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STORAGE METHOD FOR SMALL AMOUNTS OF LINKED 40mm GRENADES (DRUM MAGAZINE)

Michelle Crull, PhD, PE, US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville, Attn: CEHNC-ED-SC-T (Crull), PO Box 1600, Huntsville, AL 35807-4301, Tel: (256) 895-1653, Fax: (256) 895-1737, michelle.crull@us.army.mil Greg Heles, US Army Technical Center for Explosives Safety, Attn: SJMAC-EST, Building 35, 1C Tree Road, McAlester, OK 74501-9053, Tel: (918) 420-8877, Fax: (918) 420-8503, greg.heles@us.army.mil

Abstract The US Army Technical Center for Explosives Safety and the US Army Engineering and Support Center, Huntsville have developed a small magazine that can store one case of linked 40mm M430 grenades for the MK 19 grenade launcher with a reduced inhabited building distance (IBD) arc. The operational concept is a reduced quantity distance (QD) storage site that is easy to access. Convoy escorts or units returning from patrols can place unused linked 40 mm into a reduced QD storage structure external to the ammunition transfer and holding point (ATHP). They can retrieve the linked 40 mm the next morning or for the next patrol and use that same 40 mm ammunition again as needed. Storage of one case of 40 mm grenades (1310-B542) normally requires a safety separation of 419 ft (128 m) in a structure like an ISO container that wont stop the primary fragments or 200 ft (61 m) from a structure capable of stopping the primary fragments. By constructing and using a specialized Drum Magazine, the required safety distances can be reduced to as little as 69 ft (21 m) in all directions, a savings of 88% to 97% in the encumbered area. The design uses a 55-gallon (208 liter) drum or 2 ft (0.61m) diameter steel culvert placed on its side and covered with 2 ft (0.61 m) of earth cover or sandbags reducing the IBD to the sides and rear to 69 ft (21 m). The IBD to the front is 452 ft (138 m) unless a barricade is used. Although a door on the front of the drum magazine is not necessary for explosives safety purposes one may be required for security purposes. The drum magazine design includes a weak door that will fail quickly in the event of an internal explosion to provide venting. Unauthorized modifications to strengthen this door design will result in the application of the standard 200 ft (61 m) IBD arc. 1.0 Background The US Army Technical Center for Explosives Safety (USATCES) was asked by Headquarters (HQ), Coalition Forces Land Component Command (CFLCC), for assistance with a request for temporary storage of 40 mm linked grenades for the MK 19 grenade launcher. The operational concept was to have a reduced quantity distance (QD)

storage site that was easy to access. Convey escorts or units returning from patrols would place unused 40 mm linked ammunition back into a reduced QD storage structure and then go shower and eat. They would retrieve the linked 40 mm the next morning or for the next patrol and use that same 40 mm ammunition again as needed. 2.0 Overview of Solution USATCES with the assistance of US Army Engineering and Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH) and the Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), Directorate for Engineering worked to develop an inexpensive solution that used materials that would be available in any deployment environment. The design concept was to have the magazine design stop any primary fragments generated from an internal explosion. If the primary fragments are stopped by the magazine design and the magazine does not present a debris hazard then we only have to use distance to protect personnel from overpressure. The distance required for overpressure is computed from the standard quantity distance formula Distance (ft) = K factor X NEW1/3 (Distance (m) = Km X NEQ1/3) where NEW is the net explosives weight in pounds and NEQ is the net explosives weight in kilograms. By stopping the fragments and keeping the net explosives weight low in any single magazine the required separations can be low. For example, if a single container has no more than 5 lbs (2.27 kg) explosives weight and munition fragments are not a concern, then required distance from blast overpressure alone would be 69 ft (21 m). The default minimum separation for inhabited building distance from 5 lbs (2.27 kg) HD 1.1 munitions is 200 ft (61 m). 3.0 Explosives Safety Analysis 3.1 Scenario This system allows a greatly reduced quantity distance arc from 5 lbs (2.27 kg) total net explosive weight for quantity-distance (NEWQD) of 40 mm grenades. The solution uses a 55-gallon (208 liter) drum (on its side) covered with 2 ft (0.61 m) of earth cover or sandbags. An alternate to the 55-gallon (208 liter) drum is to use a 35-inch (0.89 m) length of 24-inch (0.61 m) diameter, 16-gage corrugated steel pipe. A piece of plywood or 16-gage steel should be placed over the buried end of this pipe to keep the earth cover out of the pipe. This alternative may be substituted for the 55-gallon (208 liter) drum throughout the remainder of this document. 3.1.1 Ammunition Data 1310-B542, 40 mm grenades, M430, linked, NEW 0.094190 lbs (42.7 g) per round, common packaging is either 48 rounds per package or 32 rounds per package. Concept is to place the ammunition back into the outerpack prior to storage. 48 X 0.094190 = 4.52 lbs (2.05 kg) of explosives per outerpack To be conservative, the maximum NEW for this temporary storage magazine was set to 5 lbs NEW (2.27 kg NEQ).

