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Summer Training Report On

"Marketing Research for Automotive Lubricants and Batteries"


At

General Motors India Pvt. Ltd.


SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF DEGREE OF

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA) To


MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY, ROHTAK Submitted by: Yogesh Kumar Roll no. 2559
M.B.A (3rd Semester)

AMITY BUSINESS SCHOOL, MANESAR AUGUST, 2006

SESSION - 2005-07 DECLARATION

I, Yogesh Kumar Roll No. 2559 MBA (3rd Semester) of the Amity Business School, Manesar hereby declare that the Summer Training Report entitled "Marketing Research for Automotive Lubricants and Batteries" is an original work and the same has not been submitted to any other institute for the award of any other degree. A seminar presentation of the Training Report was made on _______ and the suggestions as approved by the faculty were duly incorporated. Countersigned Presentation In-charge Signature of the candidate

Signature: ____________________ Name of the Faculty: _____________________ Countersigned Director / Principal of the Institute

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
My two months tenure of Summer Internship at General Motors has been an eye opener for me. It gave me tremendous inputs of the workings in the Corporate World. The Culture, Policies Work Methodology at General Motors were boosters and injected me lot of motivations as well as learning attitudes, it has been a very enriching experience for me and I own this credit to my Project Guide Mr. Rajeev Sethi, Divisional Manager (North), ACdelco, who not only guided me in my research work but also inspired me a lot and made me aware of the various Marketing Research Techniques adopted in the Corporate Sector. The biggest source of my Inspiration is Prof. (Dr.) R. C. Sharma (Advisor, ABS, Manesar) who helped and guided me throughout the research work from time to time. I am also thankful to Mr. R. K. Yadav (Placement Coordinator, CRC, ABS, Manesar) and Mrs. Shalini (Faculty member of ABS, Manesar). Last, but not the least, I am highly thankful and grateful to my faculty and friends who not only guided me, supported and encouraged me every second, and without their co-operation this project would not have taken such a successful shape.

Yogesh Kumar
M.B.A (I.T. & Mkt.) Amity Business School, Manesar

CONTENTS
(Page no.) About the project Objectives of the study Review of existing literature Research Methodology Company Profile Introduction to Automobiles Automotive Lubricants and Batteries Comparison of different Lubricants and Batteries Interpretation of data Bibliography

1 2 3-6 7-9 10-16 17-22 23-41 42-65 65-75 76

ABOUT THE PROJECT


For any Automobile Company either 2-wheeler or 4-wheeler, the selection of right kind of Automotive Lubricant and Batteries, for its product is very vital task. Both of these affect the product directly as batteries affect the ignition system of the product and lubricant helps in reducing friction between its various parts. As we know that in today's world there is a lot of competition and lot of players and brands are available in the market, for these lubricants and batteries. Before selecting a supplier a company should conduct a market research, which help the company in finding out the optimal brand and supplier, and for this various things are taken into consideration like reserve capacity, weight, acid level, Watts, current capacity etc. for Batteries and viscosity, resistance to carbon formation, oil oxidation, foaming resistance etc. for Automotive Lubricants. The main aim of the project is to find out an optimal brand of both Lubricants and Batteries, for General Motors, based on the standards give above. And for this a market research is carried out, in which data is collected from different manufacturers and suppliers. After the analysis of data, the task of finding out an optimal supplier and brand becomes very easy.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: The primary objective of this study was to assess the different suppliers and brands of Lubricants and Batteries available in the market based on the price level and other features. To study the market activities carried out by various company/dealer/supplier of Lubricants and Batteries. To find out the optimal brand available in the market for the company.

REVIEW OF EXISTING LITERATURE Introduction to Marketing


Meaning: "A market is a place where things are bought and sold, once for exchange. In its broadest sense, marketing should mean the study of the market." The purpose of this study on marketing is: To determine the needs and wants of various elements of market. To learn about the various competitive offerings available. To identify the most appropriate and profitable spread of products or services for consumption by the market. To identify ways in which the needs and wants of the market can be influenced by external actions. Marketing is a comprehensive term. It includes a group of business activities in order to create and promote consumer demand and to direct the flow of goods and services from the original producer to final consumers in the process of distribution. American marketing association defined marketing as "The performance of business activity that directs the flow of goods and services

from producer to consumer". Philip Kotler in his book entitled," Marketing Management", defines marketing as "The human activity directed to satisfied needs and wants through exchange process". From above definitions, it is obvious that traditional description of marketing was mainly concerned with the physical movement of goods, while the modern concept of marketing is consumer oriented. It makes the customer the focus of all business activities. Thus we say that marketing begins and ends with consumer.

Marketing Research: The business environment in India is full of opportunities. For successful business, market research system is most important. Marketing research can be defined as "The systematic gathering, recording and analyzing the data about problem relating to the marketing of goods and services". It helps a firm to identify and solve problems; to identify the available market opportunity and to develop the effort needed to exploit it. Marketing research is useful in a wide variety of activities. These are sales forecasting, measuring market share, identify market trends, measuring company and brand image, develop target, customer profiles, designing product and packages, locating warehouse and stores, processing order, managing inventory, analyzing demand, measuring price perception and advertising effectiveness.

Steps in conducting Marketing Research:

Proper identification of the problem: The nature of the problem

or opportunity should be communicated and defined. This is the first step in the process of finding solution.

Establishing the hypothesis: Hypothesis or tentative explanation


of a problem is formulated on the basis of insight knowledge about the problem. The hypothesis may prove to be either right or wrong.

Methodology and Definition: The formulation of research design


deals with defining concepts and variables. The methodology for any research study is drawn on the basis of careful examination of the available literature. This also depends to a large extent on the imagination, long-term vision and proper understanding of the researcher.

Data collection: Researcher uses primary and secondary data for


their research. Primary data are generally collected for a specific problem. These are totally original and generated by original research work. Secondary data, on the other hand, already in existing forms. These data are gathered by people who are working either within the organization to meet their needs.

Analysis of the data and presenting the findings: The collected


data must be edited and coded to facilitate the analysis of the data. The analysis includes the transformation of raw data into understandable form for the purpose of interpreting the data. The research should present major findings that are relevant to the major marketing decision facing the management.

Importance of Marketing Research: -

To ascertain the needs of existing and new customer discovered by the help of marketing research. To avoid complains from the customer about the inadequacy of the product. To determine the total sales. To determine popular brands in market. To understand the need of giving more or complete service to cover the consumer need by inside range of complementary or associated products.

To determine the brand awareness of various brands available in the market.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Methodology: The study is based on facts and figures collected by conducting a survey in the NCR region. Suppliers and Dealers were surveyed for the study. The respondents taken for the survey were from Gurgaon, Delhi and Faridabad auto market. Direct and structural methods were used for collecting information. The information collected was regarding the price, viscosity index, Oil oxidation and foaming resistance in case of Automotive Lubricants, and acid level, weight, current capacity, charge acceptance and price in case of Batteries. After this, the data obtained was evaluated on the basis of certain parameters given above and an optimal supplier and brand was chosen.

