0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

6 Aufrufe16 SeitenJul 19, 2012

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

6 Aufrufe

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Local energy
- Diode Failure
- Electrical Q&A
- Design of Electrical Apparatus Solved Problems
- Electrical Machines
- Presentation 1
- Research and Simulation of Double-fed Wind Power Generation Rotor Side Control Technology
- Balkan Energy Solutions Team bulletin
- Performance of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator by changing various system parameters
- Wind Turbine Doubly
- Vol97_No4_2
- PSCAD EMTDC BASED SIMULATION OF DOUBLE FEDINDUCTION GENERATOR FOR WIND TURBINES
- STCW class lll/1 certificate of competency assignment for Marine Engineers
- The 12 volt Doctor´s _ Alternator Book _ 1986 _ SPA CREEK.pdf
- Vijay Vittal, Raja Ayyanar Auth. Grid Integration and Dynamic Impact of Wind Energy
- Alternator Product Knowledge
- Insulation System in Turbo Generators (2)
- 35041469 Bhel Mini Pro Report on Turbo Generators Copy
- 9.pdf
- Wind Power as an Abundant

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 16

Generator

Torsten Lund* and Poul Srensen, Ris National Laboratory, Wind Energy Department, VEA-118, PO

Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark

Jarle Eek, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Electric Power Engi-

neering, Trondheim, Norway

The aim of the work is to derive a steady state PQ-diagram for a variable speed wind turbine

equipped with a Doubly Fed Induction Generator. Firstly, the dependency between optimal

rotor speed and wind speed is presented. Secondly, the limitations in reactive power pro-

duction, caused by the rotor current, the rotor voltage and the stator current are derived.

Thirdly, the inuence of switching from D to Y coupling of the stator is investigated. Finally,

a complete PQ diagram for a wind turbine is plotted. It is concluded that the limiting factor

regarding reactive power production will typically be the rotor current limit, and that the

limit for reactive power absorption will be the stator current limit. Further, it is concluded

that the rotor voltage will only have a limiting effect at high positive and negative slips, but

near the limitation, the reactive power capability is very sensitive to small changes in the

slip. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Received 29 May 2006; Revised 9 February 2007; Accepted 6 March 2007

WIND ENERGY

Wind Energ. 2007; 10:379394

Published online 25 April 2007 in Wiley Interscience

(www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/we.228

Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Research

Article

*Correspondence to: T. Lund, Ris National Laboratory, Wind Energy Department, VEA-118, PO Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde,

Denmark.

E-mail: torsten.lund@risoe.dk

Introduction

The interaction with the power grid has become a major issue for modern wind turbines. From the grid point

of view, the main concern of the rst wind power development through the 1980s has been on the impact that

wind turbines have on the power quality in the distribution system where the wind turbines were connected.

However, with the present and planned large-scale wind power development, the impact of wind power is also

seen on the transmission system level. For that reason, transmission system operators (TSOs) in many coun-

tries have issued grid codes with requirements for grid connection of wind power installations.

The main focus in the grid codes has been on the fault ride-through issue, where the TSOs require that the

wind power installations are able to stay connected to the grid during and after a fault in the transmission

system. Another important requirement to wind power installations is on active and reactive power control

capability, to make the wind power installations able to support the control of grid frequency and grid voltage.

The reactive power capability is the subject for this paper.

In the Danish grid code for wind farms connected to the transmission system,

1

it is required that a wind

farm owner supplies a PQ diagram showing the regulation capability for reactive power of the installation in

the connection point. This is understood as the steady-state capability, because there are other requirements to

the dynamic behavior during grid faults.

Key words:

DFIG;

grid;

reactive power;

two-port;

wind turbine

The reactive power capability of a wind farm depends a lot on the capability of the wind turbines, although

the impact of the grid should also be considered in a PQ diagram for the whole wind farm. The reactive power

capability of the wind turbines depends on the type or concept for grid connection of the wind turbines.

