53
18.53
14.40
10.53
6.53
2.15

1.65
2.15
2.65
3.65
4.65
5.65
6.65
7.65
8.65
9.65
11.65
13.65
15.65
17.65
19.65
21.65
24.65
27.65
30.65
33.65
36.65

193.78
193.88
194.23
194.23
194.53
194.90
195.39
195.87
196.63
197.25
198.37
199.73
200.72
201.71
202.70
203.45
204.44
205.18
206.17
207.17
207.66

187.34
187.34
187.34
187.34
187.34
187.34
187.34
187.34
187.34
187.34
187.46
187.46
187.59
187.71
187.71
187.84
187.84
188.33
188.33
188.08
188.33

0.36
0.36
0.37
0.37
0.38
0.38
0.40
0.41
0.43
0.44
0.46
0.49
0.51
0.52
0.54
0.55
0.57
0.57
0.59
0.61
0.62

41.25
40.75
40.25
39.25
38.25
37.25
36.25
35.25
34.25
33.25
31.37
29.37
27.50
25.62
23.62
21.74
18.74
16.24
13.24
9.99
7.24

1.65
2.65
3.65
4.65
6.65
8.65
10.65
12.65
15.65
18.65
21.65
24.65
27.65
30.65
32.15

194.53
195.02
195.64
196.01
197.01
197.75
198.86
200.23
201.59
203.20
203.94
204.81
205.68
206.17
206.55

184.37
183.62
184.61
184.24
184.61
184.86
184.12
184.12
183.75
183.13
183.13
182.88
182.38
182.38
182.14

0.45
0.47
0.46
0.48
0.49
0.50
0.54
0.56
0.59
0.63
0.64
0.66
0.68
0.68
0.69

37.03
35.29
35.28
33.91
32.28
30.53
27.79
25.79
22.41
18.79
15.79
12.55
9.05
6.05
4.30

1.65
2.65
3.65
4.65
6.65
8.65
10.65
13.65
17.65
21.65

194.28
194.65
194.90
195.52
196.26
197.25
197.87
198.99
200.72
201.84

188.08
187.96
188.08
188.08
188.21
188.21
188.33
188.08
188.21
188.33

0.35
0.36
0.37
0.38
0.40
0.42
0.43
0.46
0.50
0.51

42.75
41.62
40.75
39.75
37.87
35.87
33.99
30.75
26.87
22.99

Run

No.

U/S HMTJ1c 11.055

1C HM
TJ1d 12.166

1B HM
TJ1e 12.395

2C HM
TJ1f 12.447

25.65
29.65
33.65
37.65

188.58
188.83
189.08
189.32

H(1)

H(2)

0.53
0.55
0.56
0.58

19.24
15.49
11.74
7.99

Run

No.

mm

mm

mm

m/s

P
w*g
mm

2.65
3.65
4.65
6.65
8.65
10.65
12.65
14.65
16.65
18.65
20.65
22.65
24.65
26.65
30.65
32.65
34.65
36.65

194.16
194.77
195.52
196.51
197.62
198.49
199.48
200.35
201.22
202.21
202.95
203.94
204.93
205.68
206.55
206.30
206.42
206.67

186.97
186.97
186.97
186.97
186.97
186.97
186.85
186.85
186.85
186.35
185.85
185.85
185.61
185.11
185.11
185.11
184.61
184.37

0.38
0.39
0.41
0.43
0.46
0.48
0.50
0.51
0.53
0.56
0.58
0.60
0.62
0.63
0.65
0.64
0.65
0.66

39.89
38.89
37.89
35.89
33.89
31.89
29.77
27.77
25.77
23.27
20.78
18.78
16.53
14.03
10.04
8.04
5.54
3.29

2B HM
TJ1g 12.685

F-2

203.08
204.19
205.18
206.42

Fig. F-1 - Dimensionless distributions along the centreline (undular jump type B)
Run HMTJ1 : qw = 0.0198 m2/s, Fr1 = 1.27, dc/W = 0.137
(A) Dimensionless pressure distributions P/(w*g*d)CL
(B) Dimensionless velocity distributions V/(Vm)CL
(C) Dimensionless specific energy distributions E/(Em)CL

F-3

Experiment HMTJ2
Summary
Ref.
(1)
HMTJ2A
HMTJ2a
HMTJ2c
HMTJ2d
HMTJ2e
HMTJ2f
HMTJ2g
HMTJ2h
HMTJ2i

Qw

dCL

L/s
(2)
4.96
4.96

m
(3)
11.38
10.92
11.07
12.20
12.47
12.56
12.71
12.80
11.79

m
(4)
0.0242
0.0244
0.024
0.634
0.0325
0.064
0.0366
0.071
0.0249

4.96

No.

Experimental data

Comments
(5)
Uniform flow. No jump.
Upstream (U/S).
Upstream (U/S).
First crest (1C).
First bottom (1B).
Second crest (2C).
Second bottom (2B).
Third crest (3C).
Start lateral shock waves
(SW).
m

mm
7.65
9.65
11.65
14.65
17.65
19.65
20.65

mm
185.93
188.48
190.49
193.43
195.04
196.11
196.65

mm
148.56
148.56
148.69
148.69
148.69
148.96
148.96

m/s mm
0.86 15.65
0.88 13.65
0.91 11.79
0.94 8.79
0.95 5.79
0.96 4.06
0.97 3.06

12.2

1.65
1.80
2.30
3.30
4.30
5.30
7.30
9.30
11.30
13.30
15.30
17.30
19.30
21.30
23.30
25.30
27.30
29.30
31.30
33.30
35.30
37.30
39.30
41.30
43.30
45.65
47.65

143.56
143.81
144.18
144.80
145.66
146.41
148.39
150.12
152.11
154.09
155.82
157.31
158.79
160.53
161.52
163.25
164.24
165.73
166.72
167.47
167.96
168.21
168.46
168.46
168.21
167.47
166.72

141.95
142.07
142.07
142.20
142.20
142.20
142.32
142.44
142.57
142.69
143.06
143.44
143.68
143.93
144.18
144.67
145.17
145.42
146.41
146.66
147.15
146.66
147.89
148.89
149.88
150.12
150.87

0.18
0.18
0.20
0.23
0.26
0.29
0.34
0.39
0.43
0.47
0.50
0.52
0.54
0.57
0.58
0.60
0.61
0.63
0.63
0.64
0.64
0.65
0.63
0.62
0.60
0.58
0.56

U/S HMTJ2c

H(1)

H(2)

mm

mm

mm

m/s

P
w*g
mm

1.65
2.15
2.65
3.65
4.65
5.65
7.65
9.65
11.65
14.65
17.65
19.65

155.44
156.19
157.44
160.44
162.20
163.95
166.95
169.45
171.71
174.46
176.96
178.59

129.16
128.78
128.91
128.78
128.78
128.78
128.78
128.78
128.78
128.91
129.03
129.16

0.72
0.73
0.75
0.79
0.81
0.83
0.86
0.89
0.92
0.94
0.97
0.98

22.43
21.55
21.18
20.05
19.05
18.05
16.05
14.05
12.05
9.18
6.30
4.43

Run

No.

HM
TJ2A

11.38

U/S HMTJ2a

10.92

1.65
2.15
2.65
3.65
4.65
5.65
7.65
9.65
11.65
14.65
17.65
19.65
20.65

175.08
175.75
176.82
178.97
181.11
183.25
185.93
188.61
191.02
193.97
195.58
196.65
197.32

149.50
149.23
149.23
149.23
149.23
149.36
149.36
149.23
149.36
149.36
149.50
149.50
149.50

0.71
0.72
0.74
0.76
0.79
0.82
0.85
0.88
0.90
0.94
0.95
0.96
0.97

22.69
21.92
21.42
20.42
19.42
18.55
16.55
14.42
12.55
9.55
6.69
4.69
3.69

U/S HMTJ2c

11.07

1.65
2.15
2.65
3.65
4.65
5.65

175.22
175.75
176.82
178.70
181.38
182.98

148.96
148.42
148.56
148.42
148.42
148.42

0.72
0.73
0.74
0.77
0.80
0.82

22.05
21.02
20.65
19.52
18.52
17.52

Run

H(1)

H(2)

P
w*g

1C HM
TJ2d

F-4

46.57
46.54
46.04
45.16
44.16
43.16
41.29
39.41
37.54
35.66
34.03
32.40
30.65
28.90
27.15
25.64
24.14
22.39
21.38
19.62
18.12
15.62
14.86
13.85
12.85
10.74
9.49

Run
No.

X
m

1C HM
TJ2d
1B HM
TJ2e 12.47

2C HM
TJ2f
12.56

H(1)

H(2)

mm
mm
mm
m/s
49.65 164.74 150.87 0.52
51.65 162.01 152.60 0.43
53.65 160.53 153.59 0.37

P
w*g
mm
7.49
7.22
6.21

1.65
2.15
2.65
3.15
4.15
5.15
6.15
8.15
10.15
12.15
14.15
16.15
18.15
20.15
21.65
23.65
25.65
27.65
29.65

148.51
148.89
149.26
150.12
151.11
152.23
153.34
155.57
157.68
159.54
161.52
162.88
163.75
164.00
166.23
166.97
166.97
167.71
168.95

134.76
134.39
134.39
134.52
134.27
134.76
134.76
134.27
134.27
134.02
134.27
133.77
133.53
132.78
133.03
131.92
131.54
131.05
131.79

0.52
0.53
0.54
0.55
0.57
0.59
0.60
0.65
0.68
0.71
0.73
0.76
0.77
0.78
0.81
0.83
0.83
0.85
0.85

35.46
34.58
34.08
33.71
32.46
31.96
30.96
28.46
26.46
24.21
22.46
19.97
17.72
14.98
13.72
10.61
8.24
5.74
4.48

1.65
2.15
3.15
4.15
5.15
7.15
9.15
11.15
13.15
15.15
17.15
19.15
21.15
23.15
25.15
27.15
29.15
31.15
33.15
35.15
37.15
39.65
41.65
43.65
45.65
47.65
49.65
51.65
53.65
55.65

146.90
147.52
148.14
148.89
149.75
151.11
152.11
153.59
154.83
155.82
156.81
157.68
158.79
160.03
160.78
161.64
162.51
163.50
164.00
164.49
165.11
165.48
165.98
166.60
166.72
166.85
166.97
166.97
166.97
166.97

143.56
143.44
143.44
143.44
143.44
143.44
143.68
143.68
143.81
143.93
143.93
144.18
144.43
144.67
144.67
144.92
145.29
145.91
146.16
146.41
146.41
147.15
147.65
147.52
148.39
148.76
149.50
149.88
150.37
151.36

0.26
0.28
0.30
0.33
0.35
0.39
0.41
0.44
0.46
0.48
0.50
0.51
0.53
0.55
0.56
0.57
0.58
0.59
0.59
0.60
0.61
0.60
0.60
0.61
0.60
0.60
0.59
0.58
0.57
0.55

52.62
52.00
51.00
50.00
49.00
47.00
45.25
43.25
41.37
39.50
37.50
35.74
33.99
32.24
30.24
28.49
26.86
25.48
23.73
21.97
19.97
18.22
16.71
14.59
13.46
11.83
10.57
8.94
7.44
6.43

H(2)

mm

mm

mm

m/s

P
w*g
mm

1.65
2.45
3.45
4.45
6.45
8.45
10.45
12.45
14.45
16.45
18.45
20.45
22.45
24.45
26.45
28.45
30.65
32.65
34.65

149.26
150.12
150.62
151.61
153.34
154.58
156.69
158.05
159.54
160.78
162.01
162.51
163.63
164.62
165.61
166.23
167.09
167.96
168.95

138.23
138.23
138.23
138.23
138.23
138.48
137.49
137.74
137.74
137.49
136.99
135.88
135.76
135.51
135.38
134.76
134.27
134.27
133.28

0.46
0.48
0.49
0.51
0.54
0.56
0.61
0.63
0.65
0.68
0.70
0.72
0.74
0.76
0.77
0.79
0.80
0.81
0.84

40.79
39.99
39.00
38.00
36.00
34.24
31.25
29.50
27.50
25.25
22.76
19.64
17.52
15.27
13.15
10.53
7.83
5.83
2.84

1.65
2.25
3.25
4.25
6.25
8.25
10.25
12.25
14.25
16.25
18.25
20.25
22.25
24.25
26.25
28.25
30.25
32.25
34.25
36.25
38.25
40.25
42.25
44.25
46.65
48.65
50.65
52.65
54.65
56.65
58.65

153.10
153.59
154.21
155.08
156.07
157.31
158.18
159.04
160.03
161.02
162.01
163.01
163.75
164.74
165.73
166.23
167.22
167.96
168.70
169.45
169.94
170.56
171.06
171.43
171.92
172.17
172.30
172.30
172.42
172.42
172.42

149.26
149.26
149.26
149.26
149.38
149.38
149.50
149.63
149.63
149.63
149.88
150.12
150.25
150.25
150.62
150.62
150.62
151.61
152.11
152.35
152.23
153.10
153.22
153.34
154.34
154.83
155.82
156.81
157.56
158.05
157.80

0.27
0.29
0.31
0.34
0.36
0.39
0.41
0.43
0.45
0.47
0.49
0.50
0.51
0.53
0.54
0.55
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.58
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.60
0.59
0.58
0.57
0.55
0.54
0.53
0.54

56.74
56.14
55.14
54.14
52.26
50.26
48.39
46.51
44.51
42.51
40.76
39.01
37.13
35.13
33.50
31.50
29.50
28.49
26.99
25.24
23.11
21.98
20.10
18.23
16.82
15.32
14.31
13.30
12.04
10.54
8.29

1.65
1.85
2.35
3.35
4.35

147.65
148.39
150.50
153.47
155.57

122.13
122.13
122.13
122.13
122.13

0.71
0.72
0.75
0.78
0.81

22.04
21.84
21.34
20.34
19.34

No.

2B HM
TJ2g 12.71

3C HM
TJ2h 12.19

SW HMTJ2i

F-5

H(1)

Run

12.11

Fig. F-2 - Dimensionless distributions along the


Run

No.

mm
5.35
6.35
8.35
10.35
12.35
14.35
17.65
19.65
21.65

SW HMTJ2i

(1)

mm
157.80
159.79
163.01
165.98
167.96
169.45
171.43
172.42
174.15

(2)

P
w*g

mm
122.13
122.38
122.38
122.63
122.38
122.38
122.63
122.87
123.12

m/s
0.84
0.86
0.89
0.92
0.95
0.96
0.98
0.99
1.00

mm
18.34
17.59
15.59
13.84
11.59
9.59
6.54
4.79
3.03

centreline (undular jump type C) Run HMTJ2 : qw


= 0.0198 m2/s, Fr1 = 1.70, dc/W = 0.137
(A) Dimensionless pressure distributions
P/(rw*g*d)CL
(B) Dimensionless velocity distributions V/(Vm)CL
(C) Dimensionless specific energy distributions
E/(Em)CL

F-6

Experiment HMTJ3
Summary
Ref.
(1)
HMTJ3a
HMTJ3c
HMTJ3d
HMTJ3e
HMTJ3f
HMTJ3g
HMTJ3h

Qw

dCL

L/s
(2)
9.92

m
(3)
10.91
11.08
11.97
12.23
12.29
12.61
12.75

m
(4)
0.0482
0.0468
0.0692
0.0556
0.0704
0.0596
0.076
No.

Experimental data
X

H(1)

H(2)

No.

mm

mm

mm

m/s

P
w*g
mm

U/S HMTJ3a

10.91

1.65
2.15
2.65
3.65
4.65
5.65
9.65
14.65
19.65
25.65
31.65
38.65
43.65

224.44
224.94
225.93
228.16
230.39
231.75
239.06
241.41
244.76
248.10
250.95
253.30
253.67

198.93
198.93
199.05
199.17
199.17
199.17
199.17
199.05
199.05
198.93
199.05
199.17
199.17

0.71
0.71
0.73
0.75
0.78
0.80
0.88
0.91
0.95
0.98
1.01
1.03
1.03

44.96
44.46
44.08
43.20
42.20
41.20
37.20
32.08
27.08
20.96
15.08
8.21
3.21

U/S HMTJ3c

11.08

1.65
2.15
2.65
3.65
5.65
7.65
10.65
14.65
19.65
25.65
31.65
37.65
43.15

224.44
224.69
225.43
227.42
231.38
234.10
237.32
241.04
244.51
247.73
250.83
252.68
253.30

199.67
199.57
199.67
199.67
199.67
199.67
199.67
199.55
199.67
199.67
199.67
199.67
199.67

0.70
0.70
0.71
0.74
0.79
0.82
0.86
0.90
0.94
0.97
1.00
1.02
1.03

45.20
44.61
44.20
43.20
41.20
39.20
36.20
32.08
27.20
21.20
15.20
9.21
3.71

1.65
2.15
2.65
3.65
4.65
5.65
7.65

221.47
222.96
223.45
224.32
225.43
226.42
228.03

211.07
211.07
211.07
211.07
211.07
211.07
211.07

0.45
0.48
0.49
0.51
0.53
0.55
0.58

63.98
63.48
62.98
61.98
60.98
59.98
57.98

H(1)

H(2)

P
w*g

Run

(5)
Upstream (U/S).
Upstream (U/S).
First crest (1C).
First bottom (1B).
Second crest (2C).
Second bottom (2B).
Third crest (3C).
m

1C HM
TJ3d

Run

1C HM
TJ3d 11.97

Comments

1B HM
TJ3e 12.23

F-7

mm
9.65
11.65
14.15
16.65
19.15
21.65
24.15
26.65
29.15
31.65
34.15
36.65
39.15
41.65
44.15
46.65
49.15
51.65
53.65
55.65
57.65
59.65
61.65
63.65

mm
230.39
231.87
233.86
235.34
237.32
238.56
239.80
241.29
242.40
243.52
244.51
245.50
246.74
247.23
248.10
248.72
248.84
248.97
249.22
249.22
249.22
249.22
249.22
248.97

mm
211.07
211.07
211.07
211.07
211.19
211.07
211.44
211.56
211.56
211.56
211.68
212.06
212.06
212.06
212.55
212.68
212.92
212.80
212.92
213.54
213.79
214.04
214.04
214.29

m/s
0.62
0.64
0.67
0.69
0.72
0.73
0.75
0.76
0.78
0.79
0.80
0.81
0.82
0.83
0.83
0.84
0.84
0.84
0.84
0.84
0.83
0.83
0.83
0.82

mm
55.98
53.98
51.48
48.98
46.60
43.98
41.85
39.48
36.98
34.48
32.10
29.97
27.47
24.97
22.97
20.59
18.34
15.71
13.84
12.46
10.71
8.95
6.95
5.20

1.65
2.08
2.58
3.58
5.58
7.58
9.58
12.58
15.58
18.58
21.58
24.58
27.58

223.95
224.69
225.68
226.67
228.41
229.77
231.38
233.36
235.59
237.57
238.93
240.55
242.28

207.84
207.60
207.84
207.60
207.84
207.60
207.60
207.60
207.60
207.35
207.35
207.35
207.10

0.56
0.58
0.59
0.61
0.63
0.66
0.68
0.71
0.74
0.77
0.79
0.81
0.83

58.94
58.26
58.01
56.76
55.01
52.76
50.76
47.76
44.76
41.52
38.52
35.52
32.27

Run
No.

X
m

1B HM
TJ3e

2C HM
TJ3f
12.29

2B HM
TJ3g 12.61

H(1)

H(2)

mm
30.58
33.65
36.65
39.65
42.65
45.65
48.65
50.65
52.65

mm
243.52
244.63
246.00
246.74
247.73
248.72
249.22
249.46
249.46

mm
206.61
206.61
206.11
206.36
205.62
205.12
204.62
205.12
204.38

m/s
0.85
0.86
0.88
0.89
0.91
0.92
0.93
0.93
0.94

P
w*g
mm
28.77
25.70
22.21
19.46
15.71
12.22
8.72
7.22
4.47

1.65
2.21
4.21
6.21
8.21
10.21
13.21
16.21
20.21
25.65
29.65
33.65
37.65
41.65
45.65
49.65
53.65
57.65
60.65
63.65
65.65

223.45
224.81
227.17
228.90
230.14
231.26
232.62
233.86
235.59
237.57
239.68
241.54
243.02
244.76
245.75
247.13
248.22
248.72
248.97
249.46
249.46

213.05
213.05
213.05
213.05
213.05
213.05
212.92
213.05
213.05
213.05
213.05
213.05
213.29
213.54
213.54
214.04
214.29
214.53
214.53
215.28
215.52

0.45
0.48
0.53
0.56
0.58
0.60
0.62
0.64
0.66
0.69
0.72
0.75
0.76
0.78
0.79
0.81
0.82
0.82
0.82
0.82
0.82

66.70
66.14
64.14
62.14
60.14
58.14
55.01
52.14
48.14
42.70
38.70
34.70
30.94
27.19
23.19
19.69
15.93
12.18
9.18
6.93
5.17

1.65
2.32
2.82
3.65
5.65
7.65
9.65
12.65
15.65
18.65
21.65
24.65
27.65
30.65
33.65
36.65
39.65
42.65
45.65
48.65
51.65
54.65
56.65

224.94
225.68
226.42
227.79
229.15
230.14
230.88
232.37
233.86
235.34
236.83
237.57
239.80
241.29
242.53
243.77
244.76
245.75
246.74
247.73
248.72
249.09
249.22

211.31
211.07
210.82
211.07
210.82
210.57
210.57
210.82
210.57
211.07
210.57
210.57
210.07
209.83
210.07
209.58
209.83
209.33
209.08
208.59
208.09
208.59
207.60

0.52
0.54
0.55
0.57
0.60
0.62
0.63
0.65
0.68
0.69
0.72
0.73
0.76
0.79
0.80
0.82
0.83
0.84
0.86
0.88
0.89
0.89
0.90

62.26
61.35
60.60
60.02
57.77
55.52
53.52
50.77
47.52
45.02
41.52
38.52
35.03
31.78
29.03
25.53
22.78
19.28
16.03
12.54
9.04
6.54
3.55

H(2)

mm

mm

mm

m/s

P
w*g
mm

1.65
2.55
3.55
4.55
6.55
8.55
11.55
14.55
17.55
21.65
25.65
29.65
33.65
37.65
41.65
45.65
49.65
53.65
56.65
59.65
62.65
65.65
68.65
70.65

223.95
225.43
226.67
227.42
228.90
229.89
230.88
232.37
233.36
234.60
234.10
237.82
239.31
240.55
242.28
243.77
245.25
246.00
247.23
247.73
248.22
248.47
248.47
248.47

214.29
214.29
214.29
214.29
214.53
214.53
214.29
214.53
214.53
214.53
214.53
214.53
214.78
215.03
215.28
215.52
215.52
216.02
216.02
216.27
217.01
218.00
218.25
218.25

0.44
0.47
0.49
0.51
0.53
0.55
0.57
0.59
0.61
0.63
0.62
0.68
0.69
0.71
0.73
0.74
0.76
0.77
0.78
0.79
0.78
0.77
0.77
0.77

70.00
69.10
68.10
67.10
65.35
63.35
60.10
57.35
54.35
50.25
46.25
42.25
38.50
34.75
30.99
27.24
23.24
19.74
16.74
13.98
11.73
9.72
6.97
4.97

No.