Sources of data collection: The data and information collected for the purpose of this study is divided into two forms: Primary data Secondary data

Primary data: Primary data is comprised of responses obtained from the various retailers of lubricants and Batteries in the NCR region.

Secondary data: Secondary data was collected from brochure, various magazines, books and newspaper.

Sampling: In case of retailer the census survey method was adopted. A simple procedure was followed for collection of data. Mixed responses were obtained from the respondents. For understanding the seller's view the entire shopkeeper, retailer, supplier, and dealers were interviewed during the survey period. The responses obtained from them were recorded. All the information gathered from the market is interpreted in data presentation and analysis.

Scope of the study: The scope of this study was restricted to knowing the optimal brand of lubricants and batteries available in the market for General Motors.

Geographical scope: The geographical scope for the study was confined to the NCR region and the adjoining cities of the region.

Tropical scope: The tropical scope is restricted of knowing the various features (price, viscosity index, oil oxidation and foaming resistance in case of Automotive Lubricants, and acid level, weight, current capacity, charge acceptance and price in case of Batteries) of different brands of lubricants and batteries available in the market.

Company Profile
General Motors designs, builds and markets cars and trucks worldwide. In 2004, GM sold nearly 9 million cars and trucks, accounting for about 14.5 percent of the global vehicle market. GM has been the world's largest vehicle manufacturer since 1931. General Motors has a long tradition of success and innovation within the automotive business, having been founded in 1908. Today the company's global headquarters are at the GM Renaissance Center in Detroit, Michigan, USA. GM employs about 324,000 people worldwide, has manufacturing operations in 32 countries and sells vehicles in 200 countries. GM's business units are structured across North America (GMNA), Europe (GME), Asia-Pacific (GMAP), and Latin America, Africa and the Middle East (GMLAAM). Its global presence includes GMAC Financial Services, On Star, and numerous Global Alliance partners. See the following pages for details on GM and how it manages the company. General Motors is a company of 324,000 employees globally, each aware of the legacy of those who went before them - a legacy of conducting business from a sound foundation of vision and values with a commitment to

responsibility for doing business the right way. This tradition represents a great asset for GM, but it also brings with it a tremendous responsibility.

Corporate Governance
General Motors is a recognized industry leader of strong corporate governance practices. As its Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Rick Wagoner frequently points out, "We have to earn investor confidence day in and day out by running our business with integrity and honesty." GM's Board of Directors has established a strong system of oversight, and has, as a company, placed a priority on clear, consistent and open communication about the company's performance.

Corporate Responsibility & Social Responsibility


"GM enjoys a long tradition of accountability, integrity, and transparency that has helped establish his reputation as a leader in corporate responsibility. GM places a high value on appropriate financial checks and balances, and on communicating clear, consistent, and truthful information about our performance."

GM Reduced U.S. Greenhouse Gases 75% from 1990 to 2001

GM Asia Pacific - GM performance in this region is once again strong. We


saw robust economic growth with sales in China up 27 percent in 2004, along with product innovations such as our new hybrid bus program in China. We also report on vehicle safety activities in Korea and China, our regional employee satisfaction survey, and for the first time we provide

regional data on energy, water and greenhouse gases. Reporting on our work with the international tsunami relief efforts is also accessed through this regional page.

GM Europe - GM Europe's losses grew as competition intensified but the


successful launch of the all-new Opel/Vauxhall Astra series helped increase GME's market share to 9.5 percent, its highest level in five years. Our regional pages report on strong continuing technological developments in cleaner diesels and leaner gasoline engines as well as alternative fuel developments such as methane gas and ethanol. We continue our focus on vehicle safety including pedestrian protection and record once more our strong operations health & safety performance along with more social initiatives in areas such as consumer diversity.

GM North America - The heartland of the company has seen many


highlights and challenges and GM continue to provide comprehensive information on product, economic, environmental and social performances. Our Only GM website, developed in North America, adds to the online resources available through the regional pages, providing information on advanced engines, safety and fuel economy.

General Motors is committed to providing its customers with compelling products products that reflect strong design themes, emphasize safety and quality, offer fuel efficiency and low emissions, and meet customers' demands for performance and utility. Every day, GM employees strive for

new and innovative ways to improve the vehicles the company builds and sells.

GM's Vehicle Strategy


GM product strategy involves delivering continuous improvement in design, Quality, Safety, Emissions, Fuel Economy, and Vehicle Recycling.

Competitiveness
General Motors is working hard to improve productivity and continue its strong cadence of new product introductions.

GM Products GM Products in India


OPTRA

TAVERA NY Edition

Some recently launched GM products

2006 U.S. EPA Rating


CHEVROLET 2006 AVEO 5

Fuel Economy Fuel type MPG (city) MPG (highway) MPG combined

CHEVROLET 2006 AVEO 5 Regular 24 34 28

Calculated annual fuel cost*

1231

Annual CO2 emissions 4.75 in metric tons, based on 15,000 miles driven CO2 emissions based on of fuel consumed
Customize fuel costs

in

metric 536
CO2

tons** gallons 4.75

and

emissions>>

Customize based on your driving behavior >> Vehicle Data EPA size class Engine size (liters) Cylinders Transmission Drive Gas guzzler***? SUBCOMPACT CARS 1.6 4 Auto(A4) Front No

2006 U.S. EPA Rating


CHEVROLET 2006 AVEO 5

Fuel Economy Fuel type MPG (city) MPG (highway) MPG combined

CHEVROLET 2006 AVEO 5 Regular 26 35 29

Calculated annual fuel cost*

1190

Annual CO2 emissions 4.59 in metric tons, based on 15,000 miles driven CO2 emissions based on of fuel consumed
Customize fuel costs

in

metric 517
CO2

tons** gallons 4.58

and

emissions>>

Customize based on your driving behavior >> Vehicle Data EPA size class Engine size (liters) Cylinders Transmission SUBCOMPACT CARS 1.6 4 Auto(A4)

Drive Gas guzzler***?

Front No

INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMOBILES The first gasoline automobiles: Automobiles have been around a hundred years or so. The first automobiles were very crude affairs. They were little more than old-fashioned buggies with engines. Naturally, they were called "gas buggies". The early engines had only one cylinder that could wheeze out only a horsepower or two. (A horsepower is the power of one horse). Around 1885, Daimler and Benz were building their gas buggy in Germany. Later, French firms were building automobiles. In 1893, the Duryea brothers built the first American car. By 1895, Henry Ford, Ransom Olds, and others were building automobiles. They were very crude compared to today's cars, but they ran-most of the time. By 1900, there were several factories, in Detroit and elsewhere, making automobiles. The engineers who set up these factories used two basic ideasinterchangeability and mass production.

