Sie sind auf Seite 1von 60

15 millions Households in Indonesia Still Do not Have Access to Drinking Water

II Edition, 2010

Edisi II, 2010


Multi Village

Drinking Water

Information Media on Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation

Published by: Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Working Group (WSES Working Group) Responsible Person Housing and Settlement Director of Bappenas Environmental Sanitation Director of the Health Ministry Water Supply Development Director of the Public Work Ministry Natural Resources Improvement and Efficient Technology Director of Domestic Affair Ministry Director of Spatial and Environmental Facilitation of the Domestic Affair Ministry Head of editorial staff Oswar Mungkasa Editorial Staff Maraita Listyasari Nugroho Tri Utomo Managing Editor Eko Budi Harsono Design and Production Agus Sumarno Sofyar Circulation/Secretariat Agus Syuhada Nur Aini Editorial Address Jl. RP Soeroso 50, Central Jakarta, Ph/Fax: (021) 31904113 Website: http// e-mail: Editors accept external papers/article concerning water supply and environmental sanitation.

Table of Contents
From The Editor.......................................................................................................... 3 Your Voice .................................................................................................................. 4 Main Report Story on Multi Village System in NTT .............. 5 Reflecting On the Multi Village System in North Kodi NTT ............ 8 Bernd Ugner, Tears Stream as Telling The Story about NTT Child Who Apreciate the Water ..................................................................................... 12 Regulation The Arrangement of Water Management Needs a Sound Umbrella Regulation ............................................................................ 15 Agenda The World Environment Day............................................................................... 17 The Land Degradation and World Drought Mitigation Day .... 20 Discourse 15 Millions Households in Indonesia Do Still Not Have Access to Drinking Water ......................................................................................... 22 BPSAB Study in 5 Districts in West Java And East Java ...... 27 Interview Budi Yuwono General Director of Cipta Karya .......... 31 Inovasion Simple Technology to Turn Rain Water Into Drinking Water. ......... 34 Through Ozonization and Filtration Peat Water Becomes Clean ......... 36 Different Side Water Crisis And Indonesias Water Endurance .............. 38 Testimonial Teti Suryani, The Teacher Who Becomes Trash Composer..... 42 Reportation Community Based Total Sanitation Roadshow In Grobogan. .... 44 The 2010 AMPL Development Consolidation Meeting ..................... 45 The Ministry of Environment High Level Forum The Impact of Water Crisis On Society, Women, and Children ...... 46 The INDOWATER Exhibition 2010 .................... 48 Jakartas Ground Water is Not Decent to Consume. .............. 49 Guidelines An Easy Way to Built Sun Distalator for Water Purifying. ......... 52 CD Info .............................. 54 Book Info ............................. 55 Web Sites Info .................. 56 AMPL Library ............................ 57 Facts Facts Related to the Water Scarcity.................. 58

From The Editor

Edisi II, 2010

drinking water development activities. However, later in this edition we highlight more the example of multi village system in the area of Kodi (NTT) by considering these activities has reached the largest population until now, which is about 17,000 people. This is very surprising considering many of PDAMs can only reach around 2.000 5.000 customers. We also need to inform you that until now we have succeeded in publishing Percik in two versions, which are the regular edition and special edition. Regular edition is published 4 (four) times each year, and planned regulrly on a three monthly basis, although in reality it can only be issued after June. As for the special edition, it is the result of collaboration with stakeholders to present a specific topic, with a flexible time of publication. Until now, there are 3 special editions that have been published, namely edition of Community-based Solidwaste Management in collaboration with BORDA and its network, A Decade of Communitybased AMPL Mainstreaming POKJA Efforts in collaboration with WASPOLA, and 7 Years of SANIMAS in collaboration with BORDA. In 2010, two editions were planned to be published, one edition on the Sanitation Development Acceleration Program (PPSP) in collaboration with the Technical Team of Sanitation Development, and The Water and Environmental Sanitation (WES) UNICEF in collaboration with UNICEF. Several special editions are now on the negotiation phase with several stakeholders. The entire special editions were also published in English. Surely this is good news for the development of our beloved magazine. Starting this edition, readers will lsee some changes in the editorial composition because of the mutations of some members of the AMPL working group, who have been involved in publishing Percik. Nevertheless, we hope that this will not reduce quality, but on the contrary, improves the quality of our beloved magazine. Finally, we do not forget to congratulate for those who are fasting. Enjoy, and please do not forget the things that we always wait from you, the critics and suggestions from readers. (OM)

n the past ten years, the water supply and sanitation development has gone a lot of substantial changes. Especially after the agreement of National Community-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Policy in 2003 and the optimal functioning of Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Working Group (AMPL Working Group) in AMPL development. This condition encourages the rampant development of Community-based water supply and sanitation in throughout Indonesia, which involves almost all stakeholders ranging from central government, local governments, NGOs, and communities. Further on, the spirit has created a movement that goes far beyond our imagination. Take for example major projects that currently implement community-based approach, among others are WASPOLA, Pro AIR, WSLIC-2, CWSH, PAMSIMAS, ISSDP that becomes USDP, WES, UNICEF, Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), which has been enhanced to become the national Community Based total Snitation program (STBM) and replicated into Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing (STOPS). This is not to mention the activities of NGOs that cooperate with the government including Plan Indonesia, and SIMAVI. Also not to forget, the activities in the form of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) by companies. From the rise of Community-based activities, the emergence phenomenon of community-based activities involving more than one community and across more than one village, and even reach the population in the number of tens of thousands of people, are identified. Some people even call it PDAM Village, in term of it size. The interesting fact is that the process is based on community-based. This seems to violate the mainstream rules that the community-based activities are very local (one village, one community), not exceeding certain amount (average 2000-3000 population). But in reality many areas already have multi-village

We are very glad to read your letter. Thank you very much for your attention and your trust to our magazine as a media thats consistently and trusted in providing the information related to the drinking water and environment Puskesmas issues. We will, of course, give attention to your request to get this Need Percik Magazine magazine regularly. Greetings to all We are one of the Percik Magazine friends at the Puskesmas Batulampa. reader, even though until now we only recieved once of the last Percik Magazine March and October 2008 Save Our Water edition, we want to be a permanent customer and get the latest edition. Nobody needs no water, Yes, As a Sanitarian who works at the everybody needs water. Everyone Puskesmas with more than 10 years needs at least 5 litre of water everyday. (2000-2010) working time of course I Without it, there will be no life. have a lot experience, but it doesnt But, its very dissapointing when mean that all the sanitation problems a lot of people doesnt care about the can be handled easily. For one example, water supply. Spoiled the water with there was a time when we were asked using it more than what is needed. to give the technical assistance for the Just like we didnt need it. In fact, latrine production, specifically for the every human being needs water. Of beach area, flood and stage house. We course, we pay every drop of the water had a little bit of problems, because thats filled our bathroom tank, but it we didnt have the manual book or doesnt mean that we can consume the technical guidelines. Beside, of the water without a limit. Of course course the knowledge or the theory the Government who controlled the that we received at the University was water, so it could be delivered to the not easy to be recalled again. public. But it doesnt mean that the Because of that, we hope you can responsibility of the water is just the kindly send us or provide the informa- Government job. Because, the truth is tion to us about the magazines, books, that water has it own limit. Because of CDs, and other things thats related that, if every stakeholder dont care, to the latrine production. If you can, there is the possibility of water to please include one thats completed stop flowing. with the picture and the size. Lets imagine if the water stop Thank you so much for your atten- flowing. Do we have to expect from tion. We wish that Percik Magazine the rain water? Or do we have to will always sparks the knowledge and distil the seawater? Poor us if those the informations everytime, especially things come true. We have to save the the one thats related to the drinking water as early as possible. Because water and the environmental sanita- water would be very useful for our tion. generations, so we have to take care Na Mal Saleh of it. Its a moral responsibility for us Perumahan Puskesmas to keep it sustainable. Batulampa Kabupaten Pinrang, Lina Naibaho South Sulawesi Medan, North Sumatera

Your Voice

The Deepening Gap of Water Distribution

Our Planet Earth is rich of water. Every expert says that our world have at least 1.360.000.000 km3 of water. From that total volume, about 1.320.000.000 km3 or about 97,2 percent is the sea. 25.000.000 km3 or about 1,8 percent is ground water. 250.000 km3 is plain water in the lake and river, and rest of it 13.000 km3 or about 0.001 percent is a water in the atmosfer in form of rain cloud. However, from the volume of the water thats so big, not all of it can be use by human for living. Only the ground water and half of the plain water volume that can be use for living. The worst thing is, that clean water volume has been decreasing fast because the deforestation, industrial and house toxic pollution, the increased of population of the worlds, also the increased of the living standards so the consume of the water was increased too. These conditions press the United Nation to proclaim year 2005 until 2015 as a water decade. The proclaimed of water decade by UN is a real policy. From a series of scientist researches it is known that the used of the water has been increased six times in the last 100 years. The effect is, in that period, 20 percent from the total volume of the clean water on Earth is all gone, while the price of it has increased twice of the real price. The problem is not just that. From time to time, the water distribution is creating a biger gap. Maximus Ali Perajaka Pesanggrahan, Jakarta

Main Report

Edisi II, 2010

The Story About Multi Village System in NTT


odi Sub district, West Sumba Daya Regency, East Nusa Tenggara is one of the real successful example of the multi village clean water facility development. this is due to the fact that the multi villages drinking water supply program that has been done in view villages in Kodi Subsdrict was done with a high budget and manage to cover services for the public in a very large population. Not to mention the complex problems at the field, neither technical or non technical, during the implementation. According the coordinator of Pro Air, Bernd Ugner, the service of the drinking water in multi village in

Kodi Sub district, West Sumba Daya Regency was focused on the construction of the clean water service that serves five villages, which are Kori village, Homba village, Karipir village, Hohawungo village, and Wailabubur village. The total number of the villagers who need this service is 17.000 people with the cost of 37 billions Rupiah in form of water source protection system. The multi village drinking water system that we do is a pipe with a gravity flow in 4 villages with the water tank capacity of 400 m3, the transmission pipe is 6,8 km, distribution pipe is 60 km, and also build 55 unit of water shop and 210 house connections. This multi village drinking

water service in Kodi subsdistrict was finished last year. Now the villagers can be happy and say Getting water is so near, said Bernard. Bernd recognize that the development program of drinking water multi villages in Kodi was conducted by the community with struggle. A number of obstacles had occured. The target of pipeline construction almost could not be reached because of the poor work of the contractor, especially the main contractor who were working on the construction at the water source location. "We are grateful that we could easily solve the problems. The main obstacle in the development process of multi vil-

Main Report


lage drinking water successfully solved by replacing the main contractor with the sub-contractors who have a better performance," he said. In addition to drinking water supply multi villages in Kodi, ProAir also constructing another one in Alor district. From 6 system thats entirely in the form of pipe system, located in Pantar district, East Pantar, South West Alor, East Alor, Northeast Alor, they are expected to utilized by 10.280 people from a number of villages. Now the development of pipeline proccess is still on going. It is expected that in December 2010 it can be completed. Special for Bouweli village and Kabir in the district of Pantar, the multi village pipeline construction was in a slow progress, but now its already back to normal. This is because of changes in the water network system design and construction (Detailed engineering design / DED) from the consultants that have an impact

on the additional funds request for that extra work. Every time the problems come, we involved the community and village officials to find the solutions together. The principle is that the societys interest is important for the development acceleration of facilities and sustainability courses of multi-village drinking water system to be able to succeed. Other District Beside the Kodi district, the success story of ProAir in implementing the multi village drinking water can also be found in the Pili village and Kamura village, which are the vilage program location for ProAir in Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS) district, Nusa Tenggara Timur. The valuable lessons learned of successful management multi-village drinking water can be seen during the process of filing proposals, planning, construction, until self-management, maintenance of water supply facilitiy by the community itself.

The main reason of all the villages in NTT proposed for the multi villages drinking water program is because of the difficulty of obtaining water. To fulfill their drinking water needs usually they have to walk no less than 2 miles to the water source or get water in the river at a distance of 1.5 km. Spurred by difficulty to fulfill the need for clean water, which they have been experienced for many years, therefore, when the Pili community and its neighboring village recieved information that ProAir offers the cooperation for development of clean water service, some society leaders of Pili village took the initiative to gather the community for discussion in order to prepare the contribution that is requiered by ProAir. During the meeting, the community discussed several issues that were required in order to be involved in ProAir programs, including the pooling of in-cash contribution that must be shown through initial maintenance savings. Soon after that meeting, the

Edisi II, 2010

Pili village community succeded to collect in cash contribution as expected in time and relatively faster than other villages who also became ProAir program target areas. In fact the Pili and Kamura villagers raised the maintenance fund no more than three weeks. Some of the community representatives of Pili village then went to the ProAir office to bring the proposal, complete with evidence of initial savings in the form of photo copy of bank account worth Rp.7.000.000, - and several community consensus documents as required by ProAir. In response to this request, ProAir followed up with some activities, both planning together with the community, training or construction activities. The community is very enthusiastic and proactive in following the process, because people really want to get out from their difficulties that they have been facing all those time. What happen next? Thanks to the cooperation with ProAir, active participation, perseverance and hard work, they were finally succeded in building clean water gravity piping systems with pipeline along the 5403 meters and 11 pieces Tugu Kran/ Public Hydran. The system can serve 274 households or 680 people. In addition there are also 5 units of well that serve 166 households or about 501 people. For sanitation facilities, there are 14 units Floor Wash/Bathroom and 1 toilet. Now the people are satisfied and pleased with the presence services. Since the water is now available, the water is not only used for bathing, washing, cooking and drinking, they can also use it for business like gardening, planting vegetables for nutritional fullfillment of the family. Beside, the water can also be sold to provide additional income for monthly fee. Apparently, by experiencing the approach process, which places the community as the main actors, it actually built the independence, while encouraging the awareness of community to be responsible for the sustainability of the programs output. The sense of ownership and awareness to maintain the sustainability of the program outputs is what really is encouraging the community that institutionalized within the Clean Water Management Body (BP-SAB) "Banum Aitium" to fix seriously the group. These are proved by the establishment of a semi-permanent buildings for office sized 6 x 16 m, formulation of rules (AD / ART), which was then legalized with the issuance of Notary Groups, development of annual work plans and Annual Cashflow of the group, the collection of monthly fees to increase the financial group capacity. Particularly for financial groups Aitum Banum, until September 2009, has been recorded an income Rp. 25,974,370 .- in the form collection of initial savings andmonthly fees. Meanwhile, the expenditures are used for management incentives fees, meeting cost, procurement inventory, maintenance system (valves replacement ), transportation,office supplies and others, with the total up to to Rp.7.495.549,. In overall, the cash balance of Banum Aitum group until the end of September 2009 is up to Rp.18.478.821,-. Interestingly, it was noted that the monthly fees was already paid by the community (coverage members) until December 2010, which is administratively recorded properly and regularly by the treasurer of the group. Thus, any of the technical side, the group has already had the technical personnel skilled. These people has been following the internship at the time of job construction progress. In addition, they also have been provided with equipment and training by a professional technical personnel from ProAir before the system was handed over to the community. Of course everything becomes a pride for the community because the result of their hard work also get a positive appreciation from outsiders who are triggered to place the community as the main actors in development, for the sustainable results of the development itself.

