Sie sind auf Seite 1von 60

Care About the People? Think About Water and Sanitation!

3rd Edition, 2010

Information Media of Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation

Information Media on Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation

Published by: Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Working Group (WSES Working Group) Responsible Person Housing and Settlement Director of Bappenas Environmental Sanitation Director of the Health Ministry Water Supply Development Director of the Public Work Ministry Natural Resources Improvement and Ecient Technology Director of Domestic Aair Ministry Director of Spatial and Environmental Facilitation of the Domestic Aair Ministry Head of editorial sta Oswar Mungkasa Editorial Sta Maraita Listyasari Nugroho Tri Utomo Managing Editor Eko Budi Harsono Design and Production Agus Sumarno Sofyar Circulation/Secretariat Agus Syuhada Nur Aini Editorial Address Jl. RP Soeroso 50, Central Jakarta, Ph/Fax: (021) 31904113 Website: http//www.ampl.or.id e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com redaksi@ampl.or.id Editors accept external papers/article concerning water supply and environmental sanitation.

Table of Contents
From the Editor ....................... 3 Your Voice ....................... 4 Main Report UN General Assembly Legalized Human Right to water Resolution . 5 Right to water as Human Right ................. 10 Regulation Law No 39 Year 1999 on Human Right .............. 14 Agenda International Anti Poverty Day, the Dicult Access to Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation as Part of Poverty .......... 16 Discourse Nuisance on Right to water and Housing (rst paper) ....18 The State Must Guarantee the Peoples Right to water .......................... 24 Care about the People? Think about Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation! ..... 28 Interview Nugroho Tri Utomo, Housing and Settlement Director of Bappenas ... 31 Hamong Santono, KRUHA ..................... 34 A Patra M Zen, YLBHI Director .................... 36 Innovation Oxidation Technology for Water Supply ................ 38 Clay, an Eective Media to Clear Muddy Peat Moss Water ...... 41 Dierent Side Islam Sharia as Solution ........................ 45 Reportage Public Dialogue on the Lookout for Water Conict Water Conict Needs to be Anticipated by the Local Government ...46 30% Toddlers Death Due to Poor Sanitation ...............48 HCTPS Workshop for Elementary School Teachers of DKI Jakarta Only Three Percent of the Population Are Using Soap to Wash Hands 49 Water Politic Must be the Concern of Local Government ...... 50 Synergy of WSES Networking Program and GBCI ............. 53 Guidance Numbers of Technology to Acquire Water Supply ......... 54 CD Info ............................. 55 Books Info ......................... 56 Website Info ......................... 57 WESE Literatures ........................ 58 Facts US$ 150 Billion is Required To Prevent Worlds Water Crisis ...... 59

From the Editor


ime went so fast, we have just celebrated 1431 Hijra Idul Fitri. For those who celebrated the holiday, we would like to say Congratulation. From the very depth of our heart, we seek Forgiveness. May we all become better person. On early September, we heard the news of UN General Assembly Resolution regarding Right to Water as Human Right. Some people may be shocked, but many took the news without particular action due to various reasons; maybe because human rights have been the hot topic in Indonesia for the past decade. This was also supported by Law No 39 Tear 1999 on Human Rights. Although the idea of human rights itself has been included in the Constitution (UUD 1945), acknowledgement of Right to Water as Human Right in Indonesia has also been adopted implicitly in the existing regulations. It was started by Law No 7 Year 2004 on Water Resources, followed by Government Regulation (PP) No 16 Year 2005 on Water Supply Provision System. This resolution represents a major progress on the water supply and environmental sanitation development,

Edis II 2010 Edisii IIII,, 2010

not only of the world, but also of Indonesia. It has become a long obsession on behalf of the stakeholders that right to water as one of the human rights be the mainstream of the development in Indonesia. Thus hopefully, the number of Indonesian people without access to the water supply can be reduced signicantly. Naturally, its not that simple; especially considering numbers of local governments who have not completely aware that water supply is an obligatory task of the local government. Surely there is still a long way to go. In that matter, we then would like to utilize the moment of this resolution to rebuild our determination regarding the magnitude of the leftover responsibility. There are still 100 million of our fellow countrymen who are still without access to the water supply. To fully give the responsibility on the water supply to the local government is also not a wise option. We all should work together hand-in-hand with the local government to complete this homework; as one of the human rights principles, helping one another and synergizing to achieve the common goal. Lets go then. What are we waiting for? (OM).
POKJA

Your Voice
Internship at Percik Magazine
I would like to introduce myself. My name is Muhammad Chaidir. Im a college student of Communication Science of Religious Moestopo University in Jakarta. I have read Percik magazine at the college library and seen the content as well as several issues that specically discussing Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSES) which was provided in simple, smart, and concise as to challenge me to take my Final Assignment in relation of the media function that youre managing in reference to the WSES development in Indonesia. I am hoping that the editors of Percik Magazine will give me an opportunity to perform research for my nal assignment on the Function of Internal Media in Government Program of WSES Development Acceleration. If it is possible, I will send my covering letter from my college and my Final Assignment Proposal. Thank you very much. Greeting for Percik. Muhammad Chaidir Moestopo University Jakarta Thank you for your kind attention and your trust on Percik Magazine. Please send your formal request to perform research. We will gladly help you. Greeting from Percik. of c cause o the greedy and ignorance nature of the t earths creature. So powerful is water in our lives, thus take a very good care of that water, and use it wisely. Moreover, water strength will increase and bring positive eect on our body if prior to using the water, such as before we drink, we pray beforehand. This was proven by a Japanese professor with his research on water that will alter its texture and crystal according to the condition of the user. Therefore, utilize the positive strength of water by using it carefully. Rini Utami Azis Solo, Central Java attention to the basic rights such as water, education and health? Did the people asked too much? All they need is for their rights to be completed. To cry, they will think twice, because it would mean wasting tears. Once again, we must be very careful when dealing with water. One wrong step will not only cost one life, but also the future of our children and grandchildren. Maftuhah Menteng, Jakarta

Do Not Reuse the Plastic Bottle


Water plastic bottles and glasses are often being reuse. In fact, those bottles and glasses are often used over and over again. Actually, the package (bottles and glasses) is only for one time use. There is health standard that must be complied by the producers. This standard was meant to minimize the number of bacteria in the package. When the seal is broken, the bottle should not be reused, because those plastic bottles and glasses were made from polyethylene terephtalate or PET that contain carcinogen (causing cancer). The substance is hazardous to the human health if it was swallowed. Through series of bottle sterilization standard, when its sealed, the substance is inactive. The number of bacteria in the package is guaranteed to comply with the tolerance threshold. However, do not make mistake, for these bottles were not only made of PET, but also PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride), and this is far more hazardous because it can cause acid rain when it is being burned. PVC even has hazard potencies for liver, heart and weight. The change from PVC to PET has actually started since the year 1988. Hopefully, there will be no more factories using PVC. Reusing plastic bottles and glasses cause the carcinogenic substance to dissolve in the water we drink. If we have to reuse the bottles and glasses, we must wash them rst with soap containing disinfectant or anti bacterial. Household soaps have complied with the standard. Wahyu, Surabaya

Growing Crisis of Water Liberalization


Liberalization wave seems to be inevitable anymore. All aspects of our lives must submit to international agreements which only concern is big capital owners. Discrimination in water privatization has been revealed. One proof of policy that is against the people is when water become business, thus it has become more than moving to gain prot, but also to tie and beguile others as to bow down to it, to those who have power over it. Water management is no longer considering water management in system as to provide fair, impartial, and affordable water service for the population. Water is the basic needs of human, thus it can not be commercialized as peoples basic needs, as guaranteed in verse 33 of the Constitution (UUD 1945). For example, in Batam, elite estates become the rst priority, while population of other regions with lesser economic status and slump areas, such as Teluk Lenggung, Pungur, are left behind and still consuming well water, which according to the test result of the Health Department, is not feasible to be consumed due to the high number of bacteria and under the pH standard. Meanwhile, water treatment installation (IPA) was built only several meters from their house. The growing number of suicide rate due to the high life pressure is another issue. How come the government is still not paying

Lets Respect Water


Who can live without water? Water is very useful in our daily lives at the moment. When we feel hot and dirty after daily activities, we utilize water for showering. We then drink water whenever we are thirsty, and there are much more proof of our dependency on water. Water is so common in our lives that we took it for granted. We only realized it when were facing diculties to acquire clean water. When water pipes are experiencing disturbance, and the water came out dirty and muddy, we will be bothered. What will happen if we can no longer enjoy water? Drought, aside from the disastrous ood has happened b e -

Main Report

Edisi III, 2010

UN General Assembly Legalized Resolution of

Human Rights on Water


n early September, the worlds population, especially Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation activist, and practitioners were shocked by the issue of UN General Assembly Resolution that emphasized access to water supply and proper sanitation is part of the human rights. To clarify, UN General Assembly resolution with the title: The right to acquire clean and safe water supply and sanitation is part of the human right, and an important element to fully and comprehensively enjoy the right to life.

In the resolution, UN General Assembly exhorted all of the international population and Countries that have signed the resolution to increase the eort of providing safe, clean, and aordable water supply and sanitation to all people. Limited access to water supply has killed more children than AIDS, malaria, and pox, said the Head of UN Human Right Council from Bolivia, Pablo Solon in UN ocial website. UN Environmental Program Data has estimated 884 million of the world population are without access to safe water supply, and 2,6 billion people have limited access

to proper sanitation facilities. This access diculty has caused among others, 1,5 million death of babies due to proper-sanitation-and-watersupply-related diseases. Resolution of Right to water was legalized through voting of 163 UN member countries. No country refuses this resolution. 122 countries including China, Russia, German, France, Spain, and Brazil are supporting this resolution, while 41 countries such as Canada, USA, England, Australia, and Botswana were abstained. Some of the countries that preferred to abstain stated that the

Main Report
resolution resolution does not cla l clarify the magnitude of right to water as well as d f h the task that follows in order to fulll the right. Regarding the resolution, WSES expert, Hening Darpito said that at rst, there was concern that this resolution of right in water and sanitation is premature; as it turned out in the voting, the resolution has acquired positive responds from almost all of the meeting participants. Long Way to Go It was the year 1948 when the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (DUHAM) was issued and followed in the year 1966 during the International Covenants on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), where water was not mentioned explicitly as human rights but as an inseparable part of the agreed human rights, which is right to life, right on proper live, right on health, right on housing, and right to eat. Afterward, it was mentioned more explicitly although still part of a convention with dierent theme, such as said in chapter 14 verse (2) letter h of The Convention of the Elimination all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW 1979), that state (country) must take measured steps in eliminating dierent forms of discrimination on women, especially women right to benet from proper life standards of healthy water supply and sanitation. Such was said in chapter 24 of The Convention on The Right of The Child CRC 1989 that in the eort to prevent
ISTIMEWA

Water Right and Right to Water

omprehension on Water Right and Right to Water is often blur; both terms are often interpreted to be the same in Bahasa Indonesia, as Right on Water. Nevertheless, the two terms have signicant dierence. The power to attained water from nature is often said as Water Right has the following meaning: Attaining or diverting and utilizing magnitude of water from natural sources. Collecting magnitude of water from water sources into one place, such as dam or other structure, or Using the water on its natural sources. Water Right is a tool issued by a country as a water mastering institution to individuals or company who legally termed as licences, permissions, authorisations, consents and concessions to utilize water. Water right in economic term is used as a tool to attain retribution of water utilization. The above term is obviously dierent with Right to Water as meant in Human Rights Studies. The law that constitutes Water Right assumes that water is a commodity requires law protection from those who master it. Water Right can be understood as the Right to Attain Water. The dierence is that water is a necessity (to have) and water as a right. The Right to Water (water as a right) emphasizes more on water as an inseparable part of a dignied human life, therefore Right to Water is absolute and therefore it is mandatory for the Country to acknowledge.

malnutrition and disease spreading, ev child posses the right on clean every dr drinking water. It was continued by statement an appeal through Millennium and De Declaration that comes up with M MDGs (Millennium Development Go Goals) project, which acting as co commitment of the Head of Co Countries/Governments as UN me members in ghting global poverty in 2000-2015, encouraging go governments to provide access to pr proper water supply and sanitation for the population who has yet the be t of. bene However, the explicit statement of water was not specically me mentioned until the year 2002, wh the UN Committee of Social when Ec Economical and Cultural Right pr provided general comment Number 15 in clarifying chapter 11 and 12 of The Economic, Social, and Cultural

Edisi III, 2010

Right Convention, that right to water cannot be separated from other human rights, for water is more than just economic commodity and right to water is indeed a human right. The human right to water entitles everyone to sucient, physically accessible, safe and acceptable water for personal and domestic uses. Right to water also includes freedom to manage access to water. The element of right to water must also sucient for humans dignity, life, and health. Suciency on right to water cannot be translated narrowly on mere volume quantity and technology. Water must be treated as social and cultural assets, more than economic asset. In the United Nations General Comments of Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights) Number 15, human rights consists of two major components,

which is freedom and entitlements. Freedom means there will be no intervention that can cause disablement of human right to water, such as contamination of the water to be consumed. Entitlement is right on water system and management that enable everyone to have same opportunity and access to water. Government Eort As other human rights, with regard to the countrys position on the duty caused by the human right, the country has to respect, meaning preventing disturbance, directly/ indirectly, of the provision of right to water; to protect, meaning preventing involvement of the third party (company) in providing right to water; and to fulll, meaning taking necessary measures to ensure complete fulllment of right to water. In the context of respect,

the Indonesian Government has ratied international convention on economic, social, and cultural rights through Law No 11 Year 2005, implying that the country must meet the population rights, including right to drinking water. The government seems to be serious in its eort by issuing Law No 7 Year 2004 on Water Resources, which in verse 5 stated that the country guarantees the right of everyone to acquire water for minimal requirement of daily lives in order to achieve healthy, clean, and productive live. Further clarication on right to water in this law said that the people attain the right to (i) acquire information regarding water resources management; (ii) acquire proper replacement on detriment die to the implementation of

Main Report
water resources managem management; (iii) benet from the water resources benet management; (iv) raise objection on water resources management plan that has been announced in certain time period accordingly to the local condition; (v) submit reports and complaints to the authority on the detriment die to water resources management; and/or (vi) submit suit/claim regarding water resources issues that has damaged their lives/ living. While the peoples right is further directed in Governmental Regulation No 16 Year 2005 on Water Supply Provision System Development as derivation of Law No 7 Year 2004, in this case (i) acquire qualied water supply service in term of quality, quantity, and continuity in compliance with the existing standard; (ii) acquire information on the structure and magnitude of tari as well as the billing; (iii) submit suit on the service that has harmed them; (iv) acquire proper reimbursement due to the service indierence; and (v) acquire service of waste water
POKJA

disposal or feces slug removal. In fact, technically, drinking water quality has been constituted specically in Government Regulation No 82 Year 2001 on Water Quality Management and Water Contamination Control to ensure protection of public interest. Even so, the government is considered to fail to fulll the particular peoples right. Indonesian Governments eort to protect and respect right to drinking water is still far from people expectation, said National Coordinator of Peoples Right to Water (KRUHA) Hamong Santono. Reports by UNESCAP, ADB, and UNDP, have also rmly stated that Indonesia is currently on the slow lane in meeting the target of water supply and sanitation in MDGs, he said. One of the reason as to the low access of the public to access drinking water is the small amount of budget allocated by the government. In the year 2005, the allocated budget was only Rp 500 billion, and for the year 2010 was Rp 3 trillion. Whereas the required budget for water supply and sanitation development was approximately 2 to 3 times the amount. Clearer political agenda and commitment is required regarding the peoples right to water. Dont just signing the resolution without knowing what to do with the problems of water supply and basic sanitation, said Hamong. However, back to the one of the principles of human right fulllment, the process must also consider each government capability. Most important is the strong willingness from the government to achieve tar-

Edisi III, 2010


get fulllment of right to water. This is obvious considering the almost six times- increment in water supply and environmental sanitation budget allocation in ve years period (2010-2014) compare to the previous ve years (2005-2009). Local Government as the Spearhead More often than not, the main actor of water supply and environmental sanitation is forgotten. Based on the existing regulations, local government is the one who have the mandate to provide water supply. Thus an important question arisen, as to how far is the concept of right to water as human right has been comprehended by decision makers at the region. If this has not been acknowledged, we should not get our hope up for the UN resolution to have impact on water supply access improvement in Indonesia. Even after it has been acknowledged, the next step will be to know how far the comprehension has been internalized in the planning document of local government, such as Local Mid-Term Development Plan (RPJMD). Continue as such until a fund is allocated for marginal groups. It is the task of the central and provincial governments to make the concept of right to water as human right to be the mainstream of water supply and environmental sanitation development in the local level. Advocatory eort is needed both to the executives and legislatives, followed by internalization through reviewing of RPJMD documents, so the dramatic improvement can

Human Right Directorate General, Harkristuti Harkrisnowo:

