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energize - August 2009 - Page 25

TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION


The primar y goal of an earthing system is
to ensure personnel safety and protection
of i nstal l ati ons agai nst damage. Two
important phenomena are lightning and
power system faul ts. These can cause
circulation of large currents, which might
create hazardous voltages in installation
structures.
The gr oundi ng and bondi ng syst ems
connect the earth near the building with
the electrical system and building steel.
In a l i ghtni ng stri ke, the faci l i ty wi l l be
at approxi matel y the same potenti al.
By keepi ng the potenti al gradi ent l ow,
damage i s mi ni mi sed. Fi g. 1 shows
an earthi ng system for a commerci al
building.
Earth electrode impedance
The impedance from the electrode to the
earth varies depending on two factors: the
resistivity of the surrounding earth and the
structure of the electrode.
The resi sti vi ty of earth i s compl i cated,
because it:
l Depends on composition of the soil
(e.g. clay, gravel and sand)
l Can var y even over small distances
due to the mix of different materials
l Depends on mi ner al ( e. g. s al t )
content
l Varies with compression and can var y
with time due to settling
l Ch a n g e s wi t h t e mp e r a t u r e,
f r eezi ng ( and t hus t i me of year ) .
Resistivity increases with decreasing
temperature
l Can be affected by buri ed metal
tanks, pipes, re-bar, etc.
l Varies with depth
Since resistivity may decrease with depth,
one way to reduce earth i mpedance
i s to dri ve an el ectrode deeper. Usi ng
an array of rods, a conductive ring or a
grid are common ways of increasing the
effective area of an electrode. Multiple
rods should be outside of each other s
areas of influence to be most effective
(see Fig. 2).
The acceptable limits for earth electrode
impedance for different types of installation
are given in the relevant national standards
i n thi s case South Afr i can Nati onal
Standards (SANS.
How do earth impedance testers work?
There are two types of earth impedadance
testers: Three and four point testers and
clamp-on testers (Fig.3). Both types apply
a voltage on the electrode and measure
the resulting current. A three or four-pole
tester combi nes a current source and
voltage measurement in a multimeter-
style package. They use multiple stakes
and/or clamps.
E ar t h t es t er s hav e t he f ol l owi ng
characteristics:
l AC test current
l Test frequency that is close to, but
di s t i ngui s habl e f r om t he power
f r equency and i t s har moni cs.
Thi s pr event s st r ay cur r ent s f r om
i nter feri ng wi th ground i mpedance
measurements
l Separate source and measure leads to
compensate for the long leads used
in this measurement
l Input filtering designed to pick up the
test signal and screen out all others
l Cl amp-on ground testers are ver y
different because they have both a
source transformer and a measurement
transformer. The cl amp-on ground
t est er uses advanced f i l t er i ng t o
recognise the test signal and screen
out all others.
The fall-of-potential method
The fall-of-potential method is the traditional
method for testing electrode resistance
and is specified in numerous standards.
In it s basic form, it works well for small
electrode systems like one or two earth
rods. We will also describe the Tagg slope
technique which can help draw accurate
conclusions about larger systems.
How it works
The fall-of-potential method connects to
the earth at three places. The connections
are made to:
l E/C1 the ear th el ectr ode bei ng
tested.
l S / P 2 A v ol t age ( pot en t i al )
measurement stake dri ven i nto the
earth some distance away from the
electrode.
Checking earth
electrode impedance
Information from Fluke
Most facilities have earthed electrical systems, so that in the event of a lightning strike or utility overvoltage, current will find a safe path to earth.
To ensure a reliable connection to earth, electrical codes, engineering standards, and local standards often specify a minimum impedance
for the ground electrode. This application note describes the principle methods for testing earth electrodes and connections.
Fig. 1: An earthing system combining reinforcing
steel and a rod electrode.
Fig. 2: Earth electrodes have areas of influence
that surround them. Fig. 3: Clamp-on earth tester.
energize - August 2009 - Page 26
TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
The 62% Rule
You may be able to use a shortcut if your
test meets the following criteria:
l You are testing a simple electrode
(not a large grid or plate)
l You can pl ace the current stake
30 m or more from the electrode
under test
l The soil is uniform
Under these conditions place the current
stake 30 m or more from the electrode
under test. Place the potential stake at
62% of the distance between the current
stake and the electrode under test and
take a measurement. As a check, take
two or more measurements: one with the
potential probe 1 m closer to the electrode
under test, and another 1 m farther away
(see Fig. 6). If you are on the flat portion
of the fal l -of-potenti al cur ve, then the
readings should be roughly the same and
you can record the first reading as your
resistance.
The Tagg slope technique
Large electrodes or grounding systems
require special consideration. If youve
pl ot t ed r esi st ance r eadi ngs f or ni ne
different P2 locations and there is no clear
flattening on your graph, then the tagg
slope technique (also called the slope
method) can hel p establ i sh the earth
impedance.
Fig. 7 shows an example dataset for which
there is no obvious flat section. There can
be a number of reasons for a curve like
this:
l For electrode systems that cover large
areas it may be difficult to place stakes
far enough away
l You may not be able to place the C1
stake at the center of the electrode
l The area you have to place stakes may
be limited
If you have resistance readings at the 20%,
40% and 60% points between E and C2,
then you can apply the procedure to the
data youve already taken. Calculate the
slope coefficient () using three resistance
measurements from 20%, 40% and 60%
of the distance from the electrode under
test to the C2 current stake.
Then go to Table 6 and look up the P2/C2
ratio that corresponds to . This will tell you
where to look on your graph to ascertain
the earth resistance. For the sample data
in Fig. 7:
If we go to the table, for = 0,71 the
l H/C2 A current stake driven into the
earth a further distance away.
Fig. 4 shows this schematically and Fig. 5
shows the three connections made using
a typical earth tester.
The tester injects an alternating current
i nto the earth between the el ectrode
under test (E) and the current stake (C2),
and measures the voltage drop between
the P2 stake and E. It then uses Ohm's law
to calculate the impedance between
P2 and E. To per form the test posi ti on
the C2 stake at some distance from the
electrode under test. Then, keeping the
C2 stake fixed, move the P2 stake along
the line between E and C2, measuring
the impedance along the way. The tricky
part comes in determining where to drive
the stakes to get a true reading of the
impedance between the electrode and
the earth.
The current probe generates a voltage
between itself and the electrode under
test. Close to the electrode, the voltage
is low and the potential probe is said to
be within the influence of the electrode.
Close to the current probe the voltage is
almost the full voltage output by the tester.
But somewhere in the middle, something
interesting happens.
As we move from the influence of the
electrodes and into the mass of the earth,
the test current no longer causes significant
change in potential. If you plot a series of
measurements, moving the potential stake
away from the electrode under test, and
towards the current stake you will notice
a flattening of the curve. An ideal curve
is shown in Fig 5. The flattest part of the
curve is where the earth resistance is read.
In reality, the curve never goes entirely flat
but reaches a ver y gentle slope where
changes in resistance are small.
The extent of the influence of the electrode
depends on its depth and its area. Deeper
electrodes require that the current stake be
driven farther away (see Table 1). For large
ground rings, grids or arrays, the influence
of the electrode may extend for hundreds
of meters. Table 2 gives suggested starting
poi nts for current and potenti al stake
placement.
The three-wire measurement will deliver
good results if you use a short C1 lead, or
if you dont mind having a fraction of an
ohm of lead resistance in your reading.
For ear t h i mpedance measur ement s
over 10 , the effect of the resistance
of the C1 lead will be small. But for ver y
pr eci se measur ements, especi al l y at
low resistances, a four wire tester allows
you add a fourth lead to eliminate the
contribution of the C1 lead. By running
a separate potenti al l ead (P1) to the
electrode under test you can take the
drop along the C1 current lead out of the
measurement.
Fig. 4: Schematic for fall-of-potential.
Fig. 5: A plot of measured impedances versus
position of the potential stake allows us to see the
earth impedance.
Depth of
electrode
under Test (E)
Distance
from E to
potential
stake (P2)
Distance
from E to
current stake
(C2)
2 15 25
3 19 30
6 25 40
9 31 50
Table 1: Approximate distance to auxiliary stakes
using the 62% rule (in meters).
Widest
dimension
(Diagonal,
diameter or
straight-line) of
electrode array
under test (E)
Distance
from E to
potential
stake (P2)
Distance
from E to
current
stake (C2)
20 30 50
25 50 80
30 70 100
50 100 170
70 130 200
Table 2: Approximate distance to auxiliary stakes
for electrode arrays (in meters).