Main Report

Reflecting On the Multi Village System in North Kodi NTT


orth Kodi in the Nusa Tenggara Timur is one of the area in West Sumba, which experiencing water shortages almost throughout the year. Although during rainy season, abundant water, soil coral and rock structure of the karst resulting in low capacity in saving water. The government has sought overcome through several water supply projects in form of providing shallow wells or deep wells, and gravity piping systems, but it seems only to function partially. And then the latest project is ProAir, namely the Rural Water Supply Project NTT, financed by KFW and GTZ, had started its activ-

ity in Sumba in 2002 and planned to be finished in 2010. In 2005-2006, during the time of the survey, the piping system from the community have been damaged, while the deep wells need the expensive pump operation and maintenance. The water price becomes expensive because the water from wells or the river was transported by the vehicles that could reached Rp.150,000 for all conveyance, which is only 2-4 m3, which is only enough for a week. In addition, that water as well as the water sources in the region has been heavily polluted. And then several villages community in Kodi asked the ProAir assistance to build water system.

Water Source "Mataloko" There is only one large water source in Kodi known as "Mataloko" with debit of water 40 to 250 liters per second. This water source is located in a cave in the hills of Wailabubur in Rokoraka forest. The ProAir team survey showed that this water source can be used to supply water for about 50,000 people in 10-12 the village in Kodi. However, the effort to build a system of this magnitude actually exceeds the ProAir framework, because it was not anymore a simple development of rural water supply systems. However, after a long discussion and long negotiations between the Steering Committee in Jakarta (better known now as a AMPL working

Edisi II, 2010

group) and the Southwest Sumba district local government, eventually KFW (Credit Anstalt fuer Wiederaufbau) is willing to provide technical support and financial, and GTZ (Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit) is ready to provide a support for community empowerment in building the multi village system in four villages (Wailabubur, Hombakaripit, Hoha Wungo and Kori). The support has conditional arrangement that communities provide a cash donation and labor and material/energy (in-kind), and were willing to also manage the system. As the first step a survey that includes water sources measurements and alternative investigation, considering Kodis geography is very flat. In addition, in-depth discussion about expected results in terms of social, institutional, financial and technical before any final decision. At the same time, it was also decided to build a special management organization based on the principle 'ownership by society', 'professional management' in the clear 'law framework'. In 2006 a Master Plan was developed for the North Kodi and in 2007, the monthly fees from the community began to be collected and initial preparation of water management group was performed. On 25th November 2006 and again in early 2007, the stakeholders gathered at Kodi and agree that at least 75% of money donations of Rp 30,000 per member of households for about 15,000 users water must be collected on June 31, 2007. On 4th July 2007 cash donations from community collected totaled Rp.424.034.505, or 94% of the amount needed Rp. 450 million. This succeed is based on the efforts and cooperated of community groups and government in developing an innovative approaches, for example by calculating the contribution of money in unit volume rice. The donated money required to support the supply system development water by ProAir was intended not to pay for construction but as savings for financing initial operation and maintenance system by community groups manager water (maintenance savings). With the accumulation of funds, stakeholders decided to prepare the development of water supply system 2007, the implementing consultant that empowers the community concluded that the payment with one price (Flat rate) as generally in community-based system in rural areas is not sufficient in funding for systems with public taps. To reach the level of service and collection of the funds needed in professional management, it needs a combination of system with the water kiosk and household connections.


in Kodi can be continue, including making Detailed Engineering Design / DED. On 13th August 2007, KFW submitted to the Ministry of Health that all conditions precedent for the system in Kodi has been met and theres no other objected implementation in Kodi development system. So it was began the development of DED and preparation of tenders based on calculation magnitude of the 'safe' from Mataloko source that is 32 liters per seconds. But a complex system like this is not without challenges. In the period between October and November

DED had to be adjusted and In April 2008 a new tender process for pipeline transmission can begin. Tender for transmission pipelines and distribution system, as well as supply, should be conducted separately. Beside the preparation and appraisal process that needs a long time, this community-based system also face many problems in construction. For example, the shift of the pipeline due to renovation or widening the road. Or the need for land purchases in Noha village and Wailabubur border because only this place, which is slightly

Main Report
higher, suitable for public reservoir construction of 400 m3. The purchase of this land is governed by the community and sub-district heads of North Kodi and facilitated by ProAir and Local Government in Southwest Sumba. The delayed process was compounded by problems with local contractors and rain, which is happening all over the year. Another problem is the difficulty of obtaining Ministry of Forestry for permission to build a transmission pipeline in Rokoraka forest. Because the governance system and legal forest status is not so obvious, the process of obtaining permits (temporary) takes almost a year. During that time, construction transmission work is stops. Community Based Multi Village Organization However, in 2009 the construction of the system is well performed, not only in the terms of construction but also with the development of community-based organizations. The ProAir team has worked hard to build this community organization, not just at the village level but also at inter-village for the comprehensive management by considering the decent representation. In the end, this organization is even greater than regional organization of drinking water in West Sumba. The organizational structure for the multi village system in Kodi that was developed in the year 2007/2008, was based on the concept like this: (see diagram) Professional unit that demands the staff is paid was selected and trained. Members of this unit will do the management, operation and maintenance of daily routine while the multi village organization will be watching them. This management concept was developed at 2007 and in its development will be adjusted with the local circumstances. However, when the water begins to flow later at the end of 2010, all the resources is must already be formed and ready to function. At this time water rates is set at Rp. 5 per liter or Rp.100 for one buckets or jerry cans of 20 liters. For this reason, a special coin produced by the project is used, until now there is 250,000 pieces. One coin valued at Rp.2.550 worth to pay 510 liters. The transmission pipeline is currently under construction. When its completed, there will be a 6.8 km pipeline transmission and 46.4 km of distribution pipes. The community has built 57 stalls, where one will be used specifically for water trucks. From the target of 210 households connection, 170 connections have already been installed. It is expected that by the end of year 2010 this system will


Edisi II, 2010

Diagram Konsep Struktur Organisasi Penyedia Air Bersih Kodi Utara
Pimpinan Komite Keuangan Audit Laporan Keuangan Dewan Federasi Rekomendasi Laporan Rutin 4 Anggota Terpilih Konsultasi dan Koordinasi Harian Manajer Umum


Bagian Teknis Staf -----

Bagian Keuangan Staf -----

4 Kepala Komite Pelaksana

Federasi Pengelola Air

Kepala Komite Pelaksana

Kepala Komite Pelaksana

Kepala Komite Pelaksana

Kepala Komite Pelaksana Komunikasi dan Kerjasama Harian

Pelaksana Harian Anggota

Pelaksana Harian

Pelaksana Harian

Pelaksana Harian

Asosiasi Pengelola

Asosiasi Pengelola

Asosiasi Pengelola

Asosiasi Pengelola

Penguna memilih perwakilan untuk masing-masing Asosiasi Pengelola Pengguna Pengguna Pengguna Pengguna

be completed and operated normally. The Kfw total investment is Rp.37 billion or about 3 million Euro. This complex process of multi village development and construction is long and difficult because besides involving many parties, this process faces various problems. Many peoples are involved. The people team motivator

helps to prepare and guide the people. Engineer and site Inspectors design, manage, and oversee the construction and the construction contractor. Many of the problems faced. However, thanks to cooperation between citizens and local government that has been facilitated by the project team, most problems could be fixed. The lo-

cal government of West Sumba is very supportive and planning to develop a further new type of the system, which is Community Based Organization or CBO that utilizes the professional expertise, and expected to become an organization that is sustainable in serving the needs of water for community, Kodi. With coverage of 10 villages and 50,000 water users, this system is the same size as the system for a rather large city in the province. For that, it requires support for the CBO, access to the information and "expertise" (special skill knowledge) and the availability of materials and proper equipment, adequate funding and guaranteed, as well as the expertise in the institutional and technical fields. And finally it requires the right proccess to develop the organizations as the owner and legitimate managers. The author is Team Leader Financial Cooperation ProAir (MOH, KfW Component) / RODECO


Bernd Ugner, Tears Stream as Telling The Story About NTT Child Who Apreciates the Water


ne of the figures behind the success of the Pro Air program in providing water service for the people of Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) is Bernd Ugner. A tall German man who is 198 cm tall, maybe hes one of the "Champions" behind the successful of multi-village drinking water in Nusa Tenggara Timur. "I am often overwhelmed when remembering the struggle of small village society in Nusa Tenggara Timur to get drinking water. One of the stories that I could never forget is a10 year old child who walked 3 km carrying a jerry can into one of a water source. When he reached the water source and filled his jerry can, he did not remove the rest of the water that he got, but put it back into the well. Children as small as he was realized the importance of the water for his another brother," said Bernd touched when telling the story to Percik. Bernd Ugner has since 2003 involved in the ProAir program in

providing the community-based drinking water in NTT. At the first time he got connected with the community NTT, particularly in rural areas, the condition at that time was not like now. First time I was in East Sumba the condition was more apprehensive. Water availability was very limited, the villagers must walk up to tens of kilometers to obtain drinking water in Nabbo water source. According to Bernd, one of the greatest obstacles in multi-village water supply in NTT is the geographical issues and cultural issues. Geographical issue is very clear because most of village in NTT is hilly, as for the cultural issues; the people in NTT have a habit to stay on top of the hill, while the water source is located below. They do not want to get close to the water source and prefer to be on the hill because of reasons to survive from their enemy attacks is far more easy to do. And theyre hold it very strong. In fact the reason was absurd, because if the enemy is already control the water sources, of course they will never get water.


Edisi II, 2010

They also no longer able to move to the source water because of their ancestors were buried at that hills. The first time I created a program to empower communities to obtain drinking water in East Sumba, from a number of districts only two districts proposed the need to get a technical assistance and infrastructure. At least 84 villages were proposing that they need to get the water needs fullfilled as soon as possible. Unfortunately a number of proposals had many weaknesses because of the cultural issues and water resources are located under the village and need time to lift it above. From the number of those proposals (84 villages) only 8 villages that matched the gravity system, they are which Pro Air helped at that time. There are many separated village, distance from one house to another house is quite far. The number of this proposal shows the evidence of water demand is very high. "We traveled to every village to see how big their needs were. We see these things are very serious. It was indeed a real dilemma, if they were provided with water pumps to lift water upward the hill it would be very difficult because there was no electricity and diesel. And we also doubt the public was able to manage it. Finally, we only helped 8 villages. Investment that ProAir provide to each person was about 100 Euros per head, " he said. ProAir, is a German government drinking water project in NTT, which was began in 3 districts namely East Sumba, West Sumba and Central South Timor. And then it was extended to the districts of Alor and Ende. ProAir is a water drinking service program that has a based on rural community that use the gravity system and dug wells. ProAir involve all parties, including engineers that set the design and programing in accordance with the rules of the game of international standards, as well as sustainability. Drinking water was found deep in the soilarid and rocky land in NTT. The problem was how to lift the water up to the surface, to serve the community especially for those who live in the high land. In NTT there are also rivers that have a lot of water. The position and role of the government is quite positive though the local government itself is facing decentralization problems. Specialization is one of the problems, beside the supervision, the cooperation between parties and community service. PDAM activity was more directed at the provision of drinking water in urban areas, while the regular funds from the central government were not sufficient to supply drinking water in rural areas. ProAir is a community based drinking water project, in order for community to maintain and manage the facilities. This is the translation of national policy listed in the National Community Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Development Policy. Of course its not easy to change the people's behavior so they can be responsible for managing their own facilities. This project is different from the other conventional project, where the system has been finished and used. In Pro Air, it takes a very difficult struggle to make people aware of the usefulness of the system, and the final target is people able to maintain, manage and care about their own facilities. "So dont be negative thinking, because in ProAir, construction is a process not just build up and finish. But its also important about what about the next. This is what ProAir wants to achieve. I have the experience about how difficult it is to run this program," he said. How difficult it is to give the understanding to the communities. Until now we are still learning and looking for the most optimal form so this program can succeed. The expected commitment from the community is that the community realize the importance to manage and maintain the public facilities, especially the drinking water so that the system can survive as long as possible and not just end up as monuments. This is the reality in villages in the most districts in the province of East Nusa Tenggara. The small rainfall rate, dry land



conditions have made the water as a rare item. Almost every house in countryside should send one of its members to walk to get water in a considerable distance place every day. And its no exception for children. Many learning time is wasted due to pulling up the weight to fulfill the water needs at home. It must be admitted, said Bernd, the NTT resident enthusiasm to get water could be seen from the contribution of personnel for the smooth construction of drinking water facilities in their village. Old, young, male, female, all present to realize their dream together. This cooperation is essential for increasing the ownership sense from public for the facilities. It has been described by Bernd, that ProAir is a synergy of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia (Kemenkes), KfW Bankengruppe (KfW Banking Group), and Germany Technical Cooperation (GTZ), who agreed to implement together the ProAir program along the district Government in East Nusa Tenggara. Within the scope of this cooperation, GTZ provides a technical assistance for the community development, and KfW provides a temporary financial assistance for

the investment. ProAir partners in the region is the Regional Development Planning Board Agency (Bappeda), Health agency, Public Works agency, and Rural Community Empowerment Agency (BMPD). The aim is to form the structure of simple management at the village level that enables the independence in the management of potable water supply system and sustainable sanitation. This program also helps the local governments in order to establish and empower management organization and infrastructure, building monitoring systems for the water structure, and develop the regulation on water source protection. The impact thats expected in long-term, supply of drinking water and sustainable sanitation is expected to improve health conditions of the community. Closer distance to the water source will reduce the time spent by the mothers and children to fetch the water. This will opened up opportunities to perform more productive activities, which in the end will reduce poverty level. By transferring the responsibility responsibility for managing the water and sanitation to the community, it will create new employment opportunities and economic diversification.