Interchangeability

The idea of interchangeability was almost

unknown in 1900. Before then, many of the parts of the machines

were handmade. Each was different from others. It could fit only the machine it was made for. So each part had to be hand-fitted to its machine. This was a long and costly process. when a part wore out-a spring, for example- a new one had to be made by hand. But with interchangeability, similar parts are made to be exactly alike. For example, all connecting rods for one model engine are made the same. Then any of these connecting rods will fit any engine of that model. Likewise the valves and other engine parts are made to be the same. Also, automatic machines make bolts, nuts, washers, and other small parts so that all are alike. All this requires machinery that can turn out thousands of the same part. Then, when an engine is put together, everything fits with little extra work.

Mass production Along with interchangeability came the idea of


mass production. If all the similar parts are interchangeable, you do not have to hand-fit each part to the machine. The job of building an engine, for example, is simplified. In a modern engine assembly line. The engine moves along the line. The workers and machines add the pistons, rods, crankshafts, and other parts. At the end of the line, the engines are complete, ready to be tested, and installed in cars.

Parts of the automobile: There are four basic parts in the automobile.

The engine, or source of power. The framework, or support for the engine and wheels. This includes the frame and the steering and breaking system. The assembly is called the chassis.

The power train, which transmits the power from the engine to the car wheels. The body.

The Engine
Engine is the source of power that makes the car move. "Engine" is often confused with "motor". A "motor" is an electrical device that runs on electricity. The automobile engine runs on gasoline. The confusion arises from the fact that some people call automobiles "motor cars", and refer to driving cars as "motoring". Actually, we should call them "engine cars" and driving as "engining". But then, it is hard to change people's habits. So just remember that the power plant in the car is an engine and the electrical devices in refrigerator and electric fans are motors. Two major types of engine are used in the automobiles today. The first is the piston engine, in which pistons move up and down, or reciprocate. The second is the rotary engine, in which a rotor spins. The piston engine is by far the most common. It is the kind of engine used in Chevrolets, Fords, Plymouths, and other cars. The rotary engine has rotors, or parts that spin. The two kinds of rotary engines are the Wankel and the turbine. There are no turbines in the automobiles today. However, the Wankel is operating in hundreds of thousands of cars. The most common widely known is the Mazda, made by Toyo Kogyo of Japan.

All these engines must have four basic systems. Fuel system Ignition system Lubricating system Cooling system

The fuel system mixes gasoline with air to make a mixture that will burn. When this mixture burns in the engine, it produces high pressure. The high pressure forces the piston to move. The movement turns shafts that turn the wheels so the car moves. The ignition system supplies a steady stream of sparks to the engine cylinders. These sparks set fire to, or ignite, the mixture of air and fuel. The mixture burns to produce the power. The lubricating system keeps all moving parts coated with oil so they will move easily. The cooling system circulates a mixture of water and antifreeze between the engine and a radiator. This mixture is called the coolant. The coolant carries heat away from the engine to prevent it from getting too hot.

Fuel system: The fuel system includes a fuel tank, fuel lines, a fuel pump, and a carburetor.

Fuel tank It is a sheet-metal tank with two openings. Fuel is pumped


into the tank through one opening. Fuel is pumped from the tank to the carburetor through the other.

Fuel pump The fuel pump sends fuel from the tank to the carburetor. Carburetor The carburetor is a mixing device. It mixes fuel with air
and sends the mixture to the engine. In operation, the carburetor throws a fine spray of fuel into the air passing through it. The fuel vaporizes. That is, it turns from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor mixes with the air to form an air-fuel mixture that will burn.

Ignition system: The fuel system delivers the air-fuel mixture to the engine. Then something must ignite, or set fire to, the mixture. The ignition system does this job. It consists of an ignition switch, an ignition coil, a distributor, spark plugs, and wiring. The battery, or generator or alternator, delivers low-voltage current to the ignition system. The ignition coil and distributor turn this into highvoltage surges. These surges flow through the wiring to the spark plugs. There, the surges produce electric sparks. The spark ignites the air-fuel mixtures in the engine cylinders. The burning air-fuel mixtures produce high temperature and pressure. The pressure forces the pistons to move. This causes the shafts and the wheels to turn.

Lubricating system: The engine has many moving parts. These parts must be coated with oil so they will slide or turn easily. The parts move on the thin layers of oil supplied by the engine lubricating system. The lubricating system is part of the engine. It includes: An oil pan in which a reserve of oil is kept. An oil pump that sends oil from the oil pan to the engine.

Oil passages that carry oil to all moving parts. The layers of oil on the metal parts keep the parts from touching each

other. If the metal parts rubbed against each other, they would wear out rapidly. The engine would then last only a few miles. So the lubricating system is essential to the engine.

Cooling system: Fire produces heat. And there is plenty of fire in the running engine. Heat is produced when the air-fuel mixture burns. Some of this heat leaves the engine with the hot exhaust gas. This is the gas that is left after the air-fuel mixture burns. But a great deal of heat remains in the engine. If the heat is not removed it can overheat the engine and ruin it. The cooling system removes this heat and prevents it from building up. So a cooling system is necessary. It works very simply. Openings, called water jackets, surround the engine cylinders. Coolant circulates through these water jackets and gets hot. That is, the coolant takes some of the heat from the engine. Then the hot coolant flows through the radiator, where it loses heat. The water pump keeps the coolant moving between the engine and the radiator. So the cooling system, in operation, is constantly removing heat from the engine.

Automotive batteries Purpose of batteries:The battery supplies current to operate the starting motor and the ignition system when the engine is being started. It also supplies current for lights, radio, and other electrical accessories when the alternator is not handling the electrical load. The amount of current the battery can supply is limited by the capacity of the battery. This, in turn, depends on the amount of chemical it contains.

Chemicals in the battery


The chemicals in the battery are sponge lead (a solid), lead oxide (a paste), and sulfuric acid (a liquid). These three substances are made to react chemically to produce a flow of current. The lead oxide and sponge lead are held in plate grids to form positive and negative plates. The plate grid is a framework of antimony-lead alloy with horizontal and vertical bars. The plate grids are made into plates by applying lead oxide

paste. The horizontal and vertical bars hold the paste in the plate. After the plates are assembled into the battery, the battery is given a forming charge. This charges the lead oxide paste in the positive, or plus, plate to lead peroxide.