3C HM
TJ3h 12.75

F-8

H(1)

Run

Fig. F-3 - Dimensionless distributions along the centreline (undular jump type B)
Run HMTJ3 : qw = 0.0397 m2/s, Fr1 = 1.25, dc/W = 0.217
(A) Dimensionless pressure distributions P/(w*g*d)CL
(B) Dimensionless velocity distributions V/(Vm)CL
(C) Dimensionless specific energy distributions E/(Em)CL

F-9

Experiment HMTJ4
Summary
Ref.
(1)
HMTJ4a
HMTJ4c
HMTJ4d
HMTJ4e
HMTJ4f
HMTJ4g
HMTJ4h
HMTJ4i

Qw

dCL

L/s
(2)
10.0

m
(3)
10.90
11.10
11.90
12.04
12.25
12.44
12.62
11.68

m
(4)
0.039
0.0384
0.087
0.062
0.0946
0.068
0.097
0.040

10.0

Experimental data
Run

(1)

(2)

P
w*g

No.

mm

mm

mm

m/s

mm

U/S HMTJ4a

10.9

1.65
2.15
2.65
3.65
5.65
8.65
11.65
16.65
21.65
26.65
31.65
34.65

185.05
186.29
188.27
191.49
196.94
202.64
208.09
214.53
219.49
223.45
226.42
228.65

147.40
146.90
147.15
147.15
147.15
147.15
146.90
147.03
146.90
147.15
147.15
147.40

0.86
0.88
0.90
0.93
0.99
1.04
1.09
1.15
1.19
1.22
1.25
1.26

37.20
36.21
35.96
34.96
32.96
29.96
26.71
21.83
16.71
11.96
6.96
4.20

U/S HMTJ4c

11.10

1.65
2.15
2.65
3.65
5.65
8.65
11.65
16.65
21.65
26.65
31.65
34.65

185.30
187.28
189.27
193.23
198.18
204.62
209.83
214.53
219.74
223.20
226.42
228.16

146.41
146.16
146.16
146.16
146.16
146.16
146.16
146.16
146.16
146.16
146.41
146.66

0.87
0.90
0.92
0.96
1.01
1.07
1.12
1.16
1.20
1.23
1.25
1.26

36.29
35.54
35.04
34.04
32.04
29.04
26.04
21.04
16.05
11.05
6.29
3.54

1.65
2.25
2.75
3.75
5.75
7.75
10.75

176.88
177.87
178.12
179.36
181.59
183.82
187.28

171.18
171.18
171.18
170.93
171.18
171.30
171.43

0.33
0.36
0.37
0.41
0.45
0.50
0.56

72.33
71.73
71.23
69.99
68.23
66.36
63.48

1C HM
TJ4d 11.90

Comments
(5)
Upstream (U/S).
Upstream (U/S).
First crest (1C).
First bottom (1B).
Second crest (2C).
Second bottom (2B).
Third crest (3C).
Start lateral shock waves
(SW).

H(2)

mm
13.75
16.75
20.75
24.65
28.65
32.65
36.65
40.65
44.65
48.65
52.65
56.65
60.65
64.65
67.65
70.65
72.65
74.65

mm
190.38
194.22
198.18
201.65
204.75
207.10
209.83
212.30
213.79
214.04
214.04
212.43
208.09
203.14
200.17
197.69
196.20
193.35

mm
171.43
171.43
171.68
171.92
172.54
172.92
173.41
174.40
175.14
175.89
176.38
177.37
177.87
178.61
178.86
179.85
180.35
180.84

m/s
0.61
0.67
0.72
0.76
0.79
0.82
0.84
0.86
0.87
0.86
0.86
0.83
0.77
0.69
0.65
0.59
0.56
0.50

P
w*g
mm
60.48
57.48
53.73
50.08
46.70
43.07
39.56
36.56
33.30
30.04
26.54
23.53
20.02
16.77
14.02
12.01
10.50
9.00

1.65
2.35
3.35
5.35
7.35
9.35
12.35
15.35
18.35
21.35
24.35
27.35
30.35
33.35
36.35
39.35
42.35

182.08
183.32
184.56
186.54
188.15
190.01
193.23
195.71
198.80
201.65
204.62
206.73
208.59
209.58
210.32
210.07
210.07

170.19
169.94
170.19
170.19
170.07
170.19
169.94
170.19
169.94
169.94
168.95
168.70
168.46
168.46
167.71
167.34
166.97

0.48
0.51
0.53
0.57
0.60
0.62
0.68
0.71
0.75
0.79
0.84
0.86
0.89
0.90
0.91
0.92
0.92

67.65
66.70
65.95
63.95
61.82
59.95
56.70
53.95
50.70
47.70
43.71
40.46
37.21
34.21
30.47
27.10
23.73

No.

1C HM
TJ4d

1B HM
TJ4e 12.04

F-10

H(1)

Run

Run
No.

X
m

1B HM
TJ4e

2C HM
TJ4f
12.25

2B HM
TJ4g 12.44

3C HM
TJ4h 12.62

H(1)

H(2)

mm
45.35
48.35
51.35
54.65
56.65

mm
210.07
210.45
210.57
211.56
212.30

mm
166.23
165.98
165.48
164.99
164.24

m/s
0.93
0.93
0.94
0.96
0.97

P
w*g
mm
19.99
16.74
13.24
9.45
6.70

1.65
2.48
3.48
5.48
7.48
10.48
14.48
18.48
22.48
26.48
30.48
34.48
38.48
42.48
46.48
50.48
54.48
58.48
62.48
66.48
70.48
74.48
77.48
80.48
82.48

182.08
182.82
184.19
185.05
186.29
187.78
190.01
192.24
194.59
196.45
198.68
201.65
204.01
206.11
207.60
208.59
209.58
209.83
210.57
210.57
211.07
211.56
211.81
212.06
212.06

175.89
175.89
175.89
175.89
175.89
175.89
175.89
175.89
175.89
176.14
176.14
176.63
176.88
177.37
177.87
178.37
178.86
179.73
180.35
181.34
181.83
182.82
183.57
184.81
185.05

0.35
0.37
0.40
0.42
0.45
0.48
0.53
0.57
0.61
0.63
0.66
0.70
0.73
0.75
0.76
0.77
0.78
0.77
0.77
0.76
0.76
0.75
0.74
0.73
0.73

79.74
78.91
77.91
75.91
73.91
70.91
66.91
62.91
58.91
55.15
51.15
47.65
43.90
40.39
36.89
33.38
29.88
26.75
23.37
20.36
16.85
13.84
11.59
9.83
8.07

1.65
2.13
3.13
4.13
6.13
8.13
10.13
12.13
15.13
18.13
22.13
26.13
30.13
34.13
38.13
42.13
46.13
50.13
54.13
57.65
60.65
62.65

182.33
183.32
183.94
184.81
185.55
186.29
187.28
187.78
189.76
191.62
194.22
197.44
199.67
202.64
205.12
207.10
208.59
209.95
210.57
212.06
212.55
213.05

172.42
172.42
172.42
172.42
172.42
172.42
172.42
172.42
172.42
172.30
171.92
171.92
171.68
171.43
170.93
170.69
170.31
169.94
168.95
168.21
167.71
167.22

0.44
0.46
0.48
0.49
0.51
0.52
0.54
0.55
0.58
0.62
0.66
0.71
0.74
0.78
0.82
0.84
0.87
0.89
0.90
0.93
0.94
0.95

71.75
71.27
70.27
69.27
67.27
65.27
63.27
61.27
58.27
55.15
50.77
46.77
42.53
38.28
33.78
29.54
25.17
20.79
15.80
11.54
8.04
5.55

1.65
2.60
3.60

181.83 176.88 0.31 87.03


182.58 176.88 0.33 86.08
182.82 176.88 0.34 85.08

H(2)

mm
5.60
7.60
10.60
13.60
16.65
20.65
24.65
28.65
32.65
36.65
41.65
46.65
51.65
56.65
61.65
65.65
69.65
73.65
77.65
80.65
83.65
85.65

mm
184.06
184.68
185.55
186.29
187.28
188.27
190.01
191.62
193.35
195.21
197.19
200.54
202.64
204.62
206.61
208.09
209.08
209.70
210.07
210.07
210.32
210.20

mm
176.88
176.88
176.88
176.88
176.88
176.88
176.88
177.13
177.37
177.37
177.37
177.75
178.37
178.86
179.36
180.35
180.84
181.34
182.08
182.33
182.82
183.07

m/s
0.38
0.39
0.41
0.43
0.45
0.47
0.51
0.53
0.56
0.59
0.62
0.67
0.69
0.71
0.73
0.74
0.74
0.75
0.74
0.74
0.73
0.73

P
w*g
mm
83.08
81.08
78.08
75.08
72.03
68.03
64.03
60.28
56.53
52.53
47.53
42.90
38.52
34.01
29.51
26.50
23.00
19.49
16.23
13.48
10.98
9.23

1.65
2.05
2.55
3.55
4.55
5.55
7.55
9.55
11.55
13.55
15.55
17.55
19.55
21.55
23.55
25.55
27.55
29.55
31.55
33.55
35.55
37.55

179.60
182.08
184.81
184.06
192.24
194.22
198.68
202.64
206.11
208.34
210.57
212.55
214.53
216.52
218.00
219.74
221.22
222.46
223.45
224.20
224.44
224.94

145.66
145.66
145.91
146.16
146.16
146.41
146.16
146.41
146.41
146.16
146.16
146.16
146.41
146.66
146.41
145.17
144.80
144.67
144.67
144.67
144.67
144.43

0.82
0.84
0.87
0.86
0.95
0.97
1.01
1.05
1.08
1.10
1.12
1.14
1.16
1.17
1.18
1.21
1.22
1.23
1.24
1.25
1.25
1.26

39.95
39.55
39.30
38.54
37.54
36.79
34.54
32.79
30.79
28.54
26.54
24.54
22.79
21.04
18.79
15.55
13.18
11.06
9.06
7.06
5.06
2.81

No.

11.68

3C HM
TJ4h

SW HMTJ4i

F-11

H(1)

Run

Fig. F-4 - Dimensionless distributions along the centreline (undular jump type D)
Run HMTJ4 : qw = 0.040 m2/s, Fr1 = 1.70, dc/W = 0.219
(A) Dimensionless pressure distributions P/(w*g*d)CL
(B) Dimensionless velocity distributions V/(Vm)CL
(C) Dimensionless specific energy distributions E/(Em)CL

F-12

Experiment HMTJ5
Summary
Ref.
(1)
HMTJ5a
HMTJ5c
HMTJ5d
HMTJ5e
HMTJ5f
HMTJ5g
HMTJ5h
HMTJ5i

Qw

dCL

L/s
(2)
5.0

m
(3)
10.10
11.14
11.84
12.00
12.11
12.30
12.39
11.678

m
(4)
0.0212
0.021
0.0595
0.0415
0.068
0.0465
0.071
0.0214

5.0

No.

Experimental data
H(1)

H(2)

No.

mm

mm

mm

m/s

P
w*g
mm

U/S HMTJ5a

10.1

1.65
2.15
2.65
3.65
4.65
5.65
6.65
8.15
9.65
11.65
13.65
15.65
16.65

113.77
114.77
116.75
120.48
123.71
126.19
128.18
131.78
134.64
137.37
140.10
142.09
142.59

76.51
76.01
76.01
76.26
76.26
76.26
76.14
76.26
76.39
76.51
76.51
76.51
76.88

0.85
0.87
0.89
0.93
0.96
0.99
1.01
1.04
1.07
1.09
1.12
1.13
1.13

18.75
17.75
17.25
16.50
15.50
14.50
13.37
12.00
10.62
8.75
6.75
4.75
4.12

U/S HMTJ5c

11.14

1.65
2.15
2.65
3.65
4.65
5.65
6.65
8.15
9.65
11.65
13.65
15.65
16.65

112.65
113.77
116.01
119.73
123.21
125.70
127.68
131.53
134.14
136.63
139.48
141.10
142.09

74.77
74.52
74.52
74.52
74.52
74.52
74.65
74.65
74.65
74.77
74.90
74.90
75.02

0.86
0.88
0.90
0.94
0.98
1.00
1.02
1.06
1.08
1.10
1.13
1.14
1.15

18.91
18.16
17.66
16.66
15.66
14.66
13.79
12.29
10.79
8.91
7.04
5.04
4.16

1.65
2.15
2.65

95.64
95.64
96.38

91.79
91.66
91.54

0.27 50.59
0.28 49.97
0.31 49.34

H(1)

H(2)

Run

(5)
Upstream (U/S).
Upstream (U/S).
First crest (1C).
First bottom (1B).
Second crest (2C).
Second bottom (2B).
Third crest (3C).
Start lateral shock waves
(SW).
m

1C HM
TJ5d

Run

1C HM
TJ5d 11.84

Comments

1B HM
TJ5e 12.00

P
w*g

F-13

mm
3.65
4.65
5.65
6.65
8.65
10.65
12.65
14.65
16.65
19.65
22.65
25.65
28.65
31.65
34.65
37.65
39.15
40.65
43.65
46.65
48.65
50.15

mm
97.25
97.87
99.36
100.61
104.08
108.80
110.05
114.27
115.76
119.24
121.85
123.09
122.22
119.73
116.26
111.54
110.29
106.63
104.58
102.84
103.09
103.34

mm
91.66
91.66
91.66
91.42
91.66
91.42
92.16
91.91
92.78
92.91
93.40
93.90
94.15
94.40
94.89
95.39
95.51
95.82
96.38
97.13
97.38
97.38

m/s
0.33
0.35
0.39
0.42
0.49
0.58
0.59
0.66
0.67
0.72
0.75
0.76
0.74
0.70
0.65
0.56
0.54
0.46
0.40
0.33
0.33
0.34

mm
48.47
47.47
46.47
45.22
43.47
41.22
39.96
37.72
36.59
33.71
31.21
28.70
25.95
23.20
20.70
18.20
16.82
15.63
13.19
10.94
9.18
7.68

1.65
2.09
2.59
3.59
4.59
5.59
7.59
9.59
11.59
13.65
15.65
17.65
19.65
21.65
23.65
25.65

102.35
102.84
103.34
104.83
105.57
106.32
108.18
109.80
111.04
112.53
113.28
114.77
115.26
115.76
116.26
116.50

92.41
92.16
91.91
92.16
91.91
91.91
91.42
91.17
90.92
91.42
90.92
90.92
90.42
89.92
89.55
89.30

0.44
0.46
0.47
0.50
0.52
0.53
0.57
0.60
0.63
0.64
0.66
0.68
0.70
0.71
0.72
0.73

44.36
43.67
42.92
42.17
40.92
39.92
37.43
35.18
32.93
31.37
28.87
26.87
24.37
21.88
19.50
17.26

H(1)

H(2)

mm
27.65
29.65
31.65
33.65
35.65

mm
116.75
117.13
117.75
118.74
120.11

mm
88.93
88.19
87.44
89.18
88.43

m/s
0.74
0.75
0.77
0.76
0.79

P
w*g
mm
14.88
12.14
9.39
9.13
6.39

1.65
2.28
3.28
4.28
5.28
7.28
9.65
12.65
15.65
18.65
21.65
24.65
27.65
30.65
33.65
36.65
39.65
42.65
45.65
48.65
50.65
52.65
54.65
56.65

100.36
101.23
102.35
103.21
103.84
104.58
106.32
107.81
109.55
110.67
112.03
113.28
114.27
115.76
115.76
116.26
116.75
117.50
118.00
118.37
118.49
118.74
118.74
115.26

94.15
94.40
94.40
94.40
94.40
94.40
94.40
94.89
95.14
95.14
95.39
95.89
96.14
96.88
96.88
97.38
97.87
98.37
99.12
99.61
100.11
100.36
100.36
100.36

0.35
0.37
0.39
0.42
0.43
0.45
0.48
0.50
0.53
0.55
0.57
0.58
0.60
0.61
0.61
0.61
0.61
0.61
0.61
0.61
0.60
0.60
0.60
0.54

64.90
64.51
63.51
62.52
61.52
59.52
57.15
54.64
51.89
48.89
46.14
43.64
40.89
38.63
35.63
33.13
30.63
28.12
25.87
23.37
21.86
20.11
18.11
16.11

1.65
2.64
3.64
4.64
6.64
8.64
10.64
12.65
14.65
16.65
18.65
20.65
22.65
24.65
26.65
28.65
30.65
32.65
34.65
36.65
38.65
40.65
42.15

102.10
102.97
103.84
104.58
105.33
106.07
107.07
107.81
108.43
109.30
110.29
111.29
112.28
112.78
113.28
114.14
114.77
115.51
116.26
116.75
117.62
118.24
119.98

92.78
92.78
92.78
92.66
92.66
92.41
92.04
91.91
91.91
91.79
91.91
91.42
91.42
91.42
90.92
91.91
90.92
90.42
89.92
89.43
89.18
88.93
89.18

0.43
0.45
0.47
0.48
0.50
0.52
0.54
0.56
0.57
0.59
0.60
0.62
0.64
0.65
0.66
0.66
0.68
0.70
0.72
0.73
0.75
0.76
0.78

49.07
48.08
47.08
45.95
43.95
41.71
39.33
37.20
35.20
33.08
31.20
28.70
26.70
24.70
22.21
21.20
18.21
15.71
13.21
10.72
8.47
6.22
4.97

Run

No.

1B HM
TJ5e

2C HM
TJ5f
12.11

2B HM
TJ5g

12.3

H(2)

mm

mm

mm

m/s

P
w*g
mm

1.65
2.55
3.55
4.55
5.55
7.55
9.55
12.55
15.55
18.55
21.55
24.55
27.55
30.55
33.55
36.55
39.55
42.55
45.55
48.55
51.55
53.55
55.65
58.15

100.85
101.48
102.22
102.47
103.34
104.33
104.83
105.82
106.82
107.81
108.56
109.30
110.29
111.29
111.79
112.78
113.90
114.39
115.26
115.76
116.01
116.01
116.63
115.51

95.51
95.51
95.39
95.39
95.39
95.51
95.39
95.39
95.51
95.64
95.76
95.76
95.89
96.14
96.38
96.63
97.13
97.13
97.38
97.75
98.37
98.74
99.12
98.62

0.32
0.34
0.37
0.37
0.39
0.42
0.43
0.45
0.47
0.49
0.50
0.52
0.53
0.54
0.55
0.56
0.57
0.58
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.58
0.59
0.58

64.62
63.72
62.59
61.59
60.59
58.72
56.59
53.59
50.72
47.84
44.97
41.97
39.09
36.34
33.59
30.84
28.33
25.33
22.58
19.96
17.58
15.95
14.22
11.23

1.65
2.15
2.65
3.65
4.65
5.65
6.65
7.65
8.65
9.65
10.65
11.65
12.65
13.65
14.65
15.65
16.65
17.65

104.58
105.82
109.80
114.02
116.75
119.36
121.72
123.96
125.70
127.56
128.68
130.17
131.66
132.78
134.02
135.14
135.76
136.63

68.93
68.93
69.06
69.06
69.43
69.06
68.93
68.81
69.31
69.06
69.56
69.06
69.06
69.56
69.56
69.06
69.06
69.06

0.84
0.85
0.89
0.94
0.96
0.99
1.02
1.04
1.05
1.07
1.08
1.09
1.11
1.11
1.12
1.14
1.14
1.15

19.84
19.34
18.96
17.96
17.33
15.96
14.84
13.71
13.21
11.96
11.46
9.96
8.96
8.46
7.46
5.96
4.96
3.96

No.

3C HM
TJ5h 12.39

SW HMTJ5i

F-14

H(1)

Run

11.68

Fig. F-5 - Dimensionless distributions along the centreline (undular jump type D)
Run HMTJ5 : qw = 0.020 m2/s, Fr1 = 2.10, dc/W = 0.138
(A) Dimensionless pressure distributions P/(w*g*d)CL
(B) Dimensionless velocity distributions V/(Vm)CL
(C) Dimensionless specific energy distributions E/(Em)CL

F-15

Experiment HMTJ6
Summary
Ref.
(1)
HMTJ6a
HMTJ6c
HMTJ6d
HMTJ6e
HMTJ6f
HMTJ6g
HMTJ6h
HMTJ6i

Qw

dCL

L/s
(2)
4.96

m
(3)
10.90
11.11
11.94
12.06
12.17
12.27
12.32
11.80

m
(4)
0.0193
0.0191
0.061
0.0435
0.071
0.0522
0.075
0.0193

No.

Experimental data
H(1)

H(2)

mm

mm

mm

m/s

P
w*g
mm

1.65
2.15
2.65
3.15
3.65
4.65
5.65
6.65
7.65
9.65
11.65
13.65
15.65

157.69
159.72
162.51
164.54
166.58
170.64
173.94
176.61
179.27
183.84
186.76
189.94
192.35

111.47
111.22
111.22
111.22
111.22
111.47
111.22
111.22
111.22
111.47
111.47
111.73
111.73

0.95
0.97
1.00
1.02
1.04
1.08
1.11
1.13
1.15
1.19
1.21
1.24
1.26

17.16
16.41
15.91
15.41
14.91
14.17
12.91
11.91
10.91
9.17
7.17
5.42
3.42

1.65
2.15
2.65
3.15
3.65
4.65
5.65
6.65
7.65
9.65
11.65
13.65
15.65

157.31
159.47
162.13
164.54
166.58
169.62
172.67
175.21
177.49
181.81
185.11
188.03
190.19

109.95
109.44
109.57
109.57
109.70
109.70
109.70
109.70
109.70
109.70
109.82
109.82
110.08

0.96
0.99
1.02
1.04
1.06
1.08
1.11
1.13
1.15
1.19
1.21
1.24
1.25

17.19
16.18
15.81
15.31
14.94
13.94
12.94
11.94
10.94
8.94
7.06
5.06
3.32

1.65
2.65
3.65

129.25 125.95 0.25 51.39


130.26 125.95 0.29 50.39
131.03 125.95 0.32 49.40

No.