Numbers of Problems in the Water Sector Have Come to Government Attention


ISTIMEWA

In the Workshop of Right to Water that was held by WSES Working Group at Bogor, Human Right Directorate General, Harkristuti Harkrisnowo in her written speech that was read by Human Right Cooperation Director, Dimas Samudera Rum said that water is an absolute necessity in every living creatures life. Without water, no life can survive. However in reality, the world is experiencing problems with regard to water due to various factors, such as rapid growth of world population, and current unsustainable water management. It was also said in the speech that numbers of international policies regarding right to water have been issued such as CEDAW (Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women), CRC (Convention on the Rights of the Child) and ICESCR (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and International Convention on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights). Also included UN ECOSOC DECLARATION (Economic, Social, and Cultural Declaration) on November 2002. While Indonesia has acknowledged entitlement of the basic right since the beginning in basic Constitution of UUD 1945 Chapter 33 stating that Earth, water along with its natural wealth is mastered by the country and utilize for the welfare of the people. Thus, it is the task of the country to guarantee water provision for every citizen.

be made clear of WSES budget allocation, especially for those that are marginalized. Seems it will take quite some time considering 500 kabupaten/kota in Indonesia. Duty of All It is clear that a little bit of patience on our part is required to see the result of government eort. Surely cooperation of all parties, and this is also one of the principles

in fullling human right which is interdependence, is a necessity. Fulllment of right to water as human right will not be achieved if the government is left to work alone. Lets work together. There are still approximately 100 millions of our fellow countrymen are without access to water supply. Most of them come from marginalized groups. (OM)

Laporan Utama

POKJA

Right to Water as Human Right

n the history of mankind, water has taken central position and guarantees the continuity of humans life in the face of this earth. Water relates with somebodys right to live, thus become an inseparable part within the term of human rights. Water entitlement as human right indicates two things; on one side is acknowledgement that water has a very important place in the lives of human, and on the other side, it is necessary to protect everyones access to water. For that reason, right to water needs to be made positive as the highest right in the law aspect, which is human right. The Importance of Right to Water as Human Right Without realizing it, there are many benets as to the resolution of right to water as human right. For instance (i) water became legal right,

more than mere mercy based-service; (ii) basic access accomplishment needs to be accelerated; (iii) those who were ignored receive more attention so that the gap could be reduced; (iv) marginalized people and community will be empowered to take role in the decision making process; (v) country will be more focus on fullling its duty due to international monitoring. Who will be impacted the Most Speaking about right to water as human right, there are several groups that will receive most impact by the change about to happen. They will be impacted mostly because their rights have been neglected for so long, and due to various normative and legal excuses were not the target of water supply service providers. Low income people. Among the impacted groups, the poor is the most suering. This was represented by the data showing 80 percent of the people

without access to drinking water were especially low income people who are living in the rural areas. Women. Women in many communities have lower status compare to the men. Theirs is the task to collect or acquire water for domestic daily needs. The data shows that 70 percent out of 1,3 billion of very poor people are women (WHO, 2001). Research shows that African household spent approximately 26 percent of their time to collect water, and in general, it is the task of women (DFID, 2001). This condition has prevented women to work, even to go to school. Children. Improper water condition increased the chance of children to suer from many diseases. Their immune system has not fully developed. Children also often share the womens task as water collector. As the eect, in many countries, many children do not go to school. Indigenous people. Actually, it

10

Edisi III, 2010


was this indigenous people who are utilizing the traditional water sources. However, with the growth of an area, the water source was then contaminated or being used exceeding its capacity. This condition has left them without access to water. Main Principle The main principle of human right in relation with water supply and sanitation development is (i) equality and without discrimination. This principle is the most prominent among other basic principles of human right framework. Consolidating this principle into WSES development policy requires special eort to identify the most marginalized and vulnerable individual and groups in water supply and sanitation access availability. Moreover, proactive actions are necessary to ensure that marginalized individuals and groups are included in the target and become the focus of intervention. Included in these groups are women, children, rural communities, slump areas, low income communities, nomadic communities, refugees, senior citizens, remote communities, disabled people, and the people at water vulnerable-areas. Establishing the integrated data of these groups has become a necessity. The main issue that also served as hot topic is aordability without dierentiating whether the service provider is private or government. Government is responsible to ensure that water is aordable to all, even those who cannot aord to pay. The eort can be made among others through provision of certain amount of free water, tari block system, cross subsidy mechanism and direct subsidy. (ii) safe and acceptable. Water must be safe for domestic use, and the minimum volume must be available for drinking water; (iii) aordable service. What is aordable? Payment is considered to be unaordable when it reduced someones ability to buy other basic needs such as food, housing, healthcare and education. It is not recommended for a household to spend more than 3% of income for drinking water; (iv) accessible service. When is a service accessible? Government must ensure that access to water is available inside or within the proximity of house, school, or workplace. If possible, tolerable condition which is the time requires in getting to the water source is 30 minutes at most. Safety during the process of collecting the water must also be considered; (v) sucient water. How many water per person is considered to be minimum requirement? UN indicates that water be sucient for drinking, sanitation, clothes washing, and cooking. At 20 liter per person per day is required. A water source is considered to be sucient if the minimum volume is 100 liters; (vi) accessible information. Right to water as human right also ensures available access to information on governments strategies and policies, and also enables the people to participate. Right to Water as Prerequisite of Other Human Rights Right to water has become a prerequisite to fullling other human rights. As an illustration: (i) right on food. Unsafe water consumption has prevented the eort to sucient basic nutrients and thus, right on food; (ii) right to live and right on health. Insufcient safe water has become the main cause of babies deaths all around the world; (iii) education right. Collecting water in many countries are the task of women and children, whereas time and distance sometimes requires over 2 hours trips as to prevent them to attend school. This includes absence due to diarrhea; (iv) right on housing. Drinking water availability is an important condition of proper housing/settlement. Countrys Obligation The emerging issue is then how to place the country in its relation with water as public or social asset that has been acknowledged as part of human right. Based on UN Committees general comment Number 15 regarding Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights that right to water as other human rights has raised three types of obligations for the country to take, which is obligation to respect, to protect, and to fulll. Obligation to respect: maintaining the existing access. This implies that the country does not disturb either directly or indirectly the present of right to water. Other obligation includes not restricting access of anyone. Obligation to protect: involving the third party. This obligation compels the country to prevent third partys involvement at any mean on the present of right to water. Third parties including individual, group, company, and institution are under the government. The obligation also includes adopting eective regulation. Obligation to fulll: facilitation, promotion and provision. This obligation compels government to take measures to fulll right to water. How about local governments? In reality, the determinant factor of fullling right to water as human right lies in the hand of the local government. UN General Comment Number 15 is stating that the central government

Misunderstanding of Right to Water


Water as Human Right does not mean. that water is provided free for all. that all house must be served through direct connection even when it is nancially not feasible. that the government itself must provide service without delegating the task to other non government parties

11

Main Report
must ensure that local governments gov h b have sucient capacity bot in term sucient both of nancial and human resources to provide water supply service. Furthermore, the service must also comply with the fulllment of human rights principles. Indicator of Right to Water Fulllment Water suciency as prerequisite of right to water fulllment, in any circumstances must comply with the following factors (i) availability. Water supply for everyone must be sufcient and sustainable for individual and household needs; (ii) quality. Water for everyone or every household must be safe, free of microorganism, chemical and radiology elements which are hazardous to human health; (iii) accessible. Water as well as water facilities and services must be accessible by all without discrimination. Accessibility is marked by (a) physical accessibility. Water along with its facilities and services must be able to be accessed physically for everyone in the population; (b) economically affordable. Water along with its facilities and services must be aordable to all. Costs incurred, both directly and indirectly and other water-related costs must be aordable; (c) non-discrimination. Water along with its facilities and services must be accessible to all, including vulnerable or marginalized groups, both in term of the law and real eld fact without discrimination; (d) information access. Access to water also includes the right to seek, receive water-related information. Materializing Water as Human Right In reality, numbers of factors are required to ensure water as human right. One, government must have eective regulation and institution, including public authority with clear mandate with proper and sucient nancial and human resources. Two, information and education. This is important in ensuring transparent and responsible water management. The people must know and under-

Belgia. Social fund is introduced and funded through the source of water levy. Social fund income is being used by social institution to cover service cost of the lowest income people. Other than that, free water consumption was given as much as 15 m3 per family. Poto Alegre, Brazil. Public company as the water supply service provider applies participative budget planning process. In public meetings, everyone is free to speak regarding budget priority. This model has generated dramatic increment in drinking water access to low income community. South Africa. Every drinking water service provider institution must have consumer service unit to receive every complaints. Water Ministry is prerequisite to have a national information system which is accessible to the people.

Prominent Practice

Frequently Asked Question


Is 20 liter per capita per day is sucient to fulll human right? NO. 20 liters per capita per day is the minimum but not yet fulll the requirement in relation of the health aspect. To meet that, the minimum requirement is between 50 to 100 liters per capita per day. Is fund to achieve water requirement fulllment really an obstacle? NO. It is true that large amount of fund is required. However, it has been proven that the cost of insucient water supply is even greater, in form of decreasing health quality of the people, loosing productive time and schools absence. Moreover, the fund requirement is not necessarily to be met immediately, but accordingly to the capacity of each government. Is everyone, even those who live in remote areas are prerequisite to have access through the piping system? NO. Government must only ensure that everyone have access to qualied (in term of availability, access, aordability, quality) access, however every region requires dierent services in accordance with each regions requirement. Does the government must provide free water? NO. Human rights only guarantess that drinking water must be aordable and not preventing other human rights such as food, housing, and health. Does human right forbid private involvement in the water supply service? NO. Human right did not constitute certain form of water supply service. However, government must ensure, through regulation, monitoring, and reporting procedure, that all providers (public and private) do not violate human rights. Does entitlement of right to water as human right encouraged water supply fulllment? YES. Among other factors, human right stabilized the law framework which depicted right and obligation, and encourage more attention toward the poor, and non-discriminative services. Human rights urge the people to be actively involved.

stand their rights. In turn, they must also know their obligation. On one side, public authority must also know their obligation. Three, multi-parties dialogue. This dialogue involves numbers of parties from the private sector, NGO, low income community, which will contribute in the process of planning, development, and management of water supply services. This will generate a more transparent and responsible public authority. Four, costsharing solidarity mechanism. As an example, tari system may use cross subsidy, where the have pays more. Meanwhile, right to water is not only applicable to public companies, but also to private. As an illustration, the International Federation of Private Water Operators AquaFed, that represents various water service companies from small to international scale, has included issue on right to water in company regulation. There are three required elements in order for the operator to implement the concept of right to water, namely (i) clear contract including the role and responsibility of the operator; (ii) the present of subsidy or low tari for low income community; (iii) the present of sustainable social mechanism on services toward marginalized groups (poor, homeless, etc.).

12

Edisi III, 2010

A Brief Look on Human Rights


Denition and Characteristics of Human Right Human right is basic rights own by human, in accordance with its nature, given directly by God. When these rights are ignored, it is impossible for the human to live as people. Ocially in chapter 1 of Law No 39 Year 1999 on Human Right it is stated that Human Right is a set of rights that closely relate to the nature and existence of human as the creature of God and represents His utmost grace that must be respected, upheld, and protected by the country, law, government and all people, for the honor and protection of humans dignity. Based on the above formulation of Human Right, some conclusion can be made, namely (i) Human Right was not necessarily be given, bought, or inherited. Human right is an automatic part of being human; (ii) Human right is applicable to all without discriminating gender, race, religion, ethnic, political view, or social and citizenship origin; (iii) Human right cannot be violated. No one has the right to restrain or violate others right. People resume to have human right, even when the country made laws that are against human right (Mansyur Fakih, 2003). In essence, Human Right consists of two most fundamental basic rights, which are equality right and freedom right. Of the two basic rights, other rights were formulated, or without the two, other human rights will be dicult to enforce. The Development of Human Right Forethought The development of Human Right forethought in the world is initiated in Magna Charta on the year 1215 in England, that among others includes the thinking that the king who once hold an absolute power (king made the law, but he himself is bonded by the very law he made), is now have less power and can be held responsible in the eyes of the law (Mansyur Eendi, 1994). The birth of Magna Charta is then followed by a more concrete development by the birth of Bill of Rights in England in the year 1689. At the time, an adage has arisen, with the main thinking that all human are equal in the eyes of the law (equality before the law). Next development of Human Right was marked by The American Declaration of Independence that was born of Rousseau and Montesquuiei concept. It is then conrmed that ISTIMEWA human is free since they were still in their mothers abdomen, thus it is illogical when after they were born they must be chained. Next in the year 1789 a French Declaration was born where stipulation of right is further dene as stated in the Rule of Law which among others stating that there can be no arrest without legal excuse. In that matter, the principle of presumption of innocent (where those who were arrested, then imprisoned and accused, have the right to resume innocent, until proven otherwise in the court of law) is applied. In the French Declaration all rights have been included, namely the rights that guarantee the growth of democracy and law country with previously established principles. Furthermore, it is also important to know the Four Freedoms of President Roosevelt that was established on January 6th 1941. All of these rights after World War II (where Hitler annihilated millions of lives) were made to be the foundation of thoughts in formulating the universal nature of Human Rights, which better known as The Universal Declaration of Human Rights that was established by the UN in 1948.

13 13

Regulation
With their intelligence and conscience, human have the freedom to decide for themselves their action or behavior. Furthermore, to balance the freedom, human still have the ability to responsible for all of their actions. It is this basic freedom and rights that was dened as human right that naturally attached to human as a grace from God. These rights cannot be denied. Denial of these rights means denial of human dignity. Therefore, any country, government, or organization are obligated to acknowledged and protect human right on all human without exception. This would mean that human right must always be the reference point, and the goal of implementing the life of community, nation, and country. In line with the above perspective, Pancasila as the foundation of this country includes the thought that human were created by God to hold two aspects, namely individual and social aspects. Therefore, the freedom of everyone is limited by others human right. This means that everyone bears an obligation to acknowledged and respect other peoples human right. The obligation is also applicable for every organization on any level, especially country and government. Thus, country and government responsible to respect, protect, defend, and guarantee human right of every citizen and people without discrimination. The obligation to respect human right is reected in the Preamble of UUD 1945 that inspires the whole chapters in its body, especially in relation to citizens equality in law and governance, right to work and proper living, freedom to associate and gather, right to express thoughts verbally and written, freedom to hold religion and to worship accordingly with their religion and beliefs, right to receive education and teaching. The basic thinking on the establishment of the Law is as followed: a. God Almighty is the creature of the universe and everything in it; b. Basically, human is blessed with a soul, form, structure, ability, willingness and other ease by their creator to guarantee their lifes continuity;

Law No 39 Year 1999 on Human Rights


o far, human right has been a common topic among the people. Even so, not everyone knows for sure what it means. Human right is a basic right that naturally attached on human; it is universal and imperishable, thus needs to be protected, respected, maintained, and cannot be ignored, reduced, or taken by anyone. Meanwhile, to show respect, Indonesian people as member of the United Nation that bears moral and legal responsibility to upheld and implement the Universal Declaration of Human Right that was established by the United Nation, and other various international instruments in relation to human right, has consciously issued Indonesia Republic Parliament Decree No XVII/MPR/1998 on Human Right. Moreover, arrangement of human rights has basically stated in dierent laws, including laws that established various international convention on human right. However, to accommodate all of the existing regulations, it is necessary to establish Law No 39 Year 1999 on Human Right. In this law, human right is clearly dened as a set of rights that was attached to humans nature and existence as Gods creature, and represents His utmost grace that must be respected, upheld, and protected by the country, law, Government, and everyone for the honor of humans dignity. That people are blessed by conscience and intelligence which give them the ability to dierentiate between good and bad, which will further lead and direct their action and attitude toward life.