Edisi II, 2010

The Arangement of Water Management Needs a Sound Umbrella Regulation

general dicipline thats reflected the society justice. The Management Authority Since the enactment of Otda Law No. 22 on1999 until it has been revised into Law No. 32 on 2004, laws thats related to water management is Act No.7 on 2004 on water resources. In the law of Water Resources there are two types of authority that explained in detail (chapters 16 and 18). The law of water resources provides the authority and responsibility of local government on water resource management including setting water resources management policy, setting the patterns of water resources management, establish a management plan water resources, establish and manage the protected water source resources, carry out the management of water resources, regulate, establish and permit the supply, allocation, exploitation of water, form a water resources council, meet the minimum basic of dayto-day needs of the water and maintain the effectiveness, efficiency, quality, and order implementation of water resource management in the river area in one districts / city. This way, the water resource law in overall describes the authority both substantive and technical. Technical authority particularly concern rules regarding settings, determination, licensing, supply, allocation, utilization, and the utilization of water resources and the formation of councils, while the water authority

ater is the gift from God to his people, including the Indonesian people, while in the Article 33 the 3rd paragraph of the 1945 Constitution mandated that mastery over the earth, water, and airspace, as well as wealth contained in it is to be used maximumly for the sake of prosperity of the people. The ownery which has wrote does not place the country as the owner, but remained on the implementation of countries functions. Water is the most thing that living things need, including humans, plants and animals, therefore the used of the water is need to set to provide benefits for the people. In the water network distribution, its required a coordinated system, both among the actors or the policy makers, and the guarantee of getting enough water. So importance the water problems are, neither to meet the needs of many peoples live or for the agricultural needs (especially food plants) and purposes in other sectors. It cant be denied that water becomes a commodity that has a strategic position of interests for the needs of living, business, industry, agriculture / irrigation, and food that has been a part of the national defense system. The strategic position of the water in controlling many part of the living cant be circumvented that the water would be a matter of attraction from various interests. Therefore, the issue of the water must be well handed through the laws and regulations that POKJA can protect and realized the


is dealing with the other eight substantive authority, which can briefly be said as an autonomous authority of natural resources management. The water resources law is seen to set about the community participation. In this section letter (d) it says: In line with the spirit of democratization, decentralization, and the openness in the order of society life, nation, and state, the society needs given a role in the management of water resources. This rules is set more comprehensive and widespread in the CHAPTER XI about rights, obligations and society participation. It has been said society has an equal opportunity to participate in the planning process, implementation, and supervision of management water resources. The implementation of that participation will then stipulated in the Government Regulation. This law also stipulates the right of the people that has to fullfil as a prerequisite of the implementation of true participation. Those rights are the rights of information, benefit, compensation, objection, reports and complaints and the right to sue to the court as the management of water resources. The Water Right Arrangements The Water Use Rights The water use rights enumerated in the Act SDA article 6, 7, 8, and 9 were divided into 2 (two) categories, namely the right to use water and water rights lease. The right to use water is the right to use the water for daily basic needs or noncommercial, while the water rights lease is to cultivate water for the purposes commercial. This has been explicitly placed the water as a commodity item that can be traded. Rights of the water may not be leased or transferred, partially or completely, while the right to use water obtained without permission to meet daily basic needs for individuals and for small-scale agriculture within an irrigation system. The right to water use requires a permission by the Government or regional governments within their authority if: a. how to use it was done by changing the natural condition of water sources; b. intended for groups that require a large amounts of water; or c. used for agricultural irrigation system of the people outside the existing ones. The right to use the water includes the right to drain the water from or into the soil through other peoples land adjacent to the land based on the approval of holders of land rights (can contain damages or compensation agreement). These rights can be granted to any individual or business party with the permission of the Government or local government within their authority. Licensing Can be understood that licenzing put the position and role of the state in accordance with the basic philosophy Constitution (UUD 1945), in UU SDA its important for placing the society sense of justice. Licensing refers to the protection of the interests of the people thought many of the raw water needs and the concept of conservation environment and sustainability of water resources. Licensing in SDA was gave as a whole (art.45), including the use of water at the location (4a), Waste water container (4b), the utilization of water resources (4c), water allocation for business and water resource management plan (article 46). Domestic Raw Water In the case of household drinking water supply, then the development system is became the government and local government responsible, but its implementation can be given to state-owned companies, cooperatives, private enterprises, and communities (Law SDA Article 40). Adjusting for the provision of systems development drinking water aims to: a. the created of a quality drinking water management services with a reasonable price; b. a balance achieving between consumer interests and service providers; and c. the increased of efficiency and coverage of drinking water services. Conservation UU SDA emphasizes the concept of conservation of natural resources and distribution of resources to maintain the stability of the source power and water cycles, as well as administrative thinking (licensing and granting rights). Conservation gets emphasis to the sustainability of the water resources that have been destructed at the forests on the uplands (mountains) with the prevention efforts in concrete. Forest and environmental destruction that has been done systematically as stated in UU no. 23 1997 on the Environment is to get more serious attention, the punishment against the destructor was formulated in the concept of a very hard punishment neither a physically punishment or fines as much as possible. Conservation must cultivate the spirit to all elements of society to preserve the water resources, farm conservation in the upstream region to be stimulated the spirit of conservation. (eko / dewi)



Edisi II, 2010


he World Environment Day/WED is commemorated on 5th June every year since The UN held environment conference in Stockholm in 1977. The commemoration of the World Environment Day was held under the coordination of United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), which established the United Nations since 1977. On this World Environment Day 2010, it has theme of "Many Species. One Planet. One Future". The Commemoration of the World Environment Day 2010,

as UNEP launched the official site will be centered in the city of Kigali, the capital of Rwanda, a country in East Africa. UNEP is planning to make the World Environment Day (WED) 2010 as the largest celebration in stimulating the public of the world awareness for the importance of environmental sustainability. WED theme this time is related to the declaration of 2010 as the International Year of Biodiversity with COP 10 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in Nagoya, Japan, which lasted on 18 to 29 October 2010. This theme is expected to invite the whole world to preserve the diversity of life on earth. Provide awareness that a world without biodiversity is a very bleak prospect. Millions of people and millions of species sharing together in the same planet, and only together we all can enjoy a


safer and more prosperous future. Living environment, often referred to as the environment, is a term that can include all living and non living creatures in nature that are in earth or part of the Earth, which functions naturally without excessive human intervention. The opponents of environment are artificial environment, which covers an area and its components which heavily influenced by humans. The World Environment Day is celebrated in many cases in countries such as Kenya, New Zealand, Poland, Spain and the United States. The activities include rallies and streets parades, as well as concerts, planting trees, and cleaning campaigns. In many countries, the annual event is used to improve the political attention and the action to increase the public awareness about the importance of considering environmental problems. In Indonesia In Indonesia the World Environment Day commemorations is have a good welcome from the government and people of Indonesia. The President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, along with the First Lady Ani Yudhoyono is celebrating the World Environment Day, which falls on 5th June, 2010 at the State Palace. Indonesia, through the Ministry of Environment, adopted the spirit of the whole nation in the world, and brought the theme, The Biodiversity, Our World Future. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) itself picks the theme Many Species, One Planet, One Future.

The selection of this theme is considered important by the Ministry of Environment Gusti Mohammad Hatta as it reminds that Indonesia is blessed with biodiversity rich by God and it must be inherited to the next generations. "Indonesia is blessed with a very high biodiversity with a 90 types of ecosystems, 40 thousand plant species, and 300 thousand species of animals. A lot of biodiversity is a potential which can be exploited for the national economic development and increased the society welfare," said Mohammad Hatta. President Yudhoyono himself in his speech said the importance of biodiversity for Indonesia and the world. "Our Country have a unique geography. We are rich of biodivertsity and we also have a wealth of nature, the world's longest beach, the world's third largest forest. Rich of the flora, fauna, and plasmanufa. We have 500 species of mammals, 12 percent owned by the world. 500 species of reptiles or 7 percent owned by the world. 1500 bird species or 17 per cent owned by the world. 38 thousand plant species, 1260 species of medical plants, 700 seaweed species, 450 species of coral stone, and 2 thousand fish species, "said SBY. "Let us think about it, how God Almighty endowed Indonesia with such biodeversity thats difficult to find in another countries. Therefore, our moral obligation, our humanitarian duty, is to maintain its sustainability, and when we use for the welfare of the people, and then it must necessarily maintain the sustainability rules for good environment, namely systemable development. Not just for our generation but for our grandchildren in the future. Green development," Yudhoyono explained. On this occasion President Yudhoyono gave the Kalpataru award to 12 people/organizations in 4 categories, the Adipura award has increased from 126 cities in 2009 to 140 cities in in 2010. As for the Independent Adiwiyata awards are given to the 25 schools. Some regions also celebrated the World Environment Day. The Government of Riau Islands Province perform a flag ceremony thats lead by the Kepri Governor HM Sani himself in the Office of the Governor, Tanjungpinang. The series of commemorations in the province of Riau Islands is the making of book about the environment. This book received the national award level. Other activities


Edisi II, 2010


are management of environmental impact, socialization of the danger of B3 waste for the environment and also the management and utilization of clean water. Another activity is to conduct a memorandum of understanding between the Government of Riau Islands Province, the Controling Agency of Batam and the Government of Batam, about the marine management. "The peak of Environment Day is planting 500 trees in Sungai Pulai and a dove release at the Governor Office", said the Environment Head of Riau Islands Province, Khairul Ja'far. In order to commemorate the nature of Gorontalo Province, the 38th World Environment Day at the Provincial Gorontalo together with the meeting of Korpri and the 17th National Family Day at the District Level of Gorontalo, Vice Governor of Gorontalo H. Toni Uloli, SE attended the memorial ceremony and was accompanied by the DPRD chairman of the Gorontalo province Marten Taha at the Bongohulawa District Limboto camp ground in Gorontalo district. This ceremony was started by trees planting by the Deputy Governor of Gorontalo Toni Uloli,

and Chairman DPRD Gorontalo province Marten Taha and then followed by the other officials. The top of the World Environment Day 2010 in the East Java was held at Dam Sub Selorejo Ngantang Malang and in Kota Batu on 26th July. The head of Environment Agency in East Java Province, Indra Wiragana SH on LJ, said, a series of events was started on 23rd to 26th July with several activities, including a green tent held on 24 to 26 July in Dam Selorejo-Malang. The questionnaire distribution on "Caring for the Watershed (DAS) Brantas " was held on July 23rd, in Kota Batu. "With the spread of this questionnaire is intended for the community so they will know about the current condition of the Brantas river and make them participate in preserving and improving the quality of this watershed", Indra said. Furthermore, by conducting the vehicle emission tests for the public so they will know about the burden potential of CO2 pollution by motor vehicles, which will be held on July 23rd on the Road of Kota Batu. (Eko)



n 1994 the UN General has declared June 17th as the Day of the Land Degradation and World Drought Mitigation Day through the resolution No. A/Res/49/115 to increase public awareness about the dangers of land degradation. This shows that the land degradation is a global problem and it is a dangerous process of environmental degradation in the world. The UN General called on all countries and in civil society groups to commemorated, and support the activities related to prevention and control of land degradation every June 17th to raise the awareness of the society towards sustainable development principles sustainable. As one of concern from our country and solidarity to the problem of global land degradation, Indonesia ratified the 1998 UN Convention on the UN Convention Combat Desertification, which abbreviated as UNCCD, through Presidential Decree No. 135 of 1998. UNCCD also known as the Convention Rio, which is the result of Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro with the other couple of environmental conventions, namely the Convention on Bio Diversity/CBD and UNFCCC (Convention framework for climate change). The Ministry of Forestry efforts to invite the society to plant the trees together through the Indonesian plant campaign, such as the National Movement for Land Rehabilitation and Social Forestry (Gerhan),


Edisi II, 2010


The Indonesian Planting Action (APSI), Women's Planting and Maintain Trees Movement (GPTPP) is an implementation of the UNCCD convention in Indonesia. Also the development of society Forest, People's Forest and Non-Wood Forest Products (NTFPs) which is conducted on lands that must be protected. However, nowadays the activities are more referred with the carbon sequestration as a framework implementation of the convention of the climate change (UNFCCC). The purpose of convening Memorial Day of prevention of land degradation is to recall the problem of land degradation in connection with the carrying capacity of watershed issues for the future of the nation. With that, the goal to be achieved is to increase the understanding of land degradation and awareness the dangers to the national life in order to obtain support from the stakeholder concerning the forest and the land protection and rehabilitation throughout DAS in

Indonesia. This World Degradation Reduction Day in 2010 was adjusted to the theme of year 2010 as the International Year of Biodiversty, namely: "Enhancing anywhere soils, enhances life everywhere ". That theme illustrates that land degradation and drought is significantly affecting all of the components of biodiversity in the soil. Size of the critical and very critical land throughout Indonesia has exceeded 30 million ha. The prevention or rehabilitation of degraded land must be carefully programmed which in line with sustainable agricultural development for a positive impact on people's welfare. In relation to the construction of water supply and sanitation, of course the reduction in critical lands will increase the sustainability of water resources, and reduce flooding in the rain season and drought in summer [Eko].



Households in Indonesia Still Do not Have Access to Drinking Water

By Lauren Damiar

15 Millions

rinking water supply in Indonesia is quite big actually. Indonesia has 6 percent of the world's water supply. While in Asia Pacific, 21 percent of water supply is in Indonesia. But compared to Malaysia and some other countries in Southeast Asia, the fulfillment water supply for the population in Indonesia is much lower. Until now the Indonesian people who have access of drinking water is less than 40 percent. The coverage of pipe system only 17 percent, far below the target that has been set earlier. The network covers only 32 percent of the urban areas and much lower in rural areas. Of course the real scope in the field is much lower, and in many places, its not optimally functioning. Currently, the Ministry of Public Works is working hard to build a drinking water facilities for 15 million family in 30,000 village in Indonesia who have a difficulty in getting a drinking water. and the required budget is Rp 15 trillion. Each year until 2010 Rp 5 trillion is needed. The assumption is each village requires Rp 500 million. The condition of water supply in Indonesia is not so different with what happened at the global level. Indonesia is facing the avail-


Edisi II, 2010

ability of drinking water problems that continues to decrease to 15-35 percent every year due to natural damage and pollution. This condition will get worsen if the supply of drinking water are compared with the population growth. By the year of 2015, the number of Indonesia's population is projected to reach 245.7 million people. More than half that number live in the city with a more large drinking water usage per capita than the rural population. Consequently, the growth of drinking water demand is not comparable with the conditions of supply and increase of the supply. Because of that, its hard to avoid the majority of Indonesia society to deal with the limited compliance of drinking water as their daily problems. About 6 million poor people in several places in Indonesia should buy drinking water from vendors at a much more expensive price than the price of water taps. At least there are 15 million Families in 30,000 villages in Indonesia do not have a clean water service. A number of drinking water problems occur in almost every place. In the district of Tembuni, Tembuni Bay, the community found it difficult to gett drinking water because the water is mixed with oil. In Palembang, during the dry

season, people in the Sungai Rengit village, Talang Kelapa sub district, and Limbang Mulia village, Pangkalan Balai subdistrict, Banyuasin district must be patient to wait in the line of a hundreds people, day and night, to get the drinking water from the only well in the area. And who cant stand in the line is forced to buy the water at the price of Rp.3.500 per 20-liter jerry can at the Air Batu, 18 kilometers from their village. Nusa Tenggara Timur: Water Crisis Region Nusa Tenggara Timur is one of the most place thats face the worst water crisis. The crisis are both in the aspect of availability (quantity) or quality. Throughout 2007, the news about the water crisis in East Nusa Tenggara fills the pages of local newspapers almost everyday. The drinking water crisis occurred almost of the part of East Nusa Tenggara. From the 19 (now 20) districts in East Nusa Tenggara district only 5 districts that are relatively provided for their needs. In the dry season, 29 water sources and nine pumped wells that has become the water source of Kupang citizens drops dramatically, from 10-75 liters per second during the rainy season to 0.5 to 20 liters per second. This thing is makes it difficult for the PDAM distribution with the principles of gravity, so that the water distribution reduced from 3 days to 5-7 days. In addition to supply shortage, the people of Kupang also deal with water quality issues. According to the results of the City Health Office of Kupang, 12 dug wells that serve water tank owned by PDAM and the local entrepreneurs to sell to the citizens is less than 80 meters. Many of them even less than 10 meters. Therefore, the available water was comee from bacteria-contaminated surface water. Rural, the question of the availability of drinking water is more challenging. Almost all districts in the regency of Kupang, which are the rural areas, face the clean water crisis. Villagers Lefuleo, West Kupang district must walk 4 km from their village to get clean water. In East Baumata village, North Baumata and Kuaklalo in the district Taebenu, the community cant afford to finance the operational cost of water pump anymore that need Rp.600.000 per four hours. While in some villages in the district of West Amarasi, residents are forced to buy water worth Rp. 200.000 thousand per tank. The water crisis even experienced by the residents of Tilong, in the Oelnasi village, that has the biggest dam in NTT. The networkpipe and 11 container vessels that have been built in the village, such as fringe benefits of land transfer by the people to the dam (the people surrender the land in cultural way with the promise of getting the water service), and the water was


never flowed. Every day the mother in Tilong have to walk 3 kilometers to carry the water. The water crisis is even worse on the island of Sabu, both in West Sabu districts, East Sabu, Sawu Mehara and Liae district. Evenly across the community there is dealing with the lack of clean water supply. In Belu regency, from the 400,000 inhabitants, only 12 percent who enjoy the clean water. The villages resident in the Benanain riverside like Tafuli village in Rainhat district, Benae village in Central Malacca district, and Manleten village in West Tasifeto district was forced to consume Benanain river water, which is muddy and contaminated with animal feces. Residents are not able to walk 30-10 km each day to the nearest water source or buy pumps and pipes for water to drain from the water source that is located in the valley. The same pattern was faced by the society of filtration. To obtain the water that is free from infiltration of sea water, a borehole that reach tens of meters deep is needed. Community do not have a sufficient funds and technology to it. The Suffering Continues Drinking water crisis is affecting many problems, such as disease, the decrease of the level of prosperity, the low of productivity, and neglect of the opportunity to get education. In East Nusa Tenggara, throughout August until September 2007, 11 childrens died due to diarrhea due to lack of availability of drinking water and the poor conditions of sanitation. In this province, children die in case of diarrhea occurs throughout the year. In addition to drinking water access, which is one of the welfare indicators, for the people whos forced to buy the drinking water from peddler (tank cars and wheelbarrow), the limited of drinking water mean additional burden budget for home consumption. The price of water on the seller is much more costly than the usual price from PDAM. Therefore, people who do not have the access for the PDAM service or the supply water stops in the dry season, must reduce the another consumption so they could cover the expenditure to buy clean water. Villages that do not have enough water resources, the people will have to walk for hours just to take one or two jerry cans of water from the source thats so far away, or spend their time POKJA in the long line at the only source of water thats existing and limited. If only houses in the villages has been served water pipelines, of course the available time can be used to perform the economic activities that supply the family incomes, or also socio-cultural activities. For childrens, far and limited water resources from home or settlements means that they will lose the opportunity to continue to go to school. In West Solor, East Flores, before the existance of the development rainwater tanks program (PAH), young women cant proceed to go to school at the higher level because they must take the responsibility for the availability of the water for household. For hours they spent to walk and waiting in the line to take the water from the sources thats located far away from home. That responsibility is a division of roles with the parents who work in the fields.