Battery construction
In the battery, several similar plates are properly spaced and welded, or lead-burned, to a strap. This forms a plate group. Plates of two types are used, one for the positive plate group, the other for the negative plate group. A positive plate group is nested with a negative plate group. Separators are placed between the plates to form an element. The separators hold the plates apart so that they do not touch. At the same time the separators are porous enough to permit liquid to circulate between the plates. Wooden sheets, spun glass matted into sheets, and porous sponge-rubber sheets have been used as separators. Late model have separators made of acid-resistant polyvinyl chloride or polyethylene-saturated cellulose. The elements are placed in cells in the battery case. Then heavy lead connectors are attached to the cell terminals to connect the cells in series. Many batteries have connectors that pass through the partitions. After the internal connectors are in place, the cover is put on. The cover has openings through which liquid can be added when the filler plugs or vent caps are removed. After the liquid is added and the battery is given an initial charge, it is ready for operation. Some batteries have the two main terminals on the battery cover. Other batteries have the terminals in the side of the battery case. This type of

battery is called an ST (for side terminal or sealed terminal) battery by the manufacturer. There is also a no-service battery, which is sealed. It never requires the addition of water, as other batteries occasionally do.

Chemical activities in the battery


The liquid in a battery is called the Electrolyte. It is made up of about 40 percent of sulfuric acid and about 60 percent of water (in a fully charged battery). When sulfuric acid is placed between the plates, chemical actions take place. These actions remove electrons from one group of plates and collect them at the other. This creates a 2.1-volt pressure between the two groups of plates. That is, there is a pressure of 2.1 volts between the two terminals of the battery cell. If the two terminals are not connected by any circuit, no further chemical activity takes place. However, when the two terminals do become connected by an electric circuit, electrons (current) will flow. They flow from the terminal where chemical activity has collected them. They flow through the circuit to the other terminal, where the chemical activity has removed them. Chemical activities now begin again so the 2-volt pressure is maintained. The current flows continuous. The chemical actions use up the sponge lead, lead peroxide, and sulfuric acid. Thus, after a certain amount of current has been withdrawn, the battery is discharged (or run down or dead). It is not capable of delivering any additional current. When the battery has reached this state, it may be recharged. This is done by supplying it with a flow of current from some external source. The external source forces current back through the battery.

This reverses the chemical activities in the battery. The plates are restored to their original composition, and the battery becomes recharged. It is then ready to deliver the additional current. The actions that take place are rather complicated and are not fully understood. The sponges lead (negative plate) and lead peroxide (positive plate) change to lead sulfate during the discharge process. The sulfate comes from the sulfuric acid. The electrolyte loses acid and gains water as the sulfate goes into the plates. Thus, discharging the battery changes the two different chemicals in the battery plates to the third chemical, lead sulfate. Recharging the battery changes the lead sulfate back to sponge lead in the negative plates, and to lead peroxide in the positive plates. Meantime, the sulfuric acid reappears in the electrolyte of the battery.

Connecting cells
Automotive batteries are usually 12-volts units. There are six cells in the 12volt battery. The six cells are connected in series. In series connections, the voltages add. Some special applications use 24-volt batteries; these specialpurpose batteries have 12 cells.

Battery ratings
The amount of current that a battery can deliver depends on the area and volume of the active plate material. It also depends on the amount and strength of electrolyte. Batteries are rated in several ways. 1. Reserve capacity This is the length of time in minutes that a fully charged battery at 80 degree F [26.7 degree C] can deliver 25 amperes. A typical rating would be 125

minutes. This figure indicates the ability of a battery to carry the electrical operating load when the alternator is not operating. 2. Cold cranking rate One of the two cranking rates is the no of amperes that a battery can deliver for 30 seconds when it is at 0 degree F [-17.8 degree C] without the cell voltages falling below 1.2 volts. A typical rating for a battery with a reserve capacity of 125 minutes would be 430 amperes. This figure indicates the ability of the battery to crank the engine at the low temperatures. The second cold cranking rate is measured at -20 degree F [-28.9 degree C]. In this, the final voltage is allowed to drop the 1.0-volt per cell. A typical rating for a battery with a reserve capacity of 125 minutes would be 320 amperes. 3. Overcharge life units This is a measure of how well the battery will stand up when it is overcharged. 4. Charge acceptance This is a measure of how well the battery will accept a charge under normal operating conditions with a voltage-regulated automotive charging system. 5. Watts Delco is promoting an additional rating-watt. This is roughly equivalent to the battery cold cracking rating.

Battery efficiency
The ability of the battery to deliver current varies within wide limits. It depends on temperature and rate of discharge. At low temperature, chemical activities are greatly reduced; the sulfuric acid cannot work so actively on the plates. Thus the battery is less efficient and cannot supply as much

current for as long a time. High rates of discharge will not produce as many amperes-hours as low rates of discharge. At high discharge rates, the chemical activist takes place only on the surfaces of the plates. They do not have time to penetrate the plates and to use the materials below the plate surfaces. Here are some figures that relate battery efficiency to battery temperatures. Note that these are only approximations.

Efficiency, Percent
100 65 50 10

Battery temperature, degrees F [C]


80 [26.7] 32 [0] 0 [-17.8] -45 [-42.8]

CAR BATTERIES
A car battery is principally used to start the engine. It is also used to filter or stabilize power and to provide extra power for the ignition, lighting and other accessories when their combined load exceeds the capability of the charging system, i.e., when the engine is idling. It also provides power to the electrical system when the charging system is not operating. The battery lies hidden under the bonnet and is an essential component of your vehicle. Regular care is a must, for if it in bad shape, the car will refuse to move. "Push-start" is a solution but cannot be carried on for long. A wellmaintained battery lasts for two years. Regular care of your battery is a must, otherwise your car will not move. "Push-start" is an option but not a longterm solution. A well-maintained battery usually lasts for two years.

Points to note when buying a new battery


Climatic conditions determine the kind of battery you should buy. Colder climates require batteries with higher CCA ratings than in a hot climate.

Cold Cranking Amps (CCA)


The most important consideration is sizing the battery's CCA rating to meet

or exceed, depending on the climate, is the car's OEM cranking requirements. CCA's are defined as the discharge loads measured in amps that a fully charged battery at 0 degrees F (-17.8 degrees C) can deliver for 30 seconds while maintaining the voltage above 7.2 volts.

Batteries are sometimes advertised by their Cranking Performance Amps (CA) or Marine Cranking Amps (MCA), which is measured at 32 degrees F (0 degrees C) or Hot Cranking Amps. HCA is measured at 80 degrees F (26.7 degrees C), which is not the same as CCA. Do not be misled by CA, MCA or HCA ratings. Multiply the Cas by 8 to convert Cas to CCAs. To convert HCAs to CCAs, multiply HCAs by 0.69. Buying batteries with double or triple CCA ratings that exceed the OEM requirement are a waste of money for hot climates. However, in colder climates the higher the CCA rating the better, due to increased power required to crank a sluggish engine and the inefficiency of the cold battery. As batteries age, they are less capable of producing CCAs. One of the major battery manufacturers, Exide, publishes the following table:

Available Power from Temperature battery


100% 65% 40% 25%

Power Required to crank engine


100% 155% 210% 350%

Degrees F
80 32 0 -32

If more CCA capacity is required, two (or more) 12-volt batteries can be connected in parallel. Within a BCI group size, generally the battery with more CCA will have more plates because a larger surface area is required to produce the higher current.