14

Edisi III, 2010


c. To protect, maintain, and improve human dignity, entitlement and protection of human right is required, for without it, one will loose his nature and dignity, as to drive him to be a wolf for other people (homo homini lupus); d. Because human is a social creature, ones human right is limited by others human right, therefore, freedom or human right is not without limit; e. Human right cannot be eliminated by anyone under any circumstances; f. Every human right contains obligation to respect other human right, thus in human right, there are basic obligation; g. Human rights need to be truly respected, protected, and enforced, and thus, government, countrys ocials, and other public functionaries have obligation and responsibility to guarantee implementation of respect, protection, and enforcement of human rights. Within this law, human right was arranged with the guidance of United Nation Human Right Declaration, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Convention on the Rights of the Child, and other international Instruments that regulate human right. These laws specically regulate the right to live and the right to not forcefully eliminated and/or killed, right to have family and continue to descent, right to develop self, right to justice, right to personal freedom, right to safety, right on welfare, right to join in the governance, women right, child right, and right of religion freedom. Other than regulation of human right, basic obligation, along with task and responsibility of the government is also arranged in relation of human right reinforcement. In this law, public participation in the form of complaints and/or claim on violation of human right, proposal teaching of policy formulation in relation with human right to Human right National Commissary, research, education, and dispersing information on human right. The law of Human Right is the umbrella of all human right regulations. Therefore, both direct and indirect violation of human right will be sanctioned as criminal act, civil act, and/or administrative act in accordance with the law and regulations. The law consists of 11 chapters and 106 sections. However, the verses that were directly connected to the fulllment of housing, water and environmental sanitation is specied in a. Section 9 stated that (1) Everyone have the right to live, defend their lives and improve their living; (2) Everyone have the right to serene, safe, peaceful, happy, and physical and mental prosperity; (3) Everyone have the right on well and healthy environment. b. Section 11 stated that everyone have the right to fulll their basic requirements in order to grow and developed properly. c. Section 40 stated that everyone have the right to proper housing and living. Law No 11 Year 2005 on International Legalization of Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights This covenant conrms and denes Human Rights points in the aspects of economic, social, and cultural of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (DUHAM) within its law-binding stipulations. The covenant consists of preamble and 31 sections. Covenant Preamble reminds the countries of their obligation according to the UN Charter to improve and protect Human Rights, reminds individuals on their obligation to work hard for the improvement and organization of Human Right as regulated in this Covenant in relation with other individuals and its communities, and acknowledged that, in accordance with DUHAM, it is the future goal of man kind to enjoy civil and political freedom, and free from fear and shortcoming, which can only be achieved when condition is established for everyone to be able to enjoy their economic, social, and cultural rights, as well as their civil and political rights. Of the 31 sections of this paw, water supply and environmental sanitation is stipulated in reference to section 11, which is right to proper living standard. (OM)

15

Agenda

POKJA

International Day of Eradication for Poverty

Dicult Access to Water Supply and Sanitation as Poverty Indicator


n October 17th every year, the world population commemorates The International Day for the Eradication of Poverty. Poverty for developing countries such as Indonesia for example, represents a special note. The dicult access of the world population to acquire basic service of sanitation and proper drinking water is clearly an indication of poverty. World Health Organization (WHO) stated that limitation of 95 percent of the low income people to access water has made poverty trap for 1,2 billion of the world population. As known, on October 17th 1987, over 100 thousand people have gathered to demonstrate at Trocadero of Paris, France, exactly where Universal Declaration of Human Right was signed back in the year 1948, for all the world population to reect the fate of victims of extreme poverty, violence, hunger, and dicult access to drinking water and poor sanitation that happened almost everywhere all around the world.

Then, in order to respect the historical moment, the UN has initiated a resolution No 47/196 dated December 22nd 1992, which established October 17th as International Day of Eradication for Poverty, which was commemorated by the world population until date. On 2010, a global campaign that was mobilized by the world alliance called Global Call Against Poverty (GCAP) continue to be done. On September 2000, representatives of 189 countries have gathered in New York in a Millennium Summit that was initiated by the UN. The result is Millennium Declaration consisting of 8 common project points of development targets to be accomplished by participant countries before year 2015. The eight projects comprise poverty eradication and extreme hunger (with income standard below 1,25 USD/day), even distribution of basic education, gender equality and women empowerment, ght against diseases especially HIV AIDS and malaria, reducing children mortality rate, improving mothers health, guaranteeing environmental capacity and

16

Edisi III, 2010


establishing global partnership for development. When observed, all projects come down to one target, which is elimination of a big problem called poverty. Speaking about UNs version of poverty eradication, we cannot help but think of Millennium Development Goals (MDG) which also represents the UNs product in the year 2000 in order to create world without poverty by the year 2015. As part of UN, Indonesia has applied MDGs program since 2004. In MDGs itself, we knew, there are eight grandiose programs in elds of poverty, health, education, environmental, and gender equality. However, to tell you the truth, we highly doubt MDGs success in Indonesia, because practically, poverty and the process of impoverishment- did not decline at all. We still heard about hunger plague that happened all over the country, which means extreme poverty is still exist. Populations health also continues to decline. Children and mothers mortality rate in Indonesia is still signicantly high, large numbers of people are still having the diculty to acquire water supply service, and they are still living with poor sanitation, said Head of Health Consumer Protection Foundation, dr Marius Wijayarta to Percik. Education, health, dicult access to water and poor basic sanitation are clearly part of poverty. Not to mention the issue of gender equality which currently is like a far away dream, due to the high frequency of childrens and womens tracking. Target of the environmental eld is almost invisible because everyday we continue to witness facts on environmental damage around us, such as ood and landslide. There are many other facts that can conrm our doubts on MDGs success. Humanitarians, non government organizations working on environment and public health issues claimed that poverty is violation of human right, thus they demand that people of the world respect the right. Later, UN General Assembly declared October 17th as International Day of Poverty Eradication, and the world population commemorates it in dierent events. In Indonesia Poverty Eradication Day is also commemorated at several cities in Indonesia, such as Lampung, Mataram, Garut, Cianjur, Tasikmalaya, and Purwekerto. In Bandar Lampung, as much as 50 activists of SRMI have walked from Adipura monument to the oce of Local Kota Government. They urged the newlyelected mayor to realize his political promises during campaign, especially in poverty eradication. Upon the insistence, Bandar Lampung mayor Herman HN has accepted and conducted dialogue with representative of SRMI activists. The Mayor has promised to complete numbers of issues demanded by SRMI, namely education, health, and residents documents (personal identication KTP; family certicate KK; birth certicate), will be materialized in the year 2011. In Tasikmalaya, Jawa Barat, SRMI activists have come to kabupaten governments oce and ISTIMEWA demanded legalization of regional regulation draft (Raperda) on street merchants (PKL) protection. People also questioned the small amount of health budget that mostly came as grant from Provincial Government of Jawa Barat. The similar was also happened in Garut, Jawa Barat, where protestor decided to refuse Alfamart development that may interfere with publics economy, especially small merchants. In Cianjur, Jawa Barat, as much a 300 of SRMI activists have come to the oce of local council (DPRD). People questioned the small amount of education and health budget, whereas budget for agencys cars continue to grow. Adjacent to that, people also insisted for Cianjur government to increase budget for education and health, as well as protection for Indonesian Worker (TKI) abroad. (Eko/Ind.org)

17

Discourse

ISTIMEWA

Matter of Right to Water and on Housing


(First Paper)
Dr Cekli Setya Pratiwi, SH.,LL.M. health, education, and culture are adequately met and available for all. In line with this fundamental goal, an instrument of the International Bill of Rights is established to provide protection both for individuals and groups with regard to rights on economic, social, and cultural, namely 1966 CESCR. CESCR has basically provide entitlement of right to work, right to receive education, right on proper living, right to healthy environment, right to develop culture, etc. Right on proper living will be reviewed in this paper and will be focused on right on a house and water. Compare to the civil and political rights in CCPR, rights on economic, social and cultural are often considered as second degree rights where he International Covenant on Economic and Social Rights (from hereon will be refer to as CESCR) have been formulated and agreed to be part of The International Bill of Rights with no other intention than to protect human rights so that people can experience a life that is whole, free, safe, protected, and healthy. Right to live as the most natural right will never be accomplished unless all of the required basic rights to a living such as right to work, food, housing,

18

EEdisi III, 2010 Edisii IIII,, 2010 dis I


has obligated countries to guarantee right to water fulllment is unforceable, non-justiciable, and ht for all citizen. to be fullled progressively. However, along with Thus, it is obvious that both civil-political entitlement of global Bill of Rights system that right, as well as economic, social, and cultural was marked by DUHAM 1948, then countries rights is inseparable due to its interdependent in the world have emphasized over and over nature and because both require equal attention through World Conference on Human Right in the year 1993 by stating that both Human Rights from the country in term of application, socialization, and protection; considering that features, namely CCPR and CESCR have an fullling civil and political rights alone without equal important position. UN General Assembly resolution No 32/130 on December 1977 stating: fullling ones economic, social and cultural rights is highly improbable. Thus, in order to fulll (a) All human rights and fundamental freedoms are invincible and interdependent; equal attention economic, social, and cultural rights, national and international support in policy is necessary. and urgent consideration should be given to the Hence, all forms of denial on economic, social, implementation, promotion, and and cultural rights due to the thinking that put protection of both civil and political, economic, social, and cultural rights as unreal, or and economical, social and cultural does not require countrys involvement, rights; (b) The full realization of or can progressively fullled, are no civil and political rights without longer relevant; more so when CESCR the enjoyment of economic, social that right has been adopted by the UN General and cultural rights is impossible; to water is Assembly through 2200 A (XXI) the achievement of lasting progress something Resolution on December 1966 and in the implementation of human that cannot be has been applied since January 3rd rights is dependent upon sound and eective national and international apart from other 1976. Even today, since CESCR has been ratied by 143 countries, CESCR policies of economic and social human rights experienced change of character from development, as recognized by the multilateral to international customary Proclamation of Teheran of 1968. m law, In the year 2002, the Committee la meaning that it binds all country with on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in w or without ratication. General Comment No 15, has rmly provide II. Assessing Guarantee interpretation of section 11 and 12 of the of Right on Housing and to Water in Positive International Covenant on Economic, Social and Law Cultural Rights, that right to water is one thing Discussing the matter of law guarantee on the that cannot be apart from other human rights. peoples right on housing and to water, we need In its argumentation, this Committee has shown to see how far the law in Indonesia can provide that plenty of other human rights that cannot be fullled without right to water. Right to live, right adequate guarantee on these rights. On the aspect of law guarantee, it is more than quality of the to food, right to maintain health level, are rights law substance that regulates the matter in every where in order to fulll requires right to water as National Law, but must also consider Indonesias prerequisite. obedience as part of the International community It is mentioned that water is not only needed with awareness to accept and acknowledged to drink but also an inseparable part of the the International Laws especially ones food processing, or creation of healthy housing that has become part of our and other humans requirement for a living. countrys positive Furthermore it is conrmed that the committee

19

Discourse
law. law. It is important to co rm due to many con views and practices saying that National Law and sayin International Law is separated from one another; in consequence, Law makers, law enforcers, or even decision makers often neglect the binding nature of that specic International Law, and it often implied on the force taking of peoples rights that have been acknowledged by international community as human rights that cannot be reduced by anyone including the country, unless specic conditions applied which needs to be clearly regulated by the Law. With regard of the discussion object in this paper, which is guarantee of peoples right on of International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Consequently, since 2005 Indonesia is obligated by law to immediately adapt every law product that relate with the content of the covenant; with the purpose of strengthening guarantee on peoples right fulllment on economic, social, and cultural aspects. Then in the context of peoples right guarantee on proper living especially housing and water, how will CESCR discommode participant countries to immediately take important steps in acknowledging the rights? On the matter, Section 11 Verse (1) CESCR stated that: The State Parties of the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to and adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions. The State Parties will take appropriate steps to ensure the realization of this right, recognizing to this eect essential importance of international cooperation based on free consent. Implication of the above CESCR Section 11 Verse (1) stipulation is that every country that has participate or ratied the covenant (including Indonesia), has the obligation to recognize the right of every citizen on proper ISTIMEWA living standard that consist of adequate food, clothing and housing and continuously improving living condition. The word recognize as in recognizing right of every citizen to proper living standard, such as adequate food, clothing, and housing, have implicated the country with obligation to respect, obligation to protect, obligation to promote, and obligation to fulll rights in the CESCR covenant through real steps in accordance to 1986 Limburg principles and 1997 Maastricht principles, including legislative actions to adjust or change all laws and regulations in Indonesia, at the central level down to the local level, when it is against the covenant content. 1. Implementation Regulation with Chance in

proper living especially housing and water, juridical implication of Indonesias acceptance to an International Agreement is immediately establish new law if it has not yet exist, synchronize/change whenever contradiction present or even revocation if the regulation is considered to be inappropriate or against the peoples rights. In the matter of peoples right on proper living which is included in the scope of economic, social, and cultural rights, Indonesia has ocially become the participant of The 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) through a ratication of Law No 12 Year 2005 on Legalization

20

Edisi III, 2010


Neglecting the Peoples Right on housing First, it cannot be denied that Indonesias courage in ratifying CESCR is one of Indonesias recognition for rights on economic, social and cultural of its citizen, which include right on housing and to water. Nevertheless, ratication alone is not enough. To see how far Indonesia as CESCR participant fulll its obligation to guarantee fulllment of economic, social, and cultural rights especially with regard to right on housing and to water of its citizen is to see that the substance of all laws and regulation from the ISTIMEWA highest hierarchy (UUD 1945) to the lowest, slightly dierent for Section 28H prefers the term from central level to local level, have been adapted physical and mental prosperous life. or synchronized with CESCR substances; or In the next part, physical and mental life even more extreme, concrete measures are taken prosperity is claried to only cover right to reside where laws and regulations which are against the and right to proper and healthy environment. substance of CESCR be revoked or no longer in In the writers opinion, right to reside has wider eect. connotation that right on housing, where one Reviewing the substance of may reside without having any house; whereas UUD 1945 as the highest regulaone with a house is not automatically residing. tion or source of all laws in IndoIn a communal social condition as nesia, after four amendments, espesuch Indonesia, its safe to say that It cannot b denied that be cially the Second Amendment on almost everyone have residency Indonesias courage in August 18th 2000, there are several ratifying CESCR is one of although not everyone have a Human Right-related Sections that Indonesias recognition house, because they could reside have been changed and added. for rights on economic, with family, child, or parents. social and cultural of its UUD 1945 is considered to be Other right as realization citizen more detail in regulating and guarprosperous life is the right of p anteeing Human Right protection healthy environment. In to h compare to the previous Section UUD UU 1945, right to good and 28; this is certainly worthy of appreciation. Howhealthy environment does not heal ever, whether the more detail Section 28 is already automatically refer to right on adequate food. This i ll f in harmony with the content of newly ratied CE- certainly very dierent with the will of CESCR SCR in the year 2005 requires further review. that rmly entitles and obligated every participant With regard to right on housing, UUD 1945 country to guarantee the right of its citizen to especially Section 28H Verse (1) stated that: adequate food. Everyone have the right to live prosperously Therefore, Indonesia as a country that raties -both physically and mentally-, have a place to CESCR has not yet succeed in guaranteeing the stay, and enjoy good and healthy environment, right of its citizen to proper living -which includes and right to receive health service. right to adequate clothing and food (including The term recognition of right on proper water) and adequate housing- in its living in CESCR Section 11 Verse (1) indicates constitution. The concept present in Section proper living such as in adequate food, clothing 28H of UUD 1945 is only and housing, whereas Section 28H Verse (1) is

21

Discourse
repetition of the existing stipulation in Section 9 of Law No 39 Year 1999 which was issued rst (one year prior to Section 28 amendment). In Law No 39 Year 1999 on Human Right, especially the First Part, Right to Live Section 9 Verse (1), (2), and (3) it was stated that: (1) Everyone have the right to live, maintain life and improve their living standard; (2) Everyone have the right to serene, safe, peaceful, physically and mentally prosperous life; (3) Everyone have the right to good and healthy environment. If right to improve living standard is interpreted the same as right to proper living as stipulated in CESCR Section 11 Verse (1), then the right to improve living standard must be interpreted as the right to adequate food, clothing, and housing. Even so, after being traced to the Explanation Part of the Law, there is no clarication referring to further denition of right to improve living standard. Therefore, in Law No 39 Year 1999 as Human Right Law in Indonesia that was expected to be the implementation regulation from Section 28 of UUD 1945 has provided a very weak regulation on right of everyone to proper living, or in other word, there is no explicit guarantee as POKJA to the acknowledgement of right to adequate food, clothing and housing. Section 9 Verse (1), (2), and (3) of the Human Right Law was actually directed more on the recognition of right to live as part of civil and political rights, and not on the context of acknowledging rights of economic, social, and cultural. In other words, one countrys recognition on the right of everyone to proper living which includes right on housing, both in UUD 1945 and Human Right Law have not yet in concordance with the stipulation of CESCR Section 11 Verse (1). Meanwhile, implementation regulations under the law has bigger potency in violating right on housing, yet has never been revoked and continue to be in eect until date. 2. Countrys Eort to Disengaged Responsibility in Fullling Right to Water With relation with right to water, UUD 1945 Section 33 verse (2) stating that production domains which are considered to be important for the country and overbearing lives of many are govern by the country, based on the sovereignty concept of Indonesias people on all sources of wealth from earth, water, and other natural wealth in it is govern by the country and being used as much for the peoples prosperity, includes the denition of public ownership by people collectiveness on the specic wealth sources. People collectively gave a mandate to the country to establish policies and perform actions of caring, managing, organizing, and supervising for the purpose of peoples prosperity. Further on countrys governance over water as part of the most fundamental need and human right has been conrmed in Section 28A of UUD 1945: Everyone have the right to live and maintain their live and living, Section 28D Verse (1)