Insulation Enhancement









Wild Life Intervention

We provide a diverse range of market leading products for underground cable and overhead line applications; including LV, MV
and HV cable joints and terminations (conventional and plug-in), screened and unscreened connectors for both type A and C
bushings and bimetallic mechanical connectors. We also supply overhead line equipment like surge arresters, insulation
piercing connectors, wedge type line clamps and substation clamps, across all voltage ranges.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road, Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand.
PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665. Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
Insulation Enhancement covers are designed to protect energized
conductors or busbars from ashovers due to regular contact from
wildlife. The covers are made from a UV stable, track resistant, high
performance Tyco Electronics material to ensure years of reliable
service.
A variety of different shapes and sizes are available to cover circuit
breaker bushings, bus standoff insulators, capacitors, transformer
bushings, voltage regulators, potential transformers and more. TIS
custom makes these shapes to suit any of your applications.
Installation can be made quickly and on site by trimming the entry and
exit holes to the required dimensions. The covers can be re-entered
and reused for other maintenance needs, thus lowering the overall
lifetime costs.
For more information on these and other products, please contact our
TIS Energy sales department.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road,
Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand. PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665.
Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
We provide a diverse range of market leading products for underground cable and overhead line applications; including LV, MV
and HV cable joints and terminations (conventional and plug-in), screened and unscreened connectors for both type A and C
bushings and bimetallic mechanical connectors. We also supply overhead line equipment like surge arresters, insulation
piercing connectors, wedge type line clamps and substation clamps, across all voltage ranges.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road, Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand.
PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665. Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
TIS supplies world leading controlled protection. Brands such as Bowthorpe
EMP and Raychem are amongst the leading brands in a wide market for
the protection of utility major assets. Their extensive range of polymeric and
porcelain surge arresters are in service in over 130 countries and are protecting
installations in all climatic conditions from the arctic circle to the tropics.
Designed for use in distribution and transmission networks, all of the protection
products and components Tyco Electronics Energy offers are designed and
manufactured to IEC and ANSI standards. Low residual voltages in combination
with the high energy absorption capacity of the metal-oxide disks reduce the risk
of damage. High-voltage arresters with or without counters that withstand
seismic forces of 0.5g to IEE 693, and medium-voltage arresters in a compact
design and with a choice of housings e.g. for gasinsulated switchgear make
this arrester family the ideal choice for the network engineer.
Low-voltage gapless surge arresters with weatherproof housing
High- and medium-voltage arresters and surge counters for
outdoor applications
Compact medium-voltage arresters for indoor use
Rugged arresters for railway applications
Protection systems for MV covered conductors and for HV cable sheaths
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road,
Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand. PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665. Tel
+27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
Raytech Energy, 42 Industry Road, Olifantsfontein 1665
Tel. 011 - 316 1628, Fax 011 - 316 1680
Email: dpillay@aberdare.co.za, website: http://www.raytech.co.za
Bowthorpe EMP and Raychem are trademarks.
Raytech
ENERGY
Bowthorpe EMP and Raychem are among the leading brands in the
world-wide market for the protection of utility major assets. Their
extensive range of polymeric and porcelain surge arresters are in
service in over 130 countries and are protecting installations in all
climatic conditions from the arctic circle to the tropics. Designed for
use in distribution and transmission networks, all of the protection
products and components Tyco Electronics Energy offers are
designed and manufactured to IEC and ANSI standards.
Low residual voltages in combination with the high energy absorp-
tion capacity of the metal-oxide disks reduce the risk of damage.
High-voltage arresters with or without counters that withstand
seismic forces of 0.5g to IEE 693, and medium-voltage arresters in
a compact design and with a choice of housings e.g. for gas-
insulated switchgear make this arrester family the ideal choice for
the network engineer.
Low-volIage gapless surge arresIers wiIh weaIherprooI housihg
High- ahd medium-volIage arresIers ahd surge couhIers Ior
outdoor applications
CompacI medium-volIage arresIers Ior ihdoor use
Pugged arresIers Ior railway applicaIiohs
ProIecIioh sysIems Ior medium-volIage covered cohducIors ahd
for high-voltage cable sheaths
Controlled protection.
ADs a 7/ 05 03. 08. 2005 18: 53 Uhr Se i t e 1
Raytech Energy, 42 Industry Road, Olifantsfontein 1665
Tel. 011 - 316 1628, Fax 011 - 316 1680
Email: dpillay@aberdare.co.za, website: http://www.raytech.co.za
Bowthorpe EMP and Raychem are trademarks.
Raytech
ENERGY
Bowthorpe EMP and Raychem are among the leading brands in the
world-wide market for the protection of utility major assets. Their
extensive range of polymeric and porcelain surge arresters are in
service in over 130 countries and are protecting installations in all
climatic conditions from the arctic circle to the tropics. Designed for
use in distribution and transmission networks, all of the protection
products and components Tyco Electronics Energy offers are