Kateri village in the Weliman district, and Buliaran village in Sasitamean district. As in Belu district, the society in Ngada district was also forced to consume river water because the source of drinking water is away from the village. Too tiring to walk 3-7 km to the source of drinking water every day, villagers of Mainai village in Wolomeze and Benteng Tawa village in the Riung Barat district, was forced to used the muddy river water and become the puddle of the animals. The residents in Pondok village West Sumba district, experience similar problems. In Solor, East Flores district and 8 districts in Lembata district, despite having a well, the public consumes water that is not safe. The residents owned wells are contaminated by the sea water in-


Edisi II, 2010

The Government Responsibility Talking about the causes of water crisis, we often easily perceive it as a cause, things like: the rapid of population growth and industry, and living activities that need water; environmental conditions such as dry climate and peatlands; or the environmental changes, either natural or due to vandalism and contamination by human activities. Those things are true. But if you take a look at the mirror to the water crisis in country side that has been mentioned before, the government policy was also contributed an important role for the water crisis that seems never end. The most high profile of the Government responsibility towards the fulfillment of drinking water is the pipeline network construction, which of course related to the Regional Water Company (PDAM). Drinking water pipe network construction in Indonesia has been done since the Dutch colonial era. In that period, drinking water supply piping was intended to meet the needs of the Netherlands people in the big cities in Indonesia. Because of that, the construction of pipelines is only serving the certain region only such as in Menteng Jakarta and the Dutch settlements in cities such as Bogor, Medan, and Bandung. After the Independence Day, before the 1970s, there were several construction project of piped drinking water, such as the construction of drinking water facilities at Pejompongan-1 for the City of Jakarta and projects conducted by the France Entrepreneurs (Degremont) in the big city like Jakarta, Bandung, Makassar, Padang, Manado, and Surabaya. Of course, in the middle of the efforts to maintain the independence, the limited resources, and so many of urgent issue - which should be handled as a country that is still very young - the construction of drinking water instalation at that time was woefully inadequate and only meet the very small community. In the early 1970s, when the ruling government was introduced a form of construction planning of Five-Year Plan, included the construction of drinking water in the social sector category. The grouping into these categories is related to the order of priorities and allocation of funds. Categories in the social field are a category that is among the priorities to other sectors. No wonder if in 1970, the carrying capacity means drinking water throughout Indonesia as much as 9000 liters per second with 7 per cent coverage in urban areas. With the population at that time 110 million people, the level of average consumption (national) was 7.1 liters per person per days. In the following years, until the 1990s, the piped drinking water facility construction was done wider. It was set a target of 60 Iiter per day for everyone, with the coverage of 60 percent for urban. The investments made by POKJA the central government, intended as an initial investment. At a later stage PDAM and local government is expected to develop their own drinking water services in accordance development in its territory. For rural areas, the emphasis of construction of drinking water facilities is more to the improvement of infrastructure quality and individual drinking water facilities and the simple piping systems that are controled by the community. Between the years 1990-1997, the full-cost recovery for piping drinking water services started to be implemented by PDAM in the urban areas. With this principle, the piping investment construction network thats funded by soft foreign loans must be paid back by PDAM with the rates collected from the consumer society. Nevertheless, the Government sets the upper limit of the maximum price was not must be less than 4 percent on average family income. In those days the private sector began to enter the business development and installation of the clean water. Admittedly, from 1970 to 1997 has occurred a drinking water production capacity 10-fold, than 9,000 liters per second to 94,000 liters per second. But the increased was not significant when its compared the population, especially urban residents which amounted to 4 percent per year (about 12-fold


between 1970 to 1997). For that the central and local Governments are required to increase the accelerated development of clean water facilities. But in 1997, construction of drinking water facilities moves to the opposite direction. Financial difficulties due to the economic crisis led to the development and expansion of drinking water facilities is reduced drastically. On the other hand, PDAMs were experiencing the increase of the operational cost and the insufficient operational cost. That condition is still affecting until now. The Association of Indonesian Water Supply Enterprises (Perpamsi) mentioned, in the late of 2001 only 29 of 293 PDAM throughout Indonesia which in a good condition. About 264 others bear the debt of Rp 4 trillion to the Government. In 2004, that number was increased to Rp 5.3 trillion. Of course, the economic crisis cannot be a black goat. The attention from the Governments in the provision of drinking water should continue to be prosecuted. One of the measure to assess how much is the responsibility of the Government in drinking water supply for the people is through how much the Government allocate its budget for water supply. Every

year until 2010 Rp 5 trillion is needed. The assumption is every village needs Rp. 500 million. With a rough calculation, each population needs 6 liters of water per day then to meet the needs of 200 million population of Indonesia, the budget needed is Rp. 4 trillion per year. In fact the number that government has allocated for the provision of drinking water for the society is only Rp 1.2 trillion or 1 percent from APBN. The amount is far below the budget for the military or for the interest payments and foreign debt (Odious debt). The conditions above are affecting the fulfillment of drinking water needs for the people. Although the services have seen increased but the real scope in the field would be lower, remember at many places, the installed network is not optimally working. From the cases that has been described previously, it has been so many years the network was not flowed by the water, only flown a few times a month, even a few times in a year. In some places, the water thats flowed through the PDAM pipes is muddy in the rainy season. The writer is Health and Environment activies PIKUL NTT


Edisi II, 2010


The Authors Jemima SY and Deviariandi Setiawan

he Indonesian government is committed to achieve The Millennium Development Goals/ MDGs, and in order to do so, it is estimated around 78 millions of people needs the clean water services in 2015. From about 70,000 villages in Indonesia, 80% classified as rural areas despite some of it is start to developed into a part of the city, largely

unserved by means of adequate drinking water. In 2005, only 2% of the total number of te villages that was served by the pipeline to homes or through the public taps - the majority of villages in rural areas (52%) is depend on the shallow wells. In terms of the population, data on the year of 2006 revealed that 47% of the Indonesian society in rural areas rely on non-piped water systems and only 5% of rural populations have the access to the facilities of water


piping. The MDG target for rural water sector indicates a challenge for Indonesia. Rural population includes 63% from 35 million poor people in Indonesia. The growth improvement of the public services is the key to reducing rural poverty for millions of people. In relation to the drinking water development, the MDGs require the improvements in water supply (piping and other protected sources) by the rural community. It means that is need an additional water supply for the 26.5 millions of people in rural areas. The government has made great efforts to improve a sustainable access to the clean water facilities in rural areas, through a large-scale investments projects thats supported the water supply infrastructure development in rural areas thats managed by the community through the BPSAB. In accordance with the national policies and drinking water community-based environmental sanitation, the type that used to approach is to facilitate the community to generate demand for project interventions; the contribution to society construction; establishment of working teams participating communities at the time of execution project and subsequently, their responsibility to operate and maintain the clean water facilities, as well as a training for the governing body to develop skills thats required in carrying out the management functions. Starting in the 1990s the Government of Indonesia, with the World Bank support, has implemented the investment in projects, which are estimated to have provided clean water through rural schemes for more than 4,000 villages. Some of the same project also has been implemented with support bilateral agencies such as AusAID and GTZ; institution such as UNICEF and the multilateral development banks of Asia; and CBOs, some do with partnerships with corporate philanthropy. It is estimated that at least 6400 new systems will be built and managed by the people between 2008 and 2013, through the development programs of clean water implemented through the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Public Works. Moreover, the water supply facilities and sanitation will be also built through the program of National Society Empowerment (PNPM), a covering program for infrastructure development multi sector based on community, which will be held in the whole village in 2009. The community water development is


Edisi II, 2010

also a popular program among the local governments, using special allocations funds (DAK) for the clean water. Nowadays, the projects are focus on the early construction challenge of rural water supply; which is build and preparing the community work unit to operate it. When this investment project completed, there is a desire to see systems that is managed by that community to provide the services extendability to the public. There is also hope to see that community organizations are good as organizations and explore its ability to become the motor in service improvement of clean water in rural areas in Indonesia. Water Project, which is managed by the Second Generation Society (Second Generation Project) focused on introducing the post-project interventions. The project help BPSAB to increase its capacity, and introduce mechanisms to improve BPSAB professionalism; development of the legal aspects, get enter into the service agreements with the government district, introduced a service contract with the private sector and micro-finance through commercial bank. Learning Outcomes BPSAB has become a useful forum for the implementation project -in the literature on rural development about a number of community-based is have positive results from this approach, including the increased the sense of the project ownership, reducing the project cost, a more equitable distribution of benefits, and so forth. However, the performance BPSAB on post-construction period is uncertain, although showing opportunity to perform well. A study conducted on 171 samples of BPSAB in 5 districts in West Java and East Java find that they provide services satisfying the average-serve 1200 peoples per BPSAB, or as a whole serves more than 200,000 inhabitants. Of the total number of BPSAB which operates in 5 districts it can serve about 800,000 people, equivalent to 7% of the total population of the district concerned. Almost all of BPSAB could provide the water for 20 24 hours of service (70%), seven days a week (85%), but the level of adequacy for the entire pressure system is considered less pretty, which indicates low performance of the system. The majority (70%) of BPSAB produce sufficient revenues to cover their cost operations. However, taking into account BPSAB, which fundamentally is an organization who rely on the cash transactions, in reality some of BPSAB have billing period for one month or


more, which indicates that they face some problem. A total asset thats currently managed by BPSAB today is pretty significant. They manage the water facilities production, transmission and reservoirs, office buliding and owning land. But it still for the assets, BPSAB in this two Province manages assets worth billions of Rupiahs. However, many BPSAB dont have the adequate records regarding the value and status of their asset. This is a barrier to their ability even to begin to understand their initial position, for planning the replacement and development, in addition it may have an implications on its accountability. BPSAB operates in the fast changing environment. Economic and population growth (urbanization) thats previously a rural community often expect an improved a better service levels as the increase in revenue. In theory, BPSAB will be able to operate the infrastructure initial clean water system in accordance with the age of tools design (generally 10 years) and the services develop for the unserved. In fact, other factors that arise, which affected their ability in doing a few things: The limitations in commercial management systems The development requires a management solutions thats more complicated beyond that currently can be managed by BPSAB. The addition of the number of subscribers for example, would require better billings and collection practice, more orderly




customer registration and financial records thats more tidy. Barriers in technical design and implementation The engineering design and construction require an input from experts that is not available, or cannot be accessed by the public. The public sector often slow to respond on this need, and also BPSAB is tend to make an improving system without the inputs. Design errors in development could threaten the technical quality of the system. Access to financial capital BPSAB is highly depending on internally generated cash/IGC to fund the development. The grants are often unable to be estimated; when BPSAB is depend on internal cash income, this will inhibit BPSAB to the needs of the fund at the needed times because they have to save/ waiting for years. Very few BPSABs that have a relationship with the bank - only 9 BPSAB that have the experience in borrowing for the investment and only 20% deposit their funds in the bank.

Legitimacy, legal certainty and clarity relationship with area Nowadays the decentralization is laying the water services authority to the district Government and under the Government Regulation 16/2006, BPSAB operating activities arranged at the request of the local Government. But the articulation of rights and obligations of both parties, both from the local Government and BPSAB is still under development. While the local Governments have just started to understand and get the responsibility of drinking water supply, many local governments do the approach "hands-off" in the development of BPSAB post project and supervision that has been established through the national programs. This thing is often leaves a vacuum for BPSAB to access the technical support and management thats so much needed. At the same time, BPSAB is less accountable to the poor performance in managing the public infrastructure. The complexity of the problem, generally due to BPSABs limitation to take the form of an entity that is legally recognized, which will allow them to exist, do the transactions with or seeking support from other agencies under the framework and clear rules.