U/S HMTJ6a

10.9

11.11

1C HM
TJ6d 11.94

Run

(5)
Upstream (U/S).
Upstream (U/S).
First crest (1C).
First bottom (1B).
Second crest (2C).
Second bottom (2B).
Third crest (3C).
Start lateral shock waves
(SW).
m

1C HM
TJ6d

Run

U/S HMTJ6c

Comments

H(1)

H(2)

1B HM
TJ6e 12.06

P
w*g

F-16

mm
4.65
6.65
8.65
10.65
13.65
16.65
19.65
22.65
25.65
28.65
31.65
34.65
37.65
40.65
43.65
46.65
49.65
51.65
53.65

mm
131.79
134.07
136.10
139.15
144.48
150.07
152.86
156.16
157.69
158.45
156.42
154.39
150.58
145.75
142.45
141.18
140.67
142.45
144.36

mm
125.95
125.95
125.95
125.95
126.20
126.07
126.45
126.71
126.96
127.47
127.98
128.36
128.99
129.50
130.26
131.41
132.04
133.06
133.56

m/s
0.34
0.40
0.45
0.51
0.60
0.69
0.72
0.76
0.78
0.78
0.75
0.71
0.65
0.56
0.49
0.44
0.41
0.43
0.46

mm
48.40
46.40
44.40
42.40
39.65
36.52
33.91
31.16
28.41
25.92
23.43
20.81
18.45
15.96
13.72
11.86
9.50
8.51
7.02

1.65
2.65
3.65
4.65
5.65
6.65
8.65
10.65
12.65
14.65
16.65
18.65
20.65
22.65
24.65
26.65

137.12
138.90
139.53
139.91
140.67
141.44
142.96
144.23
145.75
147.02
149.18
149.82
150.83
151.85
152.86
153.75

127.47
126.96
127.47
127.22
126.96
126.96
126.96
126.45
126.45
126.96
127.09
127.22
126.96
126.45
125.19
124.93

0.43
0.48
0.49
0.50
0.52
0.53
0.56
0.59
0.62
0.63
0.66
0.67
0.68
0.71
0.74
0.75

49.26
47.76
47.26
46.01
44.76
43.76
41.76
39.25
37.25
35.76
33.88
32.01
29.76
27.25
23.98
21.73

H(1)

H(2)

mm
28.65
30.65
32.65
34.65
36.65
39.15

mm
153.88
154.89
156.80
157.18
157.94
158.96

mm
124.42
124.42
123.41
122.90
122.14
121.25

m/s
0.76
0.77
0.81
0.82
0.84
0.86

P
w*g
mm
19.22
17.22
14.21
11.70
8.94
5.55

1.65
2.59
3.59
4.59
6.59
8.59
11.59
14.59
17.59
20.59
23.59
26.59
29.59
32.59
35.59
38.59
41.59
44.65
47.65
50.65
53.65
55.65
57.65

137.63
138.64
139.41
139.91
140.67
141.44
142.71
144.23
145.25
145.88
146.77
148.04
148.55
150.32
150.83
151.85
153.12
153.88
154.89
155.78
156.42
156.16
156.16

130.39
130.26
130.26
130.26
130.26
130.26
130.26
130.26
130.39
130.39
130.39
130.52
130.77
131.03
131.28
131.03
131.79
132.04
132.55
133.06
133.44
133.56
133.56

0.38
0.41
0.42
0.43
0.45
0.47
0.49
0.52
0.54
0.55
0.57
0.59
0.59
0.62
0.62
0.64
0.65
0.65
0.66
0.67
0.67
0.67
0.67

64.52
63.45
62.45
61.45
59.45
57.45
54.45
51.45
48.58
45.58
42.58
39.71
36.96
34.22
31.47
28.22
25.98
23.18
20.68
18.19
15.57
13.70
11.70

2.80
3.80
4.80
8.80
10.80
13.80
16.80
19.80
22.80
25.80
28.80
31.80
34.80
37.80
40.80
43.80
45.80
47.80

140.17
141.18
142.07
142.45
143.47
144.36
144.99
146.26
147.40
148.29
149.31
150.32
151.59
152.99
153.88
155.40
156.42
157.69

130.01
130.01
129.76
129.76
129.63
129.50
129.50
129.50
129.50
128.99
128.99
128.49
128.49
128.23
127.98
127.47
126.71
126.45

0.45
0.47
0.49
0.50
0.52
0.54
0.55
0.57
0.59
0.62
0.63
0.65
0.67
0.70
0.71
0.74
0.76
0.78

53.78
52.78
51.53
47.53
45.40
42.28
39.28
36.28
33.28
29.77
26.77
23.26
20.26
17.01
13.76
10.25
7.49
5.23

1.65
2.65
3.65
5.65
7.65
9.65
12.65
15.65
18.65

138.64
139.53
140.17
140.67
141.18
141.82
142.71
143.47
143.98

132.80
132.55
132.68
132.55
132.55
132.55
132.55
132.55
132.55

0.34
0.37
0.38
0.40
0.41
0.43
0.45
0.46
0.47

70.71
69.46
68.58
66.46
64.46
62.46
59.46
56.46
53.46

Run

No.

1B HM
TJ6e

2C HM
TJ6f
12.17

2B HM
TJ6g 12.27

3C HM
TJ6h 12.32

H(2)

mm
21.65
24.65
27.65
30.65
33.65
36.65
39.65
42.65
45.65
48.65
51.65
54.65
57.65
60.65

mm
145.12
145.63
146.90
147.66
147.78
149.05
150.07
150.96
152.10
152.36
152.86
152.86
153.24
153.37

mm
132.55
132.80
132.93
132.93
132.80
133.06
133.06
133.56
133.69
133.95
134.33
134.58
134.83
134.58

m/s
0.50
0.50
0.52
0.54
0.54
0.56
0.58
0.58
0.60
0.60
0.60
0.60
0.60
0.61

P
w*g
mm
50.46
47.71
44.84
41.84
38.72
35.97
32.97
30.48
27.61
24.86
22.24
19.50
16.75
13.50

1.65
2.05
2.55
3.05
3.55
4.05
4.55
5.05
5.55
6.05
6.55
7.55
8.55
9.55
10.55
11.55
12.55
13.55
14.55
15.55
16.55

143.72
147.02
150.32
152.74
155.15
156.80
158.83
160.73
162.39
163.91
165.56
167.84
170.13
171.65
173.69
175.21
177.11
178.38
179.53
179.78
180.29

100.55
100.55
100.55
100.55
99.54
99.92
100.05
100.55
100.81
99.92
100.05
99.54
99.79
100.05
100.05
99.54
99.54
99.54
99.28
99.28
99.28

0.92
0.95
0.99
1.01
1.04
1.06
1.07
1.09
1.10
1.12
1.13
1.16
1.17
1.18
1.20
1.22
1.23
1.24
1.25
1.26
1.26

19.18
18.78
18.28
17.78
16.27
16.15
15.78
15.79
15.54
14.15
13.78
12.27
11.52
10.78
9.78
8.27
7.27
6.27
5.02
4.02
3.02

No.

11.8

3C HM
TJ6h

SW HMTJ6i

F-17

H(1)

Run

Fig. F-6 - Dimensionless distributions along the centreline (undular jump type E)
Run HMTJ6 : qw = 0.0198 m2/s, Fr1 = 2.40, dc/W = 0.137
(A) Dimensionless pressure distributions P/(w*g*d)CL
(B) Dimensionless velocity distributions V/(Vm)CL
(C) Dimensionless specific energy distributions E/(Em)CL

F-18

Experiment HMTJ7
Summary
Ref.
(1)
HMTJ7a
HMTJ7c
HMTJ7d
HMTJ7e
HMTJ7f
HMTJ7g
HMTJ7h
HMTJ7i

Qw

dCL

L/s
(2)
9.975

m
(3)
10.90
11.19
11.89
12.10
12.32
12.49
12.63
11.69

m
(4)
0.0426
0.042
0.087
0.055
0.0845
0.0595
0.0913
0.045

Experimental data
(1)

(2)

P
w*g

mm

m/s

mm

Run

No.
U/S
HHMTJ
7a

mm

10.9

1.65

289.56 259.43 0.77 40.94

2.65
3.65
5.65
7.65
10.65
13.65
17.65
21.65
25.65
29.65
33.65
38.65

292.48
295.66
300.36
303.92
308.75
311.67
315.61
318.79
321.84
323.88
325.91
327.69

259.30
259.30
259.30
259.30
259.30
259.30
259.30
259.30
259.30
259.30
259.30
259.43

0.81
0.84
0.90
0.94
0.98
1.01
1.05
1.08
1.11
1.12
1.14
1.16

39.81
38.81
36.81
34.81
31.81
28.81
24.81
20.81
16.81
12.81
8.81
3.94

258.29
258.16
258.16
258.16
258.16
258.16
258.16
258.03
258.03
258.03
258.16
258.16
258.29

0.78
0.81
0.85
0.90
0.94
0.98
1.01
1.05
1.08
1.11
1.13
1.14
1.16

40.33
39.20
38.20
36.20
34.20
31.20
28.20
24.07
20.07
16.07
12.20
8.20
3.33

mm

U/S
HTJ7c

11.19

1.65
2.65
3.65
5.65
7.65
10.65
13.65
17.65
21.65
25.65
29.65
33.65
38.65

289.30
291.72
294.64
299.47
302.78
306.97
310.66
314.47
317.78
320.83
322.86
324.77
326.80

1C
HM
TJ7d

11.89

1.65
2.65
3.65

286.00 279.64 0.35 70.30


286.76 279.52 0.38 69.17
287.27 279.64 0.39 68.30

Comments
(5)
Upstream (U/S).
Upstream (U/S).
First crest (1C).
First bottom (1B).
Second crest (2C).
Second bottom (2B).
Third crest (3C).
Start lateral shock waves
(SW).

H(2)

mm
5.65
7.65
10.65
13.65
17.65
21.65
25.65
29.65
33.65
37.65
41.65
45.65
49.65
53.65
57.65
61.65
65.65
68.65
71.65
73.65
75.65

mm
289.81
292.23
294.90
296.81
300.74
303.54
306.72
309.26
311.55
313.71
316.12
317.39
318.28
319.55
320.32
321.08
321.21
321.21
320.57
319.81
318.79

mm
279.64
279.64
279.64
279.64
280.15
280.15
280.28
280.66
281.17
281.68
282.57
283.20
283.84
284.73
285.74
286.76
288.16
289.30
290.32
290.96
291.34

m/s
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.58
0.64
0.68
0.72
0.75
0.77
0.79
0.81
0.82
0.82
0.83
0.82
0.82
0.80
0.79
0.77
0.75
0.73

P
w*g
mm
66.30
64.30
61.30
58.30
54.81
50.81
46.93
43.31
39.82
36.33
33.22
29.86
26.49
23.38
20.40
17.42
14.81
12.96
10.98
9.61
7.99

1.65
2.07
3.07
4.07
5.07
7.07
9.07
11.07
14.07
17.07
20.07
23.07
26.07
29.07
32.07
35.07
38.07

289.56
290.32
291.84
292.86
293.75
294.90
296.42
297.95
300.87
303.54
305.95
308.62
310.91
313.07
315.23
316.76
318.54

274.05
273.92
273.92
273.92
273.67
274.05
273.80
273.54
273.54
273.41
273.29
273.03
272.78
272.52
271.51
271.00
270.49

0.55
0.57
0.59
0.61
0.63
0.64
0.67
0.69
0.73
0.77
0.80
0.84
0.86
0.89
0.93
0.95
0.97

60.04
59.50
58.50
57.50
56.24
54.62
52.37
50.11
47.11
43.99
40.86
37.61
34.35
31.10
27.08
23.57
20.06

No.

12.1

1C HM
TJ7d

1B HM
TJ7e

F-19

H(1)

Run

Run
No.

H(1)

H(2)

mm
41.07
44.07
47.07
49.07
51.07

mm
320.19
321.33
321.84
321.84
321.84

mm
270.11
269.47
268.71
268.46
268.08

m/s
0.99
1.01
1.02
1.02
1.03

P
w*g
mm
16.68
13.05
9.29
7.03
4.65

12.32

1.65
2.59
3.59
5.59
7.59
9.59
11.59
14.59
18.59
22.59
26.59
30.59
34.59
38.59
42.59
46.59
50.59
54.65
58.65
62.65
66.65
70.65
73.65
76.65
78.65

289.30
290.32
290.83
292.35
293.37
294.39
295.40
296.67
298.45
300.49
302.52
304.81
307.10
309.13
311.17
313.20
314.85
316.50
317.78
318.79
319.30
319.30
319.55
319.30
319.05

282.06
282.06
282.18
282.06
282.06
282.18
282.18
282.18
282.18
282.18
282.31
282.69
282.95
283.46
283.71
284.22
284.73
284.98
285.49
286.25
287.27
287.27
288.79
289.81
289.81

0.38
0.40
0.41
0.45
0.47
0.49
0.51
0.53
0.56
0.60
0.63
0.66
0.69
0.71
0.73
0.75
0.77
0.79
0.80
0.80
0.79
0.79
0.78
0.76
0.76

73.84
72.90
72.03
69.90
67.90
66.03
64.03
61.03
57.03
53.03
49.16
45.54
41.79
38.30
34.56
31.07
27.57
23.77
20.28
17.04
14.06
10.06
8.58
6.60
4.60

12.49

1.65
2.60
3.60
4.60
6.60
8.60
11.60
14.60
17.60
20.60
23.65
26.65
29.65
32.65
35.65
38.65
41.65
44.65
47.65
50.65
53.65
55.65

290.83
291.84
292.86
293.75
294.90
295.91
296.93
298.33
299.98
301.51
303.54
305.57
307.35
309.26
311.17
313.20
314.72
316.63
318.03
318.92
319.05
318.79

278.75
278.63
278.63
278.63
279.01
279.01
279.01
278.63
279.01
278.88
278.12
277.86
277.61
277.99
277.35
276.08
276.21
274.81
274.30
273.16
272.27
271.51

0.49
0.51
0.53
0.54
0.56
0.58
0.59
0.62
0.64
0.67
0.71
0.74
0.76
0.78
0.81
0.85
0.87
0.91
0.93
0.95
0.96
0.96

66.18
65.10
64.10
63.10
61.48
59.48
56.48
53.10
50.48
47.35
43.54
40.29
37.03
34.41
30.78
26.51
23.64
19.24
15.73
11.58
7.70
4.93

12.63

1.65
2.60
3.60

289.94 283.58 0.35 79.24


290.57 283.58 0.37 78.29
291.34 283.58 0.39 77.29

1B HM

TJ7e

TJ7g

TJ7h

F-20

mm
292.48
293.37
294.13
295.02
295.91
297.31
298.58
299.98
301.51
304.05
306.21
308.62
311.55
313.07
315.23
316.76
318.03
318.54
318.79
318.79
318.67

mm
283.58
283.58
283.46
283.71
283.71
283.71
283.71
284.09
284.22
284.22
284.85
285.49
285.74
286.00
286.76
287.78
288.92
289.43
290.57
291.08
291.84

m/s
0.42
0.44
0.46
0.47
0.49
0.52
0.54
0.56
0.58
0.62
0.65
0.67
0.71
0.73
0.75
0.75
0.76
0.76
0.74
0.74
0.73

1.65
2.62
3.62
4.62
5.62
7.62
9.62
11.62
13.62
15.62
17.62
20.62
22.62
24.62
26.62
28.62
30.62
32.62
34.62
36.62
38.62
40.62

285.62
289.81
292.86
295.40
297.18
301.00
303.92
306.34
308.88
311.93
313.20
315.23
316.38
318.03
319.30
320.32
321.21
322.35
323.11
323.62
323.75
323.88

262.61
262.36
262.36
261.59
262.86
262.86
262.36
261.85
262.10
262.61
261.85
260.83
260.96
260.32
259.81
259.69
259.81
259.81
259.56
259.30
259.43
259.30

0.67
0.73
0.77
0.81
0.82
0.86
0.90
0.93
0.96
0.98
1.00
1.03
1.04
1.06
1.08
1.09
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12

46.97
45.75
44.75
42.99
43.26
41.26
38.75
36.24
34.49
33.00
30.24
26.22
24.35
21.72
19.21
17.08
15.21
13.21
10.95
8.70
6.83
4.70

No.

11.69

SW HMTJ7i

3C HM

mm
5.60
7.60
9.60
12.60
15.60
19.60
23.60
27.60
31.60
36.60
41.60
46.60
51.60
56.60
61.65
66.65
70.65
74.65
77.65
80.65
82.65

P
w*g
mm
75.29
73.29
71.17
68.42
65.42
61.42
57.42
53.80
49.93
44.93
40.56
36.20
31.45
26.71
22.42
18.44
15.58
12.09
10.23
7.74
6.51

3C HM
TJ7h

2B HM

H(2)

2C HM

TJ7f

H(1)

Run

Fig. F-7 - Dimensionless distributions along the centreline (undular jump type C)
Run HMTJ7 : qw = 0.0399 m2/s, Fr1 = 1.48, dc/W = 0.218
(A) Dimensionless pressure distributions P/(w*g*d)CL
(B) Dimensionless velocity distributions V/(Vm)CL
(C) Dimensionless specific energy distributions E/(Em)CL

F-21

F.3 Three-dimensional flow field (smooth-wall channel)


Run TT2_1

Summary
Run

Qw
L/s

x
m

z (mm)
z/W
TT2_1

15
10.38
10.62
10.69
10.75
10.82
11.02
11.22

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

Comments

125
0.5

62.5
0.25

11.5
0.046

0
0

W=0.25 m

58.7
58.7
61.5
66.8
79.6
112.2
86.6
115.7

58.2
63.68
80
91.1
100.6
91.3
106.6

57.5
64.6
83.1
88.5
94.4
95.9
104.3

57
63
79
86
88
94
99

U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C

z/W =

0.5

(CL)

z/W =

0.25

(1/4)

z/W =

0.05

(11.5)

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

(1)
U/S
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0440
0.0510
0.0649
0.0789
0.0929
0.1208
0.1627
0.2185
0.2883
0.3581
0.4419
0.5257
0.6095
0.6933
0.7491
0.7687

(2)

(3)

(40

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11

(12)

3.197
3.200
3.225
3.259
3.280
3.321
3.363
3.398
3.450
3.529
3.595
3.681
3.747
3.806
3.854
3.879
3.889
3.892
3.892

1.104
1.110
1.128
1.159
1.176
1.211
1.245
1.272
1.313
1.372
1.419
1.479
1.523
1.561
1.591
1.607
1.613
1.615
1.615

0.797
0.786
0.783
0.776
0.769
0.755
0.741
0.727
0.699
0.657
0.601
0.531
0.461
0.378
0.294
0.210
0.126
0.071
0.051

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0440
0.0510
0.0649
0.0789
0.0929
0.1208
0.1627
0.2185
0.2883
0.3721
0.4559
0.5397
0.6234
0.6793
0.7351
0.7631
0.7910

3.107
3.117
3.135
3.155
3.183
3.221
3.252
3.277
3.325
3.373
3.436
3.488
3.560
3.619
3.661
3.678
3.678
3.661
3.643
3.591

0.998
1.022
1.039
1.052
1.081
1.116
1.144
1.168
1.208
1.253
1.297
1.344
1.399
1.441
1.472
1.483
1.488
1.474
1.462
1.426

0.825
0.804
0.797
0.797
0.786
0.772
0.758
0.741
0.713
0.664
0.615
0.535
0.448
0.364
0.277
0.193
0.130
0.078
0.050
0.022

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0440
0.0510
0.0649
0.0789
0.0929
0.1208
0.1627
0.2185
0.2883
0.3721
0.4699
0.5676
0.6653
0.7491
0.7770

2.965
2.969
2.976
2.986
3.010
3.041
3.083
3.121
3.159
3.197
3.225
3.242
3.259
3.270
3.270
3.263
3.238
3.155

0.864
0.868
0.880
0.892
0.919
0.952
0.998
1.036
1.072
1.107
1.138
1.159
1.176
1.185
1.191
1.182
1.162
1.088

0.808
0.801
0.790
0.783
0.776
0.762
0.745
0.731
0.703
0.661
0.598
0.522
0.434
0.337
0.232
0.138
0.054
0.026

SW
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0440
0.0510
0.0649
0.0789
0.0929
0.1208
0.1627
0.2185
0.2883
0.3581

3.152
3.427
3.445
3.468
3.498
3.539
3.591
3.617
3.677
3.745
3.831
3.913
3.995

0.967
1.009
1.012
1.038
1.042
1.101
1.154
1.176
1.220
1.286
1.348
1.421
1.493

0.707
0.933
0.941
0.930
0.949
0.913
0.892
0.878
0.857
0.800
0.748
0.660
0.568

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0440
0.0510
0.0649
0.0789
0.0929
0.1208
0.1627
0.2185
0.2883
0.3721

3.097
3.352
3.374
3.393
3.415
3.449
3.483
3.513
3.565
3.617
3.681
3.752
3.808

0.904
0.948
0.975
0.990
0.998
1.038
1.066
1.091
1.144
1.183
1.244
1.295
1.351

0.710
0.918
0.907
0.904
0.912
0.891
0.880
0.870
0.835
0.800
0.733
0.671
0.569

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0440
0.0510
0.0649
0.0789
0.0929
0.1208
0.1627
0.2185
0.2883
0.3721

2.917
3.161
3.172
3.187
3.210
3.258
3.296
3.326
3.363
3.404
3.442
3.479
3.498

0.617
0.664
0.647
0.659
0.754
0.843
0.861
0.886
0.944
0.986
1.034
1.066
1.084

0.749
0.955
0.971
0.971
0.920
0.883
0.892
0.885
0.842
0.800
0.733
0.667
0.583

F-22

z/W =

0.5

(CL)

z/W =

0.25

(1/4)

z/W =

0.05

(11.5)

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

(1)
SW
0.4419
0.5257
0.6095
0.6933
0.7770
0.8050
0.8309

(2)

(3)

(40

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11

(12)

4.074
4.130
4.171
4.182
4.190
4.186
4.152

1.559
1.614
1.643
1.662
1.659
1.659
1.632

0.461
0.348
0.256
0.154
0.081
0.050
0.035

0.4559
0.5397
0.6234
0.7072
0.7491
0.7701

3.876
3.920
3.954
3.965
3.958
3.954

1.405
1.440
1.473
1.498
1.491
1.481

0.477
0.390
0.291
0.181
0.143
0.133

0.4699
0.5816
0.6514
0.7072
0.7491
0.7770
0.8050
0.8189

3.498
3.494
3.486
3.486
3.468
3.457
3.404
3.356

1.084
1.108
1.098
1.141
1.070
1.059
1.045
0.998

0.486
0.344
0.278
0.174
0.192
0.164
0.098
0.084

SW1
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0440
0.0510
0.0649
0.0789
0.0929
0.1208
0.1627
0.2185
0.2883
0.3581
0.4419
0.5257
0.6095
0.6653
0.7212
0.7770
0.8329
0.8748
0.9167

3.176
3.187
3.200
3.221
3.238
3.266
3.301
3.325
3.370
3.439
3.508
3.588
3.643
3.709
3.768
3.806
3.840
3.854
3.861
3.865
3.837
3.837

0.840
0.860
0.868
0.915
0.934
0.977
0.977
1.015
1.059
1.134
1.194
1.270
1.297
1.354
1.402
1.431
1.458
1.481
1.488
1.527
1.504
1.504

1.033
1.019
1.019
0.991
0.984
0.956
0.977
0.949
0.921
0.865
0.809
0.726
0.677
0.583
0.492
0.405
0.345
0.269
0.209
0.098
0.063
0.021

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0440
0.0510
0.0649
0.0789
0.0929
0.1208
0.1627
0.2185
0.2883
0.3721
0.4559
0.5397
0.6234
0.7072
0.7770
0.8189
0.8608

3.059
3.069
3.079
3.100
3.114
3.148
3.173
3.204
3.249
3.308
3.360
3.418
3.477
3.543
3.584
3.626
3.657
3.657
3.647
3.623

0.725
0.749
0.744
0.758
0.789
0.856
0.856
0.896
0.941
1.019
1.052
1.116
1.171
1.220
1.270
1.315
1.349
1.407
1.417
1.359

1.288
1.274
1.281
1.284
1.267
1.232
1.242
1.225
1.201
1.141
1.103
1.023
0.935
0.859
0.754
0.653
0.555
0.406
0.340
0.353

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0440
0.0510
0.0649
0.0789
0.0929
0.1208
0.1627
0.2185
0.2883
0.3721
0.4699
0.5816
0.6933
0.7910
0.8468
0.9027
0.9446
0.9865
1.0284
1.0703

2.937
2.941
2.948
2.955
2.965
2.996
3.020
3.045
3.079
3.110
3.155
3.162
3.169
3.183
3.190
3.173
3.138
3.079
3.027
2.982
2.941
2.892
2.879

0.381
0.416
0.432
0.492
0.513
0.576
0.600
0.639
0.655
0.716
0.771
0.798
0.811
0.872
0.872
0.856
0.789
0.701
0.623
0.506
0.440
0.333
0.220

1.141
1.124
1.117
1.089
1.082
1.065
1.061
1.047
1.044
0.991
0.939
0.855
0.768
0.632
0.528
0.412
0.335
0.287
0.231
0.210
0.157
0.109
0.084

SW2
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0440
0.0510
0.0649
0.0789
0.0929
0.1208
0.1627
0.2185
0.2883
0.3581
0.4419
0.5257
0.6234
0.7212
0.8189
0.8748
0.9306

3.097
3.114
3.128
3.145
3.169
3.204
3.235
3.266
3.294
3.360
3.425
3.508
3.605
3.671
3.737
3.771
3.806
3.827
3.837
3.827

0.639
0.676
0.655
0.681
0.753
0.785
0.832
0.880
0.884
0.977
1.022
1.116
1.245
1.270
1.315
1.346
1.387
1.407
1.429
1.426