designed and manufactured to IEC and ANSI standards.
Low residual voltages in combination with the high energy absorp-
tion capacity of the metal-oxide disks reduce the risk of damage.
High-voltage arresters with or without counters that withstand
seismic forces of 0.5g to IEE 693, and medium-voltage arresters in
a compact design and with a choice of housings e.g. for gas-
insulated switchgear make this arrester family the ideal choice for
the network engineer.
Low-volIage gapless surge arresIers wiIh weaIherprooI housihg
High- ahd medium-volIage arresIers ahd surge couhIers Ior
outdoor applications
CompacI medium-volIage arresIers Ior ihdoor use
Pugged arresIers Ior railway applicaIiohs
ProIecIioh sysIems Ior medium-volIage covered cohducIors ahd
for high-voltage cable sheaths
Controlled protection.
ADs a 7/ 05 03. 08. 2005 18: 53 Uhr Se i t e 1
Raytech Energy, 42 Industry Road, Olifantsfontein 1665
Tel. 011 - 316 1628, Fax 011 - 316 1680
Email: dpillay@aberdare.co.za, website: http://www.raytech.co.za
Bowthorpe EMP and Raychem are trademarks.
Raytech
ENERGY
Bowthorpe EMP and Raychem are among the leading brands in the
world-wide market for the protection of utility major assets. Their
extensive range of polymeric and porcelain surge arresters are in
service in over 130 countries and are protecting installations in all
climatic conditions from the arctic circle to the tropics. Designed for
use in distribution and transmission networks, all of the protection
products and components Tyco Electronics Energy offers are
designed and manufactured to IEC and ANSI standards.
Low residual voltages in combination with the high energy absorp-
tion capacity of the metal-oxide disks reduce the risk of damage.
High-voltage arresters with or without counters that withstand
seismic forces of 0.5g to IEE 693, and medium-voltage arresters in
a compact design and with a choice of housings e.g. for gas-
insulated switchgear make this arrester family the ideal choice for
the network engineer.
Low-volIage gapless surge arresIers wiIh weaIherprooI housihg
High- ahd medium-volIage arresIers ahd surge couhIers Ior
outdoor applications
CompacI medium-volIage arresIers Ior ihdoor use
Pugged arresIers Ior railway applicaIiohs
ProIecIioh sysIems Ior medium-volIage covered cohducIors ahd
for high-voltage cable sheaths
Controlled protection.
ADs a 7/ 05 03. 08. 2005 18: 53 Uhr Se i t e 1
Raytech Energy, 42 Industry Road, Olifantsfontein 1665
Tel. 011 - 316 1628, Fax 011 - 316 1680
Email: dpillay@aberdare.co.za, website: http://www.raytech.co.za
Bowthorpe EMP and Raychem are trademarks.
Raytech
ENERGY
Bowthorpe EMP and Raychem are among the leading brands in the
world-wide market for the protection of utility major assets. Their
extensive range of polymeric and porcelain surge arresters are in
service in over 130 countries and are protecting installations in all
climatic conditions from the arctic circle to the tropics. Designed for
use in distribution and transmission networks, all of the protection
products and components Tyco Electronics Energy offers are
designed and manufactured to IEC and ANSI standards.
Low residual voltages in combination with the high energy absorp-
tion capacity of the metal-oxide disks reduce the risk of damage.
High-voltage arresters with or without counters that withstand
seismic forces of 0.5g to IEE 693, and medium-voltage arresters in
a compact design and with a choice of housings e.g. for gas-
insulated switchgear make this arrester family the ideal choice for
the network engineer.
Low-volIage gapless surge arresIers wiIh weaIherprooI housihg
High- ahd medium-volIage arresIers ahd surge couhIers Ior
outdoor applications
CompacI medium-volIage arresIers Ior ihdoor use
Pugged arresIers Ior railway applicaIiohs
ProIecIioh sysIems Ior medium-volIage covered cohducIors ahd
for high-voltage cable sheaths
Controlled protection.
ADs a 7/ 05 03. 08. 2005 18: 53 Uhr Se i t e 1
Raytech Energy, 42 Industry Road, Olifantsfontein 1665
Tel. 011 - 316 1628, Fax 011 - 316 1680
Email: dpillay@aberdare.co.za, website: http://www.raytech.co.za
Bowthorpe EMP and Raychem are trademarks.
Raytech
ENERGY
Bowthorpe EMP and Raychem are among the leading brands in the
world-wide market for the protection of utility major assets. Their
extensive range of polymeric and porcelain surge arresters are in
service in over 130 countries and are protecting installations in all
climatic conditions from the arctic circle to the tropics. Designed for
use in distribution and transmission networks, all of the protection
products and components Tyco Electronics Energy offers are
designed and manufactured to IEC and ANSI standards.
Low residual voltages in combination with the high energy absorp-
tion capacity of the metal-oxide disks reduce the risk of damage.
High-voltage arresters with or without counters that withstand
seismic forces of 0.5g to IEE 693, and medium-voltage arresters in
a compact design and with a choice of housings e.g. for gas-
insulated switchgear make this arrester family the ideal choice for
the network engineer.
Low-volIage gapless surge arresIers wiIh weaIherprooI housihg
High- ahd medium-volIage arresIers ahd surge couhIers Ior
outdoor applications
CompacI medium-volIage arresIers Ior ihdoor use
Pugged arresIers Ior railway applicaIiohs
ProIecIioh sysIems Ior medium-volIage covered cohducIors ahd
for high-voltage cable sheaths
Controlled protection.
ADs a 7/ 05 03. 08. 2005 18: 53 Uhr Se i t e 1
Insulation Enhancement









Wild Life Intervention

We provide a diverse range of market leading products for underground cable and overhead line applications; including LV, MV
and HV cable joints and terminations (conventional and plug-in), screened and unscreened connectors for both type A and C
bushings and bimetallic mechanical connectors. We also supply overhead line equipment like surge arresters, insulation
piercing connectors, wedge type line clamps and substation clamps, across all voltage ranges.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road, Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand.
PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665. Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
Insulation Enhancement