Edisi II, 2010

We Will Provide Drinking Water in 2.340 Water Crisis Village

done, and will be done of course. Now the government is doing the efforts to synergize and consolidate the implementation of the programs related to MDGs achievement. Related to the poverty reduction based on society, drinking water, and National sanitation. That consolidation is expected could generated an Action Plan, which can be made as a basic for all parties to contribute. The program of MDGs Accelerating Achievement Target in the Cipta Karya that is constructed by the General Director of Cipta Karya at the period of 2010 - 2014 that is includes the providing urban drinking water in the 820 City District (IKK), 577 Low Income Communities Area (MBR)/A Healthy Simple House (RSH)/Simplified Flats (Rusuna), and 100 special area and rural drinking water in 2340 water crisis village/isolated/Outer small island and the development of Water Supply and Sanitation Based on Community (PAMSIMAS) in 2310 villages. While the provision of sanitation systems activities development and waste water facilities infrastructure (Off Site) in 11 cities, the wastewater infrastructure and

rinking water and good sanitation are important elements that support the human health. But unfortunately the fulfillment of the need has not been fully going well. To achieve a good water and sanitation target, it needs more effort from everyone. It must be admited, the field service for drinking water and sanitation in Indonesia is still far from the Millennium Development Goal's (MDGs) target. To reach the goal, the government should strive to afford it. Currently, the government provides funds of Rp.11, 8 trillion for the drinking water and Rp.14, 2 trillion to sanitation until the end of 2014. For learning more about this issue, Percik reporter, Eko Budi Harono, have the opportunity to conduct an interviews with the General Director of Cipta Karya, Ministry of Public Works, Budi Yuwono, after the ceremony of the new Sanitation and Environmental Engineering Indonesia (IATPI) office. Question Can you explain what are the government efforts related to the drinking water development in rural areas? And how its related to the achievement target of the MDGs. Answers Quite a lot has been done, being

the Local System (On Site) development in 210 districts / city, and solid waste activities. Additionally, the accelerated of drinking water supply and sanitation program will be supported by DAK (Special Allocations Funds) drinking water and sanitation with the allocation funds of Rp. 3.4 trillion, the acceleration of urban water supply program through the national bank loan financing, the drinking water and wastewater program, as well as the sanitation programs to encourage the society selfacceleration. That was a series of strategic programs that government pursued. Question Why MDG's target is become an important priority for the government? Answers The Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is one of the three development programs, which is set by government through the Presidential Directive 3/2010, beside the pro-people programs and justice for all programs. Of all the outlined programs in the Presidential Instruction, which is related to the duties of the General Director of Cipta Karya is the poverty reduction programs empowerment by community based which is a pro-people programs and the provision of drinking water and sanitation which is the environmental sustainability quarantee program. So far we have seen the exercise of various achievment programs of MDGs on the field of Cipta Karya, either funded by APBN, APBD, private parties like corporaPROAIR

tion, and non-governmental organizations. But we have not been able to map the actual achievement data of the MDGs targets because there is no consolidation program between the development actors. It should be recognized the stakeholders program of Drinking Water Supply and the Sanitation Based on Community (PAMSIMAS) has doing a steady coordinated, both at the central and district level. If not, there will be a mutual wait, doesnt walk along together and eventually too late to reach the target. The basic principle of PAMSIMAS is the implementation of community empowerment. Which is, the old, young, male, female, rich and poor public must be involved in the entire development process. In addition, this program has a responsive approach to the community needs. Question We saw a number of potential that exists in the middle of society and also a number of donor countries are still not touchable well, whats the problem? Answer The potential that exists in society and the business world and a number of other institutions have not fully empowered by the Government. While the coaching function is not fully touch the people who want to meet their own needs. The citizens also still think that the water as a social object and is still regarded as the government matters. This is indeed a challenge that we need to answer in wise and prudent ways. PAMSIMAS will be implemented in 15 provinces,


Edisi II, 2010

covering 110 districts/cities with a target held in 4000 villages and 1000 replication villages. Within 4 years, each district may only have a maximum proposed of 50 villages. Every village will receive a grant of USD 275 million and will given to the village community. The funds came from APBN/World Bank loans Rp. 192.5 million (70%), budget district at least Rp. 27.5 million (10%), and the contribution of rural community 20% which consists of Rp. 11 million in cash (4%), and Rp. 44 million in form of labor and materials (16%). Therefore, the strengthening of the community groups will be the PAMSIMAS key of success. During the implementation of PAMSIMAS, the local government can expand the coverage through the same implementation program (cloning) in other villages which at the same technicly and quality with the Programs of PAMSIMAS and refer to the User Guide book and the provisions of PAMSIMAS. This is what we called the replication in PAMSIMAS principle. Question Do the local governments respond in good spirit regarding PAMSIMAS program? Answers Interesting questions. At the PAMSIMAS implementation, the government is able implement consistently, continue and develop PAMSIMAS in their areas independently with the fully resourches from local governments and community. Funds came from local government and communities to finance the training preparation of the community, physical implementation or facilitators. General Director of Cipta Karya is currently consolidating those programs, so it could achieve the equality data and information about the achievements, plans and the accelerating achievement of MDGs targets, to encourage the accelerating achievement of MDGs. The first step of the consolidation is done by the General Director of Cipta Karya by organizing regional technical meeting in a marathon in four areas in Indonesia. Technical meetings attended by regional goverment, provincial and district/city, the target will produce an Action Plan that can be used as the basis for all parties to contribute. The Action Plan for Accelerating Achievement of the MDGs targets will include updating the existing of available data, the plan achievement of the MDGs in each district/city, the steps that has to be performed by each respective districts under the coordination of the province, in the drinking water, sanitation, and the PNPM sector, which is integrated, based on common views, agreements, and commitments of all parties, particularly local commitment, to achieve the target. Question Are there any special treatment or program assistance that is provided by the government for drinking water and sanitation program? Answers The government through the Ministry of Public Works has disbursed a grant of Rp. 119 billion for drinking water and sanitation to 29 cities in Indonesia. The government through the grant assistance that is provided by the Australia government (USAID) to Indonesia worth to 60.5 million Australian dollars for a period of one year (June 11, 2011) intended to provide the better access to the drinking water and sanitation for the community. The assistance program pattern is considered by the Minister of Public Works as the first that has been applied in Indonesia. The reason is, the Local Government (Regents/Mayor) prepares an access of the connection of drinking water and wastewater piping prioritized for low-income communities program thats using the APBD. After the program is successful, the funds are replaced with the grants. According to the PU Minister, when the program was later runs good then do not close the possibility value of such assistance will be improved next year. We immediately went continue the Australian grants for drinking water and waste water programs for 29 cities in Indonesia. And grant of 25 million AUD (first phase) will be used to build 42,300 units of House Connection (SR) drinking water and for cities that have a centralized wastewater management systems. This programs as the incentive and motivations of the head district so they could be more seriously in increase the drinking water and wastewater in their own area. Beside, the application output concept based in this program is fairly good for applied in other regions. This grant program is one of the achievement accelerations program of MDGs in the field of drinking water and sanitation that is arranged by Directorate General of Cipta Karya for the period 2010 - 2014. The program is planned to be further developed by the local governments, especially those who interested until 2011 with the goal of adding 60 thousand of new home connection. Meanwhile, the grant of wastewater program will be developed to the cities, which has a system of wastewater management.



A Simple Technology

to Turn Rain Water Into Drinking Water

ater is a natural resource that is very vital for the survival of the human life. Human usually use water for drinking, bathing,washing, and irrigating farmland. However, lately, in some areas in Indonesia such as East Jakarta and North Jakarta, water becomes a rare commodity. Water Crisis in these areas is generally caused by drinking water infrastructure that is very limited. Environmental Specialist from University of Indonesia, Dr. Ir. Setyo S. Moersidik, DEA says that the speed of procurement of drinking water infrastructure is lower than the speed of the population growth in Indonesia. So, no wonder if many of the Jakarta citizen who still choose to consume the ground water, whereas the excessive use of groundwater can cause the land subsidence and seawater intrusion. This is big and important problems so it requires solutions that is fast, accurate, and comprehensive. One of the solutions is to find the source of alternative water that can replace the function of ground water. The most potential alternative water source in Indonesia is the rainwater. As we know, Indonesia is a tropical country that is rich with rainfall. Each year, the rainfall in Indonesia could reach 2000-4000 mm. Unfortunately, when the rainfall in Indonesia is quite high, people rarely to

use it. This rainwater is more wasted than exploited. Conversely, when the rainfall in Indonesia is very low, the community suffers lack of water. This becomes an inevitable ironies when other countries thats have a limited rainfall can use the rainwater very well like England. With the rainfall only about 700 mm/year, England has never experienced water shortage. They build artificial lakes for the rainwater harvesting, so that during the dry season comes they still have sufficient reserve of water. Actually, there is already an Indonesian society thats utilizing the rainwater in a way to accommodate the rainwater in a tank first. However, the collected rainwater is usually used only for washing purposes not to shower or even drinking. For the drinking water demand, people are still depend on groundwater and piped water, even the groundwater reserves in Indonesia is dwindling and the price of piped water are also classified as expensive. In addition, to consume water piped as a drinking water also need the cooking process too so the germs and bacteria thats contained in the water is dead. Drinking water treatment processes like that would be impractical and wasteful of energy. So, in indirect ways it could be said that the methods of the rainwater in Indonesia is still not optimal. From the above description, of course we wonder


Edisi II, 2010

why Indonesia is not begining to develop technology that can process the abundant rainwater to be a ready drinking water that meets the requirements quality of drinking water? The simple answer is the question of technology transfer is costly and water quality standards that are established by the Ministry of Health. Based Kepmenkes No 907/Menkes/SK/VII/2002 about the Terms and Supervision Quality of drinking water, drinking water must be free of unorganic and organic components, such as bacteria, toxins, dangerous waste, and chemicals. Today, a lot technology that can remove the unorganic component that is contained in water, such as with the filtration. Likewise with the removal of organic components technology, such as bacterial disinfection technology. For a simple scale, disinfection of bacteria can done by providing chlorine into the water, or by drying the water with sunlight or ultraviolet light. Bacteria with chlorine disinfection will cause the water smells of chlorine and contain chlorine. If we use solar radiation, at the sunny weather usually required a sufficient time that is about 5-6 hours for compeletely disinfection process bacteria (, 2010). Therefore, rapid technology, and effective for disinfection of bacteria is required. One of the technologies, which can disinfect bacteria is Catalysis. This technology is an integrated technology by photochemical reactions involving a catalyst. This reaction resulted in bacterial cell walls and membranes damaged, so the bacteria are dead. Its called photocatalyst because it only becomes active when exposed to light, including sunlight. The used of catalyst, namely titanium oxide (TiO2), which is safe and environmentally friendly because of non-toxic. In addition, because it uses radiant energy of sunlight, Catalysis, is including to the energy-saving technologies. With that, catalysis is quite solutif technologies to disinfect bacteria. In an attempt to the application of this technology, Ayuko Cheeryo Sinaga and Ikha Muliawati, under the guidance of Catalysis Expert Lecturer Department of Chemical Engineering University of Indonesia, namely Dr. Ir. Slamet, MT., has conducted small-scale research to disinfect bacteria using the catalysis technology. By using home tap water containing bacteria as a sample, they conducted experiments with three variety of conditions, namely: first, the sample irradiated Ultra Violet rays (UV) alone and secondly, the sample irradiated with UV light and photocatalyst. Each experiments performed on the test box of acrylic coated aluminum foil containing 6.75 L of water sample, with a 1g of catalyst, a UV-A lamp with a radiated power of 8 W for 80 minutes. In this study, they use TiO2 Degussa P-25 as a nanosized catalyst then superimposed into pumice. Pumice used consists of two variations in size, diameter 0.5 to 1 cm and a diameter of 1-3 mm. By varying the pumice size, there will be submerged pumice stone beneath the test box and floated on sample surface. In addition, with the size of smaller stone, then the conTalang air tact surface area between photocatalyst with samples Teknologi filter Tanki will be even greater, so that berteknologi fotokatalisis the disinfection process bacteria will be more effective. The results are satisfactory, the first sample showed a decrease of the number of bacteria in about 7.74% and the second sample 27.83%. With that, its proved that with the catalysis process disinfection of bacteria into three and a half times faster than without photocatalyst. To achieve disinfection process bacteria completely (kill all bacteria in the water), we can increase the amount of catalyst and also increase the intensity of light used. In theory, bacterial disinfection process is directly proportional with the intensity of light used. So, if we using the sun's intensity in fact its so much larger than the light UV used in this study, then the process disinfection should also be much faster. The conclusion is, if we combine the filtration technology with Catalysis, rainwater that had been rarely used by us can be a ready to drink water. Both technologies are potential technology to solve the problems related to the defense of national water in comprehensive way. [Eko / various sources]



Through Ozonization and Filtration Peat Water Becomes Clean Water

minutes. In combination proccess of Ozone-ZeoliteActive Sand 87.88% in 240 minutes and in the process of combination of ozone-Activated Carbon-Activated Sand amounted to 87.88% in 300 minutes. The decrease of the color intensity in this way can be an alternative ways in getting the clean water from the peat water. The peatland is a heterogeneous mixture between the vegetation that accumulates sediment environment Emitter saturated water. The main formation of peat land in Indonesia is because the tropical forest vegetation. Peat water generally has a yellow to brown color variation, depending on the process of weathering, type of crop and sediment content. The elements of peat land creation are organic material consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen as well as some inorganic elements consisting of silica, potassium and magnesium. Filter Aid Peat water is not proper to use for bathing and washing can be processed into clear water with the creations of a filter system. This filter system consists of pump water, peat water storage tanks, and tube filters. The three components are connected with pipes. He also explained that the filter tube is made of gravel, sand, foam, paper filter, and activated carbon. The ctivated carbon is made from peat soil that has been activated by heating at 400oC temperature range up to 500 oC. The use of activated carbon filter system mainly to reduce the levels of acidity, reducing the metal levels, reducing odors and reducing water turbidity. The advantages of this filter system are to improve the paetwater quality so it can be used as clear and decent water used for drinking and toilet. According to the data from the Regional Environmental Agency, it declares the results of their research, which was conducted in a number of locations, such as Riam Kiwa Rivers and Tabuk rivers, get the high of heavy metal content. The river water proved to contain heavy metals in the form of Arsenic (AS) with the

rovision of clean water for everyday life is still a major constraint for residents in the resource-rich province of South Kalimantan. Geographical characteristics, which is peaty and dominated by the river forced the residents to consume contaminated water. To get the water the residents is forced to make a well and dig deeper into the water channel in the middle of their rice fields. It is often that the water is only could be found at depths of dozen meters from the ground. Because the bottom layer of soil is peat, then the water that comes out from the well is blackish, brownish or yellowish with high level of turbidity. Yet the residents were forced to rely on this dirty water for their daily living. Riza Niftahul Khair, a researcher in Master of Environmental Engineering of Gajah Mada University offers a technology that can change the coloring peat swamp water into a ready to drink water. "We call it active carbon technology for the water purification", said Riza. By placing an active carbon, dirty water from the swamp or peat can be turned into clean and were even ready to drink. Peat water is surface water thats colored brown and acidic. To be able to make the peat water as a source of clean water, it needs to be done in a series of process. This research aims to reduce the color intensity of peat water using ozonation and a media filter combination (activated carbon, activated sand, and zeolite) continually. Acid humus thats consisting of humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin as the forming color in the water can be neutral with the peat ozonation process, oxidation and adsorption by the media filter (Zeolite, Activated Carbon, Activated Sand). The method that was used is the reduction of the intensity of peat water with ozonation process and filter combination (Akit-zeolit sand, active sand-activated carbon) continuously with the variation within 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 120 minutes, 240 minutes, and 300 minutes at each treatment process. Maximum results from the process of peat water color intensity can be reduced up to 21.21% with the ozonation process at the time of 300


Edisi II, 2010

content thats far above from the normal limit of 0.005 Mg / Ltr. Heavy metal arsenic is poison which is very dangerous and can cause a death. Likewise, the Mercury Mg, iron (Fe) and E.coli content reaches 1600 or above the normal limits of 1000. This condition shows, that the rivers as well as the raw water for public consumption in South Kalimantan inappropriate and harmful to health. Riza also mentioned, the high level of river turbidity, making it should issue a large funds for water purification process. Therefore in the presence of this water purification technology, the Bandarmasih PDAM will design the use of activated carbon in the water management for the community. The first process occurs in the clarifier tank that serves clarify and increase the pH value to 8-9 through the provision of soda ash or calcium oxide, which has dissolved. As a result, it will be formed a green blob and will gradually float to the water surface, but not too long (approximately 25 minutes). That blob from some metals and dissolved organic will change its color into yellow brown and slowly settles (30 minutes). To speed up the deposition proccess it could be used an alum or polyaluminum chloride with stirring direction in about five minutes. The materials used and the dose determined through simple experimental in the field. Water that has been neutralized flowed into the water place 1and 2. But, though it was clear, the water still contains a small floating particles (organic), iron, high enough mangan and smelled. In the next stage of the oxidation process (can be done with air, chlorine, or potassium permanganate). Potassium permanganate color was chosen with consideration and odorless, in addition to also enable the manganese zeolite media for the oxidation process continued from iron and manganese, after filtered with a silica sand filter. Furthermore, odor and color removal process is using the activated carbon. Water that has been clear, odorless and colorless, then filtered again by using the micro filter with sizes from 0.1 to 0.5 m, to reduce the total suspended solids to less than 500 mg/l. This process is essential for rapid membrane not damaged easily and can live longer. Membrane is only used to reduce the levels of the salt only, with a recovery ratio of 35 percent. The processed water that has been clear, tasteless, odorless, and free from bacteria that can be drink directly is accommodated in a tub of clean water reservoir. Before the process of bottling, to avoid recontamination, the water is continue through the microfiltration and ultraviolet irradiation for sterilization. As the final result, the water is looks very clear, odorless, and is no longer salty. The Short Process To proccess peat water into a ready to drink water is actually not difficult and expensive. The brownish water can be processed with a simple drinking water treatment and can be made by the community by using materials that can be found at the local market such as drum, faucets, bicycle pumps, tanks filter and gravel, sand and fibers, as well as chemical lime and alum. The peat water treatment, is started with the Neutralization to regulate the acidity of the water to be neutral (PH 7-8), namely by the lime granting. Furthermore, aeration is done to contact the air with raw water for iron content and manganese present in the raw water reacting with oxygen, which is in the air to form iron compounds, and manganese compounds, which can be precipitated. Beside of it, the aeration process also serves to eliminating the toxic gases such unwanted H2S gas, methane, carbon dioxide and toxic gases and other. For 1 "parts per million" (ppm) of oxygen, according to him, can be used to oxidize the iron ion 6.98 ppm. This oxidation reaction can be influenced partly by the amount of oxygen that reacts, in this case influenced by the amount of air which is contacted with the water as well as extensive contacts between the air bubbles with the surface water.