3.2 Analysis A fragment analysis in accordance with DDESB Technical Paper 16 has been performed on the 40 mm HEDP M430 grenade. This analysis has been used with CEHNC-ED-CSS-98-7 Use of Sandbags for Mitigation of Fragmentation and Blast Effects Due to Intentional Detonation of Munitions to determine the thickness of sandbags required to defeat the fragments from these munitions. The fragment weight was multiplied by 1.5 and the initial fragment velocity by 2.0 in accordance with DDESB Technical Paper 16 to account for multiple munitions. Twenty-four (24) inches (0.61 m) of sandbags are required to defeat the fragments. All 40 mm grenades listed in the Fragmentation Database have been assessed and 24 inches (0.61 m) of sandbags is sufficient to defeat the fragments from multiple quantities of all of these 40 mm grenades. The overpressure effects at 2 ft (0.61 m) from the detonation of 5 lbs NEW (2.27 kg NEQ) in the open (conservative assumption) were calculated using Blast Effects Computer version 6.2. The resulting reflected pressure is 1773.1 psi (12225 kPa). The Underwater Shock Test (UST) pressure (TR-2112-SHR High Performance Magazine Non-Propagation Wall Design Criteria) for no reaction (no burn) for Pentolite (50/50) is 43,512 psi (300 MPa). Pentolite was used for comparison because it was the most sensitive explosive reported in TR-2112-SHR. Comparison of the UST pressure for no reaction and the reflected pressure at 2 ft (0.61 m) from 5 lbs NEW (2.27 kg NEQ) in the open shows that there is a 96% safety margin against propagation due to overpressure at 2 ft (0.61 m). 3.3 Design 3.3.1 Earth Covered 55-Gallon (208 liter) Drum(s) 55-gallon (208 liter) drums must be at least 2 ft (0.61 m) apart measured from the outside edge of each drum. Fill the space between the drums with sandbags or loose earth fill meeting the requirements of C5.2.1.3 (DoD 6055.9-STD DoD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards). C5.2.1.3. Earth cover for ECM. C5.2.1.3.1. Earth cover shall be reasonably cohesive and free from harmful (toxic) matter, trash, debris, and stones heavier than 10 pounds (4.54 kg) or larger than 5 inches (152 mm) in diameter. Solid or wet clay or similar types of soil shall not be used as earth cover because it is too cohesive. Use of acceptable stones shall be limited only to the lower center of side cover. The earthen material shall be compacted and prepared, as necessary, for structural integrity and erosion control. If it is impossible to use a cohesive material (e.g., in sandy soil), the earth cover over ECM shall be finished with a suitable material (e.g., geotextiles, gunnite) that will not produce hazardous debris, but will ensure structural integrity. C5.2.1.3.1. The earth fill or earth cover between ECM may be either solid or sloped. A minimum of 2 ft (0.61 m) of earth cover shall be maintained over the top of each ECM. (NOTE: If the specified thickness and slope of earth on the ECM is not maintained, the ECM shall be sited as an AGM.)