1.194
1.180
1.201
1.194
1.159
1.156
1.135
1.111
1.107
1.044
1.009
0.922
0.797
0.748
0.671
0.566
0.448
0.343
0.266
0.204

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0440
0.0510
0.0649
0.0789
0.0929
0.1208
0.1627
0.2185
0.2883
0.3721
0.4559
0.5397
0.6234
0.7072
0.7910
0.8748
0.9586
1.0144
1.0563
1.0982
1.1261
1.1540

3.024
3.024
3.027
3.031
3.038
3.055
3.072
3.093
3.128
3.159
3.228
3.304
3.360
3.418
3.484
3.522
3.571
3.598
3.605
3.598
3.584
3.481
3.418
3.308
3.280

0.485
0.471
0.478
0.485
0.513
0.558
0.576
0.606
0.644
0.706
0.811
0.892
0.952
1.019
1.075
1.122
1.168
1.171
1.159
1.171
1.138
1.059
0.998
0.872
0.807

1.154
1.154
1.147
1.140
1.126
1.105
1.098
1.088
1.070
1.018
0.952
0.889
0.805
0.714
0.638
0.540
0.453
0.393
0.330
0.226
0.194
0.135
0.093
0.072
0.072

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0440
0.0510
0.0649
0.0789
0.0929
0.1208
0.1627
0.2185
0.2883
0.3721
0.4699
0.5816
0.6933
0.8050
0.9167
1.0144
1.0703
1.0912

2.934
2.920
2.924
2.920
2.931
2.937
2.958
2.972
2.993
3.027
3.059
3.086
3.100
3.128
3.135
3.124
3.093
3.027
2.986
2.931
2.913

0.288
0.220
0.276
0.235
0.276
0.333
0.372
0.416
0.448
0.519
0.576
0.617
0.644
0.676
0.725
0.691
0.628
0.533
0.448
0.311
0.204

1.213
1.210
1.193
1.193
1.186
1.161
1.154
1.137
1.116
1.074
1.018
0.952
0.864
0.774
0.634
0.536
0.435
0.313
0.215
0.156
0.145

F-23

z/W =

0.5

(CL)

z/W =

0.25

(1/4)

z/W =

0.05

(11.5)

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

(1)
SW2

(2)

(3)

(40

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11

(12)

1.1820

3.294

0.762

0.092

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0440
0.0510
0.0649
0.0789
0.0929
0.1208
0.1627
0.2185
0.2883
0.3721
0.4699
0.5816
0.6933
0.8050
0.9167
1.0284
1.1121
1.1820
1.2378
1.2657
1.2937

3.045
3.038
3.031
3.034
3.034
3.041
3.048
3.055
3.072
3.097
3.138
3.187
3.256
3.339
3.401
3.477
3.533
3.567
3.571
3.522
3.450
3.391
3.339
3.287

0.381
0.381
0.353
0.381
0.381
0.399
0.416
0.448
0.485
0.533
0.594
0.676
0.767
0.864
0.923
1.009
1.042
1.069
1.062
1.012
0.919
0.832
0.767
0.686

1.281
1.268
1.264
1.250
1.243
1.229
1.215
1.194
1.166
1.125
1.076
1.002
0.922
0.828
0.726
0.608
0.517
0.412
0.311
0.230
0.178
0.139
0.111
0.090

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0440
0.0510
0.0649
0.0789
0.0929
0.1208
0.1627
0.2185
0.2883
0.3721
0.4699
0.5816
0.6933
0.8050
0.9167
1.0284
1.1401
1.1959
1.2169
1.2378
1.2553

3.017
3.017
3.014
3.010
3.010
3.017
3.014
3.017
3.020
3.024
3.031
3.045
3.062
3.069
3.072
3.069
3.065
3.059
3.059
3.065
3.059
3.048
3.034
3.034

0.263
0.263
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.263
0.276
0.276
0.276
0.288
0.353
0.363
0.416
0.432
0.440
0.432
0.416
0.390
0.372
0.381
0.363
0.343
0.288
0.288

1.284
1.277
1.270
1.260
1.253
1.242
1.221
1.211
1.186
1.144
1.075
1.015
0.928
0.830
0.719
0.607
0.499
0.390
0.286
0.177
0.121
0.097
0.080
0.062

1C
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0440
0.0510
0.0649
0.0789
0.0929
0.1208
0.1627
0.2185
0.2883
0.3721
0.4559
0.5397
0.6234
0.7072
0.7910
0.8748
0.9586
1.0284
1.0982
1.1680
1.2378
1.2797
1.3076
1.3286
1.3425
1.3565
1.3774
1.3844
1.4347
1B
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0440
0.0510
0.0649
0.0929
0.1208
0.1487
0.2185
0.2883
0.3721
0.4419
0.5257
0.6095
0.6933
0.7770
0.8608
0.9306
0.9865
1.0423
1.0842
1.1121

3.148
3.155
3.155
3.162
3.169
3.176
3.197
3.218
3.232
3.266
3.335
3.418
3.484
3.550
3.633
3.699
3.751
3.726
3.816
3.834
3.834
3.813
3.681
3.619
3.536
3.498
3.446
3.443
3.411
3.356
3.325
3.325

0.552
0.552
0.552
0.564
0.582
0.594
0.634
0.665
0.686
0.739
0.828
0.919
0.988
1.052
1.122
1.179
1.223
1.185
1.234
1.237
1.234
1.194
1.059
0.988
0.884
0.836
0.758
0.767
0.716
0.611
0.545
0.533

1.316
1.316
1.309
1.302
1.291
1.277
1.260
1.246
1.218
1.173
1.117
1.051
0.967
0.883
0.806
0.722
0.639
0.576
0.523
0.453
0.387
0.345
0.295
0.236
0.208
0.184
0.173
0.149
0.142
0.134
0.134
0.091

3.214
3.218
3.225
3.228
3.235
3.238
3.245
3.270
3.297
3.332
3.384
3.463
3.519
3.591
3.674
3.733
3.757
3.754
3.744
3.726
3.699
3.678
3.667

0.634
0.639
0.650
0.660
0.671
0.665
0.676
0.716
0.753
0.802
0.868
0.959
1.019
1.091
1.179
1.242
1.278
1.289
1.294
1.289
1.270
1.262
1.251

1.328
1.321
1.314
1.303
1.296
1.289
1.261
1.230
1.202
1.129
1.055
0.968
0.895
0.808
0.707
0.605
0.501
0.400
0.313
0.246
0.187
0.135
0.110

F-24

z/W =

0.5

(CL)

z/W =

0.25

(1/4)

z/W =

z/W =

0.05

(11.5)

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

(1)
1B
1.1401
1.1540
2C
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0440
0.0510
0.0649
0.0789
0.0929
0.1208
0.1487
0.2185
0.2883
0.3721
0.4699
0.5816
0.6933
0.8050
0.9167
1.0284
1.1401
1.2378
1.3355
1.4054
1.4612
1.5031
1.5171

(2)

(3)

(40

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11

(12)

3.605
3.557

1.208
1.165

0.072
0.062

3.225
3.225
3.228
3.228
3.232
3.235
3.242
3.245
3.259
3.273
3.297
3.332
3.339
3.429
3.484
3.574
3.633
3.685
3.716
3.723
3.716
3.709
3.699
3.688
3.664
3.647

0.526
0.533
0.545
0.533
0.552
0.552
0.570
0.576
0.606
0.628
0.665
0.716
0.730
0.844
0.904
0.995
1.046
1.094
1.104
1.104
1.078
1.052
1.029
1.000
0.970
0.952

1.463
1.453
1.443
1.442
1.429
1.418
1.401
1.387
1.355
1.327
1.258
1.188
1.100
1.003
0.895
0.786
0.681
0.570
0.479
0.374
0.297
0.220
0.164
0.128
0.091
0.077

F-25

Fig. F-8 - Flow field characteristics : Fr1 = 1.35, dc/W = 0.286, Run TT2_1 (Smooth-wall channel)
(A) Dimensionless pressure distribution P/(w*g*dc) (Smooth-wall channel)
(Aa) z/W = 0.5 (Centreline), (Ab) z/W = 0.125, (Ac) z/W = 0.05

F-26

Fig. F-8 - Flow field characteristics : Fr1 = 1.35, dc/W = 0.286, Run TT2_1 (Smooth-wall channel)
(B) Dimensionless velocity distribution V/Vc (Smooth-wall channel)
(Ba) z/W = 0.5 (Centreline), (Bb) z/W = 0.125, (Bc) z/W = 0.05

F-27

F-28

Run TT2_2

Summary
Run

Qw
L/s

x
m

z (mm)
z/W
TT2_2

15
9
10
10.13
10.27
10.4
10.6
10.85

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

Comments

125
0.5

62.5
0.25

13.5
0.054

0
0

W=0.25 m

65.6
65.6
66.6
67.4
78
96.8
78.2
99.1

66
66.2
67.6
77.3
90
84.5
98

66.4
67
71.8
82.6
88
85.4
95.4

66.5
67.6
72
83
88
85
95

U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C

z/W =

0.5

(CL)

z/W =

0.25

(1/4)

z/W =

0.05

(13.5)

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

(1)
U/S
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.8468
0.8748

(2)

(3)

(40

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11

(12)

3.394
3.401
3.411
3.436
3.467
3.512
3.575
3.644
3.749
3.853
3.888
3.909
3.923
3.930

1.011
1.021
1.032
1.055
1.084
1.125
1.179
1.237
1.319
1.395
1.420
1.435
1.444
1.444

0.889
0.879
0.872
0.858
0.837
0.802
0.746
0.662
0.537
0.397
0.258
0.118
0.062
0.041

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7491
0.8329
0.8678

3.288
3.292
3.295
3.323
3.343
3.385
3.440
3.516
3.560
3.609
3.681
3.715
3.722
3.715

0.932
0.936
0.939
0.968
0.989
1.030
1.083
1.150
1.189
1.229
1.286
1.313
1.318
1.310

0.898
0.891
0.884
0.870
0.850
0.815
0.759
0.675
0.549
0.410
0.270
0.172
0.089
0.057

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7491
0.7910
0.8329
0.8538
0.8678

3.261
3.261
3.267
3.274
3.292
3.336
3.388
3.423
3.471
3.505
3.509
3.516
3.516
3.495
3.481
3.454

0.890
0.890
0.898
0.906
0.921
0.968
1.020
1.057
1.101
1.135
1.138
1.141
1.141
1.123
1.111
1.089

0.907
0.900
0.893
0.879
0.862
0.827
0.771
0.684
0.558
0.415
0.275
0.181
0.139
0.097
0.076
0.059

SW
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0440
0.0510
0.0649
0.0789
0.0929
0.1278
0.1627
0.2185
0.3023
0.4000
0.5397
0.6933
0.8050
0.8608
0.8887
0.9027

3.519
3.519
3.519
3.526
3.540
3.554
3.578
3.603
3.637
3.669
3.714
3.777
3.829
3.891
3.940
3.961
3.975
3.982
3.985

0.955
0.951
0.955
0.951
0.976
0.990
1.018
1.045
1.078
1.087
1.137
1.194
1.234
1.284
1.329
1.342
1.352
1.358
1.360

0.907
0.903
0.893
0.896
0.879
0.865
0.847
0.830
0.795
0.781
0.715
0.627
0.533
0.393
0.229
0.121
0.065
0.037
0.023

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7491
0.7910
0.8259
0.8608
0.8748
0.8887
0.9027

3.467
3.467
3.474
3.488
3.505
3.536
3.591
3.657
3.705
3.774
3.826
3.850
3.860
3.864
3.857
3.850
3.846
3.843

0.947
0.947
0.954
0.961
0.979
1.003
1.057
1.114
1.153
1.217
1.262
1.281
1.289
1.292
1.284
1.275
1.273
1.267

0.878
0.871
0.864
0.857
0.836
0.808
0.752
0.672
0.549
0.403
0.260
0.162
0.120
0.085
0.054
0.043
0.029
0.019

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7491
0.8189
0.8608
0.8887
0.9027

3.371
3.378
3.381
3.392
3.412
3.440
3.485
3.533
3.588
3.609
3.633
3.640
3.640
3.626
3.605
3.574

0.826
0.839
0.843
0.855
0.879
0.910
0.958
1.003
1.053
1.079
1.098
1.108
1.101
1.089
1.076
1.047

0.916
0.906
0.899
0.885
0.864
0.829
0.773
0.693
0.570
0.424
0.288
0.187
0.124
0.082
0.047
0.033

F-28

z/W =

0.5

(CL)

z/W =

0.25

(1/4)

z/W =

0.05

(13.5)

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

(1)
SW
0.9167
SW1
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.8468
0.8887
0.9097
0.9236
0.9306
SW2
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0789
0.1138
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9027
0.9865
1.0423
1.0563
1.0703
1.0842
1C
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0789
0.1138
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.1680
1.2099
1.2378
1.2588
1.2797

(2)

(3)

(40

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11

(12)

3.985

1.358

0.013

3.512
3.512
3.519
3.526
3.547
3.585
3.641
3.707
3.804
3.884
3.937
3.964
3.975
3.982
3.985
3.964
3.971

0.921
0.917
0.925
0.929
0.955
0.994
1.045
1.113
1.191
1.245
1.305
1.334
1.342
1.342
1.345
1.329
1.334

0.924
0.921
0.914
0.903
0.879
0.844
0.791
0.701
0.582
0.456
0.292
0.142
0.086
0.052
0.031
0.017
0.010

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7631
0.8050
0.8748
0.9027
0.9236
0.9376

3.443
3.450
3.460
3.474
3.495
3.526
3.564
3.616
3.671
3.736
3.795
3.826
3.836
3.840
3.840
3.836
3.826

0.847
0.875
0.898
0.902
0.910
0.958
0.989
1.044
1.098
1.159
1.212
1.240
1.245
1.237
1.209
1.212
1.209

0.908
0.884
0.867
0.863
0.856
0.807
0.758
0.671
0.542
0.399
0.256
0.141
0.102
0.046
0.053
0.025
0.004

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
0.9516
0.9655

3.367
3.367
3.367
3.385
3.405
3.436
3.474
3.516
3.560
3.585
3.602
3.605
3.591
3.557
3.509

0.669
0.709
0.695
0.779
0.843
0.859
0.910
0.928
0.947
0.972
1.017
1.007
0.975
0.947
0.894

1.011
0.977
0.980
0.921
0.869
0.852
0.789
0.729
0.631
0.492
0.324
0.199
0.076
0.048
0.034

3.526
3.526
3.526
3.533
3.551
3.582
3.624
3.669
3.745
3.801
3.867
3.926
3.954
3.961
3.968
3.968
3.975
3.975

0.867
0.850
0.778
0.741
0.769
0.850
0.875
0.906
1.015
1.052
1.119
1.165
1.173
1.185
1.223
1.176
1.176
1.188

0.947
0.954
1.006
1.027
0.995
0.926
0.898
0.831
0.678
0.555
0.409
0.276
0.182
0.091
-0.003
0.039
0.032
0.004

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
0.9865
1.0144
1.0423
1.0703

3.419
3.426
3.426
3.429
3.447
3.471
3.502
3.550
3.605
3.660
3.733
3.784
3.812
3.812
3.812
3.802
3.798

0.563
0.616
0.638
0.621
0.632
0.680
0.752
0.774
0.871
0.921
0.986
1.037
1.057
1.098
1.086
1.066
1.027

1.086
1.055
1.034
1.034
1.024
0.982
0.905
0.853
0.703
0.573
0.444
0.305
0.172
0.071
0.057
0.039
0.049

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0284
1.0842

3.374
3.364
3.367
3.371
3.381
3.405
3.440
3.485
3.519
3.557
3.571
3.571
3.564
3.547
3.512

0.512
0.544
0.512
0.518
0.525
0.569
0.648
0.714
0.774
0.843
0.805
0.847
0.805
0.752
0.729

1.124
1.089
1.103
1.089
1.075
1.040
0.970
0.886
0.750
0.594
0.499
0.325
0.213
0.139
0.066

3.481
3.484
3.488
3.498
3.512
3.540
3.585
3.631
3.697
3.777
3.843
3.902
3.937
3.954
3.964
3.964
3.964
3.964
3.961

0.630
0.635
0.646
0.657
0.678
0.717
0.778
0.834
0.910
0.987
1.045
1.094
1.106
1.106
1.100
1.091
1.081
1.078
1.074

1.216
1.209
1.198
1.188
1.160
1.125
1.076
0.992
0.867
0.734
0.601
0.468
0.350
0.227
0.147
0.116
0.098
0.081
0.060

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0423
1.1401
1.1750
1.1959
1.2099

3.481
3.471
3.467
3.471
3.474
3.481
3.495
3.529
3.578
3.647
3.702
3.757
3.798
3.802
3.788
3.767
3.747
3.729

0.643
0.621
0.610
0.621
0.621
0.632
0.654
0.704
0.770
0.855
0.917
0.972
1.013
1.013
0.989
0.965
0.939
0.921

1.199
1.195
1.192
1.174
1.157
1.122
1.066
0.982
0.857
0.717
0.577
0.441
0.302
0.193
0.106
0.074
0.057
0.043

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.1401
1.1680
1.1820
1.1959

3.419
3.409
3.405
3.409
3.412
3.419
3.440
3.467
3.491
3.526
3.543
3.550
3.543
3.529
3.509
3.498
3.485
3.474

0.532
0.512
0.512
0.512
0.518
0.532
0.569
0.616
0.654
0.704
0.729
0.738
0.729
0.709
0.680
0.659
0.632
0.616

1.198
1.191
1.181
1.170
1.149
1.114
1.058
0.975
0.849
0.709
0.570
0.430
0.290
0.151
0.081
0.057
0.046
0.032

F-29

z/W =

0.5

(CL)

z/W =

0.25

(1/4)

z/W =

0.05

(13.5)

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

(1)
1B
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0423
1.0703
1.0842

(2)

(3)

(40

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11

(12)

3.537
3.537
3.540
3.540
3.554
3.578
3.606
3.651
3.714
3.797
3.860
3.912
3.930
3.937
3.944
3.923

0.778
0.769
0.773
0.778
0.796
0.826
0.859
0.910
0.973
1.061
1.128
1.191
1.211
1.229
1.234
1.217

1.122
1.122
1.115
1.097
1.076
1.041
0.986
0.902
0.780
0.633
0.483
0.322
0.176
0.050
0.022
0.008

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0004
1.0423
1.0703
1.0982
1.1121
1.1261
1.1401

3.478
3.481
3.481
3.485
3.491
3.509
3.516
3.540
3.588
3.647
3.709
3.771
3.795
3.805
3.802
3.795
3.788
3.778
3.764
3.736

0.685
0.690
0.685
0.695
0.700
0.729
0.733
0.774
0.830
0.902
0.968
1.044
1.066
1.079
1.079
1.076
1.060
1.057
1.050
1.020

1.186
1.179
1.175
1.158
1.140
1.102
1.050
0.959
0.837
0.694
0.554
0.401
0.261
0.188
0.142
0.111
0.093
0.073
0.052
0.041

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0284
1.0842
1.1052
1.1261
1.1401

3.426
3.426
3.429
3.433
3.433
3.443
3.460
3.481
3.498
3.519
3.536
3.547
3.557
3.564
3.564
3.557
3.550
3.547

0.599
0.599
0.604
0.610
0.610
0.627
0.654
0.685
0.709
0.743
0.765
0.783
0.805
0.818
0.818
0.805
0.796
0.792

1.181
1.174
1.167
1.153
1.132
1.097
1.042
0.958
0.832
0.689
0.549
0.406
0.260
0.159
0.103
0.085
0.064
0.050

2C
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.1820
1.2238
1.2518
1.2797
1.3076
1.3286
1.3425

3.547
3.554
3.568
3.571
3.596
3.617
3.602
3.636
3.695
3.750
3.812
3.871
3.922
3.950
3.960
3.964
3.964
3.964
3.964
3.964
3.957

0.613
0.630
0.646
0.651
0.693
0.717
0.738
0.783
0.855
0.913
0.972
1.024
1.070
1.076
1.076
1.073
1.070
1.063
1.057
1.057
1.047

1.304
1.294
1.290
1.276
1.252
1.220
1.135
1.051
0.925
0.789
0.656
0.523
0.387
0.268
0.167
0.132
0.107
0.086
0.065
0.044
0.034

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.1680
1.2238
1.2518
1.2797
1.3006
1.3146

3.498
3.495
3.491
3.491
3.498
3.505
3.522
3.543
3.581
3.616
3.671
3.736
3.767
3.781
3.781
3.771
3.764
3.743
3.729
3.709

0.593
0.587
0.581
0.581
0.593
0.593
0.621
0.664
0.719
0.756
0.826
0.894
0.925
0.921
0.925
0.902
0.886
0.863
0.834
0.805

1.272
1.265
1.258
1.244
1.223
1.195
1.140
1.049
0.923
0.791
0.651
0.518
0.382
0.260
0.158
0.113
0.092
0.064
0.053
0.043

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.1540
1.2099
1.2308
1.2588
1.2727

3.409
3.409
3.409
3.419
3.426
3.440
3.447
3.467
3.488
3.509
3.529
3.536
3.550
3.557
3.557
3.550
3.536
3.529
3.516

0.439
0.431
0.431
0.447
0.462
0.491
0.505
0.544
0.581
0.616
0.648
0.659
0.675
0.685
0.669
0.659
0.638
0.632
0.593

1.279
1.275
1.268
1.258
1.237
1.202
1.146
1.062
0.937
0.797
0.658
0.518
0.382
0.242
0.169
0.113
0.092
0.061
0.057

F-30

Fig. F-9 - Flow field characteristics : Fr1 = 1.14, dc/W = 0.286, Run TT2_2 (Smooth-wall channel)
(A) Dimensionless pressure distribution P/(w*g*dc) (Smooth-wall channel)
(Aa) z/W = 0.5 (Centreline), (Ab) z/W = 0.125, (Ac) z/W = 0.05

F-31

Fig. F-9 - Flow field characteristics : Fr1 = 1.14, dc/W = 0.286, Run TT2_2 (Smooth-wall channel)
(B) Dimensionless velocity distribution V/Vc (Smooth-wall channel)
(Ba) z/W = 0.5 (Centreline), (Bb) z/W = 0.125, (Bc) z/W = 0.05

F-32

F-33

Run TT2_3

Summary
Run

Qw
L/s

x
m

z (mm)
z/W
TT2_3

15
10.5
11.15
11.23
11.3
11.38
11.57
11.8

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

Comments

125
0.5

62.5
0.25

13.5
0.054

0
0

W=0.25 m

55.9
55.8
58
63.2
98
109
88
113

56
56.2
65.8
87
97
92
106

56
59.8
74
84
93
96
104

56
61
73
84
90
95
101

U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C

z/W =

0.5

(CL)

z/W =

0.25

(1/4)

z/W =

0.05

(13.5)

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

(1)
U/S
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7212
0.7421
0.7561
SW
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7072
0.7351
0.7491
0.7631
0.7770
SW1
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510

(2)

(3)

(40

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11

(12)

3.153
3.157
3.167
3.220
3.293
3.388
3.496
3.604
3.730
3.828
3.874
3.891
3.898
3.902

1.119
1.129
1.138
1.183
1.244
1.317
1.397
1.473
1.556
1.618
1.646
1.656
1.661
1.663

0.763
0.749
0.742
0.728
0.707
0.672
0.616
0.533
0.407
0.267
0.128
0.058
0.037
0.023

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7212
0.7421
0.7561

3.083
3.090
3.108
3.136
3.192
3.255
3.318
3.412
3.520
3.622
3.643
3.643
3.632
3.625

1.068
1.078
1.091
1.116
1.165
1.221
1.272
1.341
1.422
1.494
1.508
1.508
1.501
1.497