Reserve Capacity (RC)


The Reserve Capacity rating is the second most important consideration while buying a battery. This is because of the effects of an increased parasitic (key off) load and in emergencies. Reserve Capacity is the number of minutes a fully charged battery at 80 degrees F (26.7 degrees C) can be discharged at 25 amps until the voltage falls below 10.5 volts. More RC is better in every case! In a hot climate, for example, if your car has a 360 OEM cranking amp requirement, then a 400 CCA rated battery with 120 minute RC with more electrolyte would be more desirable than one with 1000 CCA with 90 minutes of RC. If more RC is required, two six-volt batteries can be connected in series or two (or more) 12-volt batteries can be connected in parallel. Within a BCI group size, generally the battery with larger RC will weigh more because it contains more lead.

Type
Low maintenance (non-sealed) and maintenance free (non-sealed or sealed) are the two most common types of car batteries. The advantages of maintenance free batteries are less preventative maintenance, longer life, faster recharging, greater overcharge resistance, reduced terminal corrosion and longer shelf life, but they are more prone to deep discharge (dead battery) failures due to increased shedding of active

plate material. In hot climates, buying non-sealed batteries is recommended because a sealed battery will not allow you to add water when required, or to test the specific gravity with an external hydrometer. Some manufacturers introduced a third type of car battery, "dual", that combined a standard battery with switch able emergency backup cells. For about the same cost a better approach was to buy two batteries and isolate them. It is best to buy a commercial or AMG battery for excessive vibration applications. Car batteries are specially designed for high initial cranking amps (usually for five to 15 seconds) to start an engine; whereas, deep cycle (or marine) batteries are designed for prolonged discharges at lower amperage. A "dual marine" battery is a compromise between a car and deep cycle battery; however, a car battery will give you the best performance in a car. For RVs, a car battery is used to start the engine and a deep cycle battery is used to power the accessories. The batteries are connected to a diode isolator and both are automatically recharged by the RV's charging system when engine is running.

Size
Batteries are generally sold by model, so the group numbers will vary for the same price. This means that for the SAME price you can potentially buy a physically larger battery with more RC than the battery you are replacing, e.g. a 34/78 group might replace a smaller 26/70 group and give you an additional 30 minutes of RC. If you do this, be sure that the replacement battery will fit, the cables will connect to the correct terminals, and that the terminals will NOT touch the

hood when closed. BCI and the battery manufacturers publish application guides that will contain the OEM cranking amperage requirements and group number replacement recommendations by make, model and year of car, and battery size, CCA and RC specifications. Manufacturers might not build or the store might not carry all the BCI group numbers. To reduce inventory costs, dual terminal "universal" batteries that will replace several group sizes are becoming more popular and fit 75% or more of cars on the road today.

Freshness
Determining the "freshness" of a battery is sometimes difficult. A battery that is more than six months old should never be bought because it begins to sulfate. Sulfation occurs when lead sulfate cannot be converted back to charged material and is created when discharged batteries stand for a long time or from excessive water loss.

Warranty
As with every thing else, it is necessary that you check the warranty period of the battery before you buy it.

It is extremely important to note that


Batteries contain a sulfuric acid electrolyte, which is a highly corrosive poison. It produces gasses when recharged and explode if ignited. When working with batteries, you need to have plenty of ventilation, remove jewelry, wear protective clothing and eyewear (safety glasses), and exercise caution. Whenever possible, you are requested to follow the manufacturer's

instructions for testing, jumping, installing and charging

Automotive Lubricating System Purpose of lubricating system: We normally think of lubricating oil as a substance that reduces wear and friction between moving surfaces. However, the lubricating oil circulating through the engine performs other jobs. The lubricating oil must: Lubricate moving parts to minimize wear. Lubricate moving parts to minimize power loss from friction. Remove heat from engine parts by acting as a cooling agent. Absorbs shocks between bearing and other engine parts, reducing engine noise and extending engine life. Form a good seal between piston rings and cylinder walls. Act as a cleaning agent.

1 & 2. Minimize wear and power loss from friction. Friction in the engine is normally viscous friction, that is, the friction between moving layers of oil. If the lubricating system does not function properly, sufficient oil will not be supplied to moving parts. Greasy or even dry friction will result between moving surfaces. This would cause considerable power loss, since power must be used to overcome these types of friction. At worst, major damage would occur to engine parts as greasy or dry friction developed. Bearings would wear with extreme rapidly. The heat resulting

from dry or greasy friction would cause bearing failure, so that connecting rods and other parts would be broken. Insufficient lubricating of cylinder walls would cause rapid wear and scoring of walls, rings, and pistons. A properly operating engine lubricating system supplies moving parts with enough oil so friction is of the viscous type only.

3.

Removing heat from engine parts. Engine oil circulates rapidly

through the engine lubricating system. All bearings and moving parts are bathed in streams of oil. In addition to lubricating, the oil absorbs heat from engine parts and carries it back into the oil pan. The oil pan absorbs heat from the oil, transferring it to the surrounding air. The oil thus acts as a cooling agent.

4. Absorbing shocks between bearings and other engine parts.

As

the piston approaches the end of the compression stroke, the mixture in the cylinder is ignited. Pressure in the cylinder suddenly increases many times. A load of as much as 2 tones is suddenly placed on the top of a 3-inch piston. This sudden increase in pressure causes the piston to thrust down hard through the piston-pin bearing, connecting rod, and connecting rod bearings. There is always some space, or clearance, between bearings and journals, this space is filled with oil. When the load suddenly increases as described above, the layers of oil between bearings and journals must as cushions. They must resist penetration or squeezing out. A film of oil must remain between metal surfaces. In thus absorbing and cushioning the hammer like effect of the sudden loads, the oil quiets the engine and reduces wear of parts.

5.

Forming a seal between piston rings and cylinder walls. Piston

rings must form a gastight seal with the cylinder walls. The lubricating oil that is delivered to the cylinder walls helps the piston rings to accomplish this. The oil firm on the cylinder walls makes up for microscopic unevenness in the fir between the rings and walls. The film in any gaps through which gas might escape. The oil firm also lubricates the rings, so that they move easily in the ring grooves and on the cylinder walls.

6. Acting as a cleaning agent. The oil, as it circulates, tends to wash off


and carry away dirt, carbon, and other foreign mater. The oil picks up this material and carries it back to the crankcase. There, larger particles drop to the bottom of the oil pan. Smaller particles are removed from the oil by the oil filter.

PROPERTIES OF OIL
A satisfactory engine lubricating oil must have certain characteristics, or properties. It must have proper viscosity (body and fluidity). It must resist oxidation, carbon formation, corrosion, rust, extreme pressure, and foaming. Also, it must act as a good cleaning agent, must pour at low temperature, and must have good viscosity at very high and low temperatures. No mineral oil, by itself, has all these properties. Lubricating-oil manufactures therefore put a number of additives into the oil during the manufacturing process.