Cover the top front (creating a headwall) of each drum(s) with at least 2 ft (0.61 m) of sandbags. One or two layers of sandbags along the outer edge of the earth cover will help control erosion. See Figure 1 for a depiction of this for a single magazine. 3.3.2 Barricade If the front of the 55-gallon (208 liter) drum(s) cannot be oriented such that there is no personnel exposure for a minimum of 1.33 times the maximum horizontal fragment range (MFR-H) of the 40 mm grenades (452 ft (138 m) for the 40 mm M430), a barricade is required. The barricade shall be placed so that the face of the barricade is no greater than 4 ft (1.22 m) from the door of the 55-gallon (208 liter) drum(s). The length of the barricade shall extend a minimum of 4 ft (1.22 m) beyond the outer edge of the door of the 55-gallon (208 liter) drum.

Figure 1 55-Gallon (208 Liter) Drum Storage for 40mm The barricade height shall be 8 ft (2.44 m), plus or minus 4 inches (10.2 cm). The barricade may be constructed of sandbags, loose fill meeting the requirements of C5.3.3 (DoD 6055.9-STD), HESCOs or concrete T-walls. If constructed of sandbags, earth or HESCOs, the barricade shall be a minimum of 2 ft (0.61 m) thick. If constructed of concrete T-walls (see Figure 2), the concrete shall be a minimum of 4.25 inches (10.8 cm) thick to prevent spall.

Figure 2 T-Wall (Weight = 6 tons (5443 kg), Lift: 10 Ton (9072 kg) Crane or 20 Ton (18144 kg) Crane) 3.4 Quantity Distance (QD) The maximum total net explosive weight for quantity-distance (NEWQD) in this storage solution is 5 lbs NEW (2.27 kg NEQ). This storage solution is only applicable to 40 mm grenades. The required QD is listed in Table 3-1. Figure 3 shows the QD arcs for a single drum magazine with the standard door and a front barricade and Figure 4 shows the QD arcs for this magazine if there is no front barricade.

Door Design As shown in Standard Design Package No Door Other Door

Table 3-1: Quantity Distances Front Barricade QD sides/rear Barricaded 69 ft (21 m) Unbarricaded Barricaded Unbarricaded Barricaded Unbarricaded 69 ft (21 m) 69 ft (21 m) 69 ft (21 m) 200 ft (61 m) 200 ft (61 m)

QD front 69 ft (21 m) 452 ft (138 m) 69 ft (21 m) 452 ft (138 m) 200 ft (61 m) 452 ft (138 m)

Figure 3 QD Arcs for Single Drum Magazine with Front Barricade

Figure 4 QD Arcs for Single Drum Magazine without Front Barricade 4.0 Description of Proposed Design 4.1 Earth Cover The design uses a 55-gallon (208 liter) drum, with the lid removed, on its side as the magazine. The drum is covered with a minimum of 2 ft (0.61 m) of sand/soil. Sandbags should be used to build the 2 ft (0.61 m) high headwall across the top front to prevent the spillage of the loose fill across the barrel opening. The remainder of the fill may be either sandbags or loose fill meeting the requirements of C5.2.1.3 (DoD 6055.9-STD) and emplaced using a backhoe or end-loader. 4.2 Orientation and Barricade Ideally, the openings of the 55-gallon (208 liter) drums should be pointed in a direction where there are no personnel downrange from the opening. Orienting the 55-gallon (208 liter) drums so they point out to sea, toward an uninhabitable mountain or uninhabitable desert would be preferred. If the 55-gallon (208 liter) drums are oriented in a direction where DOD personnel or civilians are downrange then a barricade must be placed in front of the 55-gallon (208 liter) drum. This barricade should have a vertical wall on the side facing the containers and be 8 ft (2.44 m) tall (plus or minus 4 inches