0.766
0.755
0.752
0.738
0.717
0.679
0.623
0.542
0.413
0.270
0.131
0.061
0.040
0.026

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7212
0.7421
0.7561

2.975
2.982
2.989
3.017
3.052
3.118
3.206
3.283
3.311
3.335
3.332
3.318
3.290
3.255

0.954
0.968
0.972
1.004
1.038
1.100
1.177
1.241
1.263
1.285
1.282
1.272
1.247
1.218

0.766
0.752
0.748
0.731
0.710
0.675
0.619
0.536
0.410
0.267
0.127
0.057
0.040
0.026

2.956
2.966
2.973
3.013
3.060
3.120
3.207
3.354
3.460
3.577
3.641
3.661
3.671
3.674
3.678
3.664

1.056
1.059
1.066
1.106
1.153
1.212
1.277
1.409
1.489
1.568
1.624
1.637
1.643
1.641
1.643
1.639

0.863
0.862
0.855
0.838
0.810
0.765
0.716
0.602
0.467
0.324
0.157
0.102
0.074
0.066
0.052
0.032

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7491
0.7631
0.7770
0.7840

2.883
2.896
2.910
2.944
2.998
3.045
3.133
3.220
3.332
3.423
3.480
3.477
3.467
3.453
3.447

0.930
0.930
0.958
0.986
1.039
1.071
1.162
1.252
1.338
1.418
1.468
1.474
1.463
1.458
1.454

0.853
0.860
0.839
0.832
0.811
0.790
0.720
0.616
0.491
0.331
0.178
0.066
0.059
0.038
0.031

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7072
0.7491
0.7770

2.855
2.859
2.869
2.900
2.953
3.012
3.088
3.162
3.203
3.242
3.249
3.245
3.217
3.196

0.834
0.847
0.879
0.918
0.994
1.019
1.116
1.162
1.198
1.235
1.252
1.243
1.232
1.204

0.850
0.836
0.811
0.794
0.752
0.752
0.668
0.605
0.480
0.333
0.180
0.131
0.075
0.061

2.959
2.963
2.966
2.986

0.967
0.967
0.946
0.960

0.925
0.921
0.938
0.930

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510

2.876
2.876
2.886
2.907

0.771
0.771
0.809
0.838

0.921
0.914
0.887
0.870

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510

2.796
2.789
2.793
2.799

0.479
0.449
0.442
0.472

1.008
1.008
1.008
0.987

F-33

z/W =

0.5

(CL)

z/W =

0.25

(1/4)

z/W =

0.05

(13.5)

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

(1)
SW1
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7212
0.7631
0.7910
0.8189
0.8468

(2)

(3)

(40

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11

(12)

3.020
3.080
3.193
3.300
3.400
3.581
3.634
3.657
3.671
3.674
3.674
3.657

0.977
1.053
1.173
1.256
1.328
1.507
1.555
1.587
1.587
1.585
1.583
1.570

0.926
0.875
0.799
0.722
0.603
0.390
0.230
0.133
0.105
0.084
0.059
0.034

0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7212
0.7770
0.8329
0.8608
0.8748
0.8887

2.950
3.004
3.089
3.160
3.264
3.386
3.457
3.470
3.474
3.457
3.440
3.403
3.352

0.862
0.937
1.030
1.102
1.202
1.317
1.380
1.385
1.382
1.375
1.340
1.315
1.270

0.872
0.824
0.761
0.671
0.535
0.372
0.219
0.156
0.107
0.044
0.046
0.029
0.022

0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.8259
0.8608
0.8887
0.9167
0.9586
1.0004
1.0423

2.838
2.900
3.005
3.099
3.158
3.189
3.189
3.155
3.120
3.050
2.977
2.890
2.834
2.793
2.751

0.547
0.662
0.805
0.922
1.019
1.022
1.029
1.036
0.977
0.875
0.796
0.678
0.566
0.541
0.364

0.966
0.924
0.868
0.777
0.617
0.505
0.358
0.177
0.166
0.156
0.121
0.093
0.065

SW2
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9027
0.9446

2.939
2.933
2.933
2.939
2.969
3.040
3.113
3.197
3.380
3.547
3.678
3.681
3.684
3.681

0.694
0.698
0.694
0.694
0.731
0.857
0.910
0.994
1.162
1.303
1.401
1.382
1.380
1.353

1.192
1.175
1.171
1.164
1.146
1.081
1.052
0.972
0.849
0.703
0.560
0.450
0.345
0.337

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.8468
0.9306
1.0004
1.0703
1.1121
1.1401
1.1680

2.873
2.863
2.853
2.856
2.869
2.896
2.974
3.089
3.163
3.244
3.362
3.410
3.437
3.437
3.376
3.312
3.200
3.119
3.011

0.587
0.545
0.551
0.557
0.587
0.626
0.758
0.926
0.979
1.071
1.174
1.216
1.185
1.191
1.174
1.062
0.979
0.889
0.744

1.161
1.168
1.147
1.133
1.109
1.077
1.008
0.897
0.795
0.642
0.506
0.363
0.371
0.281
0.170
0.161
0.092
0.068
0.050

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.0982
1.1261
1.1540

2.799
2.799
2.799
2.810
2.824
2.841
2.900
2.987
3.050
3.092
3.095
3.043
2.960
2.876
2.827
2.817
2.817

0.289
0.204
0.236
0.312
0.323
0.373
0.494
0.624
0.727
0.778
0.778
0.756
0.608
0.465
0.354
0.221
0.204

1.110
1.124
1.110
1.086
1.075
1.040
0.991
0.921
0.789
0.653
0.517
0.342
0.220
0.073
0.042
0.042
0.017

1C
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.1401
1.2099
1.2657
1.3216
1.3635
1.3984
1.4193

3.080
3.080
3.087
3.094
3.111
3.139
3.220
3.311
3.433
3.601
3.657
3.758
3.793
3.744
3.646
3.541
3.440
3.367
3.311
3.272
3.258

0.643
0.643
0.653
0.664
0.690
0.729
0.832
0.928
1.048
1.183
1.224
1.291
1.301
1.252
1.156
1.058
0.935
0.837
0.748
0.680
0.522

1.220
1.213
1.206
1.192
1.171
1.137
1.081
1.004
0.882
0.760
0.627
0.505
0.386
0.261
0.208
0.142
0.107
0.065
0.037
0.013
0.073

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.1820
1.2448
1.3006

2.829
2.829
2.826
2.826
2.832
2.849
2.880
2.930
3.038
3.143
3.241
3.332
3.396
3.362
3.251
3.150
3.099

0.349
0.349
0.358
0.377
0.377
0.419
0.479
0.569
0.758
0.862
0.962
1.043
1.093
1.046
0.930
0.801
0.726

1.259
1.252
1.238
1.218
1.203
1.168
1.116
1.036
0.893
0.774
0.641
0.511
0.382
0.259
0.151
0.098
0.049

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.1401
1.1959
1.2238
1.2378

2.877
2.877
2.880
2.884
2.891
2.895
2.912
2.968
3.014
3.042
3.046
3.039
2.997
2.947
2.905
2.895
2.891
2.884

0.205
0.168
0.168
0.168
0.168
0.222
0.291
0.459
0.563
0.587
0.593
0.581
0.496
0.393
0.302
0.314
0.265
0.205

1.272
1.272
1.269
1.258
1.245
1.203
1.147
1.056
0.923
0.798
0.658
0.518
0.382
0.239
0.159
0.089
0.072
0.065

F-34

z/W =

0.5

(CL)

z/W =

0.25

(1/4)

z/W =

0.05

(13.5)

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

(1)
1B
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.1680
1.1959
1.2099

(2)

(3)

(40

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11

(12)

3.084
3.091
3.102
3.116
3.130
3.151
3.179
3.229
3.324
3.461
3.616
3.658
3.658
3.619
3.580
3.531
3.461

0.569
0.575
0.587
0.605
0.628
0.666
0.712
0.787
0.907
1.054
1.198
1.250
1.258
1.244
1.224
1.186
1.125

1.303
1.300
1.296
1.286
1.265
1.227
1.167
1.076
0.944
0.797
0.650
0.490
0.339
0.179
0.067
0.035
0.022

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.1820
1.2238
1.2518
1.2657

2.996
2.996
2.999
3.006
3.013
3.020
3.031
3.055
3.108
3.188
3.279
3.370
3.454
3.475
3.475
3.468
3.451
3.412

0.392
0.392
0.401
0.418
0.443
0.466
0.481
0.536
0.632
0.748
0.869
0.972
1.065
1.094
1.094
1.088
1.071
1.035

1.304
1.297
1.290
1.276
1.252
1.213
1.161
1.074
0.944
0.805
0.658
0.515
0.365
0.215
0.103
0.061
0.033
0.019

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.2099
1.2797
1.3076
1.3216

2.957
2.961
2.961
2.968
2.975
2.978
2.982
2.992
3.013
3.034
3.055
3.080
3.108
3.129
3.146
3.150
3.146
3.143

0.237
0.265
0.251
0.265
0.302
0.313
0.324
0.345
0.410
0.458
0.509
0.561
0.603
0.648
0.664
0.674
0.669
0.664

1.324
1.314
1.310
1.300
1.276
1.241
1.185
1.105
0.975
0.836
0.693
0.549
0.413
0.267
0.134
0.061
0.033
0.019

2C
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.2099
1.3495
1.4193
1.4891
1.5171

3.173
3.173
3.170
3.173
3.177
3.187
3.198
3.226
3.293
3.385
3.491
3.568
3.639
3.663
3.660
3.653
3.646
3.632
3.610

0.518
0.524
0.518
0.524
0.531
0.551
0.576
0.623
0.722
0.840
0.957
1.028
1.088
1.105
1.085
1.072
1.056
1.025
1.001

1.477
1.466
1.459
1.445
1.424
1.390
1.330
1.246
1.121
0.981
0.841
0.709
0.576
0.444
0.322
0.189
0.130
0.078
0.053

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.2099
1.3495
1.4193
1.4473
1.4612

3.003
3.010
3.013
3.020
3.024
3.027
3.038
3.048
3.073
3.108
3.164
3.234
3.318
3.388
3.416
3.430
3.430
3.430
3.412

0.265
0.290
0.302
0.324
0.335
0.345
0.374
0.401
0.458
0.529
0.632
0.729
0.828
0.905
0.924
0.924
0.916
0.909
0.881

1.399
1.392
1.385
1.371
1.350
1.315
1.259
1.176
1.050
0.910
0.767
0.631
0.498
0.362
0.233
0.108
0.045
0.024
0.017

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.2099
1.3216
1.3914
1.4193

2.982
2.982
2.989
2.996
2.996
2.996
2.999
3.010
3.027
3.055
3.076
3.101
3.132
3.146
3.160
3.174
3.178
3.178

0.221
0.237
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.265
0.313
0.365
0.435
0.481
0.529
0.586
0.609
0.626
0.637
0.643
0.637

1.411
1.400
1.397
1.390
1.369
1.334
1.278
1.191
1.065
0.925
0.786
0.646
0.507
0.367
0.231
0.126
0.056
0.032

F-35

Fig. F-10 - Flow field characteristics : Fr1 = 1.45, dc/W = 0.286, Run TT2_3 (Smooth-wall channel)
(A) Dimensionless pressure distribution P/(w*g*dc) (Smooth-wall channel)
(Aa) z/W = 0.5 (Centreline), (Ab) z/W = 0.125, (Ac) z/W = 0.05

F-36

Fig. F-10 - Flow field characteristics : Fr1 = 1.45, dc/W = 0.286, Run TT2_3 (Smooth-wall channel)
(B) Dimensionless velocity distribution V/Vc (Smooth-wall channel)
(Ba) z/W = 0.5 (Centreline), (Bb) z/W = 0.125, (Bc) z/W = 0.05

F-37

F-38

Run TT2_4

Summary
Run

Qw
L/s

x
m

z (mm)
z/W
TT2_4

15
10
10.23
10.3
10.37
10.44
10.66
10.87

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

Comments

125
0.5

62.5
0.25

13.5
0.054

0
0

W=0.25 m

61.7
61.8
67.3
76.8
90
110
77.7
106

61.6
67.4
78.3
88.9
91.1
81.8
99.7

61.9
67.9
81.6
86
90.8
85.5
98

62
69
83
86
90
86
98

U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C

z/W =

0.5

(CL)

z/W =

0.25

(1/4)

z/W =

0.05

(13.5)

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

(1)
U/S
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.8189
0.8399
SW
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.8748
0.8957
0.9167
0.9306
SW1
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510

(2)

(3)

(40

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11

(12)

3.273
3.280
3.294
3.315
3.371
3.430
3.514
3.644
3.742
3.830
3.868
3.875
3.879
3.879

1.032
1.039
1.052
1.072
1.123
1.175
1.244
1.345
1.416
1.476
1.502
1.507
1.509
1.509

0.840
0.833
0.826
0.812
0.791
0.756
0.700
0.616
0.491
0.351
0.212
0.072
0.044
0.023

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.8189
0.8329

3.213
3.217
3.227
3.255
3.294
3.350
3.413
3.500
3.595
3.672
3.707
3.697
3.679
3.669

0.976
0.980
0.991
1.018
1.056
1.107
1.163
1.236
1.310
1.368
1.393
1.386
1.373
1.365

0.837
0.830
0.823
0.809
0.788
0.753
0.697
0.614
0.488
0.348
0.209
0.069
0.041
0.027

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.8189
0.8329

3.108
3.111
3.118
3.139
3.171
3.224
3.283
3.343
3.395
3.413
3.413
3.388
3.360
3.336

0.858
0.862
0.870
0.894
0.928
0.983
1.042
1.098
1.145
1.160
1.160
1.139
1.114
1.091

0.841
0.834
0.827
0.813
0.792
0.757
0.702
0.618
0.492
0.353
0.213
0.073
0.045
0.031

3.350
3.357
3.364
3.392
3.427
3.486
3.602
3.679
3.774
3.858
3.917
3.942
3.942
3.938
3.910
3.865

0.833
0.858
0.850
0.886
0.932
0.994
1.120
1.166
1.261
1.334
1.388
1.408
1.406
1.406
1.391
1.347

0.963
0.942
0.949
0.931
0.903
0.868
0.795
0.736
0.589
0.439
0.285
0.142
0.062
0.037
0.009
0.009

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9027
0.9236
0.9376

3.283
3.287
3.294
3.315
3.336
3.374
3.427
3.511
3.591
3.676
3.753
3.770
3.763
3.749
3.721

0.720
0.710
0.753
0.772
0.790
0.841
0.909
0.994
1.062
1.151
1.233
1.264
1.247
1.236
1.207

0.950
0.953
0.922
0.915
0.901
0.862
0.799
0.719
0.604
0.450
0.290
0.129
0.031
0.010
0.003

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.8748
0.9306
0.9446

3.178
3.189
3.203
3.224
3.255
3.308
3.364
3.430
3.483
3.500
3.504
3.504
3.490
3.451
3.399

0.502
0.523
0.574
0.598
0.654
0.690
0.820
0.882
0.943
0.980
0.991
0.969
0.951
0.905
0.854

0.942
0.935
0.914
0.907
0.883
0.876
0.778
0.708
0.579
0.422
0.275
0.157
0.077
0.024
0.003

3.378
3.378
3.381
3.381

0.685
0.685
0.685
0.685

1.071
1.064
1.060
1.046

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510

3.269
3.269
3.276
3.280

0.509
0.509
0.543
0.543

1.037
1.030
1.012
1.002

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510

3.203
3.203
3.206
3.210

0.355
0.374
0.384
0.410

1.091
1.077
1.070
1.049

F-38

z/W =

0.5

(CL)

z/W =

0.25

(1/4)

z/W =

0.05

(13.5)

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

(1)
SW1
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0004
1.0423
1.0703
SW2
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.1820
1.2238
1.2448

(2)

(3)

(40

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11

(12)

3.385
3.420
3.500
3.595
3.700
3.791
3.868
3.921
3.928
3.931
3.914
3.893

0.690
0.744
0.850
0.954
1.059
1.148
1.213
1.264
1.261
1.275
1.270
1.242

1.025
0.987
0.927
0.844
0.718
0.571
0.432
0.282
0.152
0.069
0.016
0.002

0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0423
1.0703
1.0842

3.301
3.336
3.381
3.448
3.525
3.616
3.707
3.756
3.756
3.739
3.721
3.690

0.574
0.615
0.695
0.799
0.886
0.983
1.072
1.104
1.111
1.065
1.042
1.018

0.984
0.960
0.897
0.803
0.680
0.541
0.401
0.276
0.129
0.049
0.028
0.007

0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0423
1.1121
1.1261

3.231
3.262
3.311
3.381
3.434
3.462
3.472
3.469
3.434
3.353
3.287
3.259

0.466
0.516
0.621
0.695
0.776
0.824
0.841
0.816
0.772
0.643
0.502
0.435

1.024
0.996
0.930
0.867
0.735
0.584
0.441
0.319
0.180
0.078
0.023
0.012

3.374
3.374
3.374
3.381
3.399
3.423
3.472
3.546
3.655
3.763
3.840
3.910
3.938
3.949
3.942
3.924
3.896

0.574
0.574
0.568
0.586
0.615
0.648
0.720
0.812
0.936
1.039
1.101
1.145
1.157
1.145
1.136
1.107
1.072

1.120
1.113
1.109
1.092
1.071
1.040
0.984
0.903
0.778
0.645
0.516
0.397
0.272
0.157
0.048
0.021
0.010

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.1820
1.2099
1.2308
1.2378

3.276
3.276
3.280
3.283
3.294
3.308
3.332
3.378
3.462
3.539
3.630
3.700
3.739
3.732
3.676
3.627
3.581
3.546

0.374
0.384
0.393
0.401
0.427
0.466
0.516
0.586
0.720
0.812
0.917
0.987
1.015
0.994
0.936
0.874
0.812
0.767

1.172
1.161
1.154
1.140
1.119
1.081
1.025
0.948
0.819
0.687
0.547
0.411
0.282
0.156
0.044
0.024
0.010
0.003

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.1540
1.1750
1.1820

3.231
3.231
3.231
3.234
3.238
3.255
3.287
3.329
3.371
3.413
3.427
3.420
3.399
3.360
3.315
3.297
3.283

0.205
0.221
0.237
0.265
0.265
0.313
0.401
0.488
0.580
0.643
0.659
0.648
0.615
0.549
0.459
0.419
0.374

1.174
1.164
1.153
1.136
1.118
1.087
1.031
0.951
0.818
0.682
0.546
0.406
0.267
0.127
0.043
0.022
0.019

3.392
3.392
3.392
3.399
3.413
3.441
3.486
3.556
3.637
3.735
3.823
3.882
3.924
3.945
3.952
3.952
3.945
3.931
3.903
3.893

0.529
0.529
0.529
0.543
0.574
0.621
0.695
0.790
0.878
0.976
1.062
1.104
1.117
1.111
1.085
1.069
1.032
0.998
0.951
0.928

1.292
1.285
1.278
1.264
1.240
1.205
1.146
1.062
0.943
0.811
0.671
0.545
0.434
0.322
0.218
0.165
0.127
0.092
0.068
0.050

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.1401
1.1820
1.2099
1.2378
1.2588
1.2657

3.322
3.322
3.322
3.322
3.322
3.332
3.357
3.406
3.458
3.546
3.609
3.679
3.739
3.742
3.721
3.693
3.658
3.634
3.606
3.581

0.374
0.384
0.374
0.393
0.393
0.419
0.488
0.604
0.685
0.794
0.858
0.932
0.987
0.983
0.954
0.925
0.882
0.850
0.807
0.781

1.223
1.213
1.210
1.189
1.168
1.133
1.070
0.972
0.846
0.714
0.585
0.449
0.316
0.183
0.120
0.079
0.054
0.030
0.016
0.005

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.1820
1.2099
1.2378

3.283
3.283
3.283
3.283
3.287
3.290
3.304
3.343
3.374
3.399
3.406
3.409
3.392
3.371
3.346
3.336
3.329

0.355
0.355
0.355
0.345
0.355
0.365
0.401
0.488
0.549
0.592
0.604
0.609
0.580
0.543
0.495
0.466
0.443

1.234
1.227
1.220
1.210
1.189
1.154
1.098
1.014
0.888
0.749
0.609
0.469
0.330
0.190
0.079
0.054
0.030

3.469
3.472
3.472
3.476
3.483

0.758
0.758
0.763
0.767
0.776

1.134
1.130
1.120
1.106
1.085

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719

3.350
3.350
3.353
3.357
3.364

0.543
0.543
0.549
0.555
0.568

1.190
1.183
1.176
1.162
1.141

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719

3.297
3.297
3.304
3.311
3.318

0.435
0.435
0.451
0.466
0.481

1.199
1.192
1.185
1.171
1.150

1C
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.2099
1.2797
1.3495
1.4054
1.4473
1.4752
1B
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719

F-39

z/W =

0.5

(CL)

z/W =

0.25

(1/4)

z/W =

0.05

(13.5)

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

(1)
1B
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0004
1.0423
1.0633
1.0772
2C
0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.2099
1.3495
1.4193
1.4473

(2)

(3)

(40

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11

(12)

3.497
3.539
3.595
3.676
3.767
3.847
3.907
3.931
3.938
3.935
3.935
3.924

0.790
0.837
0.902
1.001
1.095
1.169
1.233
1.278
1.278
1.286
1.294
1.275

1.053
1.001
0.917
0.777
0.631
0.488
0.331
0.159
0.097
0.041
0.009
0.009

0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.1121
1.1331
1.1401

3.371
3.395
3.434
3.483
3.567
3.641
3.700
3.742
3.735
3.728
3.725
3.721

0.580
0.621
0.685
0.758
0.874
0.965
1.032
1.079
1.085
1.098
1.091
1.085

1.106
1.050
0.963
0.833
0.683
0.533
0.387
0.240
0.086
0.023
0.006
0.002

0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.1540
1.1680
1.1820

3.329
3.339
3.367
3.392
3.413
3.423
3.441
3.462
3.472
3.469
3.465
3.455

0.502
0.523
0.580
0.626
0.664
0.685
0.720
0.758
0.772
0.767
0.763
0.749

1.115
1.059
0.972
0.843
0.700
0.557
0.410
0.263
0.124
0.040
0.026
0.012

3.448
3.451
3.455
3.455
3.462
3.476
3.504
3.546
3.595
3.651
3.732
3.784
3.847
3.900
3.917
3.924
3.914
3.893

0.568
0.574
0.580
0.580
0.592
0.615
0.659
0.720
0.785
0.850
0.928
0.976
1.029
1.052
1.049
1.032
1.015
0.987

1.333
1.326
1.319
1.305
1.284
1.249
1.193
1.109
0.984
0.848
0.718
0.586
0.457
0.345
0.226
0.111
0.049
0.028

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.2099
1.3216
1.3635
1.3774

3.332
3.332
3.336
3.343
3.346
3.357
3.371
3.388
3.416
3.462
3.525
3.588
3.665
3.707
3.707
3.700
3.697
3.686

0.365
0.365
0.365
0.384
0.393
0.419
0.451
0.488
0.543
0.615
0.705
0.781
0.874
0.905
0.890
0.862
0.841
0.837

1.297
1.290
1.287
1.273
1.252
1.217
1.161
1.077
0.952
0.815
0.679
0.547
0.407
0.281
0.156
0.062
0.034
0.013

0.0230
0.0300
0.0370
0.0510
0.0719
0.1068
0.1627
0.2464
0.3721
0.5117
0.6514
0.7910
0.9306
1.0703
1.2099
1.3076
1.3355
1.3495

3.308
3.308
3.308
3.308
3.311
3.318
3.329
3.343
3.357
3.378
3.399
3.416
3.437
3.451
3.462
3.458
3.448
3.434