Wild Life Intervention

TIS are at the forefront of providing training for engineers,
technicians, electricians and cable jointers in the usage of
TIS products. Training can be provided either at our training
centre, at the clients premises or if requested, we can visit the
installation site to train on site. Training itself takes place rstly
with a theory session, and then delegates are given a practical
demonstration whilst being assessed.
If requested the student can also be supervised while they
carry out their own practical work. The duration of the courses
is generally two days but can be altered depending upon
the course being presented, the number of delegates and its
contents. TIS will also provide evidence of competence. TIS
presents the following courses:
Cable Accessories & Jointing Techniques
Aerial Bundle Conductor Technology
Transformers Fundamentals, Testing, Condition
Monitoring, Maintenace & Fault Finding
Ampact Wedge Driven Technology
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old
Pretoria Road, Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand. PO Box 134,
Olifantsfontein, 1665. Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11
635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
The TIS Solutions Division strives to ensure that electrical equipment
functions to its maximum efciency by performing pre-installation quality
assurance testing, on site commissioning testing, routine preventive
maintenance testing, condition monitoring, condition assessment and
fault investigation in a completely independent capacity.
The large database of records (thumbprints for future comparison),
standards and test results used for comparative condition monitoring,
state of the art equipment and the experience of highly trained staff
make this TEST Section an indispensable service provider to its clients.
The tests are performed to National and International standards and
specications.
Our trained staff provides comprehensive cable and transformer testing,
the latter includes SFRA, auxillaries, Bushing tan delta and capacitance
tests.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road,
Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand. PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665.
Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
The TIS Solutions Division strives to ensure that electrical equipment
functions to its maximum efciency by performing pre-installation quality
assurance testing, on site commissioning testing, routine preventive
maintenance testing, condition monitoring, condition assessment and
fault investigation in a completely independent capacity.
The large database of records (thumbprints for future comparison),
standards and test results used for comparative condition monitoring,
state of the art equipment and the experience of highly trained staff
make this TEST Section an indispensable service provider to its clients.
The tests are performed to National and International standards and
specications.
Our trained staff provide comprehensive cable and transformer testing,
the latter includes SFRA, auxillaries, Bushing tan delta and capacitance
tests.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road,
Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand. PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665.
Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
Solutions
Joi nt i ng
Tec hni ques Tec hni ques
Tr ai ni ng
We provide a diverse range of market leading products for underground cable and overhead line applications; including LV, MV
and HV cable joints and terminations (conventional and plug-in), screened and unscreened connectors for both type A and C
bushings and bimetallic mechanical connectors. We also supply overhead line equipment like surge arresters, insulation
piercing connectors, wedge type line clamps and substation clamps, across all voltage ranges.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road, Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand.
PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665. Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
The Projects Division of TIS is able to offer a full turnkey bre systems
solution. Telecomms operators are increasingly moving to outsource
their infrastructure build.
TIS will manage the complete project solution from beginning to end,
design the system, engineer the solution, negotiate for rights of way
with the relevant authorities, purchase all the required materials,
negotiate with preferred installation partners, arrange quality assurance
inspections, perform end to end system tests, produce as-built drawings
and complete test results.
With optical transmission speeds and bandwidths increasing, testing of
the completed system becomes extremely important. TIS is equipped
to test each bre for loss, return loss and dispersion in order to qualify
the bre system for 10 Gb/s operation. The test gear can also be used
for 40 Gb/s testing when this becomes a requirement. TIS is able to
offer Dense Wavelength Division Multiplex (DWDM) solutions with up
to 160 separate wavelengths each operating at 10 Gb/s.
For further information regarding the above, contact Vusi Sithole at 083
556 0676 or George Fvrier at 082 335 9255.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road,
Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand. PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665.
Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8130 www.tis-sa.com
We provide a diverse range of market leading products for underground cable and overhead line applications; including LV, MV
and HV cable joints and terminations (conventional and plug-in), screened and unscreened connectors for both type A and C
bushings and bimetallic mechanical connectors. We also supply overhead line equipment like surge arresters, insulation
piercing connectors, wedge type line clamps and substation clamps, across all voltage ranges.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road, Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand.
PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665. Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
The Projects Division of TIS is now able to offer a full turnkey bre
systems solution. Telecomms operators are increasingly moving to
outsource their infrastructure build.
TIS will manage the complete project solution from beginning to end.
Design the system, engineer the solution, negotiate for rights of way
with the relevant authorities, purchase all the required materials,
negotiate with preferred installation partners, arrange quality assurance
inspections, perform end to end system tests, produce as-built drawings
and complete test results.
With optical transmission speeds and bandwidths increasing, testing of
the completed system becomes extremely important. TIS is equipped
to test each bre for loss, return loss and dispersion in order to qualify
the bre system for 10 Gb/s operation. The test gear can also be used
for 40 Gb/s testing when this becomes a requirement. TIS is able to
offer Dense Wavelength Division Multiplex (DWDM) solutions with up
to 160 separate wavelengths each operating at 10 Gb/s.
For further information regarding the above, contact Vusi Sithole at 083
556 0676 or George Fevrier at 082 335 9255.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road,
Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand. PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665.
Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
Insulation Enhancement