Oil for severe service may have many additives: Usually a viscosity-index improver Pour-point depressants

Oxidation inhibitors Corrosion inhibitors Rust inhibitors Foam inhibitors Detergent-dispersants Extreme-pressure agents

1. Viscosity (body and liquidity)

Viscosity is the most important

property of lubricating oil. Viscosity refers to the tendency of oil to resist flowing. In a bearing and journal, layers of oil adhere to the bearing and journal surfaces. These layers must move, or slip, with respect to each other. The viscosity of the oil determines the ease with which this slipping can take place. Viscosity may be divided for discussion into two parts, body and fluidity. Body gives the oil resistance to oil-film puncture, or penetration, during the application of heavy loads. When power stroke begins, for example, bearing loads sharply increases. Oil body prevents the load from squeezing out the film of oil between the journal and the bearing. This property cushions shock loads and helps maintain a good seal between piston rings and cylinder walls. The body of the oil maintains an adequate oil film on all bearing surfaces under load. Temperature influences viscosity. Increasing temperature reduces viscosity. That is, it causes oil to lose body and gain fluidity. Decreasing temperature causes oil viscosity to increase. The oil gains body and loses fluidity. Engine temperature ranges several hundred degrees from cold-weather starting to operate temperature. Lubricating oil must have adequate fluidity at low temperature so that it will flow. At the same time, it must have sufficient

body for high-temperature operation.

2.

Viscosity ratings Viscosity of oil are determined by use of

viscosimeter. This device determines the length of time foe a definite


amount of oil to flow through an opening of a definite size. Temperature is taken into consideration during the test. High temperature decreases viscosity. Low temperature increases viscosity. In referring to viscosity, oils with lower numbers are of lower viscosity. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) rates oil viscosity in two different ways, for winter and for other then winter. Winter-grade oils are tested at 0 degree F (-18 degree Celsius). There are three grades, SAE5W, SAE10W, and SAE20W. The w indicates winter grade. For other then winter use oils, tested at 210 degree F (99 degree Celsius), the grades are SAE20, SAE30, SAE40, and SAE50, all without the w.

3. Viscosity index (V I)

when oil is cold, it is thicker and runs more

slowly then when it is hot. It is more viscous when it is cold. The engine is harder to start when it is cold because the oil is more viscous. In recent years, oil chemists have developed viscosity-index improvers. These compounds tend to reduce oil viscosity when it is cold, and increases oil viscosity when it is hot. Thus, the oil makes cold starting easier and yet does not thin out too much. Oil with these characteristics is called multipleviscosity oils. For example, oil may be rated SAE10W-30. This means that the oil is the same as SAE10W when it is cold, and SAE30 when it is hot.

4. Pour-point depressant

This is an additive that depresses, lowers, the

temperature at which the oil becomes too thick to flow. This additive keeps the oil at low temperature for cold-weather starts.

5. Resistance to carbon formation Cylinder

walls, pistons, and rings

operate at temperature of several hundred degrees. This temperature is high enough to cause the oil to break down and form carbon. The less carbon in the engine cylinder, the better. So the oil chemists regulate the refining process to make sure that lubricating oil has good resistance to forming carbon.

6.

Oil oxidation When oil is heated and then stirred up-as happens in the

crankcase-oxygen in the air tends to combine with, the oil. As oil oxidizes, various harmful substances can form, including some that are like tar and others like varnish. To prevent this, additives are put into the oil to inhibit oxidation. 7. Foaming resistance The churning action in the engine crankcase also causes engine oil to foam. This is like an eggbeater causing an egg while to form frothy foam. As the oil foams up, it tends to overflow, or to be lost through the crankcase ventilator. In additive, foaming oil does not provide normal lubrication of bearings and other moving parts. Foaming oil in hydraulic valve lifters causes them to function poorly, work noisily, wear rapidly, and possibly break. To prevent foaming, antifoaming additives are mixed with oil. 8. Corrosion and rust inhibitors At high temperature, acids may form in the oil, which can corrode engine parts, especially bearings. Corrosion inhibitors are added to the oil to inhibit this corrosion. Also, rust inhibitors are added. These displace water from metal surfaces so that oil coats them. They also neutralize acids. 9. Detergent-dispersants Despite the filters and screens at the carburetor and crankcase ventilator, dirt does get into the engine. In addition, as the engine runs, the combination process leaves deposits of carbon on pistons

rings, valves, and other parts. Also, some oil oxidation may take place, resulting in still other deposits. Then, too, metal wear in the engine puts particles of metal into the oil. As a result, deposits tend to build up on and in engine parts. The deposits reduce the performance of the engine and speed up wear of parts. To prevent or slow down the formation of these deposits, some engine oils contain a detergent additive. 10. Extreme-pressure resistance The modern automotive engine subjects the lubricating oil to very high pressure in the bearings and in the valve train. Modern valve trains have heavy valve springs and high-lift cams. This means that the valves must moves farther against heavier spring loads. This means that the valves must move farther against heavier spring loads. To prevent the oil from squeezing out, extreme-pressure additives are put into the oil. They react chemically with metal surfaces to form very strong, slippery firms which may be only a molecule or so thick. Thus, they supplement the oil by providing protection during extreme pressure.

Types of lubricating systems


Two types of lubricating systems have been used on four-cycle engines. They are the splash and pressure-feed systems. Two-cycle engines require a different kind of lubrication. The Wankel engine also requires a special sort of lubricating system. 1. Splash In the splash lubricating system, oil is splashed from the pan into the lower part of the crankcase. Usually, the connecting has a dipper that dips into the crankcase oil each time the piston reaches BDC. This splashes

the oil. Some small engines also use oil slingers which are driven by the camshaft. These are gear-like parts that throw oil pan up into the moving engine parts. The splash system is used on most small four-cycle engines for power lawnmowers and similar applications. 2. Pressure feed In the pressure-feed lubricating system, many engine parts are lubricated by oil fed under pressure from the oil pump. The oil from the pump enters an oil line. From the oil line, it flows to the main bearings and camshafts bearings. The main bearings have oil-feed holes or grooves that feed oil into drilled passages in the crankshaft. The oil flows through these passages to the connecting-rod bearings. From there, on some engines, it flows through holes drilled in the connecting rods to the pistonpin bearings.

MAJOR BRANDS AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET

COMPARISION OF AUTOMOTIVE LUBRICANTS


Name: Castrol RX Super 15W40 Quantity: 5 liters Price: Rs 740 Castrol 15W40 is diesel engine oil, specially developed for requirement of modern diesel engines operating under extreme condition.

Sr. ADVANTAGES 1. Excellent thermal and oxidation stability 2. Excellent service over wide range of temperatures. 3. Excellent corrosive wear protection. 4. Low oil thickening in stop and go conditions.