0.237
0.237
0.237
0.237
0.251
0.278
0.313
0.355
0.393
0.443
0.488
0.523
0.562
0.586
0.586
0.574
0.549
0.516

1.323
1.316
1.309
1.295
1.274
1.240
1.184
1.100
0.974
0.835
0.695
0.555
0.416
0.276
0.147
0.053
0.028
0.018

F-40

Fig. F-11 - Flow field characteristics : Fr1 = 1.25, dc/W = 0.286, Run TT2_4 (Smooth-wall channel)
(A) Dimensionless pressure distribution P/(w*g*dc) (Smooth-wall channel)
(Aa) z/W = 0.5 (Centreline), (Ab) z/W = 0.125, (Ac) z/W = 0.05

F-41

Fig. F-11 - Flow field characteristics : Fr1 = 1.25, dc/W = 0.286, Run TT2_4 (Smooth-wall channel)
(B) Dimensionless velocity distribution V/Vc (Smooth-wall channel)
(Ba) z/W = 0.5 (Centreline), (Bb) z/W = 0.125, (Bc) z/W = 0.05

F-42

F-43

Run WZ3_1

Summary
Run

Qw
L/s

x
m

z (mm)
z/W
WZ3_1

25
9.68
9.87
9.93
10
10.06
10.34
10.66

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

Comments

125
0.5

62.5
0.25

10
0.046

0
0

W=0.25 m

84
84
92
94.6
105.8
147
120.8
146.4

85
93.6
94
114
127.6
122
140.8

85.4
93
103
112
127
124
140

84
94
105
115
120
124
136

U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C

z/W =

0.5

(CL)

z/W =

0.25

(1/4)

z/W =

0.04

(10)

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

(1)
U/S
0.0164
0.0214
0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150
0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.7614
0.8110
SW
0.0164
0.0214
0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150
0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.7614
0.8110
SW1
0.0164
0.0214

(2)

(3)

(40

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11

(12)

2.686
2.684
2.679
2.709
2.769
2.829
2.894
2.977
3.027
3.098
3.155
3.203
3.243
3.256
3.251
3.246

1.002
0.999
0.994
1.024
1.081
1.142
1.198
1.265
1.304
1.357
1.399
1.432
1.460
1.469
1.465
1.462

0.842
0.837
0.832
0.822
0.803
0.765
0.736
0.686
0.636
0.537
0.438
0.338
0.239
0.140
0.090
0.040

0.0164
0.0214
0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150
0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.7614
0.8110

2.647
2.675
2.702
2.745
2.775
2.832
2.852
2.887
2.937
3.002
3.077
3.175
3.177
3.170
3.137
3.092

0.949
0.978
1.010
1.052
1.080
1.132
1.149
1.179
1.217
1.269
1.327
1.399
1.404
1.395
1.372
1.338

0.828
0.823
0.813
0.803
0.783
0.753
0.724
0.674
0.629
0.530
0.431
0.331
0.227
0.133
0.083
0.033

0.0164
0.0214
0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150
0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.7614
0.8110

2.602
2.607
2.617
2.637
2.682
2.732
2.797
2.887
2.927
2.962
2.982
2.977
2.957
2.937
2.927
2.897

0.693
0.686
0.686
0.728
0.749
0.837
0.895
1.010
1.044
1.171
1.162
1.221
1.200
1.188
1.145
1.118

0.926
0.931
0.936
0.916
0.926
0.877
0.862
0.792
0.748
0.543
0.474
0.299
0.205
0.101
0.091
0.041

2.720
2.737
2.757
2.822
2.877
2.932
3.002
3.087
3.142
3.213
3.253
3.268
3.258
3.233
3.218
3.203

0.778
0.788
0.728
0.866
1.015
0.938
1.059
1.158
1.217
1.273
1.404
1.368
1.346
1.350
1.418
1.401

1.119
1.125
1.185
1.130
1.025
1.125
1.045
0.970
0.906
0.806
0.572
0.538
0.458
0.329
0.169
0.130

0.0164
0.0214
0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150
0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.7614
0.8110

2.642
2.647
2.657
2.662
2.692
2.722
2.802
2.857
2.877
2.952
3.012
3.072
3.112
3.142
3.137
3.157

0.548
0.557
0.548
0.583
0.617
0.678
0.775
0.990
1.044
1.118
1.149
1.217
1.249
1.327
1.353
1.293

1.109
1.104
1.114
1.089
1.079
1.039
1.020
0.835
0.750
0.646
0.571
0.452
0.353
0.183
0.094
0.144

0.0164
0.0214
0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150
0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.7614
0.8110

2.597
2.602
2.602
2.610
2.682
2.732
2.762
2.822
2.877
2.922
2.942
2.947
2.937
2.922
2.912
2.882

0.625
0.617
0.633
0.667
0.768
0.849
0.849
0.895
0.985
1.082
1.118
1.087
1.105
1.091
1.123
1.082

1.035
1.040
1.025
1.000
0.980
0.935
0.935
0.906
0.826
0.672
0.552
0.493
0.364
0.264
0.170
0.135

2.742
2.727

0.755
0.735

1.040
1.035

0.0164
0.0214

2.717
2.712

0.800
0.781

0.942
0.947

0.0164
0.0214

2.692
2.652

0.728
0.656

0.985
0.990

F-43

z/W =

0.5

(CL)

z/W =

0.25

(1/4)

z/W =

0.04

(10)

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

(1)
SW1
0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150
0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.8110
0.8607
SW2
0.0164
0.0214
0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150
0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.8110
0.8607
1C
0.0164
0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150
0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.8110
0.9103
1.0097
1.1090
1B
0.0164
0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150

(2)

(3)

(40

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11

(12)

2.732
2.757
2.802
2.842
2.907
2.967
3.022
3.117
3.182
3.223
3.263
3.268
3.268
3.268

0.800
0.837
0.872
0.900
1.005
1.059
1.114
1.237
1.273
1.338
1.353
1.281
1.350
1.357

0.985
0.970
0.965
0.951
0.886
0.841
0.786
0.637
0.558
0.413
0.334
0.335
0.145
0.086

0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150
0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.8110
0.8607

2.712
2.727
2.762
2.817
2.857
2.907
2.982
3.047
3.117
3.177
3.223
3.248
3.228
3.193

0.819
0.807
0.837
0.884
0.917
1.005
1.068
1.136
1.200
1.273
1.297
1.320
1.316
1.277

0.912
0.927
0.917
0.902
0.883
0.798
0.758
0.649
0.545
0.415
0.331
0.227
0.112
0.078

0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150
0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.8110
0.8607

2.647
2.652
2.687
2.742
2.787
2.842
2.892
2.922
2.947
2.947
2.937
2.912
2.877
2.822

0.648
0.714
0.721
0.843
0.884
0.933
0.985
1.020
1.015
1.035
1.040
0.938
0.965
0.878

0.985
0.935
0.945
0.875
0.856
0.816
0.766
0.662
0.593
0.473
0.359
0.335
0.175
0.151

2.762
2.747
2.747
2.762
2.822
2.842
2.882
2.962
2.997
3.067
3.132
3.198
3.233
3.253
3.263
3.263

0.648
0.678
0.884
0.825
0.895
0.794
0.944
1.059
1.030
1.136
1.213
1.285
1.209
1.331
1.213
1.293

1.152
1.112
0.947
1.002
0.982
1.058
0.938
0.853
0.869
0.724
0.600
0.476
0.506
0.272
0.333
0.183

0.0164
0.0214
0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150
0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.8110
0.8607

2.742
2.712
2.707
2.717
2.737
2.792
2.837
2.897
2.947
3.027
3.092
3.142
3.188
3.223
3.228
3.223

0.664
0.609
0.656
0.686
0.728
0.813
0.866
0.954
0.990
1.040
1.096
1.154
1.179
1.281
1.209
1.261

1.240
1.240
1.200
1.180
1.150
1.110
1.080
1.011
0.976
0.907
0.812
0.698
0.614
0.424
0.420
0.300

0.0164
0.0214
0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150
0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.8110
0.8607

2.632
2.627
2.637
2.657
2.707
2.752
2.807
2.857
2.897
2.917
2.917
2.912
2.892
2.862
2.837
2.927

0.436
0.412
0.412
0.500
0.617
0.633
0.735
0.781
0.837
0.872
0.889
0.884
0.813
0.800
0.794
0.954

1.243
1.243
1.248
1.218
1.183
1.188
1.143
1.109
1.054
0.945
0.831
0.731
0.672
0.553
0.433
0.333

2.680
2.695
2.700
2.715
2.744
2.764
2.808
2.847
2.900
2.959
3.033
3.101
3.130
3.155
3.169
3.174
3.169

0.551
0.577
0.585
0.610
0.656
0.685
0.760
0.797
0.862
0.928
1.004
1.079
1.083
1.097
1.145
1.088
1.070

1.327
1.317
1.307
1.287
1.257
1.227
1.168
1.128
1.029
0.930
0.830
0.721
0.646
0.557
0.418
0.387
0.303

0.0164
0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150
0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.8110
0.9103
1.0097

2.742
2.757
2.777
2.807
2.852
2.892
2.952
3.022
3.102
3.152
3.188
3.208
3.203
3.172
3.107
2.992

0.583
0.600
0.633
0.678
0.749
0.807
0.866
0.954
1.049
1.082
1.100
1.105
1.109
1.091
1.049
0.917

1.268
1.263
1.253
1.233
1.198
1.164
1.124
1.064
0.950
0.866
0.781
0.697
0.588
0.478
0.359
0.275

0.0164
0.0214
0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150
0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.8110
0.9103
1.0097

2.647
2.637
2.637
2.647
2.662
2.692
2.727
2.772
2.802
2.852
2.882
2.902
2.902
2.892
2.857
2.807
2.752

0.400
0.374
0.374
0.374
0.480
0.529
0.633
0.633
0.671
0.742
0.781
0.800
0.794
0.794
0.768
0.686
0.625

1.268
1.263
1.258
1.258
1.208
1.183
1.128
1.124
1.079
0.980
0.880
0.786
0.692
0.582
0.468
0.379
0.264

2.734
2.759
2.783
2.808
2.842
2.876
2.920
2.964

0.656
0.685
0.727
0.727
0.747
0.810
0.885
0.933

1.211
1.206
1.191
1.195
1.185
1.141
1.072
1.022

0.0164
0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150

2.715
2.710
2.715
2.715
2.734
2.749
2.778
2.808

0.626
0.618
0.633
0.633
0.663
0.685
0.727
0.772

1.240
1.230
1.215
1.195
1.165
1.135
1.086
1.031

0.0164
0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150

2.666
2.675
2.715
2.724
2.734
2.749
2.773
2.783

0.551
0.559
0.626
0.649
0.663
0.692
0.727
0.734

1.263
1.258
1.248
1.223
1.194
1.159
1.109
1.065

F-44

z/W =

0.5

(CL)

z/W =

0.25

(1/4)

z/W =

0.04

(10)

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

(1)
1B
0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.8110
0.9103
1.0097
2C
0.0164
0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150
0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.8110
0.9103
1.0097
1.1090

(2)

(3)

(40

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11

(12)

3.023
3.067
3.125
3.150
3.165
3.169
3.165
3.155

1.004
1.042
1.088
1.136
1.149
1.174
1.166
1.141

0.913
0.818
0.729
0.600
0.501
0.377
0.283
0.203

0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.8110
0.9103
1.0097

2.852
2.910
2.974
3.028
3.091
3.125
3.145
3.130

0.828
0.896
0.964
1.023
1.092
1.128
1.149
1.136

0.932
0.832
0.733
0.629
0.520
0.416
0.311
0.212

0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.8110
0.9103
1.0097

2.798
2.812
2.812
2.822
2.837
2.856
2.896
2.974

0.753
0.760
0.760
0.772
0.797
0.822
0.874
0.989

0.965
0.876
0.776
0.677
0.573
0.473
0.369
0.241

2.764
2.768
2.778
2.798
2.808
2.822
2.842
2.856
2.891
2.925
2.959
3.003
3.062
3.096
3.135
3.165
3.174

0.559
0.577
0.593
0.618
0.633
0.656
0.678
0.699
0.753
0.791
0.833
0.890
0.944
0.974
1.009
1.033
1.033

1.382
1.367
1.357
1.342
1.312
1.282
1.238
1.188
1.084
0.989
0.890
0.786
0.696
0.602
0.507
0.413
0.323

0.0164
0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150
0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.8110
0.9103
1.0097
1.1090

2.749
2.768
2.788
2.798
2.803
2.817
2.842
2.881
2.925
2.979
3.028
3.072
3.111
3.130
3.140
3.130
3.145

0.533
0.568
0.602
0.610
0.626
0.649
0.685
0.740
0.797
0.862
0.917
0.954
0.994
1.009
1.023
0.999
1.023

1.362
1.352
1.342
1.327
1.292
1.262
1.213
1.163
1.064
0.964
0.865
0.776
0.676
0.582
0.478
0.393
0.284

0.0164
0.0263
0.0363
0.0561
0.0859
0.1157
0.1654
0.2150
0.3144
0.4137
0.5130
0.6124
0.7117
0.8110
0.9103
1.0097

2.710
2.715
2.715
2.719
2.734
2.749
2.768
2.768
2.788
2.798
2.808
2.817
2.832
2.847
2.852
2.861

0.485
0.495
0.464
0.474
0.504
0.533
0.577
0.568
0.593
0.610
0.633
0.649
0.663
0.692
0.685
0.685

1.323
1.313
1.318
1.298
1.268
1.238
1.184
1.139
1.045
0.945
0.841
0.742
0.647
0.543
0.454
0.364

F-45

Fig. F-12 - Flow field characteristics : Fr1 = 1.31, dc/W = 0.403, Run WZ3_1 (Smooth-wall channel)
(A) Dimensionless pressure distribution P/(w*g*dc) (Smooth-wall channel)
(Aa) z/W = 0.5 (Centreline), (Ab) z/W = 0.125, (Ac) z/W = 0.05

F-46

Fig. F-12 - Flow field characteristics : Fr1 = 1.31, dc/W = 0.403, Run WZ3_1 (Smooth-wall channel)
(B) Dimensionless velocity distribution V/Vc (Smooth-wall channel)
(Ba) z/W = 0.5 (Centreline), (Bb) z/W = 0.125, (Bc) z/W = 0.05

F-47

F-48

F.4 Three-dimensional flow field (rough-sidewall channel)


Run WZ3_2

Summary
Run

Qw
L/s

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

d
mm

Comments

z (mm)

125

62.5

10

W=0.248
m

z/W

0.5

0.25

0.046

86
86
91
97.2
108.2
146.6
121
147.2

84.6
94.6
100.2
120.8
134.6
122.8
143

86.4
99.2
109.8
114.2
129.4
127.4
142

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

WZ3_2

x
m

25

10.10
10.10
10.44
10.49
10.55
10.6
10.9
11.19

U/S
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C

z/W =

0.5

(CL)

z/W =

0.25

(1/4)

z/W =

z/W =

0.04

(10)

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

(1)
U/S
0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855
0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.7573
0.8067
SW
0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855
0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.7573
0.8067

(2)

(3)

(40

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11

(12)

2.766
2.771
2.781
2.796
2.840
2.890
2.949
3.008
3.073
3.147
3.211
3.250
3.275
3.275
3.275
3.260

1.042
1.047
1.057
1.071
1.111
1.155
1.205
1.253
1.304
1.359
1.409
1.440
1.457
1.457
1.457
1.447

0.843
0.838
0.833
0.823
0.804
0.774
0.744
0.695
0.646
0.547
0.443
0.339
0.241
0.142
0.092
0.043

0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855
0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.7573
0.8067

2.668
2.613
2.668
2.687
2.737
2.796
2.845
2.924
2.979
3.058
3.132
3.196
3.226
3.231
3.206
3.176

0.959
0.900
0.953
0.979
1.028
1.084
1.129
1.197
1.245
1.304
1.359
1.409
1.427
1.430
1.413
1.392

0.820
0.815
0.815
0.800
0.780
0.750
0.721
0.671
0.617
0.523
0.424
0.321
0.227
0.128
0.079
0.029

0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855
0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.7573
0.8067

2.623
2.633
2.658
2.708
2.797
2.847
2.897
2.932
2.942
2.947
2.927
2.907
2.887
2.872
2.862
2.852

0.881
0.892
0.925
0.978
1.065
1.111
1.155
1.185
1.193
1.197
1.185
1.168
1.146
1.133
1.120
1.111

0.854
0.849
0.839
0.829
0.810
0.780
0.750
0.701
0.651
0.553
0.449
0.350
0.256
0.157
0.113
0.064

2.692
2.707
2.722
2.737
2.786
2.840
2.895
2.944
2.999
3.068
3.132
3.191
3.221
3.236
3.246
3.236

0.861
0.783
0.832
0.826
0.932
0.969
1.052
1.080
1.142
1.176
1.257
1.345
1.326
1.366
1.395
1.388

0.945
1.020
0.990
1.000
0.936
0.926
0.866
0.837
0.773
0.703
0.570
0.417
0.372
0.234
0.155
0.106

0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855
0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.7573
0.8067

2.672
2.702
2.737
2.771
2.821
2.885
2.934
2.989
3.063
3.122
3.176
3.201
3.201
3.166
3.112
3.013

0.724
0.776
0.814
0.855
0.927
1.004
1.023
1.075
1.193
1.197
1.269
1.265
1.296
1.281
1.225
1.159

1.000
0.985
0.985
0.976
0.941
0.901
0.901
0.852
0.743
0.699
0.566
0.496
0.358
0.244
0.210
0.141

0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855
0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.7573
0.8067

2.574
2.564
2.564
2.574
2.603
2.658
2.707
2.761
2.806
2.840
2.855
2.865
2.865
2.845
2.836
2.821

0.553
0.544
0.562
0.526
0.621
0.750
0.789
0.900
0.932
0.979
0.994
1.019
1.084
0.994
1.038
0.959

1.030
1.020
1.005
1.025
0.981
0.917
0.907
0.818
0.783
0.674
0.576
0.462
0.294
0.269
0.166
0.181

F-48

z/W =

0.5

(CL)

z/W =

0.25

(1/4)

z/W =

z/W =

0.04

(10)

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

(1)
SW1
0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855
0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.7573
0.8067
SW2
0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855
0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.8067
0.8561
1C
0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855
0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.8067
0.9055
1.0043
1B
0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855

(2)

(3)

(40

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11

(12)

2.756
2.756
2.756
2.781
2.781
2.826
2.865
2.929
3.038
3.102
3.176
3.221
3.250
3.265
3.265
3.260

0.826
0.795
0.843
0.948
0.820
0.872
0.861
0.999
1.111
1.209
1.257
1.292
1.330
1.356
1.402
1.388

1.103
1.123
1.078
0.999
1.093
1.064
1.083
0.970
0.910
0.762
0.678
0.580
0.461
0.342
0.229
0.194

0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855
0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.7573
0.8067

2.717
2.717
2.687
2.697
2.717
2.752
2.791
2.845
2.885
2.954
3.028
3.102
3.157
3.191
3.211
3.211

0.629
0.696
0.659
0.696
0.750
0.776
0.849
0.867
0.906
0.984
1.066
1.142
1.189
1.229
1.281
1.273

1.111
1.061
1.051
1.027
0.987
0.972
0.923
0.913
0.868
0.765
0.656
0.547
0.449
0.335
0.241
0.202

0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855
0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.7573
0.8067

2.589
2.608
2.633
2.677
2.727
2.776
2.826
2.860
2.875
2.885
2.885
2.875
2.870
2.870
2.895
2.964

0.535
0.613
0.652
0.667
0.783
0.826
0.900
0.959
0.943
0.999
0.974
0.989
0.979
0.999
1.023
1.066

1.134
1.105
1.100
1.124
1.070
1.055
1.011
0.942
0.922
0.779
0.705
0.581
0.487
0.369
0.319
0.295

2.717
2.742
2.752
2.747
2.771
2.821
2.865
2.915
2.984
3.058
3.132
3.191
3.231
3.246
3.255
3.255

0.553
0.588
0.838
0.776
0.789
0.855
0.969
0.974
1.075
1.125
1.233
1.311
1.319
1.307
1.334
1.319

1.244
1.244
1.071
1.106
1.101
1.066
0.977
0.973
0.889
0.809
0.656
0.518
0.449
0.380
0.256
0.227

0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855
0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.7573
0.8067

2.682
2.682
2.697
2.742
2.786
2.831
2.885
2.949
3.013
3.078
3.132
3.166
3.186
3.181
3.142
3.008

0.526
0.535
0.644
0.696
0.703
0.763
0.832
0.964
1.033
1.098
1.133
1.116
1.142
1.163
1.125
1.033

1.269
1.259
1.205
1.205
1.225
1.195
1.165
1.062
1.007
0.904
0.820
0.775
0.666
0.538
0.494
0.410

0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855
0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.7573
0.8067

2.608
2.593
2.593
2.593
2.608
2.633
2.677
2.727
2.766
2.806
2.836
2.845
2.855
2.845
2.840
2.821

0.516
0.487
0.507
0.497
0.466
0.562
0.629
0.636
0.763
0.795
0.820
0.814
0.832
0.861
0.826
0.814

1.113
1.108
1.093
1.088
1.098
1.044
1.019
1.014
0.915
0.831
0.742
0.658
0.555
0.421
0.396
0.337

2.727
2.722
2.722
2.727
2.742
2.771
2.806
2.870
2.915
2.984
3.048
3.117
3.171
3.211
3.241
3.250
3.250

0.596
0.571
0.571
0.588
0.605
0.659
0.703
0.808
0.849
0.932
0.989
1.061
1.107
1.142
1.155
1.159
1.129

1.320
1.325
1.320
1.305
1.291
1.256
1.231
1.167
1.128
1.024
0.935
0.831
0.737
0.639
0.555
0.461
0.397

0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855
0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.8067
0.9055
1.0043

2.682
2.682
2.687
2.697
2.737
2.776
2.821
2.885
2.929
3.028
3.087
3.152
3.186
3.211
3.216
3.206
3.191

0.497
0.497
0.526
0.562
0.613
0.674
0.750
0.826
0.883
0.984
1.038
1.102
1.133
1.159
1.151
1.129
1.111

1.269
1.264
1.250
1.230
1.220
1.190
1.151
1.106
1.052
0.958
0.864
0.761
0.662
0.558
0.474
0.390
0.296

0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855
0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.8067
0.9055
1.0043

2.628
2.628
2.618
2.618
2.618
2.628
2.648
2.687
2.727
2.766
2.796
2.826
2.836
2.836
2.806
2.766
2.737

0.385
0.372
0.358
0.358
0.358
0.385
0.433
0.516
0.580
0.652
0.689
0.730
0.750
0.730
0.689
0.644
0.580

1.242
1.242
1.232
1.222
1.202
1.173
1.143
1.094
1.049
0.945
0.852
0.753
0.649
0.565
0.466
0.358
0.269

2.756
2.761
2.776
2.786
2.796
2.821

0.580
0.571
0.613
0.613
0.636
0.696

1.236
1.241
1.226
1.226
1.201
1.157

0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855

2.732
2.742
2.756
2.771
2.791
2.816

0.535
0.562
0.580
0.613
0.652
0.689

1.222
1.212
1.212
1.198
1.173
1.143

0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855

2.727
2.717
2.717
2.712
2.722
2.727

0.553
0.535
0.535
0.535
0.544
0.553

1.254
1.249
1.244
1.229
1.214
1.184

F-49

z/W =

0.5

(CL)

z/W =

0.25

(1/4)

z/W =

z/W =

0.04

(10)

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

y/dc

H/dc

V/Vc

P/wg
dc

(1)
1B
0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.8067
0.9055
1.0043
2C
0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855
0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.8067
0.9055
1.0043
1.1031

(2)