22

Edisi III, 2010


Enterprises, section 1 number 12 Everyone have the right to entitlewater supply provision water sup is the sale of the companys stock, ment, guarantee, protection, and fair for the people is the either partly or wholly, to other legal certainty and equal treatment responsibility of the party in order to improve the in the court of law, and Section 28I country, thus must be governed by the country, companys performance and value, verse (4) stating that protection, accordingly to Section 33 adding benet for the country improvement, reinforcement and of UUD 1945 fulllment of human right is the reand the people, and extending shares sponsibility of the country especially shar ownership by the people. is government. The problem lies in no Thi denition is only one of the privatization forms according to further denition as to the term peoples prosperpriv many experts For ex experts. example, Diana Carney and ity; hence it was this dimension in reality that ofJohn Farrington (1998) said that privatization ten interpreted either too broad or too narrow by can be dened widely as a changing process that policy makers, and may easily cause conict. involves the private sector to join responsibility of The most basic thing is the matter of water an activity which was once controlled exclusively supply provision for the people by private which by the public sector. Privatization includes was regulated in Law No 7 Year 2004 on Water ownership diversion of productive assets from Resources. As part of a fundamental public public sector to private, or merely providing service, water supply provision for the people is room for the private sector to also involve in the responsibility of the country, thus must be operational activities namely contracting out governed by the country, accordingly to Section and internal markets. With the given denition, 33 of UUD 1945. If water supply provision is it is obvious that privatization is not only stock being handed over to the private (privatization), sharing. Privatization also includes a model where the countrys governance on water for as much of peoples prosperity will be lost. In theory, there are ownership remain in the hand of the government/ country but management, maintenance, and many denitions of privatization. investment are completed by the private (BOT Denition of privatization according to model, management contract, concession, etc.). the Law No 19 Year 2003 on State-Owned In Law No 7 Year 2004 on Water Resources, private management can be done if there are no existed state-orregional-owned companies (BUMN/ BUMD) to provide water supply provision for the people. Thus it is clear that Law No 7 Year 2004 has opened up opportunities for private involvement (privatization) in water provision for the people. (to be continued) Writer: Director of Human Right Study Center (satuHAM), Law Faculty of Malang Muhammadiyah University. e-mail: c.s.pratiwi@ gmail.com

23

Discourse

Country Must Guarantee the Peoples Right To Water


24

here is no doubt or denial that water is a fundamental requirement of human. So important is water for human so that right to water represents the most fundamental human right. Entitlement of water as human right has rmly regulated in Section 14 of The 1979 Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) that emphasized the necessity of non-discriminative treatment toward water provision as womens right. The 1989 Convention on The Right of The Child (CRC) saying that in the eort of preventing malnutrition and disease spreading, every child have a right to clean drinking water. In 2002, UN Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights in their general comment No 15 has provided a more resolute denition on Section 11 and 12 of The Convention on Economic, Social, and Cultural Right where right to water cannot be divided from other human rights. Water as human right has categorized water supply provision as an essential services. Essential services represent the center of social contract between people and government. In other word, guarantee on the peoples right to water is the responsibility of the government. Governments responsibility in fullling right to water is clearly regulated in section 5 of Law No 7 Year 2004 on Water Resources where country guarantees the right of everyone to acquire water for daily minimal basic needs for healthy, clean and productive living. On the other side, along with the growing water consumption, season variation, environmental damage and contamination have made water scarce in term of volume and quality. Water availability Wa e avai ability in Water availability in Indonesia has vai bil reached 15.000 ubic reache 15.000 cubic meters per year reached 15.000 cubic m che ubic capita. However, per capita. Ho ever, per capita. However, it is not evenly ita a distributed distribute in every distributed in every island. For exist ut ted very ample, Java Island Island ample, Java Island has water availmple, av Isla land ability per capi capita abilit pe capita per ability per capita p year of only ty 1750 3, below 1750 m3, below 1750 m3, below the availability el standard 2000 standa d of 20 standard of 200 m3 per capitan ard ta per year an ta per year and this condition er ea and is predicted is predicted to be worse by redict d dict the year 2020 the year 20 where wah year ear ter av ila ter availa e availability will only reach 1200 reac 12 reach 12 per capita eac ach per year. pe ye per yea This condition is

Edisi III, 2010


worsened by the increasing damage of riverbank area (DAS) each year. Water scarcity is further worsened by poor water infrastructure. For over 30 years, water infrastructures developments that have focused more on the development of irrigation network have not improved condition of the irrigation network. Up to 2002, 22,4% of all irrigation networks that mostly located in Java (48,32%) and Sumatra (27,13%) are damaged. Focusing budget allocation on irrigation development has reduced budget for other water infrastructure including water supply and sanitation. This can be seen from the total asset of water infrastructure by the end of 2002 of 346,49 trillion IDR, where 273,46 trillion (78,92%) is for irrigation, 63,48 trillion IDR (18,32%) for dams, rubber dams, and ponds (embung), 92,1trillion IDR (2,66%) for ood control and beach protection and 0,34 trillion IDR (0,1%) for raw water. Privatization as solution until early 90s has continued to be a debate. Centralistic planning model and companys ownership as part of the capital accumulation eort and encouraging investment are still dominating economic policy of the developing countries. Trust on countrys intervention in economic development has started to decline by late 70s when the economic of developing countries suered from external shocks of oil price surge, declining price of export commodity where the imported price has continued to incline. The impact for developing countries is foreign debt crisis and budget decit. Because the country is Privatization eort is also condominating economy activities in the developing countries, attention ducted within the sector of water reis focused on performance of vari- sources. An international water and ous public sectors (especially state- environment conference in 1992 owned companies) in the eort to at Dublin, Ireland, has resulted in overcome economic decline. The The Dublin Statement on Water crisis has also caused the countries and Sustainable Development (betto highly depend on nancial sup- ter known as Dublin Principles). port from international donors and Dublin Principles contain four princreditors which also have increasing ciples that must be put forth both inuence in policy making (Bay- in policies and development of the water resources sector. One of the liss 2006). The facts principles is water has an economic above have become value in all its competing uses and reasons to question should be recognized as countrys dominaan economic good. tion in the economic water has an h Dublin Principles activity and also to economic economi value has urged many interquestion government in all its ownership. competing uses national agencies to and should be reposition their policies Nonetheless, numrecognized in resources sectors, bers of public sector as an economic including the World companies are poorly good Bank. The World Bank managed with inehas h then taken central role ro in developing and promoting new appr proaches which are conpr the sistent with t Dublin Principles, especially within the framework of treating water as an economic good. In practice, international nancial agencies has put water resources ISTIMEWA reformation that treats water as an cient operation causing budget de- economic good in one broader neo cits, where the service is unreliable and liberal policy package and mostly neglecting the poor (Kessler 2004). It through structural adjustment prowas in this context that privatization gram. Furthermore, bilateral developis considered to be the way out of the problems that were faced by develop- ment agents (such as DFID and ing countries. Privatization policy that USAID) have also encouraged priwas initiated in England and USA is vate sector participation to their aid then applied in many countries and recipient countries. In the context supported by many international - of Indonesia, global pressure in nancial agencies, including the World practicing privatization includBank through Structural Adjustment ing in the water resources s e c t o r, Program (SAP).

25

Discourse
ernments budget ha continued to gain have conti have c ti tinued i limitation. Looking legitimacy in the con conlegitimac dition of water supply In 2005 only 21 PDAM at the history of priare considered to vate involvement in provision in Indonebe healthy, 68 less water supply service sia. Out of 41% Indohealthy PDAM, 117 nesia population who unhealthy PDAM, and there are two dierare currently living in 11 PDAM are critical ent models, namely England privatizathe urban area, only tion and France 51,7% or 20% of the ti privatization. total population are with access to pri England model is PDAM services, and only 8% of the rural community have access to a model where private m sector piped water that was provided by sec has full control over water supply and sanitation serFacility Manager Unit (UPS). Even up to the year 2005 only vice. While France model is a model 21 PDAM are considered to be where asset ownership remain in healthy, 68 less healthy PDAM, 117 the hand of the public whereas the unhealthy PDAM, and 11 PDAM responsibility of service provider is in the hand of the private. The latare critical. In 1993, the World Bank has is- ter is then proposed by the Intersued Water Resources Management POKJA Policy, and according to the World Bank, this policy reects 1992 Rio Earth Summit as well as Dublin Principles. In 1998 the World Bank evaluated their policy in the water resources and was compiled in a document titled: Bridging Troubled Water: Assessing the World Banks Water Resources Strategy and was published in 2002. As a respond of the evaluation report in the year 2003 the World Bank has made new strategy of Water Resources Sector Strategy: Strategic Directions for World Bank Engagement. Poor service quality and budget limitation in achieving MDGs target has made privatization as an inseparable part of current water supply provision policies. There are at least two reasons to private sector involvement in water supply provision, rst is to improve service quality and second, investment to cover govnational Financial Agencies such as World Bank and ADB and applied in many countries including Indonesia under the term Private Sector Participation (PSP). Dierent forms of private sector participation in water supply and sanitation service are service contract, management contract, concession, etc. Government Policy in Water Supply Service Provision With all the challenges in water supply service, the policy that was taken by the Indonesian government at the moment tends to involve private sector or encourage private sector to be the provider of water supply service. Some of the policies are private sector participation (PSP),

26

Edisi III, 2010


PDAM corporatization, PDAM re- supply provision must be undergionalization. Private Sector Partici- stood as part of a social contract pation (PSP) as explained above has between government and people. become an inseparable part of cur- Thus, the government is obligated rent water supply service policies. by law to provide and fulll water This policy is established in Law No requirement of the people. This is 7 Year 2004 on Water Resources, important due to assumptions that Government Regulation (PP) No were used by the government in in16 Year 2005 on Water Supply Pro- volving private sector in water supvision System (SPAM), and Public POKJA Work Minister Regulation No 294/ PRT/M2005 on Supporting Board of Water Supply Provision System. PSP Policy has also decanted in Urban Water Supply Policy Framework that was compiled by the World Bank in cooperation with Bappenas year 1997. One of the reasons underlying PSP policy is the large fund requirement in improving PDAM service. The large fund requirement is also caused by the poor nancial performance of PDAM allegedly due to average tari which is below the production cost. Based on the existing condition, alternative funding sources are highly compulsory. Several things to be done in the matter of funding sources are (1) Corporatization must ply provision are not Corporatiza all correct. That most PDAMs debt relief; also be balanced of PDAM taris are PDAMs debt up to the with community participation under the production year 2009 has reached cost trillions of rupiah. (2) co and the fact that most Enterprise fund; in the m PDAMs are operating with numbers context of water supply provision, era there are two main sources namely of connection below economic scale. government and user fee. Enterprise eco Nonetheless, such condition does fund is the fund that came from user fee. Thus, fund from user fee must not necessarily mean that all PDAM be fully used for PDAM. Other ef- is operating in poor shape. Although fort that needs to be done is improve- only small numbers of PDAM is operating healthily, this is a proof that ment of service management. This eort must be initiated by fundamentally, public sector is capaaltering perspective where water ble to provide water for the people. Thus, beside the eort to improve quality and service extension by putting forth private sector participation, the eorts of quality improvement and service extension that was based on capacity and capability improvement of the service provider itself is required. With this change of perspective, a transformation is expected

on the management of water supply service. There are many models of water supply service provision, one of which is division between ownership and management (corporatization). However, one more time, without changing perspective of water supply provision, corporatization will not succeed. Corporatization must also be balanced with community participation. Water supply provision at Brazil is one of example of corporatization that was balanced by community participation. (Hamong Santono)

27

Discourse

POKJA

Care About The People?

Think Water Supply and Sanitation!


Oleh Nugroho Tri Utomo anitation in Indonesia is still far from boastful condition. In 2010, with domestic wastewater service coverage of 51,9 percent of total population, Indonesia is only above Laos and Timor Leste in the Asia Region. Condition of solid waste management is also still far from expectation. Of more than 400 Landlls (nal disposal sites TPA), less than 10 is environmentally friendly mostly using sanitary landll. The rest is still using an open dumping system. Whereas Law No 18/2008 on Solid Waste Management has mandated the deadline of 2013 to eliminate the practice of open dumping. Improving the system of environment drainage still also requires a lot of hard work. There are still 22.500 hectare of strategic areas in 100 urban regions which still ooded by the rain and must be handled until 2014. The above condition is closely related to the long history of low collective awareness on the importance of sanitation development in the country. The thinking that sanitation

is a personal issue therefore the people will nd their own way to fulll their needs- have lessen governments attention on sanitation development. During 1970-1999, total investment of the central and regional governments for sanitation has only reached 200 IDR per capita per year. This number has increased during 2000-2004 to 2000 IDR per capita per year. We are grateful that in the past ve years, sanitation investment per capita has continued to increase into 5000 IDR per year. However, this is still far from the ideal requirement that was estimated as 47.000 IDR per capita per year (Bappenas study, 2008). The above amount is estimated to come from the government, especially central government, whereas sanitation should not only be the task of government. Sanitation is a daily issue. There is no one who does not perform daily sanitation activity, from human waste disposal, generation and disposal of solid waste, and completing their house or settlement with drainage, however matter simple. The fact is that everyday, there are 70 million Indonesian people who practice open defecation

28

Edisi III, 2010


(Riskesdas 2009). As the consequence, everyday, there are approximately 14.000 tons of feces (heavier than 4.500 Sumatera elephants) and 176.000 cubic meter of urine (equal to 70 Olympic-size swimming pools) contaminate water lines, rivers, beaches, lakes, empty lands, etc. Its no wonder that all rivers in Java and 70 percent of rivers in Indonesia are below the quality standard established by the Health Ministry for drinking water purpose. As the consequence, PDAM in Indonesia have to spend extra cost up to 25 percent to treat this water into drinkable water. Also to be expected that dierent researches have found e-coli bacteria in approximately 75 percent of shallow well in big cities of Indonesia. The fact only refers to one meaning, feces contamination. It may be caused by septic tank seepage, either because the location is too close to the well or leaks. Its no wonder that current diarrhea case is 411 cases per 1.000 people (Health Ministry Diarrhea Morbidity Survey, 2010). The list of the cause could be longer. Low solid waste service and poor clean and healthy lifestyle (PHBS) have caused solid waste piles covered by ies, which not only bad aesthetically, but also increase spreading of disease. Not to mention blocking the drainage lines. Flood and puddle will happen more often and surely cause signicant economic lost. In short, in the matter of sanitation, everyone needs to act, be involved, and impacted; everyone needs to agree. We need to agree that Sanitation is everybodys business. The need for sanitation development for the next 5 years has reached 56 trillion IDR. Central governments has only allocated 14,6 trillion IDR, still far from enough. As for the local government, although it has become one of its obligations, most governments have only allocated less than 1 percent of their Local Budget (APBD) for sanitation development. The role of community groups, business worlds, even households in sanitation development is also needs to be mobilized. Everybody needs to be involved in improving the sanitation investment. Why? Because sanitation investment is important and protable. Here are some of the excuses: One: Avoiding false economic growth. A study by WSP and Bappenas (2208) has concluded that due to the poor sanitation, the economic looses of the country has reached 58 trillion per year. This equal to 2,1 percent of Gross Regional Domestic Product at the time which, with meticulous calculation should reduce the economic growth rate. It is ironic if we have to loose 58 trillion IDR per year because we chose not to allocate 11,2 trillion IDR per year. Two: Remarkable eect of sanitation improvement on health, education, and productivity. WHO estimated that good sanitation condition and behavior along with drinking water quality improvement may reduce up to 94 percent of diarrhea cases. Which mean number of absent day at school may be reduced by 8 days per year which surely advantageous to the teaching and education development. Numbers of productive days may increase up to 17 percent which

POKJA

also mean additional opportunity to improve income. Three: Help to reduce poverty. Due to the poor sanitation, Indonesian family in average must spent 1,25 million IDR per year; a signicant amount for low income family. The cost includes doctors fee, hospital treatment, the lost of opportunity (opportunity cost) of daily income due to sickness or caring for the sick family member. The healthier and more productive someone is, the bigger his/her opportunity to be free from poverty. Four: Multiple benets. Several empirical researches in Indonesia have showed that leverage factor for sanitation investment has reached 8 to 11, which means that every 1 IDR of sanitation investment will lead to benet of 8 to 11 IDR. The experience of

29

Discourse
Community Community Based Total Sa Sanitation (STBM) in East Java during 2008-2010 has even showed that with 2008 2010 every 1 IDR that was spent to trigger and enable community has stimulated self-sanitation-investment from the community of 35 IDR. It is clear that sanitation development is an investment, not a burden. Five: Prevention is always cheaper than curing. The Asia Development Bank (2009) has stated that if we failed to invest 1 USD for sanitation thus polluting our rivers, recovery eort will cost us 36 USD. Sanitation is a very eective eort to prevent health problem and economic loss. Several Kota/Kabupaten in Indonesia have also proved that sanitation investment in their regions have generated fund saving in communitys medical fund and even bigger health insurance for poor families. Six: Sanitation development acceleration is a growing trend. Government has proclaimed Settlements Sanitation Development Acceleration (PPSP) 2010-2014. Until date, there are 63 Kota/ Kabupaten who have implemented the program. Interestingly, the involved Mayors and Bupatis have established a Sanitation Care Kabupaten/Kota Alliance (AKKOPSI) and have actively promote the importance of sanitation development to community and other mayors/bupati. Sanitation investment of Kota/Kabupaten who have involved in PPSP has also increased by 2,5-10 times, as shown in sanitation budget of their APBD. The interest to join PPSP has also continued to increase. Up to 2014, it is expected that at least 330 Kota/Kabupaten will join. Seven: Care of sanitation, loved by the people. In current political era, where every voter has one vote, do not think that attention toward sanitation does not have political value. Sanitation is daily matter of the people. Caring for sanitation means paying attention to communitys livelihood, ask Payakumbuh Mayor or ex Blitar Mayor who proudly said: I have been reelected because of sanitation! The writer is the Director of Bappenas Housing and Settlement. This article is a personal opinion and has been published in the National Journal Daily.
POKJA