Name: Toyota CF-4

15W40 Quantity: 5 liters Price: Rs 600 Toyota 15W40 CF-4 is multigrade duty diesel engine crankcase oil, specially developed for requirement of modern diesel engines operating under extreme condition.

Sr. ADVANTAGES 1. Minimum variation in viscosity 2. Minimum insoluble build-up. 3. Excellent overall performance in different engine designs. 4. Reduced product misapplication due to fewer oil storages.

Name: Servo Pride 15W40

Quantity: 5 liters Price: Rs 540 Servo pride 15W40 is diesel engine oil, blended from highly refined base stock mixed with selected high performance additives, specially developed for requirement of modern diesel engines operating under extreme condition.

Sr. ADVANTAGES 1. Longer engine life. Higher level of protection against starting friction and heat 2. stream. 3. Good oxidation and thermal stability. 4. Good corrosion and wear protection.

Name: Servo Super multigrade 20W40 Quantity: 5 liters Price: Rs 580

Servo super multigrade 20W40 diesel engine oil, high technology multigrade oil, with selected high performance additives, it give excellent service over a wide range of temperatures. Sr. ADVANTAGES 1. Minimum variation in viscosity 2. Minimum insoluble build-up. 3. Excellent overall performance in different engine designs. 4. Reduced product misapplication due to fewer oil storages.

Name: MGO Servo Quantity: 3 liters Price: Rs 320 MGO Servo engine oil is premium multigrade engine oil blended from highly refined, high viscosity index base stocks fortified with carefully selected additives packages.

Sr. ADVANTAGES 1. Extended oil drain intervals. 2. Excellent service over a wide range of temperatures. 3. Low oil thickening in stop and go conditions. 4. Excellent thermal and oxidation stability.

Name: GTX Castrol Magnetic Quantity: 5 liters Price: Rs 600 Castrol GTX is multipurpose engine oil,

specially developed for requirement of modern engines operating under extreme condition, with selected high performance additives, it give excellent service over a wide range of temperatures

Sr. ADVANTAGES 1. Reduce oil consumption. 2. Improves engine cleanliness. 3. Eliminates seasonal oil changes. 4. Good corrosion and wear protection.

Name: GTX Castrol Quantity: 5 liters Price: Rs 400 Castrol GTX is multipurpose engine oil, blended from highly refined base stock mixed with selected high performance additives, specially developed for requirement of modern diesel engines operating under extreme condition Sr. 1. 2. 3. ADVANTAGES Good oxidation and thermal stability. Good corrosion and wear protection. Excellent overall performance in different engine designs.

4.

Reduced product misapplication due to fewer oil storages.

Name: CRB Castrol 20W40 Quantity: 5 liters Price: Rs 600 Castrol CRB 20W40 is premium multigrade engine oil, blended with high viscosity index base stocks fortified with carefully selected additives packages. Sr. 1. 2. 3. 4. ADVANTAGES Provides ease in cold starting. Improves engine cleanliness. Good oxidation and thermal stability Longer engine life.

Name: Shell Quantity: 3 liters Price: Rs 350 Shell is a premium multigrade engine oil, specially developed for requirement of modern diesel engines operating under extreme condition.

Sr. 1. 2. 3. 4.

ADVANTAGES Longer engine life. Excellent service over a wide range of temperatures. Low oil thickening in stop and go conditions. Excellent thermal and oxidation stability.

Name: BP 20W40 Quantity: 5 liters Price: Rs 480 BPW40 is a premium diesel engine oil, high technology multigrade oil, with selected high performance additives, it give excellent service over a wide range of temperatures Sr. ADVANTAGES 1. Provides ease in cold starting. 2. Improves engine cleanliness. 3. Good oxidation and thermal stability 4. Longer engine life.

Name: Red Horse Quantity: 5 liters Price: Rs 360 HP Red Horse diesel engine oil, high technology multigrade oil, blended from highly refined base stock mixed with selected high performance additives, specially developed for requirement of modern diesel engines operating under extreme condition. Sr. ADVANTAGES 1. Reduce oil consumption. 2. Improves engine cleanliness. 3. Eliminates seasonal oil changes. 4. Good corrosion and wear protection.

MAJOR BRANDS AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET

COMPARISION OF AUTOMOTIVE BATTERIES


Details of EURO55 Classic Gold Name: EURO55 Price: Rs 3800 Warranty in Months: 24 Heavy duty maintenance free batteries for tropical climates and Indian road conditions - for premium segment vehicles

Sr. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Features COLD FORGED TERMINALS HEAT SEALED COVERS MORE ELECTROLYTE ABOVE THE PLATE POLYPROPYLENE CONTAINER UNIQUE SEPARATOR POLYETHYLENE WITH GLASS MAT LINING THROUGH THE PARTITION CONNECTIONS MAINTENANCE FREE LOW MAINTENANCE MAGIC EYE

ENVELOPE

Details of PS55 Classic Silver

Name: PS55 Price: Rs 2710 Warranty in Months: 18 Heavy duty, low maintenance batteries for all segments of vehicles.

Sr. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Features COLD FORGED TERMINALS HEAT SEALED COVERS MORE ELECTROLYTE ABOVE THE PLATE POLYPROPYLENE CONTAINER UNIQUE SEPARATOR POLYETHYLENE

ENVELOPE

WITH GLASS MAT LINING 6. THROUGH THE PARTITION CONNECTIONS 7. LOW MAINTENANCE

Details of PXT55 X-treme

Name: PXT55 Price: Rs 4095 Warranty in Months: 24 Heavy-duty maintenance free batteries designed for optimizing energy supply in addition to providing backup for vehicle accessories. Description: 1. Cold forged terminals 2. Heat sealed covers 3. Polypropylene container and cover 4. Unique polyethylene envelope separator with glass mat lining 5. Trough the partition connections 6. Maintenance free 7. Magic eye 8. Flame arrestor membranes

Details of EURO74 Classic Gold

Name: EURO74 Price: Rs 5230 Warranty in Months: 24 Heavy-duty maintenance free

batteries for tropical climates and Indian road conditions - for premium segment vehicles. Sr. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Features COLD FORGED TERMINALS HEAT SEALED COVERS MORE ELECTROLYTE ABOVE THE PLATE POLYPROPYLENE CONTAINER UNIQUE SEPARATOR POLYETHYLENE WITH GLASS MAT LINING THROUGH THE PARTITION CONNECTIONS MAINTENANCE FREE LOW MAINTENANCE MAGIC EYE

ENVELOPE

Details of DIN55 Name: DIN55 Price: Rs 4230 Warranty in Months: 24 Heavy duty maintenance free batteries for tropical climates and Indian road

conditions - for premium segment vehicles

Sr. Features 1. COLD FORGED TERMINALS 2. HEAT SEALED COVERS 3. MORE ELECTROLYTE ABOVE THE PLATE 4. POLYPROPYLENE CONTAINER 5. THROUGH THE PARTITION CONNECTIONS 6. MAINTENANCE FREE 7 LOW MAINTENANCE

Details of 36B20L Name: 36B20L Price: Rs 3950 Warranty in Months: 18 Heavy duty maintenance free batteries designed supply in for optimizing to energy providing addition

backup for vehicle accessories

Sr. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Features COLD FORGED TERMINALS HEAT SEALED COVERS MORE ELECTROLYTE ABOVE THE PLATE POLYPROPYLENE CONTAINER THROUGH THE PARTITION CONNECTIONS MAINTENANCE FREE LOW MAINTENANCE

Details of 95 D 31R SS

Name: 95 D 31R SS Price: Rs 4850 Warranty in Months: 18

Heavy

duty,

low

maintenance

batteries for all segments of vehicles.

