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Natural numbers The counting numbers 1, 2, 3 … are called natural numbers. The set of natural numbers is denoted by N. N = {1, 2, 3, …}

Whole numbers If we include zero to the set of natural numbers, then we get the set of whole numbers. The set of whole numbers is denoted by W. W = {0, 1, 2, …}

Integers
The collection of numbers … –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3 … is called integers. This
collection is denoted by Z, or I.
Z = {…, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, …}
Rational numbers
p
Rational numbers are those which can be expressed in the form
q
, where p, q are
integers and q
0.
1
3
6
,
,
,
Example:
2
4
9
etc.
Note:
12
12
3
4
1.
15
15
5
, where the HCF of 4 and 5 is 1
12
4 3
and
15
5
are equivalent rational numbers (or fractions)
a
x
Thus, every rational number ‘x ’can be expressed as
b
, where a, b are integers

such that the HCF of a and b = 1 and b

0.

2. Every natural number is a rational number.

3. Every whole number is a rational number.

[Since every whole number W can be expressed as

W ].

1

4. Every integer is a rational number.

There are infinitely many rational numbers between any two given rational numbers.

Example:

Find 5 rational numbers

3

8 and

5

12 .

Solution:

3
3
3
9
9
6
54
8
8
3
24
24
6
144
5
5
2
10
10
6
60
12
12
2
24
24
6
144

It can be observed that:

54

144

55
56
57
58
59
60

144

144

144

144

144

144

3
55
7
19
29
59
5
8
144
18
48
72
144
12
55
7
19
29
59
3
5
Thus,
,
,
and
are
144 , 18
48
72
144
5 rational numbers between
8 and
12 .
Irrational Numbers
Irrational numbers are those which cannot be expressed in the form p
q
, where p, q
are integers and q
Example:
0.
2,
7,
14,0.0202202220
There are infinitely many irrational numbers.
Real Numbers
The collection of all rational numbers and irrational numbers is called real numbers.
So, a real number is either rational or irrational.
Note: Every real number is represented by a unique point on the number line (and
vice versa).
So, the number line is also called the real number line.

Example:

Locate

6 on the number line.

Solution:

It is seen that:
6
5
2 1
2

To locate

6 on the number line, we first need to construct a length of

5
2
2 1

By Pythagoras Theorem:

OB
2
OA
2
AB
2
2
2
1
2
4
1
5
OB
5

Steps:

5 .

(a)
Mark O at 0 and A at 2 on the number line, and then draw AB of unit length
5
perpendicular to OA. Then, by Pythagoras Theorem,OB
(b)
Construct BD of unit length perpendicular to OB. Thus, by Pythagoras
OD
5
2
12
6
Theorem,
(c)
Using a compass with centre O and radius OD, draw an arc intersecting the
number line at point P.
6 .
Thus, P corresponds to the number
Real numbers and their decimal expansions:
The decimal expansion of a rational number is either terminating or non-terminating
recurring (repeating). Moreover, a number whose decimal expansion is terminating
or non-terminating repeating is rational.

Example:

3

2

Terminating

15

8

4

3

Terminating

1.333

1.3 Non – terminating recurring

24

13

1.846153846153
1.846153

Non-terminating recurring

Example:

Show that 1.23434 …. can be written in the form

and q

Solution:

0.

Let x

1.23434
1.234

Here, two digits are repeating. Multiplying (1) by 100, we get:

100x = 123.43434……… =122.2 + 1.23434 …… Subtracting (1) from (2), we get:

99

x

122.2

1

(2)

p

q

, where p and q are integers

122.2
1222
x
99
990
661
495
611
Thus,1.234
495
The decimal expansion of an irrational number is non-terminating non-recurring.
Moreover, a number whose decimal expansion is non-terminating non- recurring is
irrational.
Example:
2.645751311064……. is an irrational number
Representation of real numbers on the number line
Example: Visualize 3.32 on the number line, upto 4 decimal places.
Solution:
3.32
3.3232
3.3232
approximate upto 4 decimal place

Now, it is seen that 3 < 3.3232 < 4. Divide the gap between 3 and 4 on the number line into 10 equal parts and locate 3.3232 between 3.3 and 3.4 [as 3.3 < 3.3232 < 3.4]. To locate the given number between 3.3 and 3.4 more accurately, we divide this gap into 10 equal parts. It is seen that 3.32 < 3.3232 < 3.33. We continue the same procedure by dividing the gap between 3.32 and 3.33 into 10 equal parts. It is seen that 3.323 < 3.3232 < 3.324. Now, by dividing the gap between 3.323 and 3.324 into 10 equal parts, we can locate 3.3232.

Operation on real numbers
Some facts
(a)
The sum or difference of a rational number and an irrational number is always
irrational.
(b)
The product or quotient of a non-zero rational number with an irrational
number is always irrational.
(c)
If we add, subtract, multiply or divide two irrational numbers, then the result
may be rational or irrational.
Illustrations
2
2
2
3 is irrational
3
5
0 is rational
2
2
15 is irrational
2 is rational
6
3
2

is irrational

2
1
2

is rational

Identities If a and b are positive real numbers, then

a.

ab
a b
a
a
b
b

b.

c.

a
b
a
b
a b
2

d. a

b
a
b
a
2 b

e.

f.

a
b
c
d
bc bd
a
b
2
a 2 ab
b
a
b
x

The denominator of

y can be rationalised by multiplying both the

x
numerator and the denominator by
y , where a, b, x, y are integers.
Laws of exponents
a a
p
.
q
a
p q
1)
a
p
q pq
a
2)
a
p
a p q
3)
a
q
ab
p
a b
p p
4)
, where a > 0 is a real number and p, q are rational numbers.
Note: 1
x a
a
x
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