30

Wawancara

Edisi III, 2010

Bappenas Director of Housing and Settlement, Nugroho Tri Utomo

Water Supply as Basic Need is Governments Responsibility


FOTO-FOTO WAJAH: POKJA

ater is closely related to humans right to live, thus the issue of acquiring water cannot be apart from the framework of humans basic need or human right. Water entitlement as human right indicates two things; on one side is acknowledgement of the fact that water is very important to human life, on the other side, protection is required on everyones access to acquire water. For that protection sake, right to water needs to be promoted to be the highest right in term of law, which is human right (bill of right). UN General Assembly has issued a resolution on Right to Water. Bappenas Director of Housing and Settlement Nugroho Tri Utomo has agreed to be interviewed by Perciks journalist, Eko B Harsono

Q: Before we begin, on behalf of Percik magazine, we w would like to say congratulation on your new mandate, m may youre given ease in performing your duties. As we k know, sometime ago, UN General Assembly has issued a Resolution that Water and Sanitation are part of the H Human Rights. In your opinion, what is the interpretation of this resolution to the Indonesian Government? Is this a n new concept for us? A: We certainly welcome this Resolution which r represent recognition from the world leaders on the f fact that water and sanitation are an inseparable part of humans life as to become the human right. We fully aware that water and sanitation are the most fundamental needs of the people. We called it right to water, but it signies more to water as the fundamental need of drinking water, which has become the responsibility of the government. This was previously regulated in Government Regulation (PP) No 16 as derivation of Law No 7 Year 2004 on Water Resources. So, the truth is, we are recognizing that water as a fundamental need must be fullled by the Country. The interpretation is then, one side called it Right to Water, while we call it Water Supply Fundamental Need as governments responsibility. Q: Can you explain how La Law No 7 Year 2004 has be become the law umbrella of wa water supply issue as the mo most fundamental need of the people

31 31

Interview
which which provision is the res hi h responsibility of the government or country? If it has been adopted, how far have the Indonesian government applied this concept in Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSES)? A: In Law No 7 Year 2004 it is clear that the rst priority of water utilization is for the drinking water as the most fundamental need of Indonesian people. If conict then arose due to water resources etc, then rst priority of the government is drinking water as basic need of the people and must be fullled by the Country. Beside water as basic need, there is another nature of water as secondary needs or support of economic activity, or water which is used for the purpose of recreational, lifestyle or stylelistic; this can no longer be categorized in water as right. The government has clearly acted on the fact that water need characteristic must be acquired accordingly with the economic value of the water. Q: Water as Gods gift to human. By making dierent characteristic on water needs, dont you think it will create a problem on right to water? A: We are aware and agree that water is a very valuable gift from God that was given in free to human. However, please understand that distribution or service cannot be provided freely. In Water Resources law is even clearly stated that water resources, in principle, can or may be acquire freely as long as, one, he/she will not alter the purpose or endanger peoples allocation with water priority. And second, it will not be used commercially. So for the requirement its itself, the Law has cle clearly stated that every In Indonesian have the rig right to acquire any wa water resources freely. H However, once the water res resources are distributed th through PDAMs pipes etc etc, they must pay for th the service. And water a as basic need that was govern by the g government in the denition of right t to water is being realized by something c called basic tari; whereas when the g government established tari of, for e example, 5 cubic meter per month per h household, it is a very cheap tari. It c cannot be free because of the service f factor; unless, people come to the w water spring themselves. Q: There is a current trend of p privatization as one of the options of fullling water access for the people. Many people, especially NGOs, think that privatization is a contradiction to the principle of human rights. How does government perceive this matter? A: In Law No 7 Year 2004 on Water Resources, it is clearly stated that in order to utilize water resources, one must possess Water Utilization License (SIPA) where governments derivation is further stipulated, both regional and central government. This license is under the umbrella of Water Resources Law. For provincial scale, it will be issued by the province, for level II governments of Kabupaten or Kota, surely be issued by the Mayor or Bupati. While for national scale, it will be issued by Public Work Ministry. In issuing SIPA, the governments both central and regional have realized that it must contain clear stipulation on how drinking water as basic need of the people must be fullled and guaranteed. Im trying to understand how our NGOs friends must perceive several cases of water that was owned by the private and hence, cannot be utilized by the people. These are casuistry. However, we must see the matter clearly. When a company has water resources in its area, if it wants to use the water for its own purpose, the company must own SIPA. And prior to bestowing SIPA, in theory, local government must see whether that specic water resources can be used

32 2

Edisi III, 2010

ISTIMEWA

rst for drinking water or not. Even in SIPA there is a statement that if in the future, that water is required for fulllment of higher priority of drinking water, it will automatically be taken over by the government. SIPA is a license to utilize water that can be issued by anyone. For example, I already have the license to utilize water for the purpose of bottled water, however, if in the future local government of where the business is operating sees the need of drinking water that must be fullled and has become a priority, and the only source of water is the water source where I have the license of, then automatically, the local government can review the license that was given to me and give the priority to the peoples basic need of drinking water. The rest can be used by my company. So, looking at the regulation, it is obvious that we have very much recognized what UN called Right to Water. But if here and there we are still lacking, it must be admitted that we really need help from our NGO friends in providing feedback or information. Q: Has the human right concept colored National Mid-Term Development Plan (RPJMN) 2010-2014? And last, do you have any specic message for local governments in responding the matter of drinking water that most probably will become more complicated, on what should be noted regarding water as a right and

b basic need of the people? A: In RPJMN 2014 we have c clearly adopted water as the basic n need of Indonesian people that m must be fullled by the Country. O Our RPJM have clearly stipulated w water as basic need and the above d denition is already clear. What m must be noted by local government e everywhere that rst, they must poss sess a very clear depiction on water r requirement of their people. According to the language of MDGs, local government must master access to qualify water sources for their people (improve water). Although the people have alternative water sources, local government must know whether or not the water is proper. The problem is that the one who knows the quality of the water is the local government, whereas the people usually do not really care on whether or not the water is consumable. People often do not realize that numbers of disease were caused by the water they were drinking. This represents the importance of local government to educate the people. With the declining condition of water resources, there are two things we can do, which is maintaining those we already have and two, searching for alternative water sources. The latter is obviously more expensive, but also inevitable due to the population growth. And in order to maintain water resources, sanitation must also well maintain and protected.

33 33

Interview

Hamong Santono:

Resolution of Right to Water Like Simalakama Fruit for Indonesia


ometime ago, UN G i General A l Assembly bl issued a resolution saying access to water supply and sanitation is human right; with 122 supporting votes and no opposition from any country. In that occasion, world leaders stated that the right to safe water supply and proper sanitation are part of human rights that must be fullled by the country. Supporting the UN resolution signies commitment to play a bigger role in fullling requirement for adequate, safe and aordable water. Indonesia has chosen to support with several conditions. One of the reasons of issuing the resolution is deep concern of the UN that approximately 884.000.000 people are without access to safe water supply and more than 2,6 billion people are without access to basic sanitation.

U Upon i i the resolution, UN G issuing h l i General A l Assembly bl revealed some facts that 1,5 million children under 5 years old have died because of water diseases and poor sanitation every year. I see the resolution that was also signed by the Indonesian government may turn into simalakama fruit. If it is not implemented, Indonesia is breaking commitment, whereas on the other hand, numbers of water-related problems have continued to grow among the people, said Coordinator of Right to Water, Hamong Santono to Percik in Jakarta. According to Hamong, although it was widely recognized that water will become a source of conict in the future, Indonesia has not yet include water resources issues among main priorities of the development. This was proven by the highly polluted rivers in our country. In 1970s, there 22 heavily damaged rivers. Toward the end of 1990s, the number increased to 62. Last year, the number stands in 64. Tragically, in the past three decades, there hasnt any serious eort to recover the river. This matter is worsened by the growing yearly rate of deforestation. From the year 2000 up to 2005, deforestation of this country has reached the average of 1.089.560 hectare per year. Although Indonesia still has water surplus, deforestation will surely inuence water availability of several provinces, especially Java, Bali, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Kalimantan, and Sulawesi. It was armed by Hamong that this threat is worsened by the water resources infrastructure condition of this country that can no longer able to provide water supply for the people, either through private operator or PDAM. By 2009, PDAM has only covered 24 percent of the national households and many branch oces are experiencing money shortage.

34

Edisi III, 2010


Countrys budget allocation for water supply and sanitation has increased from approximately 3 trillion IDR to 4 trillion IDR (340 million USD to 450 million USD) per year, which is lower than governments allocation for electricity subsidy of 40 trillion IDR per year. Securing the peoples right to acquire water requires the country to play a bigger role. Indonesias willingness to obey the new UN resolution certainly has positive impact on the national water supply resources development. may open the way to policy initiative especially on water resources. This will not only represent a way to develop These countries c water resources infrastructure, but have shown that h h also an answer to the question asked water, as public by the people with greatest need. commodity, must Several countries have taken be well managed measures to fulll water requirement and protected, and of their people. South Africa, for the matter of water example, has performed a survey resources must on peoples expectation for the new always be handled government soon after the end of democratically. a apartheid. The survey shows that p people want the country to provide j jobs, build proper housing and im immediately provide water supply and san Numbers of Steps sanitation. Hamong armed that as a rst step, government Based on the survey, South Africa government has must have political willingness to fulll the peoples prepared a master plan in order to achieve the target. need on water supply and sanitation. This must be As the result, publics access to water supply has done by organizing public discussion and debate on reached 100 percent in urban areas and 80 percent in the technical aspect of water resources and the impact rural areas, according to the report of World Health on the peoples life. Organization in 2008. In Uruguay, the government has ev even changed the Constitution in 20 2004, giving higher priority to social co consideration in issuing policies of w water supply and sanitation. In another ex example, the city of Porto Alegre Brazil ha introduced a participative budget has sy system which includes water supply de development. These countries have sh shown that water, as public commodity, m be well managed and protected, must an the matter of water resources must and alw be handled democratically. always Susilo bambang Yudhoyono, Pr President has an important role in overcoming water problem in In Indonesia. All of us are watching and FOTO-FOTO: DOK PRI. w waiting. For the rest of his second and Debate on the future of our water resources must last oce days, Yudhoyono does not have any choice involves every community sectors because it is the rather than including water supply and sanitation matter of justice, especially for poor people in remote issues in countrys development priorities. Our areas in great needs of aordable water supply. future depends on him. Healthy debate plus government commitment

35 35

Interview
A Patra M Zen, YLBHI Director:

Human Right to Water Should Not Be Just another Sweet Jargon


einforcement of Human Right (HAM) has become the mandate of reformation that was established on 1998. Nevertheless, during 1998 until date, there are many claims that the eorts of enforcing human right, law and corruption eradication are still stagnant. Director of Indonesias Law Assistance Foundation (YLBHI) A. Patra M. Zen, a widely known name by law practitioners tried to answer numbers of problems in relation to Human Right (HAM) with regard to issuance of UN resolution on Right to Water sometime ago. Patra M Zen armed that law enforcement in Indonesia is still limited in sweet jargon, causing surplus of promises, and decit of proofs; which means, there are more promises of law enforcement than proof. That is why plenty of ministers have gained red assessment

in law and human right enforcement. For that reason, I really hope that the Indonesian government who has signed the resolution will implement the matter consistently, dont let human right be another sweet jargon of the ocials, said Patra. According to Patra, UNs Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ekosob) in its general comment No 15 has provided a clearer interpretation on section 11 and 12 of the Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, where right to water cannot be divided from other human rights. Right to water also includes freedom to manage access to water. The element of right to water must also be adequate for humans dignity, living, and health. Fulllment of right to water cannot be interpreted narrowly, limited only to the volume and technological quantity. Water must be treated as social and cultural asset, not just mere

36

ISTIMEWA

Edisi III, 2010


economic commodity. Water adequacy as prerequisite on key and strategic positions in state agencies, in fulllment of right to water, in any circumstances must completing their obligations in promoting, protecting, comply with the following factors: improving and fullling economic, social, and cultural 1. Availability. Which mean that water supply for rights in Indonesia. everyone must be adequate and sustainable for Also according to Patra, YLBHI since the beginning the need of individual and household. Quantity has recommended numbers of action programs which of water availability for everyone must refer to the are substantively and signicantly will bring major guidance in WHO. changes in the lives of law and Human Right, especially 2. Quality. Which mean that water supply for for poor, marginalized people and families of the anyone or any household must be safe, free of victims of Human Right violation. What kind of 100 microorganism, chemical and radiology elements days program that was expected by the people with which are hazardous for humans health. the above measures can be exemplied here. One, in 3. Accessible. Which mean that water supply along expansion and improvement of justice access for poor with its facilities and services must be accessible and marginalized people. The program of law assistance by anyone without discrimination. and development of the national law assistance system According to Patra, in order to supervise the right, should be priority program of this ministry, he said. it is necessary to maximize resources of advocacy, PBH Two, in the sector of human right, (among others) and YLBHI volunteers law assistance by allocating budget for law assistance for poor people, foundation in ghting for economic, issuing regulation of problem solution for the victim social, and cultural rights in this of Lapindo mud ow, including ratifying country. There are at least three things convention of migrant worker protection to be improved. One, promotion and providing law assistance for migrant Water adequacy worker abroad, then ratifying Rome Statute ade on principles, features and coverage as prerequisite limitation, including the denition of International Criminal Court, as well of fullling right on formulating and issuing ad hoc Human economic, social, and cultural rights. as to water, in any This in important, in practice to provide circumstances.. Right Court Presidential Decree of Missing Per the framework of policies and practice of Person case. fullling the peoples economic, social, Other recommendation that was me and cultural rights; mentioned by Patra also includes issuing Pre Two, in the scope of YLBHI-LBH main competence, Presidential Regulation of the Agrarian Ren it is necessary to further develop opportunities using Renewal National Committee (KNPA), di justice system beside administration and political recommending license revocation of HPH and HTI, mechanism- in order to fulll economic, social, and mining and oil and gas, as well as plantation that have cultural rights. In other words, it is important to caused social conict and Human Right violation as continue promoting economic, social, and cultural rights well as environmental damage, to issuing permanent as constitutional rights to be lawful right of the people, agencys regulation of Gender Mainstreaming Work especially in term of justiability of these rights. Group in the eld of education down to the level of Three, continuously we should practice positive kabupaten/kota. Government, according to Patra, can tradition: producing advance thoughts and ideas on also strengthened corruption eradication policies and the system of democracy country, law enforcement, regulations, (establishing) moratorium of urban poor human rights, and in general, ideas on people and community housing forced eviction, returning the lands humanity. The purpose of this activity is to support the that were owned by State-Owned Companies (BUMN) whole advocacy activities where YLBHI-LBH becomes to the people (for lands that were acquired by past the prominent critical and criticism center beside an methods that are against the law), as well as issuing advocacy foundation. regulation that guarantees fulllment of rights The advocacy target cannot only accomplished by and living of many (such as water, education, and current advocates, PBH, or LBH volunteers, but also health). by LBH alumni who are currently holding and sitting

37

Innovation

ately people often talk about water supply crisis, but their conversations are mostly around law, policy and management. How about the technology to overcome the crisis? An expert and researcher of Indonesias Science Institution (LIPI), Dr Anto Tri Sugiato has introduced an oxidation technology along with its use as an alternative solution to overcome the water supply crisis. This is not a new technology, nevertheless, it recently growing rapidly. Lately, the oxidation technology has started to be known as Advanced Oxidation Processes. This technology has also started to be developed and applied in many advance countries. Water Supply Crisis Currently in Indonesia, one of the most worrisome environmental problems is the crisis of water supply. Water crisis may be said to be the prominent problem compare to other environmental problems such as air pollution, deforestation and also forest re. The problem of water supply actually lies on the improper disposal of waste water from industrial activities as well as urban domestic waste water, worsened by the lack of eort to properly treat the waste water. Other than the problem of waste water, water supply crisis in Indonesia has also caused by direct exploitation of ground water as water sources

Oxidation Technology for Water Supply


for dierent industries among other is packaged water industry. Waste Water In a production process of an industry, in general, dierent materials were used in dierent kind and shape. However, the waste water treatment system is generally done collectively without any separation or dierentiation. In consequence, we will need a more sophisticated technology, which correlates with bigger fund and energy. Furthermore, current waste water treatment

DOK. PRI.