Wild Life Intervention

We provide a diverse range of market leading products for underground cable and overhead line applications; including LV, MV
and HV cable joints and terminations (conventional and plug-in), screened and unscreened connectors for both type A and C
bushings and bimetallic mechanical connectors. We also supply overhead line equipment like surge arresters, insulation
piercing connectors, wedge type line clamps and substation clamps, across all voltage ranges.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road, Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand.
PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665. Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
Insulation Enhancement covers are designed to protect energized
conductors or busbars from ashovers due to regular contact from
wildlife. The covers are made from a UV stable, track resistant, high
performance Tyco Electronics material to ensure years of reliable
service.
A variety of different shapes and sizes are available to cover circuit
breaker bushings, bus standoff insulators, capacitors, transformer
bushings, voltage regulators, potential transformers and more. TIS
custom makes these shapes to suit any of your applications.
Installation can be made quickly and on site by trimming the entry and
exit holes to the required dimensions. The covers can be re-entered
and reused for other maintenance needs, thus lowering the overall
lifetime costs.
For more information on these and other products, please contact our
TIS Energy sales department.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road,
Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand. PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665.
Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
We provide a diverse range of market leading products for underground cable and overhead line applications; including LV, MV
and HV cable joints and terminations (conventional and plug-in), screened and unscreened connectors for both type A and C
bushings and bimetallic mechanical connectors. We also supply overhead line equipment like surge arresters, insulation
piercing connectors, wedge type line clamps and substation clamps, across all voltage ranges.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road, Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand.
PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665. Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
TIS supplies world leading controlled protection. Brands such as Bowthorpe
EMP and Raychem are amongst the leading brands in a wide market for
the protection of utility major assets. Their extensive range of polymeric and
porcelain surge arresters are in service in over 130 countries and are protecting
installations in all climatic conditions from the arctic circle to the tropics.
Designed for use in distribution and transmission networks, all of the protection
products and components Tyco Electronics Energy offers are designed and
manufactured to IEC and ANSI standards. Low residual voltages in combination
with the high energy absorption capacity of the metal-oxide disks reduce the risk
of damage. High-voltage arresters with or without counters that withstand
seismic forces of 0.5g to IEE 693, and medium-voltage arresters in a compact
design and with a choice of housings e.g. for gasinsulated switchgear make
this arrester family the ideal choice for the network engineer.
Low-voltage gapless surge arresters with weatherproof housing
High- and medium-voltage arresters and surge counters for
outdoor applications
Compact medium-voltage arresters for indoor use
Rugged arresters for railway applications
Protection systems for MV covered conductors and for HV cable sheaths
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road,
Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand. PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665. Tel
+27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
Raytech Energy, 42 Industry Road, Olifantsfontein 1665
Tel. 011 - 316 1628, Fax 011 - 316 1680
Email: dpillay@aberdare.co.za, website: http://www.raytech.co.za
Bowthorpe EMP and Raychem are trademarks.
Raytech
ENERGY
Bowthorpe EMP and Raychem are among the leading brands in the
world-wide market for the protection of utility major assets. Their
extensive range of polymeric and porcelain surge arresters are in
service in over 130 countries and are protecting installations in all
climatic conditions from the arctic circle to the tropics. Designed for
use in distribution and transmission networks, all of the protection
products and components Tyco Electronics Energy offers are
designed and manufactured to IEC and ANSI standards.
Low residual voltages in combination with the high energy absorp-
tion capacity of the metal-oxide disks reduce the risk of damage.
High-voltage arresters with or without counters that withstand
seismic forces of 0.5g to IEE 693, and medium-voltage arresters in
a compact design and with a choice of housings e.g. for gas-
insulated switchgear make this arrester family the ideal choice for
the network engineer.
Low-volIage gapless surge arresIers wiIh weaIherprooI housihg
High- ahd medium-volIage arresIers ahd surge couhIers Ior
outdoor applications
CompacI medium-volIage arresIers Ior ihdoor use
Pugged arresIers Ior railway applicaIiohs
ProIecIioh sysIems Ior medium-volIage covered cohducIors ahd
for high-voltage cable sheaths
Controlled protection.
ADsa7/05 03.08.2005 18:53 Uhr Seite 1
Raytech Energy, 42 Industry Road, Olifantsfontein 1665
Tel. 011 - 316 1628, Fax 011 - 316 1680
Email: dpillay@aberdare.co.za, website: http://www.raytech.co.za
Bowthorpe EMP and Raychem are trademarks.
Raytech
ENERGY
Bowthorpe EMP and Raychem are among the leading brands in the
world-wide market for the protection of utility major assets. Their
extensive range of polymeric and porcelain surge arresters are in
service in over 130 countries and are protecting installations in all
climatic conditions from the arctic circle to the tropics. Designed for
use in distribution and transmission networks, all of the protection
products and components Tyco Electronics Energy offers are
designed and manufactured to IEC and ANSI standards.
Low residual voltages in combination with the high energy absorp-
tion capacity of the metal-oxide disks reduce the risk of damage.
High-voltage arresters with or without counters that withstand
seismic forces of 0.5g to IEE 693, and medium-voltage arresters in
a compact design and with a choice of housings e.g. for gas-
insulated switchgear make this arrester family the ideal choice for
the network engineer.
Low-volIage gapless surge arresIers wiIh weaIherprooI housihg
High- ahd medium-volIage arresIers ahd surge couhIers Ior
outdoor applications
CompacI medium-volIage arresIers Ior ihdoor use
Pugged arresIers Ior railway applicaIiohs
ProIecIioh sysIems Ior medium-volIage covered cohducIors ahd
for high-voltage cable sheaths
Controlled protection.
ADs a 7/ 05 03. 08. 2005 18: 53 Uhr Se i t e 1
Raytech Energy, 42 Industry Road, Olifantsfontein 1665
Tel. 011 - 316 1628, Fax 011 - 316 1680
Email: dpillay@aberdare.co.za, website: http://www.raytech.co.za
Bowthorpe EMP and Raychem are trademarks.
Raytech
ENERGY
Bowthorpe EMP and Raychem are among the leading brands in the
world-wide market for the protection of utility major assets. Their
extensive range of polymeric and porcelain surge arresters are in
service in over 130 countries and are protecting installations in all
climatic conditions from the arctic circle to the tropics. Designed for
use in distribution and transmission networks, all of the protection
products and components Tyco Electronics Energy offers are
designed and manufactured to IEC and ANSI standards.
Low residual voltages in combination with the high energy absorp-
tion capacity of the metal-oxide disks reduce the risk of damage.
High-voltage arresters with or without counters that withstand
seismic forces of 0.5g to IEE 693, and medium-voltage arresters in
a compact design and with a choice of housings e.g. for gas-
insulated switchgear make this arrester family the ideal choice for
the network engineer.
Low-volIage gapless surge arresIers wiIh weaIherprooI housihg
High- ahd medium-volIage arresIers ahd surge couhIers Ior
outdoor applications
CompacI medium-volIage arresIers Ior ihdoor use
Pugged arresIers Ior railway applicaIiohs
ProIecIioh sysIems Ior medium-volIage covered cohducIors ahd
for high-voltage cable sheaths
Controlled protection.
ADs a 7/ 05 03. 08. 2005 18: 53 Uhr Se i t e 1
Raytech Energy, 42 Industry Road, Olifantsfontein 1665
Tel. 011 - 316 1628, Fax 011 - 316 1680
Email: dpillay@aberdare.co.za, website: http://www.raytech.co.za
Bowthorpe EMP and Raychem are trademarks.
Raytech
ENERGY
Bowthorpe EMP and Raychem are among the leading brands in the
world-wide market for the protection of utility major assets. Their
extensive range of polymeric and porcelain surge arresters are in
service in over 130 countries and are protecting installations in all
climatic conditions from the arctic circle to the tropics. Designed for
use in distribution and transmission networks, all of the protection
products and components Tyco Electronics Energy offers are
designed and manufactured to IEC and ANSI standards.
Low residual voltages in combination with the high energy absorp-
tion capacity of the metal-oxide disks reduce the risk of damage.
High-voltage arresters with or without counters that withstand
seismic forces of 0.5g to IEE 693, and medium-voltage arresters in
a compact design and with a choice of housings e.g. for gas-
insulated switchgear make this arrester family the ideal choice for
the network engineer.
Low-volIage gapless surge arresIers wiIh weaIherprooI housihg
High- ahd medium-volIage arresIers ahd surge couhIers Ior
outdoor applications
CompacI medium-volIage arresIers Ior ihdoor use
Pugged arresIers Ior railway applicaIiohs
ProIecIioh sysIems Ior medium-volIage covered cohducIors ahd
for high-voltage cable sheaths
Controlled protection.
ADs a 7/ 05 03. 08. 2005 18: 53 Uhr Se i t e 1
Raytech Energy, 42 Industry Road, Olifantsfontein 1665
Tel. 011 - 316 1628, Fax 011 - 316 1680
Email: dpillay@aberdare.co.za, website: http://www.raytech.co.za
Bowthorpe EMP and Raychem are trademarks.
Raytech
ENERGY
Bowthorpe EMP and Raychem are among the leading brands in the
world-wide market for the protection of utility major assets. Their
extensive range of polymeric and porcelain surge arresters are in
service in over 130 countries and are protecting installations in all
climatic conditions from the arctic circle to the tropics. Designed for
use in distribution and transmission networks, all of the protection
products and components Tyco Electronics Energy offers are
designed and manufactured to IEC and ANSI standards.
Low residual voltages in combination with the high energy absorp-
tion capacity of the metal-oxide disks reduce the risk of damage.
High-voltage arresters with or without counters that withstand
seismic forces of 0.5g to IEE 693, and medium-voltage arresters in
a compact design and with a choice of housings e.g. for gas-
insulated switchgear make this arrester family the ideal choice for
the network engineer.
Low-volIage gapless surge arresIers wiIh weaIherprooI housihg
High- ahd medium-volIage arresIers ahd surge couhIers Ior
outdoor applications
CompacI medium-volIage arresIers Ior ihdoor use
Pugged arresIers Ior railway applicaIiohs
ProIecIioh sysIems Ior medium-volIage covered cohducIors ahd
for high-voltage cable sheaths
Controlled protection.
ADs a 7/ 05 03. 08. 2005 18: 53 Uhr Se i t e 1
Insulation Enhancement