The Other Side

Water Crisis And The Water Endurance in Indonesia


f all goes normally, it is certain that in 2010 seven billion people will inhabit the earth. A very large number in the history of Earth civilization that of course require the availability of resources so it can sustain and maintain the continuity of life and living. One of it is clean water. Clean water is a basic need for human beings that has a very limited number. Until now, the water is still cannot be replaced by other materials. Unfortunately, the number of it has an extremely limited availability, especially to be able to meet the needs of seven billion people on this earth. WATER is one of the main needs of all living creatures in the world. However, the water availability was dwindling. The amount of clean water stored in the recesses of the earth (aquifer) of land, sea, and atmosphere, which is actually limited, continuously reducing its number. In the future, water will become so valuable and may soon become the main commodities of the world and have the potential to be a very serious conflict. For the countries in the Middle East and Africa, the water availability has been a problem for a long time. But now a country with a large population like China, India and the United States also began to experience the similar problems. The problem is, the 97.6 percent of the total available water (1.403 billion cubic kilometers) in this universe is salt water so it could not be used directly as a clean water sourches. Meanwhile, most of the plain water (33 million cubic

kilometers) is in the form of ice, snow, and water inside the soil. Theoretically, the water that can be used is no more than a 126.7 million cubic kilometers, or only 0.009 percent of the overall water total. This amount is something that should be and will be contested by all of the inhabitants of the earth and its already becoming a serious problem associated with shortages that can lead to the humanity conflict and crisis. Agricultural Agency (FAO) has warned that at least four billion people will live in areas with minimal clean water on 2025. More than half the world's population will live in drought, search a second food and penetrated the coastal areas that have been polluted for the last 50 years. The uncontrolled waste and poor water policies management is a major cause of all these problems, especially those that occur in the developed country. That was the report from the UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme), which works with more than 200 world water resources expert. "Today, more than 800 million people in the world's have a trouble to access the clean water sources. This thing is suggests a crisis, "said Halifa Drammeh from UNEP. This institution, which since 2003 launched the International Year of Freshwater for the world's population, reported the occurrence of shrinkage of the coral reefs and coastlines because of the weather changes. Some developing countries will also experience a water crisis, crop failure and conflict around the river and lake water management if theyre not doing the rescue


Edisi II, 2010

steps against mismanagement of the irrigation and dont improve their management pattern of freshwater resources. Based on the data from NASA and the WHO, it was reported finding data about the water crisis that will affects about 400 million people today will be the serious impact on at least 4 billion people later in 2050. The management of sanitation facilities that are not adequate will adversely affect more than 2.4 billion of the world people, and this number is just a 40 percent of the amount of existing human beings. Half of the coastal region, where more than a billion people depend their life, will get shrink due to the excessive development or environment pollutions. For children under five years old, a disease thats caused by the contaminated water (vomiting, diarrhea, etc.) is one of the main threats for them. WHO reported that half of the total hospital beds in developing countries is filled by the people who suffer diseases like this. The Condition in Indonesia For Indonesia, the problem is more due to scarcity by our failure to manage the water resources. This causes further unbalance between the demands, availability and the ability to supply the requirements. This situation also exacerbated by increasing levels of water pollutions by liquid or solid waste and the serious threat from the impact of climate change and anomaly already become a reality today. So, no wonder, when we talk about water crisis, at the same time we are faced with the water-related disasters streak, such as floods and landslides. For local areas, such as Java for example, the looming water crisis became a threat, which is worrisome. The drought has begun to bother the farmers in different rice production centers. More than 800,000 hectares of rice fields in northern Java and thousands is already puso and hectares of crop failure due to shortage of water threatened. Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics even estimate in August, all Indonesian regions would experience drought. As a result of damage to forest ecosystems in many areas, Java can face four times of water deficit in each year. The Minister of Environment even claimed, in 2005 the island of Java have experienced the water deficit of 13 billion meters cubic. And this number is certainly growing each year. Depreciation of water and drought thats repeated every year, not only because the natural phenomena, but also occur because of the severe environmental damage. Compared to the existing area, forest on Java Island is only a piece of 3,289,131 hectares. Of this amount, approximately 1714 million hectares of forests, either in the form of protected forest or forest conservationis in critical condition. This condition is worsened with the critical lands outside the forest area, every year the numbers is continue to rise. Source ISTIMEWA Stabilization of Forest Area in Java-Madura, mentioned that the number of forest regions must to be greening must have reached 10.731million hectares, or 84, 16 percent of the area throughout the mainland of Java. With that, you could imagine in the future, the island of Java will be more "thirsty". With the number of forest is minimal, only about 20 percent of rain water which can be absorbed by the soil. The rest flows into the gratuitous sea. In fact, according to the data from the Ministry of Environment, just in 2003, the water demand in the island densest across Indonesia have already reached 38 billion meters cubic. When water availability is only about 25.3 billion cubic meter, it will be a quite a lot of water deficit, in one period only.


The Other Side

very associated with whether could or not these freshwater utilized. Most water sources in urban areas, especially in Java, continue to be contaminated by waste. As an illustration, of the 13 rivers / times that flowing in Jakarta area, except the Krukut river, nearly all of it is not worthy as a water resources for the needs of everyday living by PAM Jaya. As a result of the disruption to the water source quality, the clean water treatment costs, either due to need for chemicals and energy costs for processing and to distribute the water, continue to experienced a significant increase from time to time. So, this will cause people have to pay more to get the water, as is happening in some areas in Jakarta. Meanwhile, the ability of the government through the 372 Regional Water Company (PDAM) to meet the needs of clean water is still far from what expected. Until POKJA today, Indonesia has approximately 7.1 million water connections which roughly only able to serve approximately of 35.5 million people thats majority residing in urban areas. And for the most people who do not have the access to clean water was forced to put their needs to other sources of other surfaces, such as the river, pond, rain water, shallow wells, land in, and even though brackish water. The utilization of that water resources is of course risky, especially if associated with security guarantees quality (health aspect) and the threat of ecological disaster in urban areas (due to excessive exploitation of ground water in and subsequently the face of the land or lands subsidence). Some of the major problems that marked the occurrence of the water crisis, among others, is the scarce availability of sufficient drinking water resources for about 1.1 billion of world population. Secondly, the soil water uptake excessive had a role for the shrinking of the agriculture land. Third, the pollution and the use of spring water excessive harm biodiversity. Fourth, emerging regional conflicts caused by various policies and politicization that based on the mastery problem of clean water sources.

The Spread of Water Potential In theory, Indonesia has the potential water bargaining at 1957 billion cubic meters / year. With nowadays total population that has been reached 228 million inhabitants, the amount of water bargaining is equivalent to 8583 cubic meters / capita / years. This amount is above the world average value, that is 8000 cubic meters / capita / year (Bappenas, 2006). However, the water availability is highly variable, both interregional / regional and intertemporal. From that number, almost 87 percent between potential surface water flow is generally concentrated in the island of Kalimantan, Papua, and Sumatra. The rest are spread unevenly in Java-Madura-Bali, Sulawesi, Maluku, Nusa Tenggara, and other areas. Java islands, which has an area of less than 7 percent of total Indonesia's land area and is inhabited by 65 percent (148 million) from the total population of Indonesia only has more than 4.5 percent of total national freshwater reserve. In terms of quantity and distribution, it has been obvious imbalance. In terms of quality, even more concern because it is


Edisi II, 2010

These are the areas thats Prone of Water in Indonesia according to the data of General Director of Cipta Karya the Ministry of Public Works..



The Teacher Who Becomes Trash Composer


eacher who takes care of trash and waste, Teti Suryati, was born in Garut, 18th April 1961, her love for the plants and the environment pushes her aggressively to socialize the processing waste into compost and as the first pillar for the school environmental health. Initially, the Biology teacher in SMAN 12 Jakarta was merely sharing her knowledge with fellow teachers in Jakarta, and then extends to the various regions in the country. Teti answered the reluctance of people to process waste and household waste by creating the compost maker or a simple composter. Composter from Teti was made by a 25 kg size of cans, which was given the rotator on the side or lid. All of this began when Teti was elected as a cadre of cleanliness by the Department of Sanitations of DKI Jakarta, six years ago. As a cadre, she received more information about garbage and waste processing into compost. She did not wasted the knowledge that she had gotten. On

the contrary, she develops it by creating the composter. To meet the tastes of society, Teti has developed 13 types of composter with cans as the raw materials with rotator. Last year, she developed a composter suspension made from water jars, to teach residents to make liquid compost. "Every time I talk about the sewage treatment and waste around the house, people even ask why go through all these difficulties to manage the trash?" They feel they have already paid the cleaning so they dont have to thinking about the trash," Teti told. When she asked the people to learn to make compost, "Some of residents replied, for what? Just buy it, compost it's cheap, only Rp 1,000 per kilogram, " she said. The citizen apathy that she went through the group gathering, study, PKK, housing residents, teachers, and it still did not dampen Teti spirit to share and change the society paradigm about garbage. Those complaints were just made her much more creative by creating a composter to reduce trash and waste in the house. Generally, the citizens dont want to dealing with the waste and organic waste thats easy to get stink.


Edisi II, 2010

They are reluctant to open the garbage, and then stir it so it does not smell. "From that thing I think I should make the stirrer tool so that the trash and organic waste doesnt have to be opened frequently. And then I go to the welders, ask for the cans to be perforated on the left and right side, and then fit gears that allow the stiring of garbage and waste inside of it, "she said. Tetis composter can even be stored in the living room, without people aware that its content trash and wet wastes. Even the hanging composter is suitable for the house with no yard. Clean and green Teti Involvement in inviting the residents to sort and process trash and waste was getting intense when her husband was elected as Vice Chairman of RW 15, Kampung Bulak, Klender, East Jakarta, in 2004. Teti, who was active as an instructor of environment education for teachers of DKI Jakarta, felt that she must support her husband's duty. "When there is competition of clean and healthy RW at the village level. I got involved in the PKK and had to move all of the residents to participate", she remembered. The condition of the slum neighborhood that is dirty and narrow inspired her to invite the residents to turn it into a clean and clean environment. She asked each household to plant two trees. "This raises the pros and cons". The resident of the community, which is generally at the lower-middle level, was objected to purchased and potted plants. Teti also suggested tin cans instead of pots. In addition, every 16.00 oclock, one of the household members must clean their own yards. For those residents who not willing, there are penalties to provided two trees in front of their home. "That way is works to raise the awareness of the citizens. They participate actively in creating a hygiene environment. Having looked at the result, the people so fond of farming", said Teti. The result? RW 15 was appointed as sample RW in East Jakarta. However, the love to plant raised another problem. They found it hard to find planting media. And then Teti introduce compost as a planting media. The making of compost makes the residents have a habit of sorting garbage and waste at home. Trash and organic waste is collected by the resident at a six post, whereas non-organic garbage and waste, such as paper, plastic, and wood, sold or manufactured handicraft. The cleaner only carry trash and waste, which can not be recycled at all. In the period 2004-2006, RW 15 "only" get the third place prize of clean and healthy RW at the province level in DKI Jakarta. However, the habit of managing solidwaste and processes it into compost has been a life pattern of the resident. They love the environment not because there is competition. In 2007, RW 15 became the national champion of clean RW that was held by the Ministry of Environment. Since then, this area often visited by the people and officials who want to know how the local people manage the household trash and waste. To raise the awareness of citizens, such as sorting the trash and waste at home, not as easy as turning the palm of the hand. In fact, rubbish and organic waste reached 60 percent of the total of the household trash and waste. "If all people want to work a little, sorting the trash and waste and then manage it, imagine, how good is this environment will be. As a result of global warming can be minimized", she said. In the year of 2006 Teti initiated the local content of environmental as subject matter in her school. Waste treatment and waste are included as one of the material that she taught. She made a sort of curriculum, students are invited to practice at home and at school.
Nama : Dra Teti Suryati Lahir : Garut, 18 April 1961 Agama : Islam Profesi : Guru SMAN 12 Jakarta Suami : Heriyanto Anak : Muti Axanoriyanti, Meti Asokariyanti dan Media Heriyanto

What she did meet the expectation. Her school, SMAN 12 Jakarta, was chosen as the environmental school at the national level. In the competitions of utilization of waste and wastewater by the students that was held by the World Wildlife Fund, SMAN 12 Jakarta made the second champion. The students process the plastic waste into an accessory. Teti vigorous gait to introduce the waste and proccessing at the household and school level attracts the attention of all parties who care about the environment. She is often being asked to become a speaker to various cities, such as Balikpapan, Pontianak, and Bandar Lampung. She appeared in radio and television talk show. Teti is getting busy as a speaker on the trash and waste processing, and empowering citizens to creating a cleaner and green environment. However, she did not neglect her duty as a teacher.