38

Edisi III, 2010


system is generally using combination of chlorine and systems of condensation, sedimentation, and ltration. While organic waste treatment is generally using microbiology, active carbon and membrane ltration. Lately, the disposed organic waste contains more organic materials which are dicult to be dissolved with only microbiology and membrane ltration, which made it highly hazardous for living creatures. From the brief explanation above, we can conclude that current waste water treatment is highly ineective. Therefore, we need to choose and sort existing waste water treatment so that we can apply the technology properly in accordance with the requirement level. Thus we need to know the following aspects, (1) substantial content of the waste water, (2) the eect of these substances if dispersed into the environment, (3) change and strength/resilience of the substance in the treatment process, (4) method/ technology that can clean or modify the specic substance, (5) accurate method/technology to clean/modify solid substance as the result of the treatment process, (6) such as the characteristic of the existing waste water treatment technology namely the type of material that can be dissolved, the expected water quality, maintenance cost, development cost, etc. Oxidation Technology At the moment, the oxidation technology or better known as Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) has gained signicant attention, due to the fact that this technology is able to dissolve and clean organic matters that were hard to be dissolved with microbiology or membrane ltration. Moreover, this technology is applicable not only to treat industrial waste water, but also to treat drinking water or clean water. AOPs technology is one or combination of several processes such as ozone, hydrogen peroxide,

ultraviolet light, titanium oxide, photo catalyst, sonolysis, electron beam, electrical discharges (plasma) and several other processes in order to generate hydroxyl radical (OH). OH is an active species that known to have high potential oxidation of 2.8 V, surpassing the ozone that only has potential oxidation of 2.07 V. This made OH easily react with other compounds around it. Today, combination method of ozone, hydrogen peroxide, and ultraviolet light is the most researched and experimented method to treat dierent waste water; followed by method of titanium oxide and fenton reaction. While other method such as sonolysis, electron beam also electrical charges are mostly still in experimental process. OH, in accordance with the name, is an active species with radical nature that easily reacts with any compound without exception. In water, OH reacts with the compounds around it. Reaction between OH and OH, as described above, is possible because OH easily reacts with anything, including OH itself, will create hydrogen peroxide. Time period of OH depends on the concentration. As example, for 1 M of OH concentration, the time period is 200 s. Application of AOPs The following is example of AOPs technology application, whereas other than the above, there are still plenty of other researches on this AOPs method. In Japan, since

39

Innovation

ISTIMEWA

implementation of law on dioxin and like substances (January 2001), waste water treatment is centered on waste water from solid waste incineration places (domestic and industrial). Dioxin is mostly generated as the result of inadequate solid waste incineration (especially plastic waste). It is important to know that almost 70 percent of solid waste in Japan was processed with incineration (Environmental Ministry, 1996). In order to dissolve the dioxin, AOPs method is widely used; among others are O3/UV and O3/H2O2. By using O2/UV, dioxin content can be dissolved up to 90 percent where the ultraviolet light come from a low-voltage mercury lights which were proved to be more eective than high-voltage mercury lights (Daito, 2000). The result of this research is comparison between the use of O3/ UV and O3/H2O2 where O3/UV is more eective in dissolving dioxin compounds with more Cl element; while O3/H2O2 is eective for dioxin compounds with lesser Cl element. Dierent example is waste water from dierent textile industries which contains lots of dye. On this case, we used UV/H2O2, Fenton Method, O3/UV, and TiO2/UV (Sugimoto, 2000). UV/H2O2 is found to be the most eective in dissolving /removing the dye. As for other industrial waste water other

than dye, we used methods of UV/H2O2, Fenton and O3/H2O2. In order to dissolve p-hydroxyphenilacetic acid that was mostly found in waste water of agriculture industries, combination of Fenton Method and ultraviolet is the most eective (Sarria, 2001). For waste water from the use of dierent medicines in agriculture eld, AOPs method is found to be highly eective, among other to dissolve atrazine substance, O3/H2O2, O3/UV and UV/H2O2 were used. Here, O3/H2O2 is found to be more eective than other methods (Acero, 2001). To dissolve the substance of 2-4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, UV/H2O2 (Alfano, 2001) was used. Simazine (Kruithof, 2000), and Trichloroethylene (Shiotani, 2001) can be dissolved close to 100 percent by using O3/H2O2. As to dissolve mono and trichloroacetic acid in drinking water, a combination of TiO2 ber and sunshine were used (Sun, 2000). For this waste water, combination method of ozone and hydrogen peroxide can be used (Fuchigami, 2000). This method is found to be eective in dissolving humic acid, endocrinedisrupting chemicals and other organic matters, which previously cannot be dissolved by activated sludge process. (Eko/LIPI.org)

40

Edisi III, 2010

Clay as an Eective Media in Clarifying the Muddy Peat Moss (Gambut) Water
DOK.FT-UGM

Yuliansa Eendy, Researcher of Engineering Post Graduate Program of Gajah Mada University

n daily activities, human is highly dependent on water, both for consumption purpose and for other water-related activities such as bathing, washing, agriculture, industry etc. In the book of Indonesias Environmental Status (SLHI) year 2008, based on the data from Indonesias Statistic year 2007, in national scale, water requirement of Indonesia has reached 9,03 billion M3, with the following water sources: 16,19% are using tap water (PAM), 57,97% are using ground water (with pump), 7,18% are using packaged water, 12,64% are spring water, 3,04% are using river water, 2,58% are using rain water, and the rest of 0,40% are using other sources. Governments eort through Water Supply Company (PDAM) in fullling water supply requirement in Indonesia has not yet reached the rural people in areas located further away from the water supply treatment installations; therefore, the people acquire water from water sources around them, such as river water, well water, lake water, rain water, and springs. However, those particular water have not necessarily met the quality standard that was established for water supply (Indonesias Health Ministry Regulation Permenkes- No 416/Menkes/ SK/IX/1990). Water quality can be inuenced by contamination, both from natural causes and due to the activities of humans or other living creatures. One of the water sources with less quality to be used as water supply is peat moss water. When observed from quantity point of view, peat moss water is available in abundance in areas with peat moss land. Gambut Kecamatan is one of the kecamatan in Banjar kabupaten with 129,30 hectare area that has potential peat moss land, where people in remote places are only using rain water and surface water.

41

Innovation

Front Look on the Water Treatment Installation


Test result in Gambut kecamatan, Banjar kabupaten of Kalimantan Selatan province has showed peat moss characteristic with quality above the allowable threshold, with 3,9 pH, 570 PtCo color, 13 NTU mg/lt turbidity, 60 mg/lt SO4, 2,37 mg/lt Fe, 0,07 mg/lt Mn, 0,31 mg/lt Zn, 280 mg/ lt KMnO4 organic matter, 21 mg/ lt CaCO3 hardness and 11 mg/ lt Cl. And when compare to the water supply quality standard (Permenkes RI No. 416/Menkes/ SK/IX/1990) with the same parameters, water should have pH of 6,5 9,0, 50 TCU color, 25 NTU turbidity, 400 mg/lt SO4, 10 mg/lt Na, 1.0 mg/lt Fe, 0.5 mg/lt Mn, 15 mg/lt Zn, 10 mg/lt KMnO4 organic matter, 500 mg/lt CaCO3 hardness, 600 mg/lt Cl. With the above comparison, it is obvious that peat moss water is not suitable for water supply. In order to use peat moss water, a peat moss water treatment is required to improve physical and chemical quality of the water to comply with the standard. Cheap and applicative technology along with local material utilization is highly required in the water supply treatment. With the method of coagulation-occulation-ltration using local coagulant

Cross-sectional Look on the Water Treatment Installation


m material such as podsolik clay, the simple yet eective technology si may m be adopted by local people. In overall, the use of podsolic clay cl will improve quality of peat moss water; although the use of m podsolic clay as coagulant has p showed correlation or unlinear sh relati re on. In the coagulation process, 7,5 g/l podsolic clay has p shown the best result. sh Stage Process Research was completed in the th city of Banjarmasin during December 2009 to January 2010. Water analysis was completed in the Environmental Sanitation Engineering Laboratory (BBTKL) of Kalimantan Selatan Province in Banjarmasin. The research was conducted in several stage processes, namely: Preliminary laboratory analysis on peat moss water prior to the treatment with water supply treatment equipments, as the basic data of peat moss water prior to analysis, includes parameters of Color, Turbidity, Organic Matter, Fe, Mn, and pH. Design and construction of individual scale water treatment equipment. Podsolic clay was taken from the depth of 1-2 meter or on B-C solum at Sei Ulin kelurahan, Banjarbaru City of Kalimantan Selatan Province. Clay

42

Edisi III, 2010


was dried by air and ltrated to the size of 0,002 0,2 mm. Peat Moss Water Treatment using Water Supply Treatment Equipment Then, what happened during the treatment process of peat moss water by the use of podsolic clay? A process of coagulation-occulation occurred creating destabilization and adsorption of the organic colloid causing change in reducing color score, increasing turbidity, reducing concentration of Fe and Mn, as well as increasing pH. Ca2+ and Al3+ is the binding agent. This can be seen through the following process. The color of peat moss water prior to the treatment is 1460 TCU, whereas after treatment with the clay in various dosages, the color parameter has been reduced to 410 TCU, 212 TCU, 108 TCU, 133 TCU and 216 TCU. Reduction of the peat moss water is caused by the positive content of Al3+ that was freed by the clay surface and binds the humat acid colloid as the cause of color in the peat moss water. These joint particles will then settle due to the mass increment of the clay particle, hence during this treatment process, water color has been reduced. In the next stage of ltration, color can be reduced signicantly. This can be seen through comparison of turbidity number before and after ltration. After ltration, turbidity number shows 247 TCU, 169 TCU, 21 TCU, 22 TCU, and 137 TCU. Filtration media of gravel and sand together with activated carbon can settle and adsorbed the oating particles. Of all the peat moss water treatment with podsolic clay coagulant, the one that qualies for color standard of water supply is the treatment of podsolic clay with the dosage of 2,5 g/l during ltration stage. The color shows 43 TCU where the standard is 50 TCU. Initial turbidity of the peat moss water is 8,02 NTU, which is still in compliance with the standard. Treatment of podsolic clay dosage of 0 g/l, 2,5 g/l, 5 g/l, 7,5 g/l and 10 g/l in the water have found to add the contaminant, shown by turbidity increment to 9,42 NTU, 11,65 NTU, 16,07 NTU, 24,37 NTU and 46,57 NTU. The bigger clay concentration, the more numbers of oating particles. In the ltration process, these oating particles will enter the small pores, thus particles bigger than the pore will be restrained and smaller particles will ow out with the water. This is shown by turbidity number of peat moss water on the ltration stage with dosage of 0 g/l, 2,5 g/l, 5 g/l, 7,5 g/l abd 10 g/l which are 2,36 NTU, 0,9 NTU, 1,28 NTU, 1,79 NTU, and 2,96 NTU. For turbidity on peat moss water treatment with podsolic clay coagulant, the one that complies with the standard is the 2,5 g/l podsolic treatment during ltration stage. Turbidity after the treatment is 0,9 NTU where the standard is 25 TCU. Organic matters in the peat moss water prior to the treatment was 338,1 mg/l KMnO4 and after the treatment has been reduced to 145,4 mg/l for 0 g/l podsolic clay, 26,5 mg/l for 2,5 g/l podsolic clay, 13,3 mg/l for 5 g/l podsolic clay, 9,2 mg/l for 7,5 g/l podsolic clay and 4,1 mg/l for 10 g/l podsolic clay. Organic matters in the peat moss water are oating in the water in the form of organic colloid. With treatment of clay and lime, there will be reaction between Al3+ and Ca2+ with clay particles that also have colloid nature and will create heavier and bigger mass which will
ILLUSTRASI DOK.FT-UGM

43

Innovation
then settle due to earth gravitation. When owing h g through ltration media t ltration media, these organic matters will be restrained by smaller pores and will be adsorbed by activated carbon, thus in this process, we will nd organic matter content of 27,2 mg/l for 0 g/l podsolic clay, 76,0 mg/l for 2,5 g/l podsolic clay, 15,5 mg/l for 5 g/l podsolic clay, 24,3 mg/l for 7,5 g/l podsolic clay and 23,7 mg/l for 10 g/l podsolic clay. Of all peat moss water treatment process with podsolic clay, the one that complies with the standard is the treatment of 2,5 g/l podsolic clay during ltration stage that will resulted in 7,6 mg/l KMnO4 whereas the standard of organic matter in water supply is 10 mg/l KMnO4. pH parameter is the deciding factor in determining other parameters. pH of peat moss water is considerably low in this research, with initial pH of 3,62. Lime treatment as xed variable of 250 mg/l plus podsolic clay treatment of 9 g/l, 2,5 g/l, 5 g/l, 7,5 g/l, and 10 g/l may increase pH to 8,93; 7,68; 7,1; 6,99; and 7,2. Other than treatment with lime (CaO) which has base nature, Al3+ content of podsolic clay will also help in neutralizing peat moss water from the inuence of humat and fulvat acids. After clay treatment during ltration process of 0 g/l, 2,5 g/l, 5 g/l, 7,5 g/l, and 10 g/l, pH is found to be 8,62; 7,26; 7,85; 8,67; and 7,29. All end result of pH after peat moss water treatment are in compliance with the pH standard of water supply with the span of 6,5 9.

Equipment Description
Description of household-scale peat moss water treatment equipment is as follows: A. Name of equipment: Household-scale Peat Moss Water Treatment Equiptment B. Function: Clarifying peat moss water with the method of household-scale coagulation-ltration. C. Material: 1. Plastic water tank of 50 liters capacity equipped with settlement draining faucet. 2. Electrical motor (sewing machine) of 50/60 Hz, 100 watt capacity as stirrer. 3. Small water pump (aquarium-scale) with 3 meter suction power. 4. Rell water gallon bottle of 19 liters capacity. 5. Pipe of 4 inch diameter size and 100 cm for ltration (from the bottom of the pipe: 30 cm gravel, 2,5 cm sponge, 60 cm sand and 2,5 cm lter sponge). Equipped with clean out diameter of 2 inch located on upper and lower part, and plug for dirt removal with diameter of inch. 6. 3 inch diameter and 80 cm long pipe containing 70 cm high activated carbon and lter sponge on the upper part. Equipped with 2 inch diameter clean out located on the upper and lower part. 7. Other accessories including 1 faucet, 4 inch and 3 inch diameter dope, 1 stop-faucet, outer and inner drat, inch pipe as water line connection. 8. Equipment support elbow steel frame of 173 cm height. D. Process Description Peat moss water treatment using water supply treatment equipment; close all faucets (faucet 1 and 2) and clean out (CO) removal plug (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5). Flow 50 liters peat moss water into coagulation tank, mixed with 250 mg/l lime and treated by the clay of 0 g/l, 2,5 g/l, 5 g/l, 7,5 g/l, and 10 g/l. Followed by rotor stirring with electrical motor in the coagulation tank for 10 minutes. The solution is then left alone for 45 minutes to settle the established ogs. Open removal plug 1 (CO1) to remove settlement and close it again. Pump water to the gallon bottle. When its full, open the faucet that th connects gallon and a ltering pipe. Wait for fo 10 minutes before opening faucet 2 where o clean water is collected. c Repeat the process to R increase volume. For in every peat moss water e treatment, faucet 1 can tr be b opened to remove sett se lement in the ltration pipe (pipe 1).