Wild Life Intervention

We provide a diverse range of market leading products for underground cable and overhead line applications; including LV, MV
and HV cable joints and terminations (conventional and plug-in), screened and unscreened connectors for both type A and C
bushings and bimetallic mechanical connectors. We also supply overhead line equipment like surge arresters, insulation
piercing connectors, wedge type line clamps and substation clamps, across all voltage ranges.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road, Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand.
PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665. Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
Insulation Enhancement









Wild Life Intervention

TIS are at the forefront of providing training for engineers,
technicians, electricians and cable jointers in the usage of
TIS products. Training can be provided either at our training
centre, at the clients premises or if requested, we can visit the
installation site to train on site. Training itself takes place rstly
with a theory session, and then delegates are given a practical
demonstration whilst being assessed.
If requested the student can also be supervised while they
carry out their own practical work. The duration of the courses
is generally two days but can be altered depending upon
the course being presented, the number of delegates and its
contents. TIS will also provide evidence of competence. TIS
presents the following courses:
Cable Accessories & Jointing Techniques
Aerial Bundle Conductor Technology
Transformers Fundamentals, Testing, Condition
Monitoring, Maintenace & Fault Finding
Ampact Wedge Driven Technology
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old
Pretoria Road, Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand. PO Box 134,
Olifantsfontein, 1665. Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11
635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
The TIS Solutions Division strives to ensure that electrical equipment
functions to its maximum efciency by performing pre-installation quality
assurance testing, on site commissioning testing, routine preventive
maintenance testing, condition monitoring, condition assessment and
fault investigation in a completely independent capacity.
The large database of records (thumbprints for future comparison),
standards and test results used for comparative condition monitoring,
state of the art equipment and the experience of highly trained staff
make this TEST Section an indispensable service provider to its clients.
The tests are performed to National and International standards and
specications.
Our trained staff provides comprehensive cable and transformer testing,
the latter includes SFRA, auxillaries, Bushing tan delta and capacitance
tests.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road,
Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand. PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665.
Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
The TIS Solutions Division strives to ensure that electrical equipment
functions to its maximum efciency by performing pre-installation quality
assurance testing, on site commissioning testing, routine preventive
maintenance testing, condition monitoring, condition assessment and
fault investigation in a completely independent capacity.
The large database of records (thumbprints for future comparison),
standards and test results used for comparative condition monitoring,
state of the art equipment and the experience of highly trained staff
make this TEST Section an indispensable service provider to its clients.
The tests are performed to National and International standards and
specications.
Our trained staff provide comprehensive cable and transformer testing,
the latter includes SFRA, auxillaries, Bushing tan delta and capacitance
tests.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road,
Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand. PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665.
Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
Solutions
Joi nt i ng
Techni ques Techni ques
Tr ai ni ng
We provide a diverse range of market leading products for underground cable and overhead line applications; including LV, MV
and HV cable joints and terminations (conventional and plug-in), screened and unscreened connectors for both type A and C
bushings and bimetallic mechanical connectors. We also supply overhead line equipment like surge arresters, insulation
piercing connectors, wedge type line clamps and substation clamps, across all voltage ranges.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road, Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand.
PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665. Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
The Projects Division of TIS is able to offer a full turnkey bre systems
solution. Telecomms operators are increasingly moving to outsource
their infrastructure build.
TIS will manage the complete project solution from beginning to end,
design the system, engineer the solution, negotiate for rights of way
with the relevant authorities, purchase all the required materials,
negotiate with preferred installation partners, arrange quality assurance
inspections, perform end to end system tests, produce as-built drawings
and complete test results.
With optical transmission speeds and bandwidths increasing, testing of
the completed system becomes extremely important. TIS is equipped
to test each bre for loss, return loss and dispersion in order to qualify
the bre system for 10 Gb/s operation. The test gear can also be used
for 40 Gb/s testing when this becomes a requirement. TIS is able to
offer Dense Wavelength Division Multiplex (DWDM) solutions with up
to 160 separate wavelengths each operating at 10 Gb/s.
For further information regarding the above, contact Vusi Sithole at 083
556 0676 or George Fvrier at 082 335 9255.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road,
Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand. PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665.
Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8130 www.tis-sa.com
We provide a diverse range of market leading products for underground cable and overhead line applications; including LV, MV
and HV cable joints and terminations (conventional and plug-in), screened and unscreened connectors for both type A and C
bushings and bimetallic mechanical connectors. We also supply overhead line equipment like surge arresters, insulation
piercing connectors, wedge type line clamps and substation clamps, across all voltage ranges.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road, Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand.
PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665. Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