Community-Based Total Sanitation Roadshow In Grobogan
Indonesian people that are still practice open defecation and consequently the country experienced economic loss up to 56 trillion each year. For that, its required the cooperation of all parties to overcome

he Community Based Total Sanitation Programme (STBM) has been introduced in the District of Grobogan since the year 2008. Through this program, Grobogan AMPL working group and the Plan Indonesia has made the cooperation to form STBM teams across district level in Grobogan with CLTS pilot in 6 villages. Until now, the Grobogan district is already have 2 villages that were freed from the open defecation behavior, namely Panimbo village and Mount Tumpeng village. The successful implementations of STBM in Grobogan district will be developed with the scaling up in 153 villages in 10 districts. The upscaling is one of the coorperation with the AMPL working group and Plan Indonesia. Related to this, the Grobogan AMPL working group conducted STBM roadshows in the context of socialization and advocacy programs of STBM to stakeholders. This activity was held on Tuesday, July 15th, 2010 in the Room Riptaloka County Government Office Grobogan, Central Java. The event was opened by the Vice Deputy of Grobogan district, Icek Baskoro, and also attended by the Director of Settlement and Housing Bappenas, Budi Hidayat. In his speech, Budi Hidayat spoke the importance of STBM, considering there are still about 70 million


the issue. This thing was also agreed by the Vice Deputy of Grobogan, who welcomes this STBM scaling up plan. As a commitment, through this occasion, the declaration of commitment of 10 sub-districts to be free from open defecation behavior in 2012 was made. For the programs and approaches of STBM to be well socialized, during this event, there was also a talk show being held, which was attended by Nugroho Tri Utomo from the Directorate of Settlement and Housing Bappenas, Atang Saputra from the Directorate Environmental Health Ministry of Health, dr. Djauhari from Grobogan and District Health Office and Alit Avianne from Plan International Indonesia. In the discussion it was suggested that this approach of STBM is quite effective, because learning from past experience that the construction of sanitation cannot be successful if the community does not change their behavior. In addition, STBM approach focuses on involvement and active community participation in development. However, it is important to note that, despite the active role of community needed, the involvement of local government also needed to maintain the sustainability. For that, it needs a clear division of roles in the development. DHA


Edisi II, 2010

The 2010 Consolidation Meeting on AMPL Development

s an effort to respond and synergize the AMPL development activities in Indonesia, the AMPL working group held a planning meeting in 2010. The meeting was held in order to consolidate AMPL activities conducted by central ministries and partners consisting of programs and projects and NonGovernment Organizations (NGOs). This meeting was held at Hotel Sahira Bogor, on 2nd to 3rd August 2010, and attended by all members of the AMPL Working Group (Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Health, and Bappenas), and their partners from Program / Project (PPSP, WASPOLA, Unicef WES, ProAir, and others). The meeting was opened by Maraita Listyasari of Perkim Directorate, as the Coordinator of National AMPL Secretariat. ISTIMEWA In the discussion about synergy, it was revealed some of the needs to support the acceleration of the achievement of the national development targets listed in RPJMN 2010-2014 and the MDGs. The identified need, among other are the need of efficient implementation of water supply and sanitation to avoid redundant activities by the various actors in the same location, synergizing activity schedule of various actors so as not to collide, the need for building location database of AMPL development, as well as the need to increase the role of provinces in the national water supply and sanitation development. From that discussions, among others, it was agreed that there is the need to consolidate the schedules and activities of various actors who translated into AMPL Almanac to be a reference to the determine the schedule activities, creation of local database, and preparation of Roadmap AMPL and operational guidelines, technical guidelines of AMPL development as a reference for water

supply and sanitation development actors. After the discussion with partners, the AMPL working group members held the kick-off meeting preparation for the implementation of the MA 999 Rural, which is the AMPL working group budget resources. This kick-off meeting will be a point of departure the implementation of the 2010 AMPL working group activities, which begins this August. The ctivities include capacity building, Coordination and Policy implementation, Support to Programme/ Project AMPL, Advocacy and Dissemination, and Monitoring and Evaluation. Data Issues The AMPL Data management is a part of the AMPL activity, which is basic human needs and become mandatory affairs for the central and local governments. This Data Management is necessary in order to improve the performance of AMPL development. However, the awareness of the need for accurate data still becomes a problem. Look at the scale problems; it needs a practical concept that can be used as a reference for managing data in AMPL. The offered concept basically covers shared perception on the importance of data AMPL in the development of AMPL in local level, either planning or monitoring. Start with the most prioritized variable of data that is needed (refer to to the MDG monitoring variables). Records strating from the lowest level needed for planning and monitoring, starting from the hamlet, village, district, to the district. Offers a method of registration households for the region with a small population sizes, and stringed test (sampling) for the region with relatively large population. Also equally important is to involve the community to volunteers and the local data stakeholders. (Eko)




The Ministry of Environment High Level Forum

The Impact of Water Crisis For the Society, Womans, and Childrens

high-level meetings for the Ministry of Environment from Asia, Africa and the European in order to specifically discuss the issue of Drinking Water, Sanitation and Environment was held in Johannes Berg, South Africa, 15th-17th June 2010. The meeting was initiated by the World Health Organization (WHO) United Nations before the Assembly UN General Assembly that discusses the issues of Water Supply, Sanitation and Environmental Health that was held in New York in September 2010. During the meeting, The Board of World Health revealed that the drinking water problem can occur within a country, region, or create impact to the vast continent because use of the water together. In Africa, for example,

more than 57 large river and lake shared by two or more countries; the River Nile by nine, and the River Niger by 10 countries. Meanwhile, in the worldwide, more than 200 rivers, which cover more than half of the earth's surface, is used jointly by two countries or more. In addition, many layers of underground water resources stretching across national borders, and siphoned off by one country can cause a political tensions with its neighbors. This world catastrophic water crisis also said by the Unesco general director Koichiro at the third World Water Forum that was held in Kyoto Japan on December 16th to 23rd March 2010. "The world will have a water crisis, in the few decades in the future, due to the increased of population, pollution and climate change


Edisi II, 2010

that eliminates the natural most valuable resources, that was the UN report issued on Wednesday. Of all the social and natural crisis that we had experienced, water crisis is the most important for the continuity of our lives and this planet Earth," said the UNESCO General Director Koichiro Matsuura. According to him, there would be no part of the earth that are free from this crisis that touches every facet of this life from children's health to the ability of a country to be able to ensure the provision of food for their people. The water provision has decreased drastically at not sustainable level. For the next twenty years, the average of water providing for all people will decreased to one third of existing today. This report is referred as the collection of information that most complete and detailed inventory world water that has been released by UNESCO coordinator international conferences, the water conference of the Third World Countries, which will be scheduled this month in Japan. The future of the majority of the regions of the world looks bleak. The report also contains the estimates in 2050, where the number of population reached 2 billion, spread over 48 countries, and more of 7 billion in 60 countries, will shortage of clean water. That numbers are very dependent on the number of population and the government ISTIMEWA policies to suppress the pollution and waste. Although the birth rate was declined significantly, the world population will still reach approximately 9.3 billion in 2050 compared with 6.1 billion in 2001. Pollution is the biggest and worst thing that causes damage to the viability of clean water. Every day as many as two tons of waste was thrown into rivers, lakes and other water sources. At this time according to that report there are 12 thousand sq. km of water sources that has been contaminated with the note if the pattern of life remains the same as what happen now then the number will reach 18 thousand square km in 2050 nearly nine-fold of the amount used for irrigation at this time. The study also added a findings obtained in previous studies that the global warming, the rise of the Earth temperature is caused by the human carelessness whos burn the remains of the fuel which is contained in a layer of the earth that cause severe damage to the clean water sources. The weather changes is also became one of the causes of scarcity of clean water supplies therefore the rainfall pattern will change as well. Earth region that has high humidity is likely to experience a higher rainfall despite the fact that the region expects the decrease and the situation will get worse in the tropical and sub-tropics. Water quality will progressively decreasing with increasing pollution and temperature. The report recommends several ways, among others, world leaders must have a policy intention to face the water crisis and realize the commitments that have been made by each country.

In addition, promoting the waste handling systems for irrigation, especially in poor countries. Furthermore, encourage the planting of capital in the provision of clean water and waste disposal. About 12.6 billion U.S. dollars is needed as the additional funding per year to be able to meet targets that are proclaimed by the UN. That cost was intended for the 2015 program which aims to reduce half the number of people who do not have the access to clean water and basic sanitation systems. The report led to controversies that have questioned the need for clean water supply conducted by private parties. The private sector must seen as a catalyst that will help to solve the water problem but the oversight of the water resources should be made by the government and users, " that was the report advises. While the water quality supervisor from the UN in their report said that Finland has the best water quality while Belgium has the worst.



Exhibition 2010
also create new technologies in the field and environmental engineering of clean water that can be shared to the people who Need it," he said on the sidelines of the Press Conference related to the implementation IWWEF 2011 July 2, 2010 at Jakarta. According to him, the Directorate General of Cipta Karya, Ministry of Public Works targeted in 2015, nationwide coverage reaches 63 percent of clean water and sanitation by 62 percent. Therefore we need to map the problem at the local level. These objectives are part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which was initiated in 2000. This program is a continuous program to clean water and sanitation for the people of Indonesia. During the journey of 10 years these objectives were still unrealized well as there was many obstacles. There are also obstacles such as theres still a lot of unhealthy PDAM. Besides the problem of clean water and sanitation in the city / county has not been inventoried with good. So to get a regional solution we must sit together with the central government. It is said that his side wants to make real steps to consolidate programs achievement of the MDGs in a Roadmap that can be basis for all parties to contribute. According to Budi, during this fulfillment of the MDGs Indonesia are mostly located in right track while others still require hard work. For that, he continued, it still needs to be done a sharpening in order to encourage the acceleration of achievement. Those efforts need to consider the region disparity, so that not only views of the portfolio throughout the region in achieving the goals set, but also on tha province aggregate that need to be benchmarks together towards the goal. "By this, the achievement will be assessed from the whole province related to MDGs which incidentally this things need of common concern, especially from the provincial and district / city parties," he said. [Eko]


he Association of Water Supply Companies of Indonesia (PERPAMSI), the Association of Indonesian Environmental Technics (IATPI) and the International Water Association (IWA) will hold the Indonesia Water and Wastewater Expo and Forum (IWWEF) 2011, which will be held on the 18th until January 20th, 2011 at the Bidakara Hotel, Jakarta. It was expected that this expo was followed by 394 PDAM throughout Indonesia and was attended by 5000 people and will be opened by the Vice President, Budiono. On that occasion, Director General of Cipta Karya, Budi Yuwono confirmed through this activity that it is expected that technological transformation can occur and are found tips or a good strategy in increasing public awareness of clean water and sanitation environment. "I hope we were not just become a spectators and users of technology but


Edisi II, 2010

The Ground Water in Jakarta is Not Safe to Consume G

round water in Jakarta is no longer usable since 12 years ago. And so, what has been taken by the citizens of Jakarta from the ground is no longer ground water, but rather an ancient water reserves that stored in the rocks. "We've taken our ancient groundwater reserves, what we fill was not so many as what we take," said the Chairman of the Water Institute, Dr. Firdaus Ali in media discussions in Jakarta, at the end of July in IATPI. The use of an ancient land of water constantly, said Firdaus Ali, may cause the declining of soil surface so that the estimated Jakarta will sink before the water supply of the ancient land was exhausted. "We do not have a choice. What is important now is to brake the rise of the sea water, the ground water is not come down, by not letting all the needs of the clean water rely on ground water, use the surface water, piping, PAM" , he added. For information, according to data presented by Firdaus Ali, the speed of land subsidence in Jakarta on 2007-2008 reached 26 centimeters per year. For that, according to Firdaus Ali, we need a strategy for Jakarta to meet the water needs without exploring excessive ground water, by improving the piped water services (PAM), the control stand exploitation of water resistant in the Governor Regulation 37/2009 which was carried out, planned and efforts to implement rainwater harvesting and wastewater recycling, and restoration and protection urban surface water sources. Jakarta raw water deficit has reached 11,982 liters per second in 2010. The amount is believed to swell more than three times as much at the end 2025, namely to 35,786 liters per second. This thing was submitted the Drinking Water Supply Regulatory Body (BRPAM) DKI Jakarta Firdaus Ali. According to Firdaus Ali, Jakarta experienced a water deficit because the 13 rivers that pass through Jakarta cannot be a viable source of raw water. And so, the water

Its Been 12 Years

supply piping (PAM) is covers only the 44 percent of the water needs of the people of Jakarta. "There are 13 rivers that pass through, but none of them is worthy except Kali Krukut to became a PAM water. But I say, Krukut is also not feasible, the leaks of the PAM is still very high too", he said. In addition, the price of piped water in Jakarta, according to Firdaus Ali, is still very high to compare with


strategy to cope with water deficit. Walhi Research While the Indonesia National Executive Environment Forum P. Raja Siregar, said the condition of ground water has been increased, decreased and improper consumption. The data of the Ministry of Local Government and the Environment in 2002 found that ground water in Jakarta, among others, have been contaminated E.coli bacteria, and seawater intrusion, which until now has reached the Slipi area, West Jakarta. "About 50 percent of Jakarta residents consume the contaminated water drawn from their wells, because only 50 percent of which are connected by a pipe PAM", he said. Raja Siregar said, in the area of Rawamangun, East Jakarta, the water even no longer fit to be used for bath, because its oily, brown and slippery. Meanwhile, the residents of Tomang, West Jakarta claimed more many choose to use water from Water Company (PAM) than the soil water. "Ground water here can not be used again," said Ny. Ibrahim, a resident of Jalan Rawa Kepa Village Tomang. According to her, the soil water suction from the machine results a yellow water pump and sometimes there is a slightly oily. Clothes will be filthy if washed with the water. Even Eman, the Chairman of Neighborhood (RT) in Kelurahan Tomang, said that the bucket used to collect water from the water pump was colored yellow and can not omitted. "Nowadays, if you want to obtain ground water with a clear conditions, its very difficult", he said. According to him, if you still want to use the pump with jet pump electric type, must be drilled to depth of more than 30 meters, can only be obtained ground water is clear and can be consumed. And if the drilling did not reach more than 30 meters, the generated water will be colored yellow because it contains so much iron. The local village secretary, Riyanto, said that citizens prefer to use piped water rather than ground water. "The water is clear and odorless, even if the flow is very small during the day and only at night the flow is heavy", he said. The Travelling Water Seller As more and more the citizens using the tap water facility (PAM), so the provision of the water sellers who


prices in other cities. The highest price of piped water in Jakarta at Rp 14,650 per meter cubic, while in Surabaya only Rp 10,000 per meter cubic, according to data from May 2010. Prices are also much higher than the price of Piped water in the other countries in Southeast Asia. For example, Taipei only fix the price of Rp 2196 for each cubic meters of water pipes. These conditions will then resulted in the use of ground water that are not controlled by the residents. In 2007, said Firdaus Ali, according to government data, the number of ground water usage by residents is reaches about 22 million. "In fact, according to my calculations, what Jakarta's take is 11 time more than what was said, from 22 million", he said. Meanwhile, the Chief of BPLHD Jakarta, Ir Peni Susan mentioned the birth rate and urbanization cause the increasing number of city dwellers. This led to the need of water increase as well. In 2009, the number of Jakarta's population reached 8.5 million people. Based on IWA standards, each person needs 190 liters of water per days, while the business world requires 30 percent of total domestic demand. In total, the community Jakarta with a total population of 11.437 million people (Water Supply Regulatory Body, 2010) need of clean water around 2.099 billion liters per day or 24,300 liters per second. Based on data from Water Supply Regulatory Body Drinking Establishments, clean water production in 2009 reached only 19,328 liters per second. In fact, it already has increased from around the Treatment Plant Water (IPA) that exist today. With that, in the 2009 deficit alone is 4972 liters of clean water per second. And the problem of leakage that still very high, which is about 48.1 percent. To deal with the problem, the next PAM Jaya had to have a


Edisi II, 2010

were traveling in the region of Tomang tends to decrease. However, itinerant water seller in North Jakarta still survives, because the land water in this area has a long sea water intrusion. "It's not so busy as before, but until now we can still selling it. Enough to eat everyday, said Wartono, the employee of Saron water, which are located in South Ancol I No. 47, Sunter Agung, North Jakarta. They now claim only sell water to the food stalls on the roadside that have become regulars. Without customers, it is impossible for the seller water to survive. "We have regular customers, if were not who would like to buy", said Marto, itinerant water seller who has been selling since 1981. Therefore, Marto said, most of the travelling water seller has been operated since the 1980s. He even claimed to have a number of costumers for 15 years. "Our business sales of water per week was usually could up to 30 to 40 tanks, but now only 15 to 20 tank", said Iman, a water tank businessman. The situation of water taking at Water Warehouse seen five-tank trucks water waiting for orders. According to Jim, if the order is many, the queue line of the extending tank truck will line up until the Pasar Induk Kramat Jati that has distance of approximately 400 meters from Water Warehouse. Although quiet, but Iman confident that the water sales are still going to survive, because the clean water is an important requirement. "PAM can not serve the entire community, the alternative is to buy a tank water", said Iman. Groundwater conditions in Indonesia, especially big cities such as Jakarta is concerned. In the region plot dayak, Jelambar, West Jakarta, is one of the sample. If its left like this, Jakarta will have water shortages later in 2015. Nearly the same conditions are experienced by the residents in East Nusa Tenggara. Besides snoring, the ground water that is only used for bathing and wash is smelly and have a brackish taste. Indonesian Forum for Environment Research (WALHI) shows, as much as 94 percent of ground water in Jakarta is already polluted and colifom E.coli bacteria. This bacterium arises from the pollution of the household and industrial waste. The development that does not pay attention to the environmental and water catchment systems also make the groundwater conditions worse. Water crisis is also marked by drought in summer and and floods in the rainy season. If the repairs of the regulatory of the city build and water controlled is not done, this condition will get worse. The role of the community such as minimize the water use, greening, and make water absorption is also needed (eko)