44

Different Side

Edisi III, 2010


Islam sariah. The project was launched among the high requirement of water supply in the world. Together with Gatehouse Bank an Islamic Bank that were based in England we become a competent and known partner in launching Islamic Finance Water Strategy, said Sander van Eijkern, the CEO of Sustainable Assets Management (SAM). The investment fund oered long-term loan for investors who work in the eld of water industry. What interesting is that the funding loan no longer uses interest system, but prot sharing. Islam does forbid usury. Therefore, there is no interest system in the loan granting. Moreover, nancial and banking system of sariah do not provide investment loan for industries that are forbidden in the eye of Islam, such as alcohol, gambling, pornography, and everything that relate with swine. Sariah investment fund is a strategy to attract investors interest in the water supply industry with long-term orientation by applying sariah economic principles, explain Eijkern as quoted by Islamonline. net. This agency targeted investor from Islamic agencies. According to him, SAM that has manage 1,5 billion of water investment fund will be the asset management. Meanwhile, Gatehouse will be the coating company which will guarantee the agreement that that particular investment will be managed with Islam sariah principles. Collaboration of the Islamic Finance W Water S Strategy has encouraged companies Fi to work in water supply provision eld through technology, product, and service for sariah-compliance water supply provision. This investment fund is aimed to help solve water crisis of the countries in the world. Based on the World Health Organization data, at the moment there are approximately 1,1 billion people in this world that ware living without proper water supply. Water investment fund, in accordance with the sariah is combination of nancial management and sariah economic. (eko)

Islam Sariah as Solution

here is no denial that at the moment, water supply crisis has threatened human civilization. Climate change due to the global warming has reduced water availability of the world. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has estimated that approximately 1,9 billion Asian and African people in the next several decades will experience water crisis. This means that human lives are at stakes. Water crisis is the peak of all social and natural crisis. Water is the most fundamental aspect of humans life on planet earth. Water availability has drastically declined into an unsustainable level. said UNESCO Directorate General, Koichiro Matsuura, on one occasion, last April. In the next two decades, water availability will decline into onethird of current availability. Growing damage on the environment has put all countries in jeopardy. There will be no part of this earth that will be safe from water crisis. Worlds food security will also be threatened. Among the worlds water crisis, dierent eorts are implemented in the eort of providing water supply for world population. Islam Sariah has turned out to be one important solution in providing water supply. It was a consortium company of England and Switzerland ags that has tried to use Islam sariah to answer the water crisis. For the rst time, the consortium has launched investment fund of water supply provision that was based on the principle of

45

Reportage

Public Dialogue of Beware of the Water Conict

Water Conict Needs to be Anticipated by the Local Government

public dialogue with the title of Beware of the Drinking Water Conict was held on the Environmental Engineering Faculty of Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), last September. Numbers of experts attended the dialogue that was held in ITB Salman Mosque Multifunction Hall have assessed that local governments need to anticipate conict that may be caused by drinking water because water crisis will be a growing trend in Indonesia in the coming years. Key note speaker in the dialogue, Indrayanto Susilo from Indonesias Law Assistance Foundation (YLBHI) has armed that future problem of water supply requires serious attention because it may cause vertical and horizontal conicts. Right-based development is a conceptual framework for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSES) developments in the region that was based on the bill

of rights international standard which implementation promotes and protects the human rights. According to Indrayanto, local governments need to better see the approach that was based on right to water as a human right that was integrated in norms, standards and principles in the national and international law system of human rights in the planning, policy and development process in the region (at local level). Right-based development also includes equality and justice, accountability, empowerment and participation. Indonesias Condition Indonesia through Law No 11 Year 2005 has ratied International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, and thus Indonesia has an obligation to formally apply the covenant along with the supporting documents. With regard to right to water, in accordance with UN general ISTIMEWA comment No 15, Indonesia is obligated to respect, protect, and fulll right to water, whereas the policy that specically regulates the matter is Law No 7 Year 2004 on Water Resources. Section 5 of Law No 7 on Water Resources stated that the country guarantees the right of everyone to acquire water for their minimal daily activities in order to achieve healthy, clean and productive living. With this stipulation, the country is obligated to conduct every eort to guarantee water availability for everyone who lives in Indonesia Republic Unitary State. The guarantee has become common

46

Edisi III, 2010


on the other side is the need responsibility between central to protect everyones access to and local governments, acquire water. including guarantee access Law No 11 Year 2005 of everyone to water source and Law No 7 Year 2004 on in order to acquire water. Water Resources along with Countrys obligation to the operational regulations guarantee right to water is are further description on limited only to minimal the concept of national-level daily requirement of right to water. Although water. Limitation of right the normative level is quite fulllment guarantee is complete, but conicts against UN general comment on water resources in the No 15 which stated that community is an undeniable fulllment or right to water reality. cannot be interpreted ISTIMEWA Water in the history of hunarrowly, only on the volume man kind has taken central position and represents quantity and technology. guarantee on continuity of the human lives on the face Next in section 6 it was stated that water resources of the earth. Water as a mandate and gift from The is govern by the country and utilized as much for Creator for us to use must be preserved for the sake of prosperity of the people. Further explanation on right humans lives itself. Thus, management and governance to water in Law No 7 Year 2004 said that people have as well as ownership of water sources should also be a the right to acquire information of water resources joint eort. Looking at the importance of water for the management. life and continuity of human, and also awareness that Moreover, people also have the water will forever be public asset, it must be managed right to adequate compensation on together. the detriment due to water resources Water relates with ones right to live, management implementation, this it cannot be apart from the framegain benet of the water resources Water relates management; and submit protest on with ones right to work of human rights. Water entitlement as human right indicated two things; on water resources management plan that live, thus it cannot one side is entitlement on the fact that has been announced during certain be apart from period of time accordingly with local the framework of water is very fundamental for human life, human rights. on the other side is the need to protect condition. everyones access to acquire water. Furthermore, people may submit In order to protect the right, right to report and complaint to the authority water needs to be promoted to the highon their detriment that was caused w est right in the eld of law which is human by water resources management implementation; right. The problem is then, what is the submit suit to the court on dierent water resources righ countrys positi in relation to water as public or soposition detriment issues that has aected their lives, said cial asset that has been entitled as part of human rights. Indrayanto. Such as other human rights, the countrys position While other speaker in the dialogue, Imran with regard to the obligation that was caused by Hasibuan said that water relates with ones right to live, thus water cannot be divided from the framework human rights is that the country must respect, protect, and fulll it, said Imran Hasudungan of human rights. Water entitlement as human right from Green Peace Indonesia. (eko) indicated two things; on one side is entitlement on the fact that water is very fundamental for human life,

47

Reportage

W Workshop of Jawa Tengahs Province WSES Developments Consolidation and Synergy


POKJA

aw No 32 Year 2004 on Local Governance implicitly mandated that Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSES) sector is one of regionals obligation (Section 14 verse (1)). Next, the Indonesian Government established goals of Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation National Development as decanted in RPJMN year 2004-2009 which in reality have not been able to achieved and remain targeted in RPJMN 2010-2014, among which is drinking water access availability for 70 percent population by the end of 2014 (32% piping and 38% non-piping), achieving condition of no open defecation (BABS) by 2014, access availability to solid waste management for 80 percent households, puddle area decline of 22.500 Ha at 100 urban strategic areas. In the eort of achieving the above targets, the following are several WSES programs that have been completed as well as ongoing programs in Jawa Tengah province, namely PAMSIMAS, Sanimas, Drinking Water DAK and Sanitation DAK, Settlement Sanitation Acceleration Program (PPSP), STBM (Plan Indonesia) and programs that were funded by Provincial and Kabupaten APBD. For that reason, consolidation and synergy eorts are required to ensure that all programs are heading to one direction and contribute to WSES development performance in achieving the national target. WSES Working Group of Jawa Tengah province as coordination agent of WSES development is expected to take role in synergizing WSES programs. On 19-21October

2010, a Workshop of Jawa Tengah Province WSES Development Consolidation and Synergy was held at Gumaya Tower Hotel Semarang. The workshop was attended by 85 participants from the elements of Provincial WSES Working Group, Kabupaten/ Kota WSES Working Group, WSES-related projects (PAMSIMAS, PPSP, and PNPM), LSM (Plan Indonesia) and provincial relevant legislative elements. In her speech, Maraita Listyasari representing Bappenas Housing and Settlement Director explained that workshops such as this are very important also for Central Government along with the eort to achieve MDGs target. There have been plenty eorts of both Central and Local Government in relation with WSES. Both physical and non-physical eorts are expected to synergize as one of the eort in fullling peoples requirement, especially in relation to Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSES). Speaking of WSES, there are lots of people without access to water supply and basic sanitation in order to fulll their basic needs. This condition reected imbalance and thus must be restrained to not causing social jealousy. Other facts have showed that some people still suers from diseases that were caused by poor sanitation access, such as diarrhea, malaria. These conditions highly inuence Human Development Index (IPM). Diarrhea can be reduced as such, one of which is by water supply and basic sanitation services. The current data shows that plenty people are still practicing open defecation on rivers or other drainage sources that were used by the people for their daily activities. There are also water supply and sanitation facilities that have not been optimized. The lack of water supply and sanitation access will aect other aspects; such as gender role where the above condition will harden womens task. That being said, negative eect of water supply and basic sanitation also relates with Clean and Healthy Lifestyle. Therefore, Provincial Government of Jawa Tengah is joining hands to overcome the problems.

48

Edisi III, 2010 HCTPS Workshop for Elementary School Teachers of DKI Jakarta

Only Three Percent of Population are Washing Hands with Soap


artist. The seminar was attended by 100 teachers of elementary school and madrasah in DKI Jakarta. In her presentation, dr Lily S Sulistyowati said that the result of global research is the fact that washing hands with soap may reduce diarrhea case up to 47 percent. This is important because every year there is still diarrhea or muntaber (vomiting and diarrhea) outbreak causing casualties. Unicef reported that every second, one child died because of diarrhea. POKJA Health Service Program survey (2006) shows that soaps are available in almost every household in Indonesia; however, only three percent are using soap to wash their hands. Of all respondents, only 12 percent wash their hands after defecation, 9 percent after cleaning babys feces, 14 percent before they eat, 7 percent before feeding their babies, and 6 percent before cooking. The eort to campaign the importance of washing hands with soap has continued to be encouraged. This year, exactly on October 15th 2010, more than 70 countries commemorate Worlds Washing Hands with Soap. This commemoration is initiated by UN encouragement to improve hygiene and sanitation practices of the people around the world. Meanwhile, child psikolog, Seto Mulyadi on this occasion armed that developing habit of washing Unfortunately, only three percent of Indonesian hands with soap means teaching children and the people that have realized this and developed habit whole family about healthy lifestyle since the early to wash hands with soap, said Director of Direct stage. Clean and healthy lifestyle will be strongly xed Infectious Disease Eradication of the Health Ministry, in the mind of children and other family members. Dr HM Subuh, MPPM when opening seminar and Considering that this activity is an eort to workshop of commemorating the 3rd Worlds Wash empower community to live healthily, naturally it Hands with Soap Day. should be supported and noted. For that reason, active One of the speakers in the seminar is Head of participation of the people is expected to implement Health Promotion Center, dr Lily S Sulistyowati, small steps in practicing PHBS so that Indonesias Director of Environmental Sanitation, drh Wilfried children can live a healthier life. Hasiholan Purba and Head of Child Protection Meanwhile, a research of Cochrane National Committee and Psikolog, Dr Seto Mulyadi. Library Journal 2007 The event was hosted by dr Lula Kamal who is also an ashing hands with soap under running water is one of the points of clean and healthy lifestyle (PHBS) that was established by the government through the Health Ministry. This easy and cheap eort is able to avoided people from numbers of infectious diseases that can directly inuence human body such as cholera, typhoid, until bird u.

49

Reportage
has found that, washing hands with soap is a simple and cheap way to prevent Respiratory Tract Infection (ISPA) and u pandemic viruses. Study on 51 researches in England that was published in the British Medical Journal 2007 has armed the matter. It is said that washing hands is more eective than medicine and vaccine to stop the u. Although washing hands with soap has been practiced by many people, only few practice it during important times, such as after using toilet, after cleaning babys feces, and before handling food. Washing hands with soap and water especially during important times, namely after defecation and before handling food, helps to reduce the risk of diarrhea up to more than 40 percent and of respiratory tract infection up to 25 percent, said the Head of Unicef Representative for Indonesia, Angela Kearney. According to the Words Children Situation report in 2009 that was issued by Unicef, only half of Indonesian people in the rural areas have access to proper sanitation; even only one third of the total population thus making them vulnerable to diarrhea and other water-related diseases. Various surveys have found that the habit of washing hands with soap among the Indonesian people is still considerably low. Indonesia is one of 85 countries who practice washing hands with soap simultaneously that day; with the theme of Clean Hands Save Lives. According to the plan, various events will be held in campaigning washing hands with soap day (HCTPS) by mobilizing thousand of children in Indonesia. Children are considered to be a very important agent of change in Indonesia. Other than being more open to new ideas, children can also bear eective message to their family and the surrounding neighborhood. EKO

Water Politic
Should be the Attention of the Local Government
rinking water crisis is currently happening. predicted that approximately 2,7 billion people or In most regions, people are having about one third of worlds population will experience diculty in acquiring drinking water, water shortage in a very bad level. eventually, using inconsumable water have become Drinking water is one of the most important the last option. It is estimated that this problem requirements of humans life continuity. Thus, it will continue to happen without serious eorts to should be well protected for the sake of peoples overcome it. The question is, will basic need fulllment. The world must put serious this be worsened by time? eort in overcoming it. The warning to drinking water Indonesia is not immune to the same problem. crisis is not an exaggeration. It was even predicted that some of our Before, experts have predicted provinces will experience great water . Drinking water crisis by 2015. The cause is decreasing Drinkin that the world has come to the management by critical stage in fullling drinking drinking water sources. Next, quality local government is also decline. The problem will be water requirement. The world is in must maturely drinking water crisis. It was even worsened if not handled as early as develop healthy estimated that one of four people water politic in possible, said Hamong Santono from in the world is lacking drinking Peoples Coalition of Right to Water Indonesia. t water and one of three are without that was held by Sinar Harapan Daily in J proper sanitation facilities. Jakarta, early October. During the Once again, matters related with the live year 2010 it was lives of many people should be seriously

50 0

Edisi III, 2010

ISTIMEWA

referred to by the government in every policy. Water is a vital requirement in life, including peoples; which means that water is the main component in fullling peoples lives. Therefore, fulllment of water requirement is part of Human Right fulllment. Furthermore, water aordability and adequacy must include distribution equality and guaranteed quality. It was in this context, continued Hamong, that people put their expectation on the government and local water companies (PDAM) to diligently manage drinking water provision for the people. However, this task cannot only be the burden and responsibility of the people along with related institutions. We all must take part in it. Government needs to organize regulation that will put drinking water management into order. At the same time, there must also be protection on drinking water sources. Distribution lines must also be protected and properly organized. It is for that reason that drinking water management by local government must maturely develop healthy water politic in Indonesia. Next is how to implement the water politic in dierent sets of regulation in Indonesia. For example, regarding deforestation that will cause declining volume of springs. The campaign of saving the use of drinking

water also needs to be reinforced. With regard to the matter, macro and operational policies of drinking water management combine with production and distribution systems development have become an absolute. The ability to produce drinking water especially through product quality improvement supported by sophisticated technology and qualied institution must be thoroughly noted. Improvement in both volume and type of water supply is needed, because of the growing numbers of population, income increment, health awareness increment, and globalization inuence that will become an unbreakable chain of human lives. At the same time, competition in using water sources land and principle of comparative advantages has continued to centralized and limited. This has made water provision solution as an urgent matter. We must arise. Swift movement is necessary to save us from drinking water crisis, said Hamong. MDGs and Water Supply Access Meanwhile, ITBs environmental senior lecturer, Dr TP Damanhuri has armed that according to MDGs main agenda, the signing of Millennium Declaration is the form of armation and commitment

51

Reportage
of world leaders in eradica f eradicating poverty, including condition. We often forgot that poverty eradication water supply problems O eight Millennium problems. Of that poses as the main agenda of MDGs is often Declaration goals, the one that closely related with does not related to infrastructure existence, whereas this years HAD is point seven which is guaranteeing the two are closely related. Slow infrastructure environmental support. development will cause slow MDGs agenda There are three main targets of the seventh goal. achievement. Plenty of people will not be able to go One, integrating sustainable development principles to health clinics when the road is badly damaged. and reducing the lost of environmental resources. The eort to reduce mortality rate of mothers and Two, reducing half of population without access children will be dicult to achieve without the to the water supply by 2015. Three, achieving support of proper sanitation and access to water signicant development in the lives of at least 100 supply. million people who are living in slump areas by 2020. The problem of emission reduction must also Authority Harmonization be an agenda in this seventh goal. Water is the source of life in this world. Humans The problem is can the target of healthy water life quality is highly dependent on water quality. supply access provision be achieved? It Good water quality may support healthy ecosystem surely an easy question to answer. Even which eventually improve human health. On after committing to MDGs goals, the contrary, poor water quality will also highly achieving the target of reducing environment and the human health. half of population without access to Therefore, along with the growing threat proper water supply and sanitation 1 1 billi 1,1 billion world to water quality, since 1992 UN has by 2015 seem to be very hard, population are established Worlds Water Day (HAD) he said. Even with improvement without access to on March 22nd. HAD was established to encourage and improve awareness in target achievement, most of water supply. and regard to the collective eort of all Indonesia population remains com components of the country and even the untouched by water supply. As much wo to work together in utilizing and world as 1,1 billion world population pre preserving water resources sustainably. are without access to protected water supply and For Public Work Ministry, HAD more than 2,6 billion are without access to proper i commemoration should be a prefect moment to sanitation. improve water supply provision for the people. As for Indonesia, the same condition can be found. The problem is that until date, environmental For that reason, Public Work Ministry has done recent eorts toward improvement. For example, decrement is faster and more often compare to with regard to the river management that can no the rehabilitation eort. We need 10-15 years to longer be done fractionally, but integrally and replant barren forests while every hour logging and comprehensively. Cipta Karya Directorate General deforestation have continued to seized. has even intensively facilitates peoples eorts in River pollution due to household and industrial water supply access provisions. waste also happens more often. Every day, two tons However, this is not enough. Public Work Minisof solid waste and other waste being disposed into try must be the fore ministry in developing sustainthe water, not to mention, higher urban intensity able water management policies. For that regard, in comparison with citys capacity in supporting the one of the urgent steps to be done is harmonizing people. The consequence is slump areas that cannot authorities of several government institutions, such be managed immediately. as Public Work Ministry, Domestic Aair Ministry, Access to water supply also often restrained by poor road Health Ministry, and Bappenas. (Eko)

52

Edisi III, 2010

Synergy between

WSES Network and GBCI


n Monday, October 4th 2010, a dialogue meeting between Green Building Council Indonesia (GBCI) and WSES Network was held in SS-1 Bappenas meeting room with the theme of Discussion on Synergy between WSES Network and GBCI. The discussion was commenced by Syarif Puradimadja, representative of WSES Network and Ibu Nani as representative of GBCI. This activity was completed through presentations from several speakers as stakeholders of Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation sector. First presentation time was given to Ir. Ignesjz Kemalawarta MBA as the Director of PT Bumi Serpong Damai/ Head of Education-Training Board of DPP REI with the topic of Green Property POKJA Development in Reference to GBCIs Greenship Rating and its relation to Water Supply and Sanitation. He explained that implementation of green building concept in property development through stages of planning, construction and operation of building/environment will have the role in reducing global warming/earth decline. Several notes from the property sector among others are: CO2 emission contribution of construction sector is higher than industry and transportation. Energy consumption in construction is 30-40%. Eorts must be done in the sector of construction/property to reduce global warming and avoid further damage of the earth. Thus, paradigm change in property development is required from Quality-Time-Cost (Pattern of Three) pattern to the new pattern of Quality-Time-CostHealthy and Save-Environment/Sustainable (Pattern of Five). One of the methods in achieving the target is by applying 8 (eight) greenship rating as development reference by using the concept of green building, which are: selection and design site; building design; building specication; mechanical-electrical design; mechanical-electrical specication; work plan and contractor qualication; property/estate management; and additional eort (new building-existing buildinginhabitated building-housing area).