Sr. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Features COLD FORGED TERMINALS HEAT SEALED COVERS MORE ELECTROLYTE ABOVE THE PLATE POLYPROPYLENE CONTAINER THROUGH THE PARTITION CONNECTIONS MAINTENANCE FREE LOW MAINTENANCE

Details of AGM High Tech

Name: AGM High Tech Price: Rs 5320 Warranty in Months: 24 The new range safety than any offers and other better user car

performance, convenience batteries

Sr. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Features Deep-cycle resistant Leakage proof Long lasting Fixed electrolyte

Details of Asia Silver Name: Asia Silver Price: Rs 4300

Warranty in Months: 24 The new range offers better performance, safety and user convenience than any other car batteries Sr. 1. 2. 3. 4. Features Deep-cycle resistant Leakage proof Long lasting Fixed electrolyte

Details of Silver Name: Silver Price: Rs 4850 Warranty in Months: 24 The new range offers and better user

performance,

safety

convenience than any other car batteries

Sr. Features 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 20% longer lasting Deep-cycle resistant Leakage proof Long lasting Fixed electrolyte

Details of EN white Name: EN white Price: Rs 3850 Warranty in Months: 24 The new range offers better performance, safety and user convenience than any other car

batteries Sr. Features 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Maintenance free Deep-cycle resistant Leakage proof Long lasting Fixed electrolyte

DATA OBTAINED FROM VARIOUS RESPONDENTS: TABLE-1 No. of Respondents REGION GURGAON DELHI NOIDA FARIDABAD NO. OF RESPONDENTS 100 100 100 100

TABLE-2 Market Share of Different Brands of Batteries in Gurgaon

BRANDS EXIDE AMCO BOSCH

SHARE (In %) 54 24 32

TABLE-3 Market Share of Different Brands of Batteries in Delhi BRANDS EXIDE AMCO BOSCH SHARE (In %) 42 37 21

TABLE-4 Market Share of Different Brands of Batteries in Faridabad BRANDS EXIDE AMCO BOSCH SHARE (In %) 46 27 27

TABLE-5 Market Share of Different Brands of Batteries in Noida BRANDS EXIDE AMCO BOSCH SHARE (In %) 54 24 32

TABLE-6

Market Share of Different Brands of Lubricants in Gurgaon BRANDS CASTROL INDIAN OIL HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM SHELL TOYOTA TABLE-7 Market Share of Different Brands of Lubricants in Delhi BRANDS CASTROL INDIAN OIL HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM SHELL TOYOTA SHARE (In %) 32 19 18 22 09 SHARE (In %) 42 20 17 13 08

TABLE-8 Market Share of Different Brands of Lubricants in Faridabad BRANDS CASTROL INDIAN OIL HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM SHELL TOYOTA SHARE (In %) 36 21 24 12 07

TABLE-9 Market Share of Different Brands of Lubricants in Noida BRANDS CASTROL INDIAN OIL HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM SHELL TOYOTA SHARE (In %) 32 19 18 22 09

TABLE-10 Over all Market Share of Different Brands of Batteries in NCR Region BRANDS EXIDE AMCO BOSCH SHARE (In %) 45 31 24

TABLE-11 Over all Market Share of Different Brands of Lubricants in NCR Region BRANDS CASTROL INDIAN OIL HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM SHELL TOYOTA SHARE (In %) 35 21 19 16 09

INTERPRETATION OF DATA
ON THE BASIC OF RESPONSES OBTAINED FROM THE RESPONDENTS

Market Share of Different Brands of Batteries in Delhi

21 42 Exide Bosch Amco 37

Market Share of Different Brands of Batteries in faridabad

29 46 Exide Bosch Amco 25

Market Share of Different Brands of Batteries in Noida

23 43

Exide Bosch Amco

34

Over all Market Share of Different Brands of Batteries in NCR Region

24 45 Exide Bosch Amco 31

Market Share of Different Brands of Lubricants in Gurgaon


Castrol 8 42 Indian Oil Hindustan Petroleum Shell Toyota

13

17 20

Market Share of different Brands of Lubricants in Delhi


Castrol 12 17 Indian Oil Hindustan Petroleum 19 22 Shell Toyota

30

Market Share of different Brands of Lubricants in Noida


Castrol 9 22 32 Hindustan Petroleum 18 19 Shell Toyota Indian Oil

Market Share of different Brands of Lubricants in Faridabad


Castrol 12 7 36 Hindustan Petroleum Shell 21 Toyota Indian Oil

24

Over all Market Share of different Brands of Lubricants in Faridabad


Castrol 9 16 35 Hindustan Petroleum 19 Shell 21 Toyota Indian Oil

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

Castrol RX Super Indian Oil Servo Pride Hindustan Petroleum Shell Toyota CF-4 Indian Oil Super Servo Multigrade Castrol GTX Magnetic Castrol GTX Average Price of Different Brands of Lubricants in NCR Region Castrol CRB Bharat Petroleum

6000

Exide EURO55 Exide PS55

5000 Exide PXT55 4000 Exide EURO74 Amco DIN55 3000 Amco 36B20L 2000 Amco 95D31RSS Bosch AGM High Tech Bosch Asian Silver Average Price of Different Brands of Batteries in NCR Region Bosch Silver Bosch EN White

1000

RECOMMENDATIONS

For Lubricants Castrol is the Major Player in Market. Features of Castrol products are quite similar to GMs AC Delco. Prices of Castrol products are Optimum as Compared to the other Brands available in the Market. Therefore the price of the GMs AC Delco Should be in the same range as of Castrol with 10% variation. For Batteries Exide is the Major Player in Market. Features of Exide Batteries are quite similar to GMs AC Delco. Prices of Exide Batteries are Optimum as Compared to the other Brands available in the Market. Therefore the price of the GMs AC Delco Should is in the same range as of Exide Batteries with 10% variation.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books: -

Chhabra, T.N., Marketing Management, Dhanpat Rai & Co. Kothari, C.R., Research Methodology, Wishwa Parkashan. Phillip Kotlar, Marketing Management, Prentice Hall of India Suresh Bedi, Business Environment, Excel Books. Williams, Automotive Mechanics, Tata McGraw Hill.