(10.2 cm)). The distance between the front of the 55-gallon (208 liter) drum and the barricade should be minimized and should not exceed 4 ft (1.22 m). 4.3 Munition Position The munitions must be positioned so that there is at least 6 inches (15.2 cm) from the munition to the sides of the container. The front of the munition can should be a minimum of 9.5 inches (24.1 cm) from the front of the 55-gallon (208 liter) drum. Spacers made from wood, metal, foam, cardboard or any suitable material are highly recommended to make sure the 6 inch (15.2 cm) separation is maintained. The design has these spacers attached to the wooden floor for the PA 120 can. 4.4 Door The doors are not required for explosives safety purposes. The door designs are included for situations where a door is necessary for security purposes. The door designs are purposefully weak so that the door will fail quickly allowing venting of the blast pressure in the event of a detonation. Two different options for the door are shown in the design drawings which may be obtained from the point of contact in Section 7.0. The first option is a door that is hinged on the bottom. The frame to which the door is hinged will be countersunk so that the top of the frame is level with the ground. The frame will be anchored into the ground. The second option is a door that slides to the side. The frame on which the door slides will be anchored into the sandbags. 5.0 Explosives Safety Requirements Lightning Protection is required for this storage structure and should follow service directives. The following are possible solutions to providing lightning protection (LP) to this storage area using US Army criteria: 5.0.1 Intergal LP Intergal LP requires 2 ft (0.61 m) air terminal/s to be mounted on top of the 2 ft (0.61 m) of earth cover above the 55-gallon (208 liter) drum. A 6 ft (1.83 m) tall air terminal will provide LP to objects 2 ft (0.61 m) high to a distance of 15 ft (4.57 m) (radius). Three air terminals could be spaced in a triangle pattern to provide LP to 2 rows of 5 each drums (10 drums total). The air terminal/s requires two (2) paths to ground, terminating in at least two 10 X (3.05 m X 19.1 mm) ground rods. All steel 55-gallon (208 liter) drums need to be bonded together and grounded to the two grounding rods. 5.0.2 Mast LP Mast LP requires a single air terminal atop a pole such that the tip of the air terminal is at least 10 ft (3.05 m) high. Such a mast system will provide LP protection for objects 2 ft (0.61 m) high to a distance of 22 ft (6.71 m). A single mast system, as described, will provide adequate LP for 2 rows of 5 drums (10 drums total) if the mast LPS is placed roughly in the center of the storage area. The single mast must have two paths to ground and it is highly recommended that a metal pole be used instead of mounting an air terminal on a wooden pole (the entire pole becomes an air terminal and simplifies the two

paths to ground). Grounding of the LP and bonding of the drum must be IAW paragraph 5.0.1. 5.0.3 Evacuation on the Approach of the Thunderstorm If the command accepts the risk of the possible loss of these small drum magazines and their contents then lightning protection can be omitted. There must be a system capable of detecting thunderstorms at a distance and on the approach of a thunderstorm all personnel must evacuate to IBD distance (69 feet (21 m) in this case). 6.0 Benefits from the Design Personnel, exhausted from convey or patrol duty, will not have to go to the ASP or BLAHA to return ammunition items which they may need again the next day. Currently, ammunition items may not be returned to safe and secure storage at all, due to the distance and time required to complete the turn-in process. In that the troops will need the same ammunition the next day the ammunition items might be left in the vehicles (a security and safety violation), placed in arms rooms (arms rooms are not authorized to store HD 1.1 munitions, a safety violation) or they might be placed into the living quarters (a security and safety violation). Having an easy to access storage container in the vicinity of the vehicles improves safety and security. 7.0 Point of Contact Design drawings for this reduced QD storage design may be obtained from: Ms. Darlys Hutten US Army Technical Center for Explosives Safety Attn: SJMAC-ESM Building 35 1C Tree Road, McAlester, OK 74501-9053 Commercial: (918) 420-8771 DSN: 956-8771 e-mail: daryls.hutton@us.army.mil