The Projects Division of TIS is now able to offer a full turnkey bre
systems solution. Telecomms operators are increasingly moving to
outsource their infrastructure build.
TIS will manage the complete project solution from beginning to end.
Design the system, engineer the solution, negotiate for rights of way
with the relevant authorities, purchase all the required materials,
negotiate with preferred installation partners, arrange quality assurance
inspections, perform end to end system tests, produce as-built drawings
and complete test results.
With optical transmission speeds and bandwidths increasing, testing of
the completed system becomes extremely important. TIS is equipped
to test each bre for loss, return loss and dispersion in order to qualify
the bre system for 10 Gb/s operation. The test gear can also be used
for 40 Gb/s testing when this becomes a requirement. TIS is able to
offer Dense Wavelength Division Multiplex (DWDM) solutions with up
to 160 separate wavelengths each operating at 10 Gb/s.
For further information regarding the above, contact Vusi Sithole at 083
556 0676 or George Fevrier at 082 335 9255.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road,
Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand. PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665.
Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
We provide a diverse range of market leading
products for underground cable and overhead
line applications; including LV, MV and HV
cable joints and terminations (conventional
and plug-in), screened and unscreened
connectors for both type A and C bushings
and bimetallic mechanical connectors.
We also supply overhead line equipment
like surge arresters, insulation piercing
connectors, wedge type line clamps and
substation clamps, across all voltage ranges.
As part of these products, insulation
enhancement covers are designed to
protect energized conductors or busbars
from ashovers due to regular contact from
wildlife.
The covers are made from a UV stable, track
resistant, high performance Tyco Electronics
material to ensure years of reliable service.
TIS custom makes these shapes to suit any of
your applications.
For more information on these and other products, please contact our TIS internal sales departments. Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11
635 8100 www.tis-sa.com Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road, Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand. PO Box
134, Olifantsfontein, 1665.
TIS are at the forefront of providing training
for engineers, technicians, electricians and
cable jointers in the usage of TIS products.
Training can be provided either at our
training centre, at the clients premises or if
requested, we can visit the installation site to
train on site. Training itself takes place rstly
with a theory session, and then delegates are
given a practical demonstration whilst being
assessed.
If requested the student can also be
supervised while they carry out their own
practical work. The duration of the courses
is generally two days but can be altered
depending upon the course being presented,
the number of delegates and its contents. TIS
will also provide evidence of competence. TIS
presents the following courses:
Cable Accessories & Jointing Techniques
Aerial Bundle Conductor Technology
Transformers Fundamentals, Testing,
Condition Monitoring, Maintenace & Fault
Finding
Ampact Wedge Driven Technology
The Projects Division of TIS is able to offer a
full turnkey bre systems solution. Telecomms
operators are increasingly moving to outsource
their infrastructure build.
TIS will manage the complete project solution
from beginning to end, design the system,
engineer the solution, negotiate for rights of
way with the relevant authorities, purchase
all the required materials, negotiate with
preferred installation partners, arrange quality
assurance inspections, perform end to end
system tests, produce as-built drawings and
complete test results.
With optical transmission speeds and
bandwidths increasing, testing of the completed
system becomes extremely important. TIS is
equipped to test each bre for loss, return
loss and dispersion in order to qualify the bre
system for 10 Gb/s operation.
The test gear can also be used for 40 Gb/s
testing when this becomes a requirement. TIS
is able to offer Dense Wavelength Division
Multiplex (DWDM) solutions with up to 160
separate wavelengths each operating at 10
Gb/s.
We provide a diverse range of market leading products for underground cable and overhead line applications; including LV, MV
and HV cable joints and terminations (conventional and plug-in), screened and unscreened connectors for both type A and C
bushings and bimetallic mechanical connectors. We also supply overhead line equipment like surge arresters, insulation
piercing connectors, wedge type line clamps and substation clamps, across all voltage ranges.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road, Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand.
PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665. Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
We provide a diverse range of market leading products for underground cable and overhead line applications; including LV, MV
and HV cable joints and terminations (conventional and plug-in), screened and unscreened connectors for both type A and C
bushings and bimetallic mechanical connectors. We also supply overhead line equipment like surge arresters, insulation
piercing connectors, wedge type line clamps and substation clamps, across all voltage ranges.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road, Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand.
PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665. Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
We provide a diverse range of market leading products for underground cable and overhead line applications; including LV, MV
and HV cable joints and terminations (conventional and plug-in), screened and unscreened connectors for both type A and C
bushings and bimetallic mechanical connectors. We also supply overhead line equipment like surge arresters, insulation
piercing connectors, wedge type line clamps and substation clamps, across all voltage ranges.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road, Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand.
PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665. Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
We provide a diverse range of market leading products for underground cable and overhead line applications; including LV, MV
and HV cable joints and terminations (conventional and plug-in), screened and unscreened connectors for both type A and C
bushings and bimetallic mechanical connectors. We also supply overhead line equipment like surge arresters, insulation