(3)

(40

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11

(12)

2.840
2.870
2.905
2.949
3.003
3.063
3.117
3.176
3.211
3.211
3.206

0.710
0.763
0.814
0.867
0.927
0.989
1.052
1.120
1.142
1.129
1.155

1.137
1.078
1.023
0.925
0.826
0.727
0.618
0.505
0.416
0.332
0.199

0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.8067
0.9055
1.0043

2.840
2.880
2.924
2.984
3.038
3.092
3.137
3.157
3.162
3.127
3.053

0.724
0.776
0.838
0.911
0.964
1.023
1.075
1.093
1.098
1.061
0.989

1.114
1.064
1.010
0.906
0.812
0.708
0.600
0.501
0.402
0.308
0.210

0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.8067
0.9055
1.0043

2.742
2.756
2.781
2.806
2.821
2.826
2.831
2.831
2.836
2.845
2.855

0.588
0.613
0.652
0.689
0.710
0.724
0.724
0.737
0.730
0.750
0.763

1.150
1.100
1.051
0.952
0.853
0.750
0.656
0.547
0.458
0.354
0.256

2.806
2.806
2.806
2.806
2.811
2.826
2.836
2.855
2.885
2.924
2.969
3.023
3.053
3.107
3.147
3.181
3.196
3.196

0.596
0.588
0.588
0.588
0.596
0.629
0.644
0.674
0.724
0.770
0.826
0.889
0.916
0.974
1.014
1.047
1.042
1.042

1.397
1.397
1.392
1.382
1.363
1.328
1.298
1.249
1.195
1.101
1.002
0.903
0.809
0.711
0.612
0.513
0.434
0.335

0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855
0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.8067
0.9055
1.0043
1.1031

2.742
2.747
2.756
2.771
2.786
2.806
2.821
2.845
2.875
2.924
2.979
3.033
3.078
3.122
3.162
3.181
3.186
3.186

0.466
0.477
0.507
0.535
0.553
0.596
0.621
0.659
0.703
0.770
0.832
0.895
0.938
0.979
1.019
1.033
1.028
1.028

1.355
1.350
1.340
1.330
1.315
1.281
1.251
1.202
1.152
1.053
0.960
0.861
0.767
0.673
0.574
0.480
0.391
0.293

0.0163
0.0212
0.0262
0.0361
0.0558
0.0855
0.1151
0.1645
0.2139
0.3127
0.4115
0.5103
0.6091
0.7079
0.8067
0.9055
1.0043
1.1031
1.1525

2.7318
2.7268
2.7268
2.7268
2.7367
2.7466
2.7565
2.7664
2.7812
2.7911
2.8059
2.8158
2.8306
2.8405
2.8405
2.8602
2.875
2.8899
2.8997

0.4445
0.4333
0.4333
0.4333
0.4555
0.4767
0.497
0.5165
0.5444
0.5623
0.588
0.6127
0.6286
0.6442
0.6365
0.6668
0.6814
0.6958
0.7168

1.36993
1.36499
1.36005
1.35017
1.33041
1.30077
1.27114
1.22174
1.17234
1.07354
0.97475
0.87101
0.77716
0.67836
0.5845
0.48571
0.39185
0.29799
0.24366

F-50

Fig. F-13 - Flow field characteristics : Fr1 = 1.28, dc/W = 0.408, Run WZ3_2 (Rough-sidewall channel)
(A) Dimensionless pressure distribution P/(w*g*dc) (Smooth-wall channel)
(Aa) z/W = 0.5 (Centreline), (Ab) z/W = 0.125, (Ac) z/W = 0.05

F-51

Fig. F-13 - Flow field characteristics : Fr1 = 1.28, dc/W = 0.408, Run WZ3_2 (Rough-sidewall channel)
(B) Dimensionless velocity distribution V/Vc (Smooth-wall channel)
(Ba) z/W = 0.5 (Centreline), (Bb) z/W = 0.125, (Bc) z/W = 0.05

F-52

F-53

APPENDIX G
EXPERIMENTAL DATA
SUMMARY OF FLOW FIELD MEASUREMENTS

G.1 Notation
Slope

mean channel slope

d1

upstream flow depth measured on the channel centreline

Fr1

upstream Froude number defined in term of d1

distance along the flume from the channel intake

flow depth measured perpendicular to the channel bottom

dc

critical depth

Vc

critical velocity

bottom elevation computed assuming atmospheric pressure at the free-surface : i.e. P(y=d) =
0; obtained by linear interpolation over the 3-4 last data points

distance across the channel width measured from the sidewall


dP
dy
dimensionless average pressure gradient on the centreline over the entire depth
w*g*cos
(qw)x;z

discharge per unit width at a measurement location (x, z) :


(qw)x;z

(Em)x;z

y=d

=
V * dy
y=0
x;z

mean specific energy at a measurement location (x, z) :

E * V * dy
(Em)x;z = q *
w
y=d

y=0

x;z

where E is the local specific energy : E(y) =


(Hm)x;z

P(y)
V(y)2
+ y * cos + 2 * g = H(1) - Z
w * g

mean total head at a measurement location (x, z) :

H * V * dy
(Hm)x;z = q *

w
y=d

y=0

x;z

where H is the local total head : H(y) =


(Vm)x;z

P(y)
V(y)2
+ (y*cos + Z) + 2 * g = H(1)(y)
w * g

mean velocity at a measurement location (x, z) :


(Vm)x;z

1 y=d

qw
= d *
V
*
dy
=

d x;z
y=0
x;z

G-1

G.2 Velocity and pressure measurements on the centreline

Ref.: CHANSON (1993)

Note : Smooth-wall channel configuration


Run

qw

No.

m2/s

Slope dc/W
deg.

(1)

(2)

(3)

d1
m

Fr1

HMTJ1 0.0198 0.252

(4)
(5)
(6)
0.137 0.0292 1.27

HMTJ2 0.0198 0.487

0.137 0.0240 1.70

HMTJ5 0.0200 0.754

0.138 0.0210 2.10

HMTJ6 0.0198 0.993

0.137 0.0191 2.40

HMTJ3 0.0397 0.248

0.217 0.0468 1.25

HMTJ7 0.0399 0.353

0.218 0.0420 1.48

mm

(7)
10.92
11.06
12.17
12.40
12.45
12.69
11.38
10.92
11.07
11.79
12.20
12.47
12.56
12.71
12.80
10.10
11.14
11.68
11.84
12.00
12.11
12.30
12.39
10.90
11.11
11.80
11.94
12.06
12.17
12.27
12.32
10.91
11.08
11.97
12.23
12.29
12.61
12.75
10.90
11.19
11.69
11.89
12.10
12.32
12.49
12.63

(8)
30.4
29.2
44.0
36.0
46.0
39.5
24.2
24.4
24.0
24.9
63.4
32.5
64.0
36.6
71.0
21.2
21.0
21.4
59.5
41.5
68.0
46.5
71.0
19.3
19.1
19.3
64.0
43.5
71.0
52.2
75.0
48.2
46.8
69.2
55.6
70.4
59.6
76.0
42.6
42.0
45.0
87.0
55.0
84.5
59.5
91.3

G-2

Note

(9)
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
NJ
U/S
U/S
SW
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
U/S
U/S
SW
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
U/S
U/S
SW
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
U/S
U/S
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C
U/S
U/S
SW
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C

(qw)CL (Em)CL (Hm)CL (dP/dy)

mm

/qw

/dc

/dc

(10)
151.8
152.3
144.4
145.7
143.7
144.4
105.1
125.2
125.3
98.4
93.7
97.7
89.3
95.8
90.9
56.1
54.2
47.4
39.5
46.4
34.1
42.1
29.2
92.7
91.1
79.7
72.9
76.6
64.2
73.4
60.4
152.3
152.8
145.4
147.3
144.7
147.4
142.6
216.8
216.3
214.0
207.7
212.4
206.6
210.9
202.7

(11)
1.071
1.029
1.150
1.061
1.152
1.069
1.066
1.056
1.030
1.114
1.483
1.215
1.689
1.250
1.827
1.062
1.075
1.090
1.553
1.393
1.763
1.449
1.831
1.086
1.074
1.083
1.820
1.495
2.101
1.600
2.018
1.094
1.080
1.305
1.143
1.286
1.131
1.306
1.095
1.087
1.122
1.547
1.168
1.431
1.124
1.438

(12)
1.674
1.639
1.719
1.659
1.721
1.704
1.947
1.912
1.889
1.990
1.985
1.895
2.129
1.931
2.242
2.273
2.318
2.334
2.116
1.997
2.277
2.065
2.384
2.616
2.607
2.640
2.212
2.195
2.527
2.236
2.592
1.719
1.701
1.792
1.740
1.788
1.721
1.808
1.833
1.830
1.853
1.929
1.830
1.912
1.805
1.957

(13)
6.107
6.087
5.937
5.913
5.917
5.922
5.016
5.567
5.547
4.865
4.722
4.747
4.736
4.728
4.895
3.902
3.892
3.712
3.265
3.345
3.267
3.287
3.233
5.322
5.267
4.968
4.341
4.431
4.403
4.380
4.357
4.521
4.512
4.468
4.448
4.449
4.432
4.432
5.801
5.809
5.789
5.749
5.736
5.712
5.685
5.685

/(w*g*
cos)
(14)
-0.992
-0.997
-0.968
-1.077
-0.968
-1.080
-0.991
-0.989
-0.981
-0.958
-0.798
-1.118
-0.867
-1.149
-0.851
-0.965
-0.972
-0.986
-0.876
-1.125
-0.881
-1.091
-0.939
-0.968
-0.977
-1.082
-0.865
-1.139
-0.942
-1.068
-0.964
-0.999
-0.999
-0.951
-1.060
-0.968
-1.052
-0.951
-0.999
-1.001
-1.098
-0.847
-1.116
-0.908
-1.117
-0.910

Run

qw

No.

m2/s

Slope dc/W
deg.

(1)

(2)

(3)

HMTJ4 0.0400 0.477

d1
m

Fr1

(4)
(5)
(6)
0.219 0.0384 1.70

mm

(7)
10.90
11.10
11.68
11.90
12.04
12.25
12.44
12.62

(8)
39.0
38.4
40.0
87.0
62.0
94.6
68.0
97.0

G-3

Note

(9)
U/S
U/S
SW
1C
1B
2C
2B
3C

(qw)CL (Em)CL (Hm)CL (dP/dy)

mm

/qw

/dc

/dc

(10)
108.5
108.5
104.1
97.2
100.9
94.5
99.0
88.2

(11)
1.088
1.086
1.124
1.422
1.280
1.566
1.258
1.479

(12)
1.961
1.973
2.006
1.938
1.920
2.025
1.908
2.081

(13)
3.947
3.968
3.920
3.726
3.776
3.763
3.729
3.703

/(w*g*
cos)
(14)
-0.998
-0.993
-1.044
-0.869
-1.103
-0.895
-1.075
-0.929

G.3 Three-dimensional flow field measurements


G.3.1 Smooth-wall channel configuration
Note : channel width W = 0.25 m

Series TT - dc/W = 0.286


Run :

TT2_2

qw =
Slope =

0.06

m2/s

0.2827

deg.

dc/W =
d1 =

0.286
65.6

Fr1 =

1.14

Ref.

m
z/W=
(1)
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C

(2)
9.00
10.00
10.13
10.27
10.40
10.60
10.85

Ref.

z/W=
(1)
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C

mm

[d]cl

CL

1/4

13.5

CL

1/4

13.5

mm
0.5
(3)
65.6
66.6
67.4
78.0
96.8
78.2
99.1

mm
0.25
(4)
66.0
66.2
67.6
77.3
90.0
84.5
98.0

mm
0.054
(5)
66.4
67.0
71.8
82.6
88.0
85.4
95.4

mm
0.5
(6)
141.1
152.8
153.3
156.2
146.4
149.6
145.5

mm
0.25
(7)
138.4
151.7
154.2
154.1
147.0
145.7
145.2

mm
0.054
(8)
138.5
149.7
151.0
150.2
147.3
146.3
144.0

(dP/dy)/ (dP/dy)/ (dP/dy)/ (qw)CL (qw)1/4 (qw)13.5


/qw
/qw
/qw
(w*g
(w*g
(w*g
*cos) *cos) *cos)
0.5
(9)
-1.00
-1.00
-1.01
-0.89
-0.92
-1.05
-0.96

(Em)CL
/dc

(Em)1/4
/dc

(Em)13.5
/dc

(Hm)CL
/dc

(Hm)1/4
/dc

CL
0.5
(15)
1.80
1.70
1.69
1.64
1.78
1.71
1.79

1/4
0.25
(16)
1.66
1.62
1.56
1.53
1.63
1.65
1.65

13.5
0.054
(17)
1.52
1.48
1.44
1.43
1.45
1.48
1.50

CL
0.5
(18)
3.77
3.84
3.83
3.82
3.83
3.80
3.83

1/4
0.25
(19)
3.59
3.74
3.71
3.68
3.68
3.68
3.68

G-4

0.25
(10)
-0.996
-0.98
-0.989
-0.99
-0.974
-1.025
-0.952

0.054
(11)
-1.00
-1.00
-1.04
-1.00
-0.99
-1.01
-0.98

(Hm)13.5 (Vm)CL
/dc
/Vc
13.5
CL
0.054
0.5
(20)
(21)
3.45
1.30
3.57
1.21
3.55
1.19
3.53
1.03
3.51
0.98
3.52
1.04
3.51
0.94

0.5
(12)
1.193
1.128
1.116
1.126
1.320
1.136
1.295

0.25
(13)
1.090
1.071
1.043
0.972
1.072
1.074
1.080

(Vm)1/4 (Vm)13.5
/Vc
/Vc
1/4
13.5
0.25
0.054
(22)
(23)
1.18
1.07
1.16
1.02
1.10
0.93
0.90
0.75
0.85
0.66
0.91
0.73
0.79
0.60

0.054
(14)
0.988
0.956
0.934
0.860
0.814
0.874
0.801

Run :
qw =
Slope =
dc/W =
d1 =
Fr1 =
Ref.

m
z/W=
(1)
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C

TT2_4
0.06
0.3285
0.286
61.8
1.25

(2)
10.00
10.23
10.30
10.37
10.44
10.66
10.87

m2/s
deg.
mm

[d]cl

CL

1/4

13.5

CL

1/4

13.5

mm
0.5
(3)
61.8
67.3
76.8
90.0
110.0
77.7
106.0

mm
0.25
(4)
61.6
67.4
78.3
88.9
91.1
81.8
99.7

mm
0.054
(5)
61.9
67.9
81.6
86.0
90.8
85.5
98.0

mm
0.5
(6)
134.4
144.5
146.8
148.0
138.7
145.0
138.3

mm
0.25
(7)
134.4
146.9
149.0
144.0
143.6
142.5
139.3

mm
0.054
(8)
134.3
149.4
145.1
144.1
140.6
141.8
138.5

Ref.

z/W=
(1)
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C

(Em)CL
/dc
CL
0.5
(15)
1.85
1.78
1.73
1.73
1.88
1.76
1.83

(Em)1/4
/dc
1/4
0.25
(16)
1.71
1.58
1.54
1.59
1.60
1.62
1.63

(dP/dy)/ (dP/dy)/ (dP/dy)/ (qw)CL (qw)1/4 (qw)13.5


/qw
/qw
/qw
(w*g
(w*g
(w*g
*cos) *cos) *cos)
0.5
(9)
-1.00
-1.06
-1.03
-0.92
-0.87
-1.07
-0.92

(Em)13.5
/dc

(Hm)CL
/dc

(Hm)1/4
/dc

13.5
0.054
(17)
1.48
1.37
1.38
1.36
1.41
1.44
1.48

CL
0.5
(18)
3.73
3.80
3.78
3.79
3.81
3.78
3.76

1/4
0.25
(19)
3.58
3.64
3.62
3.60
3.60
3.61
3.58

G-5

0.25
(10)
-1
-1.044
-0.972
-0.964
-0.976
-1.063
-0.955

0.054
(11)
-1.00
-1.02
-0.98
-0.99
-1.00
-1.03
-0.99

(Hm)13.5 (Vm)CL
/dc
/Vc
13.5
CL
0.054
0.5
(20)
(21)
3.35
1.37
3.46
1.24
3.41
1.08
3.38
0.99
3.37
0.96
3.42
1.07
3.41
0.89

0.5
(12)
1.182
1.168
1.161
1.245
1.471
1.156
1.324

0.25
(13)
1.091
1.014
1.013
0.995
0.989
0.991
0.965

(Vm)1/4 (Vm)13.5
/Vc
/Vc
1/4
13.5
0.25
0.054
(22)
(23)
1.27
1.08
1.08
0.89
0.93
0.71
0.80
0.54
0.78
0.52
0.87
0.66
0.69
0.46

0.054
(14)
0.938
0.842
0.806
0.646
0.664
0.782
0.636

TT2_1
0.06
0.4011
0.286
58.7
1.35

Run :
qw =
Slope =
dc/W =
d1 =
Fr1 =
Ref.

m
z/W=
(1)
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C

(2)
10.38
10.62
10.69
10.75
10.82
11.02
11.22

z/W=
(1)
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C

mm

[d]cl

CL

1/4

11.5

CL

1/4

11.5

mm
0.5
(6)
126.7
125.1
126.6
120.0
118.7
119.1
114.6

mm
0.25
(7)
126.1
124.9
106.3
123.8
119.4

mm
0.046
(8)
126.1
124.5
121.8
118.6
120.0

mm
mm
mm
0.5
0.25 0.046
(3)
(4)
(5)
58.7 58.2 57.5
61.5 63.7 64.6
66.8 80.0 83.1
79.6 91.1 88.5
112.2 100.6 94.4
86.6 91.3 95.9
115.7 106.6 104.3

Ref.

m2/s
deg.

(Em)CL
/dc
CL
0.5
(15)
1.96
2.25
1.92
2.01
1.95
1.93
1.98

(Em)1/4
/dc
1/4
0.25
(16)
1.78
2.07
2.03
1.71
1.73

(dP/dy)/ (dP/dy)/ (dP/dy)/ (qw)CL (qw)1/4 (qw)11.5


/qw
/qw
/qw
(w*g
(w*g
(w*g
*cos) *cos) *cos)
0.5
(9)
-1.00
-1.13
-1.10
-1.09
-0.88
-1.13
-0.94

(Em)11.5
/dc

(Hm)CL
/dc

(Hm)1/4
/dc

11.5
0.046
(17)
1.46
1.69
1.42
1.43
1.38

CL
0.5
(18)
3.73
4.00
3.69
3.68
3.60
3.59
3.58

1/4
0.25
(19)
3.54
3.81
3.51
3.44
3.40

G-6

0.25
(10)
-1.04
-1.04
-1.13
-0.97
-0.94

0.046
(11)
-1.04
-1.06
-1.01
-1.00
-0.99

(Hm)11.5 (Vm)CL
/dc
/Vc
11.5
CL
0.046
0.5
(20)
(21)
3.22
1.47
3.43
1.46
3.12
1.30
3.08
1.23
3.06
0.95
1.06
0.91

0.5
(12)
1.206
1.253
1.216
1.367
1.495
1.282
1.474

0.25
(13)
1.093
1.175
1.302
1.206
1.145

(Vm)1/4 (Vm)11.5
/Vc
/Vc
1/4
11.5
0.25
0.046
(22)
(23)
1.35
1.12
1.32
1.00
1.17
0.66
0.95
0.48
0.82
0.37

0.046
(14)
0.896
0.905
0.767
0.593
0.490

TT2_3
0.06
0.4354
0.286
55.8
1.45

Run :
qw =
Slope =
dc/W =
d1 =
Fr1 =
Ref.

m
z/W=
(1)
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C

(2)
10.50
11.15
11.23
11.30
11.38
11.57
11.80

m2/s
deg.
mm

[d]cl

CL

1/4

13.5

CL

1/4

13.5

mm
0.25
(7)
123.45
112.77
117.08
108.61
106.44
113.98
110.69

mm
0.054
(8)
123.95
117.04
118.2
116.35
111.76
113.27
109.11

mm
mm
mm
mm
0.5
0.25 0.054
0.5
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
55.8 56.0 56.0 124.66
58.0 58.2 59.8 108.34
63.2 65.8 74.0 110.56
98.0 87.0 84.0 106.29
109.0 97.0 93.0 116.72
88.0 92.0 96.0 114.33
113.0 106.0 104.0 110.25

Ref.

z/W=
(1)
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C

(Em)CL
/dc
CL
0.5
(15)
1.957
1.948
1.923
2.052
1.928
1.904
1.985

(Em)1/4
/dc
1/4
0.25
(16)
1.773
1.747
1.671
1.730
1.715
1.721
1.729

(dP/dy)/ (dP/dy)/ (dP/dy)/ (qw)CL (qw)1/4 (qw)13.5


/qw
/qw
/qw
(w*g
(w*g
(w*g
*cos) *cos) *cos)
0.5
(9)
-0.998
-1.109
-1.139
-0.949
-0.876
-1.085
-0.96

(Em)13.5
/dc

(Hm)CL
/dc

(Hm)1/4
/dc

13.5
0.054
(17)
1.536
1.536
1.440
1.382
1.436
1.495
1.582

CL
0.5
(18)
3.698
3.461
3.466
3.536
3.557
3.501
3.524

1/4
0.25
(19)
3.497
3.322
3.306
3.246
3.201
3.313
3.274

G-7

0.25
(10)
-1.009
-1.093
-1.055
-0.974
-0.947
-1.035
-0.971

0.054
(11)
-1.006
-1.026
-1.029
-0.993
-1.005
-1.006
-0.993

(Hm)13.5 (Vm)CL
/dc
/Vc
13.5
CL
0.054
0.5
(20)
(21)
3.267
1.49
3.171
1.44
3.091
1.36
3.007
1.18
2.996
1.00
3.077
1.03
3.106
0.91

0.5
(12)
1.162
1.167
1.196
1.617
1.516
1.272
1.429

0.25
(13)
1.070
1.052
1.096
1.199
1.111
1.046
0.987

(Vm)1/4 (Vm)13.5
/Vc
/Vc
1/4
13.5
0.25
0.054
(22)
(23)
1.37
1.20
1.29
1.15
1.19
0.86
0.99
0.60
0.82
0.44
0.81
0.50
0.67
0.48

0.054
(14)
0.940
0.960
0.891
0.705
0.567
0.670
0.696

Series WZ - dc/W = 0.403


WZ3_1
0.1
0.382
0.403
84
1.31

Run :
qw =
Slope =
dc/W =
d1 =
Fr1 =
Ref.

m
z/W=
(1)
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C

(2)
9.68
9.87
9.93
10.00
10.06
10.34
10.66

m2/s
deg.
mm

[d]cl

CL

1/4

10

CL

1/4

10

mm
0.5
(3)
84.0
92.0
94.6
105.8
147.0
120.8
146.4

mm
0.25
(4)
85.0
93.6
94.0
114.0
127.6
122.0
140.8

mm
0.040
(5)
85.4
93.0
103.0
112.0
127.0
124.0
140.0

mm
0.5
(6)
133.5
129.0
141.0
139.3
119.4
130.1
121.7

mm
0.25
(7)
136.2
137.6
144.8
127.5
129.6
127.2
123.7

mm
0.040
(8)
142.9
136.0
143.5
128.6
129.2
124.3
126.1

Ref.

z/W=
(1)
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C

(dP/dy)/ (dP/dy)/ (dP/dy)/ (qw)CL (qw)1/4


/qw
/qw
(w*g
(w*g
(w*g
*cos) *cos) *cos)
0.5
(9)
-1.008
-1.255
-1.088
-1.022
-0.962
-1.048
-0.974