The next hot topic is Basic Principles and Governor Regulation Draft (Rapergub) of Environmentalfriendly Buildings that was presented by representative of Building Disciplinary and Supervising Agency (Dinas Pengawasan dan Penertiban Bangunan) DKI Jakarta. Basically, there is no basic regulation on Criteria and Certication of Environmental-friendly Buildings, however, there are several criteria that was adopted in the Rapergub both for existing buildings and new (planned) buildings. The criteria includes: building management during construction period, land utilization, electrical energy utilization, water utilization and conservation, as well as air quality and room convenience for new buildings. While

for existing building the criteria includes: building management during operational period, electrical energy utilization, water utilization and conservation, as well as air quality and room convenience. He further explains the relation between permitting in the government and green building certication, where governor regulation should be mandatory and must be obligated by the regulated parties, green building is voluntary. The target of Governor Regulation will be implemented in accordance with the criteria of ooring area and numbers of building that will be the object of implementation. Until today, discussion is still ongoing regarding the Rapergub. Other important presentation was presented by representative of PT Surya Toto Indonesia as business world representative. Innovations have continued to be made yearly by business world regarding water consumption for toilet ush using smaller amount of water. The same also done for other products such as faucets, showers, and shower spray. (Adhit)

53

Guidance
ltration method can provide better result than the techniques above. Such as muslin cloth ltration, cotton ltration can also remove small dirt and organism in the muddy water. End result of the ltration also depends on the thickness and density of the cotton. 3. Aeration Aeration is a clarifying process by lling oxygen into the water. By lling oxygen into the water, substances such as dioxide carbon and hydrogen sulde and methane causing taste and odor of water can be removed or reduced. Moreover, dissolved mineral particles such as ferric and manganese will be oxidized and immediately form settlement layers that can be remove with sedimentation or ltration process. 4. Slow Sand Filtration (SPL) Slow sand ltration is a water lter that was made using sand layers on the upper part and gravel on the bottom part. Clean water is obtained by ltering raw water through sand layers and gravels. For further information, read article on Slow Sand Filtration (SPL). 5. Quick Sand Filtration (SPC) Quick sand ltration as slow sand ltration consists of upper layer of sand and bottom layer of gravel. However, the course of the water is reversed from bottom (up ow). Clean water can be obtained by ltering raw water through gravel rst and then through sand. Further information can be found in the article of Quick Sand Filtration (SPC). 6. Gravity-Fed Filtering System Gravity Fe Filtering System is the Gravity-Fed combination between Quick Sand Filtration (SPC) and Slow Sand Filtration (SP (SPL). Clean water is obtained through w two stages. F First, water is ltrated using Quick Sand Filtration (SPC). The ltrated F water is then being ltered again by using Slow Sand Filtration. By the use of Sa two lters, it is expected that the end ltra result of ltrated water can be better. To anticipate ltrated water debit from Quick Sand Filtration, more than one (multi) Slow Sand Filtration systems can be used.

Technologies to Acquire Water Supply

ater is the source of life. We often hear that earth is called blue planet because water is covering of earths surface. We also often hear diculties in acquiring water supply, especially during drought season where well water has changed color or odor. Ironically, that is the fact. One thing for sure, we must remain optimistic; even when well water or other water sources have turned muddy, dirty, or smelly, as long as quantity remains, we can still try to change/clarify the dirty/ muddy water into consumable water supply. There are plenty simple methods that we can use to acquire clean water, and the easiest and most common way to do that is by making water lters, and for us, the best method is making water clarier or simple water lter. It is important to note that simple water ltration system will not be able to fully remove the dissolved salt. Use simple distillation to acquire water without salt content. My advice, before you purchase hundreds of thousands even million rupiah equipments, try this simple alternative ways to obtain clean water using water lter/ltration: 1. Cotton/Muslin Cloth Filter Cotton cloth lter is easiest/ simplest ltration technique. Muddy water is ltrated using clean cotton cloth. This lter can remove small dirt and organism in the muddy water. Filtrated water depends on the thickness and density of the cloth. 2. Cotton Filter This water

54

Info CD
Water Requirement: Funding Solution through Micro Credit This VCD was made by Imaji Bumi Productio, in the year 2010 and was published by ESP UsAid. This micro credit documentary DVD comprises of 3 versions. One, 20 minutes duration KMSA toolkit version, for the purpose of KMSA promotion and inspiring decision maker stakeholders such as PDAM, Water Supply Private Providers, Bank, Funding Agencies, Micro Financial Agencies (LKM) and Local Government Ocials such as Mayors, Bupati, DPRD. Two, 20 minutes duration of KMSA community version, for the purpose of promotion and inspiring water users especially that come from low income communities for PDAM water service. And three, 5 minutes duration of the other two versions excerpts. This micro credit do documentary DVD can ca also downloaded th through the ESP w website: www.esp.or.id

Edisi III, 2010

Video of Municipal Sanitation Strategy Promotion This DVD contains Municipal Sanitation Strategies of Denpasar, Yogyakarta, Blitar, Payakumbuh, Medan, and Bali. This DVD was made in the year 2010 by Sanitation Development Technical Team (TTPS) with 37 minutes duration. It was said in this DVD that healthy and clean city is everybodys dream; however, not all city able to realize it. op per Some chose improper sal, solid waste disposal, open defecation or defecation on unsuitable toilets, thus encouraged further contamination.

Best Practices of Solid Waste Management in Indonesia In the framework of implementing Regional Initiative of Environment and Health in Indonesia, several best practices have been identied. Best practices are identied especially with regard to community based solid waste management in household, neighborhood, and city scales. Some of the successes are: solid waste management at Sukunan village of Sleman Kabupaten, solid waste sorting in Sragen Kabupaten, solid waste composting compostin in Cibangkong n kelura ahan, kelurahan, Bandung and inte egrat integrated solid waste m mana management in SMAN Jakarta. This VCD 13 Ja is th soft copy of the the book titled Best Prac ces of Solid Practi Was Management in Waste Indonesia. Published by Indon Cip K pta Cipta Karya Directorate Gene i the year 2010. eral General in

VCD, nature preservation, sons, environmental brieng, environmental song album with 12 water-theme songs. Water source of living, green the forest no contaminate are some of the songs that was packaged in popular arrangement and easy to listen. Message of the brieng is valued the water as a gift from God is one verse a song in this Second Volume of Se Environmental Songs En Alb Album that was pu published by Malang Jas Jasa Tirta I Public Co Company. This VCD is also environmental br brieng program and lim limited to internal pu purpose.

55

Book Info
Pocket Book of PAMRT (Household Water Supply Management) Monitoring and Evaluation Publisher: USAID, Jakarta Year 2010. Number of pages: 25 pages.

NUSSP Best Practices Encourage Empowerment in Solving the Problem of City Slump Areas: Toward City without Slump Areas. Written by Hendarko Rudi Susanto, Published by NMC (National Management Consultant) NUSSP, Public Work Department, Jakarta Year 2009, 81 pages

responsible human behavior. Human is the main cause of environmental degradation and contamination. Basically, environment is not mere technical issues; however the practice needs to be based by ethics and moral. This is why environment ethic is necessary to fortify human moral. This book elucidates the problems of environmental ethic, including the concept of anthropocentrism, biocentrism, ecocentrism, natures right, including its relation with the traditional wisdom in managing environment. Healthy and Prosperous Life with Qualied Water Supply and Sanitation Pamsimas Writer: S. Bellafolijani Adimihardja Published year: 2009 Publisher: Jakarta, Directorate General of Cipta Karya, Public Work Department Number of pages: 60 pages

Monitoring and evaluation is a crucial part of a program in providing input of the change, such as inconsistency with the plan or when change is required in the eld. It is true that program plan is the implementation guidance in the eld, but it does not mean that it cannot be latter adjusted in the future when the circumstance demands. Monitoring and evaluation is one way to detect whether program plan needs to be modied or not. Monitoring and evaluation (monev) is a solution to the programs problem, but rather a tool that can be used to nd solution. Monitoring is routine data collection and analysis during ongoing program, to improve eciency and eectiveness of a program, based on the planned target and activities, whereas evaluation is comparison between program achievement and the plan. Monev activity was initiated by description of the purpose of the program why it was designed and what to be achieved into program achievement. This pocket book contains important matters regarding monitoring and evaluation of PAMRT, including background, denition, concept, procedure, tools, and matrix up to example of monitoring and evaluation page for water supply management behavior in the household.

Holding a large mandate from stakeholders, NUSSP has applied numbers of programs as real eort to answer various problems. There are at least three activity components as the main base of NUSSP, which all ended in empowerment and paradigm change of the people in order to achieve a more prosperous living. This book represents pieces of success story of NUSSP in dierent regions. Some are about the success of women empowerment in the thick pocket of gender equality. While other story is about infrastructure improvements that have brought real impacts on prosperity and public economy improvement with regard to public campaign of community behavior change toward livable housing environment. Environmental Ethic Writer: A Sonny Keraf, Publisher: Kompas Gramedia, Jakarta, Year 2010. Number of pages 425 pages

E i t i th Environment is the responsibility of everyone in this planet. How is it then, that many people are still ignoring even damaging the environment? Dierent cases of contamination and degradation of ocean, forest, atmosphere, water, land, have continued to increase. This represents ir-

Pamsimas is an activity of water supply and sanitation that was aimed to low income people in rural and peri-urban areas through community empowerment. Implementation of Pamsimas Program has been initiated on mid 2008. At the moment, Pamsimas has entered the second year implementation. Result of Pamsimas is additional access to water supply that can be enjoyed by most people in villages/kelurahan that were targeted by the program. Along with this achievement, there is the need to documented results of Pamsimas. This book was meant as one of the eorts to document and record results of Pamsimas activity. This book presents general information of background and general depiction of Pamsimas Program. This book is also completed with illustrations of pictures and photographs of past activities. This book is made to be media kits, and expected to be general information guide for those who require further information on Pamsimas.

56

Site Info
Woman Human Right Net (WHRNet) www.whrnet.org/docs/issue-water.html In this site, readers can ob obtain information re regarding Women and water Privatization. It w was explicitly explained w the background of the th articles, the relation with ar human rights plus other hu i website address that can support information on the article. The site that belongs to WHRNt, a project managed by Association for Womens Right in Development (AWID).

Edisi III, 2010


UN-Secretary Generals Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation www.unsgab.org In this site, visito tor can obtain va various large nu numbers public lications with re regard to water an and sanitation in the form of PD PDF and Word. This site is Board owned by UNSG Advisory Board, an indep independent board which function is to: Provide advice to UN secretary general Provide input in the process of global dialogue Improve global awareness through mass media Inuence and work in global, regional, and national institutions at the highest level Establish steps to achieve MDGs.

The Water Quality Information Center (WQIC) www.nal.usda.gov/wqic In this site we can nd electronic publications el database containing d 1.800 online documents 1 of water and agriculo ture. We can also nd tu Bibliographies, which is B bibliography that consists b of f f four edition comprising 2 400 quotes. CEAP Biblidi i i i 2.400 ography is a program to support Conservation Eects Assessment Project, a project that studies the eect of environmental conservation in various conservation programs by The United State Department of Agricultures (USDA). Resource guide on wetland can also be found here. The Water Quality Information Center (WQIC) that was established in 1990 was developed to support USDAs plans in monitoring the issue of water quality. WQIC has an important function for USDA to collect, organize and communicate scientic ndings, education methodology, and public policies surrounding water resources and agriculture.

UN-Water www.un.org/waterforlifedecade This site was cr created to mark on one decade of w water supply pr provision by UN fo for the worlds po population. Here vi visitors can nd w water-supply More and sanitation related information. Moreover, there is also site for students regarding water management in the Education and Youth link. UN-Water is a cross organization of UN that promotes, coherence, and coordinates implementation of Millennium Declaration and The World Summit on Sustainable Development in relation to UN-Water scope of work.

57

WSES Literatures
Reports
Evaluation Report of Three Years RPJMN 20042009 Implementation: Together Organizing Change. Published by National Development Planning Ministry. Year 2010, of 607 pages.

Magazine
Water Supply Magazine August 2010 A Smart Perspective is Needed in Dealing with Water Decit.

Gaung RW Siaga Plus+ 1st Edition/June 2010 Welcome to RW Siaga Plus+!

Guidance
Guidance to CommunityBased Sanitation Facilitator Trainings for 2010 Special Allocation on Regional Level of Kalimantan

P Percik 1st Edition, 2010 N Nursing WSES PIN

Leaet
Institute for Integrated Economic and Social Development Year 2010 (BEST)

St d Study
Case Study: Community Based Sanitation in Kota Batu, Jawa Timur, Year 2010.

2010 Handbook of Local Development and Governance (Local Economy Strengthening: Steps to overcome Global Financial Crisis)

wan Bulletin Dewan Bulletin of Water Resources Edition MarchMay 2010 6 Easy Ways to Obtain Healthy Drinking Water for the Family. Made in the year 2010 by USAID and the Health Ministry

Newsletter l Direction
Soap Stories and Toilet Tales Year 2010 Community Based WSES Strategic Plan Year 2010-2015 of Bangka Kabupaten WSES Newsletter, July edition of 2010

Poster
Save Water + Save Energy = Better Life

5 58

Facts

Edisi III, 2010


is growing almost 80 million lives per year, and 90 percent of it (approximately 72 million) occurred in developing countries. Worlds water requirement has grown into 64 billion million cubic meters per year. This number is equal to water requirement of all of Egypts countries for a year. In the past 50 years, utilization of water from river, lake, and the ground has increased 3 times, to fulll requirement of population growth. In average, 70 percent of the water is being used for agricultural purposes. In developing countries, water requirement for agriculture has even reached 90 percent. Environmental degradation due to humongous population growth has cost us billions of US dollar. Environmental degradation in North Africa and Middle East, as areas with the worst environmental degradation has cost 9 billion USD per year. This

160 Billion USD Investment is Required to Prevent World Water Crisis


o prevent, or at least reduce the possibility of worlds water disaster, it was estimated that an extraordinaire investment is required to improve water management, sanitation management and irrigation. Every year, 100-150 billion USD investment is required to prevent worst water crisis in 2050. This number will grow with slow real eort in overcoming this crisis. 348 pages UN report gave us dingy perspective on environmental condition especially on water availability in the year 2050. The report was prepared by a team based on compilation of 24 UN agencies/organizations. Poor countries will be faced with worrisome problems. Dierent current crisis, have added burdens of developing countries. Water crisis is closely related to the crisis of climate change, energy, food, population growth, and global nancial, thus reported by the UN. If world population does not perform any signicant actions, the crisis will become a multidimensional crisis of politic. It is also possible that the crisis will become an inter-country territorial crisis. Water conict, is only one of the threads, especially for countries with collective use of water board, such as Africa, Asia, Eropa, or Latin America. Population growth is one of the most worrisome factors. In 2000, world population has reached 6 billion lives. The number has increased to 6,5 billion at the moment. In 2050, world population is estimated to be 9 billion lives. The highest population growth occurs mostly in poor countries. Based on that report, high population growth has given tremendous pressure on water sources, especially in developing countries. World population

ISTIMEWA

number is almost equal to 2,1-2,7 percent of Gross Domestic Product of the area. This is a tremendously large numbers. Water crisis is worsened by the climate change. With the high tendency of degradation, water conict could happen in large scale. Regional and international conict threads due to the water crisis are no longer a discourse, because it poses a real thread. Due to the climate change, hydrogical shock may occur in an immediate time.(eko/ kruga.org)

59

develop early habit of

to prevent distribution of diseases.

washing hands with soap because the activity is an effective way