piercing connectors, wedge type line clamps and substation clamps, across all voltage ranges.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road, Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand.
PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665. Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
We provide a diverse range of market leading products for underground cable and overhead line applications; including LV, MV
and HV cable joints and terminations (conventional and plug-in), screened and unscreened connectors for both type A and C
bushings and bimetallic mechanical connectors. We also supply overhead line equipment like surge arresters, insulation
piercing connectors, wedge type line clamps and substation clamps, across all voltage ranges.
Unit A, 59 Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Road, Randjespark Ext 103, Midrand.
PO Box 134, Olifantsfontein, 1665. Tel +27(0)11 635 8000 Fax +27(0)11 635 8100 www.tis-sa.com
energize - August 2009 - Page 28
TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
cor r espondi ng P2/ C2 per cent age i s
59, 6%. So t he appr ox i mat e ear t h
i mpedance woul d be measur ed at
(59,6% X 100 m), or at 59,6 m. This is ver y
close to our 60% point at 60 m, where we
read 6,8 . So it would be safe to say the
earth resistance for the electrode under
test is roughly 6,8 .
The selective method
The selective method is a variation of the
fal l -of-potenti al method, avai l abl e on
high-end earth testers like the Fluke 1625.
The supply neutral, building steel and earth
electrode are all bonded and earthed. In
a traditional fall-of-potential test you have
no way of knowing how much current is
flowing between any particular electrode
and the C2 current stake. Selective testing
uses an integrated, high sensitivity clamp-
on current transformer to measure the
test current in the electrode under test.
(Fig. 8). The selective earth tester digitally
filters the current measurement to minimise
the effects of stray currents.
Stakeless or clamp-on method
The stakeless or clamp-on method allows
you to measure the i mpedance of a
series loop of ground electrodes. The test
is simple and it may be performed on an
electrode that is connected to a working
electric service. To make the measurement
the tester uses a speci al tr ansfor mer
t o gener at e a vol t age on t he ear t h
conductor at a unique test frequency. It
uses a second transformer to distinguish
t he t est f r equency and measur e t he
resulting current through the circuit, which
is determined by the loop resistance.
Fi g. 10 shows t he connect i on of t he
source and measure clamps of the Saturn
GEO X. Fig. 9 shows the equivalent test
circuit for the stakeless method. When you
test a building earth electrode using this
method, you are actually testing a loop
including:
l Electrode under test
l Earth electrode conductor
l The main bonding jumper
l The service neutral
l Utility neutral-to-earth bond
l Ut i l i t y ear t h conduct or s ( bet ween
poles)
l Utility pole earth
I n thi s method the cl amp checks the
continuity of the interconnections of all of
the components above. An abnormally
high reading or an open circuit indication
on t he i nst r ument poi nt s t o a poor
connection between two or more of the
aforementi oned cri ti cal components.
The earth electrode of most facilities is in
parallel with numerous distribution earth
electrodes.
Two-pole method
The two-pole method uses an auxiliar y
el ect r ode s uch as a wat er pi pe.
Fig. 6: Stake positions for the 62% rule.
Fig. 7: Earth impedance can be found from this
curve by using the Tagg slope technique.
Fig. 8: Connections for selective ground
electrode measurement.
Fig. 9: Connections for selective electrode
impedance measurement.
Summary of earth electrode test methods advantages and drawbacks
Advantages Drawbacks
Fall-of-potential Widely accepted
When you see the characteristic curve you know
youve got a good measurement.
You have to disconnect the earth
The stakes may not be easy to drive
There may not be space around the earth electrode
to drive the stakes
Selective method Dont have to disconnect the electrode
Widely accepted
When you see the characteristic curve you know
youve got a good measurement.
The stakes may not be easy to drive
There may not be space around the earth electrode
to drive the stakes
Stakeless method Convenient
Saves time
No disconnections
No stakes
Assumes a low-impedance parallel path
Possible to get very low readings by mistakenly
measuring on a hard-wired loop
Two-pole method Convenient
Saves time
No disconnections
No stakes
Impossible to judge the integrity of the auxiliary
electrode.
Cant be sure you are outside the area of influence
Table 3:
energize - August 2009 - Page 29
TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
Fig.11: Test current paths in the stakeless method.
Fig. 12: Equivalent circuit for
two-point measurement.
P2/C2 P2/C2 P2/C2 P2/C2 P2/C2
% % % % %
0,40 43,3 0,65 60,6 0,90 56,2 1,15 50,7 1,40 43,1
0,41 64,2 0,66 60,4 0,91 56,0 1,16 50,4 1,41 42,7
0,42 64,0 0,67 60,2 0,92 55,8 1,17 50,2 1,42 42,3
0,43 63,9 0,68 60,1 0,93 55,6 1,18 49,9 1,43 41,8
0,44 63,7 0,69 59,9 0,94 55,4 1,19 49,7 1,44 41,4
0,45 63,6 0,70 59,7 0,95 55,2 1,20 49,4 1,45 41,0
0,46 63,5 0,71 59,6 0,96 55,0 1,21 49,1 1,46 40,6
0,47 63,3 0,72 59,4 0,97 54,8 1,22 48,8 1,47 40,1
0,48 63,2 0,73 59,2 0,98 54,6 1,23 48,6 1,48 39,7
0,49 63,0 0,74 59,1 0,99 54,4 1,24 48,3 1,49 39,3
0,50 62,9 0,75 58,9 1,00 54,2 1,25 48,0 1,50 38,9
0,51 62,7 0,76 58,7 1,01 53,9 1,26 47,7 1,51 38,4
0,52 62,6 0,77 58,5 1,02 53,7 1,27 47,4 1,52 37,9
0,53 62,4 0,78 58,4 1,03 53,5 1,28 47,1 1,53 37,4
0,54 62,3 0,79 58,2 1,04 53,3 1,29 46,8 1,54 36,9
0,55 62,1 0,80 58,0 1,05 53,1 1,30 46,5 1,55 36,4
0,56 62,0 0,81 57,9 1,06 52,8 1,31 46,2 1,56 35,8
0,57 61,8 0,82 57,7 1,07 52,6 1,32 45,8 1,57 35,2
0,58 61,7 0,83 57,5 1,08 52,4 1,33 45,5 1,58 34,7
0,59 61,5 0,84 57,3 1,09 52,2 1,34 45,2 1,59 34,1
0,60 61,4 0,85 57,1 1,10 51,9 1,35 44,8
0,61 61,2 0,86 56,9 1,11 51,7 1,36 44,5
0,62 61,0 0,87 56,7 1,12 51,4 1,37 44,1
0,63 60,9 0,88 56,6 1,13 51,2 1,38 43,8
0,64 60,7 0,89 56,4 1,14 50,9 1,39 43,4
Table 5: Table for the Tagg slope techniue (for 2 decimal places).
Fi g. 12 shows t he connect i ons. The
tester measur es the combi ned ear th
impedance of the electrode under test,
the earth i mpedance of the auxi l i ar y
el ectrode, and the i mpedance of the
measurement leads. The assumption is
that the earth impedance of the auxiliar y
el ect r ode i s ver y l ow, whi ch woul d
probably be true for metal pipe without
plastic segments or insulated joints. The
effect of the measurement leads may
be removed by measuring with the leads
shorted together and subtracti ng thi s
reading from the final measurement.
Because of the unknowns involved in this
technique, it is recommended only when
the earthing system and auxiliary electrode
are well known.


Fig. 10: Connection for a stakeless measurement.
Contact Val Verwer, Comtest,
Tel 01 254-2200, info@comtest.co.za v