0.25
(10)
-0.996
-1.3
-1.048
-1.044
-0.998
-1.032
-0.983

0.040
(11)
-1.196
-1.14
-0.981
-1.032
-0.99
-1.007
-0.983

0.5
(12)
1.145
1.157
1.140
1.253
1.421
1.252
1.294

0.25
(13)
1.079
1.028
1.083
1.297
1.200
1.167
1.278

(Em)CL
/dc

(Em)1/4
/dc

(Em)10
/dc

(Hm)CL
/dc

(Hm)1/4
/dc

(Hm)10
/dc

(Vm)CL
/Vc

(Vm)1/4
/Vc

(Vm)10
/Vc

CL
0.5
(15)
1.80
1.90
1.76
1.77
1.88
1.80
1.85

1/4
0.25
(16)
1.69
1.66
1.67
1.85
1.77
1.75
1.84

10
0.040
(17)
1.50
1.53
1.45
1.67
1.53
1.64
1.58

CL
0.5
(18)
3.12
3.18
3.16
3.15
3.07
3.09
3.06

1/4
0.25
(19)
3.05
3.03
3.11
3.12
3.06
3.01
3.06

10
0.040
(20)
2.92
2.89
2.87
2.95
2.81
2.88
2.83

CL
0.5
(21)
1.37
1.27
1.21
1.19
0.97
1.04
0.89

1/4
0.25
(22)
1.28
1.11
1.16
1.15
0.95
0.96
0.91

10
0.040
(23)
1.09
1.01
0.92
0.84
0.67
0.82
0.63

G-8

(qw)10
/qw

0.040
(14)
0.921
0.937
0.939
0.931
0.851
1.008
0.882

G3.2 Rough-sidewall channel configuration


Note : channel width W = 0.248 m
WZ3_2
0.1008
0.3858
0.408
86
1.28

Run :
qw =
Slope =
dc/W =
d1 =
Fr1 =
Ref.

m
z/W=
(1)
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C

(2)
10.10
10.44
10.49
10.55
10.60
10.90
11.19

m2/s
deg.
mm

[d]cl

CL

1/4

10

CL

1/4

10

mm
0.5
(3)
86.0
91.0
97.2
108.2
146.6
121.0
147.2

mm
0.25
(4)
84.6
94.6
100.2
120.8
134.6
122.8
143.0

mm
0.040
(5)
86.4
99.2
109.8
114.2
129.4
127.4
142.0

mm
0.5
(6)
138.0
137.7
131.2
131.9
122.7
135.3
122.9

mm
0.25
(7)
138.9
141.1
140.9
127.4
128.9
136.6
127.7

mm
0.040
(8)
138.1
139.1
131.0
136.2
131.2
132.0
126.2

Ref.

z/W=
(1)
U/S
SW
SW1
SW2
1C
1B
2C

(dP/dy)/ (dP/dy)/ (dP/dy)/ (qw)CL (qw)1/4


/qw
/qw
(w*g
(w*g
(w*g
*cos) *cos) *cos)
0.5
(9)
-1.015
-1.112
-1.147
-1.147
-0.966
-1.042
-0.986

0.25
(10)
-1.002
-1.07
-1.07
-1.024
-0.987
-1.027
-0.976

0.040
(11)
-1
-1.12
-1.072
-0.976
-0.988
-1.01
-0.991

0.5
(12)
1.145
1.099
1.161
1.265
1.478
1.178
1.325

0.25
(13)
1.084
1.083
1.060
1.218
1.359
1.141
1.269

(Em)CL
/dc

(Em)1/4
/dc

(Em)10
/dc

(Hm)CL
/dc

(Hm)1/4
/dc

(Hm)10
/dc

(Vm)CL
/Vc

(Vm)1/4
/Vc

(Vm)10
/Vc

CL
0.5
(15)
1.80
1.76
1.86
1.84
1.94
1.76
1.87

1/4
0.25
(16)
1.72
1.68
1.68
1.79
1.84
1.69
1.82

10
0.040
(17)
1.53
1.44
1.60
1.44
1.47
1.52
1.608

CL
0.5
(18)
3.16
3.12
3.16
3.15
3.15
3.09
3.09

1/4
0.25
(19)
3.09
3.07
3.07
3.04
3.12
3.04
3.09

10
0.040
(20)
2.89
2.81
2.89
2.79
2.76
2.82
2.849

CL
0.5
(21)
1.35
1.22
1.21
1.18
1.02
0.99
0.91

1/4
0.25
(22)
1.30
1.16
1.07
1.02
1.02
0.94
0.90

10
0.040
(23)
1.14
0.93
0.97
0.76
0.61
0.71
0.63

G-9

(qw)10
/qw

0.040
(14)
0.970
0.913
1.057
0.856
0.774
0.889
0.8858

APPENDIX H
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF DARCY AND BAZIN (1865)

H.1 Introduction
The experiments of DARCY and BAZIN (1865) were performed between 1855 and 1860. The hydraulic jump1
investigations were conducted in three channels :
- a 500-m long experimental channel along the Canal de Bourgogne (Series 89, 90 and 91),
- the Pont-Aqueduc de Roquefavour, Canal de Marseille (Series 95 No. 1), and
- the Pont-Aqueduc de Crau, Canal de Craponne (Series 95 No. 2).
The experimental study was directed and supervised by H.P.G. DARCY until his death. His work was
completed by his (then) assistant H. BAZIN. The results were presented at the Acadmie des Sciences of Paris
in 1865 by BAZIN (BAZIN 1865a).
For all the experimental flow conditions detailed below, BAZIN (1865a) indicated the presence of free-surface
undulations downstream of the jump (i.e. undular jump flow).

Notation
d

flow depth (m)

distance (m) from the channel intake

CL

centreline measurement

Wall

wall measurement

H.2 Experimental channel, Canal de Bourgogne


Series :
Channel :
Slope :
Cross-section :
Width :
Roughness :

1'Ressaut

89, 90, 91
Experimental channel along the Canal de Bourgogne
0.281 deg.
Rectangular
1.99 m
planed board/plank

hydraulique' in French.

H-1

Series 89
x
Qw =
(m3/s)
m

d (m)
0.103

d
0.209

d
0.317

d
0.424

d
0.531

d
0.637

d
0.721

d
0.824

d
1.03

No. 1

No. 2

No. 3

No. 4

No. 5

No. 6

No. 7

No. 8

No. 9

70.87
72.85
74.61
76.33
78.04
79.04
80.04
82.00
83.66
85.30
86.96
88.64
90.25
91.75
93.19
94.72
96.48
98.36
100.00
101.59
103.15
104.74
106.04
107.34
108.70
110.00
111.34
112.65
113.99
115.34
116.68
118.34
120.00
121.71
123.66
125.66
127.04
128.34
129.71
131.71
133.65
135.65
137.65
138.89
140.03
141.70
143.36
145.04
146.69
148.37
166.10
183.92
198.52
200.00

0.060
0.063
0.062
0.071
0.061
0.081
0.062
0.112
0.109
0.124
0.131
0.135
0.148
0.156
0.167
0.177
0.170
0.192
0.202
0.204
0.207
0.225
0.227
0.239
0.250
0.251
0.254
0.267
0.259
0.264
0.262
0.281
0.286
0.297
0.314
0.319
0.325
0.333
0.345
0.347
0.362
0.372
0.380
0.387
0.401
0.397
0.407
0.404
0.422
0.432
0.524
0.613
0.682
0.672

0.091
0.092
0.092
0.101
0.093
0.126
0.140
0.141
0.163
0.172
0.178
0.190
0.202
0.203
0.217
0.227
0.221
0.236
0.255
0.263
0.270
0.281
0.289
0.292
0.300
0.303
0.306
0.325
0.314
0.320
0.316
0.331
0.344
0.354
0.368
0.372
0.379
0.388
0.405
0.402
0.416
0.424
0.432
0.447
0.445
0.452
0.461
0.465
0.477
0.484
0.578
0.667
0.735
0.716

0.113
0.126
0.121
0.142
0.123
0.134
0.177
0.193
0.197
0.211
0.203
0.238
0.245
0.251
0.264
0.274
0.276
0.291
0.298
0.311
0.309
0.321
0.330
0.336
0.342
0.345
0.345
0.361
0.353
0.360
0.357
0.374
0.384
0.394
0.407
0.416
0.421
0.438
0.445
0.447
0.463
0.469
0.477
0.489
0.492
0.491
0.502
0.507
0.520
0.528
0.622
0.711
0.776
0.748

0.138
0.149
0.145
0.165
0.149
0.147
0.175
0.186
0.225
0.227
0.243
0.254
0.273
0.279
0.294
0.283
0.298
0.308
0.326
0.347
0.344
0.358
0.364
0.376
0.386
0.382
0.383
0.402
0.384
0.401
0.398
0.403
0.406
0.433
0.437
0.447
0.451
0.463
0.471
0.474
0.485
0.501
0.502
0.519
0.523
0.529
0.530
0.535
0.550
0.560
0.649
0.740
0.808
0.774

0.168
0.171
0.168
0.181
0.164
0.172
0.171
0.204
0.217
0.249
0.255
0.281
0.288
0.288
0.305
0.328
0.313
0.323
0.341
0.363
0.356
0.373
0.384
0.386
0.391
0.394
0.402
0.407
0.401
0.420
0.425
0.432
0.443
0.448
0.455
0.474
0.470
0.486
0.492
0.502
0.515
0.525
0.537
0.542
0.549
0.551
0.555
0.557
0.574
0.591
0.668
0.764
0.827
.7*6

0.180
0.189
0.176
0.191
0.186
0.191
0.179
0.191
0.257
0.277
0.281
0.312
0.315
0.319
0.332
0.340
0.347
0.378
0.383
0.392
0.394
0.402
0.423
0.423
0.430
0.430
0.441
0.448
0.455
0.454
0.452
0.464
0.497
0.488
0.496
0.506
0.510
0.523
0.541
0.540
0.554
0.556
0.573
0.575
0.579
0.584
0.595
0.597
0.616
0.614
0.710
0.795
0.860
0.819

0.201
0.207
0.202
0.207
0.200
0.208
0.201
0.203
0.209
0.218
0.208
0.205
0.199
0.196
0.194
0.192
0.208
0.203
0.210
0.195
0.186
0.197
0.196
0.194
0.192
0.200
0.216
0.207
0.216
0.227
0.229
0.227
0.204
0.208
0.258
0.270
0.282
0.324
0.315
0.317
0.341
0.360
0.373
0.379
0.382
0.404
0.410
0.414
0.429
0.433
0.540
0.627
0.695
0.644

0.220
0.224
0.214
0.217
0.220
0.220
0.221
0.226
0.219
0.228
0.223
0.230
0.225
0.217
0.215
0.213
0.217
0.229
0.227
0.218
0.216
0.215
0.222
0.220
0.219
0.222
0.234
0.231
0.234
0.242
0.248
0.252
0.224
0.229
0.244
0.291
0.300
0.332
0.360
0.353
0.383
0.383
0.388
0.410
0.441
0.408
0.432
0.447
0.466
0.467
0.559
0.649
0.720
0.675

0.261
0.259
0.257
0.259
0.255
0.263
0.260
0.263
0.264
0.269
0.261
0.266
0.263
0.252
0.255
0.241
0.252
0.258
0.267
0.257
0.247
0.242
0.256
0.255
0.263
0.267
0.270
0.280
0.275
0.287
0.284
0.284
0.273
0.270
0.270
0.356
0.387
0.382
0.399
0.395
0.451
0.431
0.463
0.464
0.478
0.501
0.480
0.497
0.508
0.521
0.620
0.709
0.773
0.720

H-2

Series 90
x
Qw =
(m3/s)
m
80.04
82.00
83.66
85.30
86.96
88.64
90.25
91.75
93.19
94.72
96.48
98.36
100.00
101.59
103.15
104.74
106.04
107.34
108.70
110.00
111.34
112.65
113.99
115.34
116.68
118.34
120.00
121.71
123.66
125.66
127.04
128.34
129.71
131.71
133.65
135.65
137.65
138.89
140.03
141.70
143.36
145.04
146.69
148.37
150.00
151.56
153.25
154.90
156.50
158.14
160.00
162.10
164.10
166.10
168.02
170.09
171.79

d
0.307

d
0.515

d
0.721

d
0.927

d
1.03

No. 1

No. 2

No. 3

No. 4

No. 5

0.164
0.175
0.165
0.166
0.162
0.164
0.161
0.158
0.155
0.158
0.216
0.244
0.275
0.303
0.298
0.316
0.329
0.335
0.343
0.343
0.340
0.354
0.352
0.363
0.353
0.371
0.377
0.395
0.405
0.423
0.431
0.435
0.443
0.450
0.466
0.468
0.482
0.482
0.491
0.497
0.507
0.512
0.522
0.533
0.116
0.131
0.136
0.129
0.127
0.123
0.121
0.116
0.117
0.129
0.179
0.171
0.196

0.619

0.208
0.201
0.212
0.212
0.210
0.212
0.198
0.197
0.219
0.211
0.206
0.207
0.204
0.302
0.303
0.311
0.347
0.344
0.367

0.239
0.229
0.223
0.222
0.227
0.256
0.243
0.231
0.225
0.230
0.230
0.231
0.234
0.245
0.251
0.245
0.243
0.258
0.315
0.332
0.348
0.369
0.397
0.401
0.398
0.410
0.422
0.441
0.456
0.462
0.474
0.480
0.478
0.487
0.500
0.509
0.522
0.533
0.531
0.541
0.564
0.563
0.579
0.588
0.603
0.598
0.620
0.632
0.644
0.645
0.666

0.250
0.251
0.257
0.254
0.257
0.252
0.262
0.345
0.376
0.398
0.390
0.432
0.436
0.465
0.482
0.459
0.471
0.482
0.486
0.473
0.490
0.511
0.498
0.523
0.517
0.524
0.545
0.559
0.544
0.570
0.581
0.605
0.615
0.604
0.619
0.627
0.633

0.693

0.805

H-3

x
Qw =
(m3/s)
m
173.44
175.16
176.72
178.22
180.00
181.92
183.82
185.52
186.92
188.22
189.67
191.13
192.61
194.26
195.97
197.23
198.52

d
0.307

d
0.515

d
0.721

d
0.927

d
1.03

No. 1
0.200
0.206
0.222
0.233
0.245
0.250
0.258
0.277
0.278
0.291
0.297
0.303
0.305
0.308
0.318
0.316
0.325

No. 2

No. 3
0.369
0.366
0.393
0.388
0.408
0.424
0.428
0.449
0.451
0.465
0.469
0.469
0.472
0.482
0.494
0.495
0.501

No. 4
0.666
0.676
0.683
0.696
0.703
0.714
0.719

No. 5

0.875

0.789

0.946

0.710

0.777

H-4

Series 91
x
Qw =
(m3/s)
m

d
0.637

d
0.85

d
1.03

d
0.618

d
0.824

d
1.03

d
0.618

d
0.824

d
1.03

No. 1

No. 2

No. 3

No. 4

No. 5

No. 6

No. 7

No. 8

No. 9

80.04
88.64
90.25
91.75
93.19
94.72
96.48
98.36
100.00
101.59
103.15
104.74
106.04
107.34
108.70
110.00
111.34
112.65
113.99
115.34
116.68
118.34
120.00
121.71
123.66
125.66
127.04
128.34
129.71
131.71
133.65
135.65
137.65
138.89
140.03
141.70
143.36
145.04
146.69
148.37
150.00
151.56
153.25
154.90
156.50
158.14
160.00
162.10
164.10
166.10
183.92
198.52
200.00

0.187
0.187
0.187
0.181
0.180
0.193
0.187
0.204
0.173
0.185
0.308
0.325
0.316
0.335
0.351
0.334
0.358
0.360
0.353
0.360
0.362
0.369
0.390
0.404
0.417
0.422
0.426
0.439
0.454
0.456
0.468
0.477
0.485
0.487
0.503
0.508
0.517
0.519
0.536
0.539
0.545
0.551
0.570
0.576
0.578
0.585
0.599
0.605
0.613
0.633
0.716
0.770
0.741

0.225
0.234
0.223
0.223
0.215
0.215
0.231
0.236
0.234
0.229
0.267
0.300
0.341
0.370
0.376
0.389
0.395
0.401
0.399
0.378
0.374
0.405
0.417
0.430
0.437
0.464
0.457
0.462
0.478
0.481
0.505
0.521
0.525
0.534
0.553
0.543
0.554
0.553
0.561
0.585
0.592
0.592
0.608
0.617
0.614
0.620
0.641
0.643
0.653
0.670
0.757
0.809
0.769

0.273
0.259
0.264
0.264
0.254
0.251
0.263
0.254
0.270
0.259
0.260
0.250
0.296
0.354
0.425
0.380
0.362
0.418
0.432
0.398
0.396
0.416
0.464
0.467
0.454
0.497
0.483
0.489
0.498
0.506
0.522
0.522
0.546
0.552
0.582
0.577
0.573
0.593
0.595
0.603

0.202
0.192
0.190
0.194
0.260
0.277
0.293
0.296
0.313
0.325
0.331
0.344
0.360
0.358
0.361
0.368
0.372
0.368
0.386
0.370
0.386
0.398
0.415
0.427
0.430
0.440
0.446
0.463
0.471
0.468
0.480
0.487
0.508
0.512
0.528
0.524
0.535
0.540
0.544
0.559

0.233
0.221
0.228
0.225
0.222
0.219
0.251
0.301
0.312
0.343
0.364
0.385
0.383
0.389
0.390
0.393
0.401
0.403
0.404
0.404
0.411
0.424
0.443
0.457
0.469
0.471
0.471
0.493
0.498
0.491
0.517
0.523
0.545
0.545
0.556
0.561
0.561
0.568
0.577
0.590

0.257
0.253
0.259
0.255
0.248
0.246
0.263
0.266
0.266
0.387
0.363
0.375
0.379
0.419
0.443
0.440
0.448
0.448
0.458
0.452
0.466
0.483
0.472
0.508
0.496
0.526
0.519
0.531
0.540
0.547
0.562
0.569
0.584
0.590
0.602
0.605
0.596
0.607
0.622
0.629

0.197
0.197
0.242
0.252
0.293
0.297
0.318
0.309
0.318
0.345
0.359
0.361
0.364
0.371
0.379
0.379
0.384
0.395
0.392
0.392
0.406
0.401
0.425
0.442
0.457
0.461
0.455
0.470
0.480
0.486
0.496
0.509
0.515
0.527
0.535
0.539
0.552
0.544
0.559
0.566

0.260
0.231
0.233
0.269
0.307
0.352
0.349
0.370
0.348
0.375
0.407
0.407
0.423
0.420
0.435
0.429
0.438
0.447
0.443
0.442
0.458
0.467
0.471
0.486
0.481
0.497
0.501
0.520
0.526
0.526
0.533
0.553
0.563
0.572
0.583
0.587
0.595
0.590
0.608
0.620

0.276
0.271
0.268
0.268
0.376
0.392
0.403
0.409
0.408
0.441
0.448
0.438
0.459
0.461
0.470
0.468
0.471
0.482
0.482
0.481
0.488
0.500
0.522
0.538
0.525
0.539
0.539
0.569
0.574
0.582
0.592
0.594
0.616
0.608
0.620
0.630
0.644
0.633
0.647
0.656

0.695
0.782
0.835
0.786

0.620
0.729
0.792
0.754

0.673
0.763
0.830
0.774

0.716
0.815
0.873
0.809

0.661
0.750
0.811
0.762

0.704
0.796
0.851
0.802

0.749
0.845
0.900
0.836

H-5

H.4 Pont-Aqueduc de Crau


H.3 Pont-Aqueduc de Roquefavour
Series :
Channel :

95 No. 2
Pont-aqueduc de Crau, Canal de
Craponne
Slope :
0.689 deg.
Cross-section Rectangular
:
Width :
2.5912 m
Roughness : Stone (wall and bottom)
Source :
BAZIN (1865a), Plate XXVIII, fig.
19 ans 20 analysed by the writer.

Series :
Channel :

95 No. 1
Pont-aqueduc de Roquefavour, Canal
de Marseille
Slope :
0.229 deg.
Cross-section Trapezoidal
:
Width :
2.12 m at bottom
Sidewall : 1H/11.44V
Roughness : Cement (bottom) and brick (walls)
Source :
BAZIN (1865a), Plate XXVIII, fig.
17 analysed by the writer.
X
m

20.00
23.27
25.36
27.29
30.27
32.81
35.18
37.49
40.26
41.56
42.95
44.83
46.90
49.22
50.99
53.08
54.67
56.16
57.34
59.00
60.95
61.99
64.27
65.86
67.59
68.99
70.71
72.72
80.00
96.16

d
m
CL

Comments

0.783
0.790
0.818
1.017
0.932
1.064
0.978
1.091
1.026
1.117
1.019
1.121
1.074
1.119
1.107
1.171
1.087
1.183
1.100
1.185
1.127
1.204
1.140
1.207
1.152
1.232
1.173
1.236
1.206
1.324

U/S

1st Crest
1st Bottom
2nd Crest
2nd Bottom
3rd Crest
3B
4C
4B
5C
5B
6C
6B
7C
7B
8C
8B
9C
9B
10C
10B
11C
11B
12C

X
m

d
m
CL

50
65
73.50

0.535
0.46
0.430
1.088
0.763
1.019
0.713
1.034
0.709
1.016
0.705
1.089
0.708
1.117
0.594
1.033
0.720
1.032
0.980

84.00

H-6

d
m
Wall

Comments

0.430
0.848
0.824
0.943
0.836
0.889
0.825
0.969
0.861
1.034
0.840
1.033
0.728
1.019
0.771
1.019

U/S
1st Crest
1st Bottom
2nd Crest
2nd Bottom
3rd Crest
3B
4C
4B
5C
5B
6C
6B
7C
7B
8C

H.5 Summary
Run

Series 89
89-1
89-2
89-3
89-4
89-5
89-6
89-7
89-8
89-9
Series 90
90-1
90-2
90-3
90-4
90-5
Series 91
91-1
91-2
91-3
91-4
91-5
91-6
91-7
91-8
91-9
Series 95
95-1
95-2

Qw

Slope

dc
m

Upstream
d1
m

flow
Fr1

m3/s

degrees

0.1030
0.2090
0.3170
0.4240
0.5310
0.6370
0.7210
0.8240
1.0300

0.281
0.281
0.281
0.281
0.281
0.281
0.281
0.281
0.281

0.065
0.104
0.137
0.167
0.194
0.219
0.237
0.260
0.301

0.063
0.094
0.127
0.149
0.171
0.185
0.217
0.234
0.270

1.04
1.17
1.13
1.18
1.21
1.28
1.15
1.17
1.18

78.04
78.04
79.04
79.04
80.04
82.0
121.71
121.71
123.66

0.3070
0.5150
0.7210
0.9270
1.0300

0.281
0.281
0.281
0.281
0.281

0.134
0.190
0.237
0.281
0.301

0.123
0.161
0.207
0.241
0.255

1.14
1.28
1.23
1.26
1.29

166.1
94.72
160
115.34
90.25

0.6370
0.8500
1.0300
0.6180
0.8240
1.0300
0.61800
0.82400
1.03

0.281
0.281
0.281
0.281
0.281
0.281
0.281
0.281
0.281

0.219
0.265
0.301
0.214
0.260
0.301
0.214
0.260
0.301

0.186
0.227
0.260
0.195
0.225
0.257
0.197
0.248
0.271

1.27
1.27
1.25
1.16
1.24
1.27
1.13
1.07
1.17

101.59
101.59
104.79
91.75
94.72
100
88.64
91.75
91.75

6.42 (a)
4.38 (a)

0.22945

0.603

0.783

1.35

20

0.6892

0.662

0.4300

1.91

73.50

Note :
(a) approxination deduced from the sketch

H-7

X1
m