An Easy Way to Built a Sun Distalator for Water Purifying

By M Rois Bilad, the LIPI Scientist

pure water and not salty at all.

his article describes the distilator solar technology that could used for the water purification, as well as changing the sea water into freshwater (desalination). This technology can be used anywhere as long as the place gets the sun shines. This technology is operated through the evaporation process followed by condensation. The solar distillation is very useful for purifying water from dangerous polutions. When heated, water evaporates while the pollutants left behind, because differences in volatility. In the case of desalination, pure water (not containing salt) and then evaporated condenses while salt and other minerals will remain. And it will be obtained a relatively very

Sun Distilator Construction Solar Distilator made with the form of water tank, as a place that will pour the water that will be distilled. This tanks related through the connecting pipe and arranged in such a way so that each charge be continued and mutual so its forming the angle of 30. This cause the water can flow from the fence top to down due to gravity. At the top, the tank composition was covered with transparent cover (Glass, mica, acrylic, plastic). So the light from the sun can heat the incoming water, causing evaporation of water. The water vapor is went upstairs, and the result was prevented by lower surface / deep cover that has a lower temperature, Gambar 1: Ilustrasi konstruksi Distilasi Surya resulting the water vapor condenses to form grains of water (condensate). Because of that, the condensate grains flows along the cover and fall at the end for the next accommodated. For more details see Figure 1. Productivity The flux of solar energy reaching the surface of the average earth's atmosphere is 1.4 kW/m2. However, because various factors, only less than 1 kW / m2, which is really up to the surface of the soil during the day. The amount of energy flux received by distilator solar depends on slope, weather conditions, location, and others. Maximum Flux energy that can be accepted by approximately solar distilator 8kW hour/m2/day. Nevertheless, in many solar distilator


Edisi II, 2010

a stage that has been made, most widely accepted 6kW/m2/ day (estimated in Indonesia, in the USA only 5 6kW/m2/day). This energy is large enough to used to evaporate the water. For evaporate the water needed an energy amounting to 540 calories / gram. So to evaporate 1 liter water amounted to 0.628 kW of energy needed jam/m2/ day at constant temperature. So if 6kW jam/m2/day used for distillation, the obtained 9.6 liter/m2 /days. From this calculation can be calculated broad distilator solar needed to meet daily water needs. Gambar 2: Distilator surya multi tahap

this system loses not too much energy so that their productivity increases. Generally the 3 step distilator Distilator Surya Multi Stage solar can improve the distillate productivity 2.5 times At one stage distilator solar, solar energy used only of one step solar distilator. In other words, each 1 m2 once for evaporation. At the time condensation, latent of 3 step distilator solar can generate approximately heat of water vapor lost to the environment so that the 24 liters of distillate per day. For solar destilator phase changes into liquid form condensate. Disposal dimensions 3 x 3 (length x width) with an area of 9 of this energy makes the system one phase is relatively m2 will produce 216 liters per day of distillate. This less efficient. To improve the productivity can be used amount is already sufficient to meet domestic water a distilator solar system multi-stage as illustrated in needs of one family. In addition, water quality assured Figure 2. In multi-stage system, the process takes place good, much better than water from the PDAM. multi-effects. In stage one, radiant sunshine is entering the bottom layer is used for the evaporation of water. Utilization Water vapor condensed in the under cover of step 1. Drinking water treatment: As we all know quality 2 and transfer heat to heat water two, and so on. In water from the taps is very low. Solar distilator can be used to purify water taps and distillate used Gambar 3: Beberapa contoh distilator surya as drinking water. So no longer need to buy drinking water. 2. Water Recycling: In a rare area of water, this technology can also be used for recycling water. Water that has been used for washing or bathing can be accommodated and re-used in the distillation again. 3. Conversion of sea water into fresh water: To the edge of sea thats have less water supply, this technology is useful to change the water sea into freshwater. Especially its supported by the temperature in relative sea level at the higher level solar lighting.


CD Info
The Management System of Community-Based Water Supply (SPABBM): Penjaringan RW 12, North Jakarta, 2010. In this 30-minute cd, which was revealed the efforts of Penjaringan residents RW 12, North Jakarta who is involved in the development water management and sanitation system. Started when the RW 12 condition (equivalent hamlets) did not have a basic sanitation until finally they have a good and clean water management system.

Public-Private Partnership for Hand Washing With a Soap (PPP-HWWS). The 25 minutes CD is describing the efforts of public-private partnerships for Hand Washing With a Soap (HWWS), which is an initiative involving and encouraging global role government and private sectors to work collaboratively to promote the washing hands with soap behavior. This effort is in order to reduce the incidence of diarrhea leading cause of death of children under five years old in developing countries today and the second largest cause of death in children under five in Indonesia. This partnership is background by the learning from other countries that has been proven as a model effective to lower the levels of diarrgea disease.

Bridging the Knowledge Gap The CD is mainly about a number of valuable stories of AMPL that published by IRC. This 40 minutes CD duration isreveal about the lessons from the number of countries in building the basic sanitation and management of clean water in a good way. Number valuable lessons from the planning, decision; build an organization and products treatment thats presented in interesting way.

The Sanitation STOPS Programme and Sanitation Marketing in SD Mancar 1 Peterongan - Jombang and Surrounding Community. This 35 minutes VCD contains a number of The Sanitation STOPS Programme and Sanitation Marketing in SD Mancar 1 Peterongan - Jombang. Made by the Office of Health Service in the year of 2010.


Book Info
Note About: Housing and the settlement of Indonesia at the Transition time 1998-2004 Author: Tjuk Kuswartojo Publisher: Jakarta, Directorate General of Housing & Settlements, Depkimpraswil, x + P. 132 things. Year of Publication: 2010

Edisi II, 2010

them who needs it. Houses become commodities, or merchandise, which is separated from the Government's goal to increase the welfare of the community. Its became more problem because of this development between others must use the resources that can not be reproduced such as soil and water. Because of that, the government is also made regulations. Housing and Settlement Rules that has been published in 1992, among others, is an effort to guarantee the right of every citizen of the states to obtain home and strive for land that would be rare to use fairly and efficiently. In the period of transition whose condition described in chapter two, housing did not get the attention of all parties. Although the Government publishes some policies and conduct studies for policy development as illustrated in chapter three. The housing conditions itself disclosed in the fourth chapter. Finally in the fifth chapter, we try to describe what to do in the future. so far participated in PKPM and active in various interested parties to build a proper understanding on community empowerment, and willingness to work as a companion community with an effective methodology. However this book only an experience, improvement activities capacity building for the community facilitators through training in PKPM.

The Pattern of Water Resources Management: Solo River region. Publisher: Ministry of General Works. Year 2010

Before the financial crisis in 1997, for nearly twenty-five years, the Government continued trying to build a housing systematic and organized so that more of Indonesian peoples could reach a decent housing. In addition to forming housing builder organization and initiate the formation of housing finance institutions, also encourage the emergence of companies housing builder. The house was built in organized by the private building company was increased faster. Many companies, which is able to build housing in the city scale with higher quality. In one side is a potential, but in the other side also creates a new challenge. Housing development was built by private enterprise to the society and achieves consumers through the market mechanism. In the end the society who could obtain their home is them who able to buy it and not always

The Community Empowerment Evaluation and Feedback Activities Tips for Developing CommunityBased Evaluation Publisher: PKPM, Bappenas, JICA, 2010

This book is the result from one of the activity thats carried out by PKPM that contains the process and activity results. The publication itself not pursue the output only, but is expected a further reference for the activists of community empowerment, which is

Bengawan Solo River into raw water source is very important for communities to meet various needs, but almost every year, catastrophic flooding at a great cost. Resource Management Patterns WS Bengawan Solo Water it means to create a basic framework in management water resources Bengawan Solo River region. Goal preparation of Water Source management pattern in WS Bengawan Solo is to guarantee the implementation of management water resources that can be provide benefits for the interests of society in all life fields.


Web Sites Info

International Water Management Institute http://www. On this site the visitors can find the different kinds of publications and data base on water. What is interesting here is the published results research carried out by IWMI with research topics among others about Basin Water Management, Land, Water and Livelihood, Agriculture, Water and Cities, Water Management and Environment, Benchmark basins. IWMI is a nonprofit scientific organization financed by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). IWMI research agenda are grouped into four main themes, including issues related with land, water, livelihoods, environment and health. Institutions to concentrate on issues of the water and land management thats faced by the countryside society. These challenges include malnutrition, livelihoods and health, which associated with environmental problems. IWMI work through a research collaboration with partners in North and South, to help developing countries to eradicate poverty and regulate water and land resources better International groundwater Resources Assessment Center (IGRAC) At this site the visitors could obtain the data base, following collection process data, and presentation tools associated with water (especially regarding ground water). The purpose of establishment of the International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre (IGRAC), which was launched at the 5th International Conference of Hydrological Sciences in February 1999, is providing benefits to the entire international community in the field of under

water soil. The organization is based in the Netherlands Institute of Applied Geoscience TNO, Utrecht, The Netherlands. At first, organization was funded by The Dutch Interministerial Bureau 'Partners for Water'. IGRAC, procedurally, operates under the auspices of UNESCO and WMO. Working Group on Air Communication http://www. Water Communications Working Group is an individual collections from various Environmental NGOs life and health thats moving in the communicating processes environmental management and all its aspects, especially the water resources and delivery of information in the form of "call for action " through various media. K3A build the communication of various parties in the water resources management from various aspects, to the sustainability of a better life, for generations present and future, especially in the areas of West Java. Rainbow

In this site the information regarding programs is run by the Rainbow among other programs climate, energy, forestry, and transportation and air quality. Visitors can also read some of the publicity materials that have associated with the life environment. Some interesting titles that can be found here include: The Earth's Heat: The Threat of Climate Change in Indonesia, Loe Loe Gue Gue: the crack on the social adhesiveness, Environmental Damage in Jakarta, the Kyoto Protocol: Beyond 2012, The Asia Pacific Region Speaks: Perspectives on Climate Change. This site is owned by Yayasan Pelangi Indonesia, which has the purpose to become an independent research institution with a nationally and internationally reputation is the reference and pioneer through study and advocacy of strategic issues.


AMPL Library
The Synergy of Central and Regional in Fiscal decentralization Perspective. The Government Management Handbook . Ministry of Finance, 2010. Stimulating Infrastructure In Crisis Central. Ministry of Finance Year 2010.

Edisi II, 2010

The Empowerment Communities Guide with Involving Gender and Poverty in Sanitation Development, Year 2010 Drinking Water March Edition 2010 "All PDAM Must Healthy in Year 2014 "

Training Guide for Community based Environmental Sanitation Field Facilitator Special Allocation fund, Ministry Public Works, year 2010

Water Saving Tips


Green Open Space as the main Space City element. Directorate General of Spatial Planning PU Year 2010

The Monthly Report of Water Supply and Sanitation Working Group June 2010

Environmental Management: Manage & Monitor Environmental Program

Magazine Studies
Tarakan in East Kalimantan The Efforts to Solve the floods Problems. Siswoko Sismodiharjo. Publishers Foundation Public Works Year 2010. The Study on Connection case of Clean Water for the Poor Environmental Services Program (ESP)

Percik Junior Edition 13, March 2010 "Keeping The River of Life "


Can I ........? (CWSH Community Water Services & Health) UKS Newsletter, May 2010, Importance of Balanced Nutrition and Food Safety School Snacks


The Facts Related to the Water Crisis
1. The water scarcity occurs, even in the areas where there are a lot of rainfalls or water is very easy to find. After all water is conserved, used and distributed in society, and the quality of available water can determine whether there are a sufficient funds to meet the needs of households, agriculture, industry and the environment. 2. Water scarcity affects one in three people in every continent of the world. The situation is getting worse because of the need of the water increases with population growth, urbanization and increased domestic and industrial that use it. 3. Nearly one-fifth of the world population (about 1.2 billion people) lives in areas where water is physically scarce. A quarter of the global population that live in developing countries that face the water shortage due to lack of infrastructure to take water from rivers and water sources. 4. Water scarcity forces people to rely on the sources of unsafe drinking water. Its also means that they can not bathing or clean their clothing or their homes properly. 5. Poor water quality can increase the risk of diarrhea disease such as cholera, typhoid fever and dysentery, and infection of water-borne. Scarcity of water may cause diseases such as trachoma (eye infection that can cause blindness), plague and typhus. 6. The water scarcity is encouraged the people to save the water in their homes. This thing can increase the risk of domestic water pollution and provides a place for breeding ground for mosquitoes - Which are carriers of dengue fever, malaria and illness other. 7. The water scarcity is highlits the need for better water management. Good water management also reduced the site of insect breeding such as mosquitoes that can transmit the disease and prevent spread of infection water-borne such as schistosomiasis. 8. The lack of water has encouraged the use of wastewater for poor urban agricultural production and rural communities. More than 10% of people across the world eat the irrigated with the wastewater, which may contain chemicals, or organisms that can cause disease. 9. Millennium Development Goal numbers 7, the target 10 aims to decrease half of the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation on 2015. Water scarcity could threaten the efforts to achieve this goal.


h. At any given time, half of world hospital beds occupied by the patients that are suffering from diseases associated water. i. Less than 1% of the world's fresh water (or approximately 0.007% of all water on earth) is readily accessible to direct human use. j. Less than 1% of the world's fresh water (or approximately 0.007% of all water on earth) is readily accessible to direct human use. k. About a third of people who do not have access to the water source income is less than $ 1 per day. More than two-thirds of people with no source of income water less than $ 2 per day l. Poor people living in areas slums often pay 5-10 times more per liter of water than rich people who live in the same city. m. Without food a person can alive for weeks, but without water you can expect to live only several days. n. Daily requirement for sanitation, bathing, and cooking needs, and to ensure survival, is about 13.2 gallons per person.

The impact for Children:

The impact for the General Public:

a. Everyday, thousands of people died from lack of access to drinking water. b. Millions of people die every year from diseases that associated with water c. 43% of water-related deaths caused by diarrhea d. 84% of water associated with the greatest death is at the children aged 0-14 years e. 98% of water-related deaths occur in developing countries f. 884 million people lacked the access to supplies safe water, or about one in eight people. g. The scarcity of water and sanitation crisis claimed the lives of more than the victims of war.

a. Every 15 seconds, a child dies of illness associated with water. b. Children in poor environments often carry 1000 parasitic worms in their body at all times c. 1.4 million children die from diarrhea each year. d. 90% of all deaths due to diarrheal diseases are children under age 5 years, especially in developing countries.

The impact for Women:

Millions of women and children spend several hours a day to collect water from distantce, often the sources of pollution. [Dissertations / / / eko]


Edisi II, 2010