The rst generation of commercial grid connected wind turbines in the 1980s was dominated by the xed

speed concept using squirrel cage induction generator, which was soon supplemented with a capacitor bank

for reactive power compensation. Through the 1990s, different types of variable speed concepts became an

increasing share of the market. According to Hansen et al.,

2

the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) concept

was the most successful variable speed concept with more than 45% market share in 2002.

For the synchronous generator, the boundaries dened by the eld current limitation, the armature current

limitation and the mechanical power limitation can easily be calculated from the ratings and the reactances.

This is typically presented in a so-called PQ diagram.

3

A similar description of a DFIG is not found in text-

books. The scope of this paper is the reactive power capability of a DFIG, taking into account the inuence

of a typical speed control of a wind turbine. Other concepts are not considered here, and the impact of the grid

including the step-up transformer is not included.

The advantage of the DFIG concept is mainly that variable speed control is obtained with a minimum of

power converter capacity. The connection of the main electrical components is shown in Figure 1, based on

the description of a commercial wind turbine in Bolik.

4

The DFIG exchanges power with the grid through the

stator windings as well as the rotor windings. The main part of the power passes from the generator through

the stator into the grid, whereas only a fraction of the power is passed from the rotor windings through the

power converter. Besides, a stardelta switch is used to increase the speed control interval as discussed below.

To characterize the DFIG, the rotor speed should be taken into consideration, because the electromechani-

cal characteristic of the generator strongly depends on the slip and consequently the rotor speed.

The fraction of the active power, which ows through the rotor, depends on the slip, s, of the generator as

illustrated in Figure 2. When the slip is positive (i.e. the rotor speed is below synchronous speed), power ows

380 T. Lund, P. Srensen and J. Eek

Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Wind Energ 2007; 10:379394

DOI: 10.1002/we

Figure 1. Principle layout of a wind turbine with a DFIG

Figure 2. Power ow in the doubly fed generator for subsynchronous operation (s > 0) and supersynchronous operation

(s < 0)

from the grid to the rotor, and when the slip is negative (i.e. the rotor speed is above synchronous speed), the

power ows in the opposite direction, from the generator rotor to the grid. In both cases, the power ow in

the rotor is approximately proportional to the slip. The reactive power capability of the DFIG also depends on

the slip. Therefore, the reactive power capability depends on the rotor speed control of the wind turbine.

Variable speed control is mainly used in pitch-controlled wind turbines, because stall-controlled wind tur-

bines benet very little from variable speed. A major benet of speed control combined with pitch-controlled

wind turbines is the ability to reduce the mechanical loads and power uctuations at high wind speeds.

5

The

rst generation of pitch-controlled wind turbines using xed speed experienced very large torque uctuations

on the drive train, especially when the wind turbine was operating at high wind speeds in the power limita-

tion area. These torque uctuations appear because the power is not limited by stall effects on the blades, and

at the same time, the pitch system is not able to respond to the fast aerodynamic torque uctuations caused by

wind speed uctuations. The variable speed concept uses the turbine rotor inertia to absorb the fast aerody-

namic torque uctuations. This removes the fast torque variations from the drive train, including the gearbox

and the electrical power output from the generator. The necessary absorption of the aerodynamic torque uc-

tuations can be obtained with a relatively small rotor speed interval, and the DFIG concept can obtain this with

a relatively small power converter.

However, in DFIG wind turbines, the power converter is normally also used to support maximum power

production by tracking the optimal rotor speed depending on the current wind speed. Generally, the steady-

state rotor speed is determined by the power optimization, but on top of that, there is a need for dynamic speed

variations to reduce the mechanical loads.

The three main limiting design parameters for the reactive power capability of the DFIG are stator current,

rotor current and rotor voltage. The stator voltage is given by the grid, and is not inuenced by the wind turbine

design. The stator current limit depends on the generator design, whereas the rotor voltage and rotor current

limits depend on generator as well as power converter designs. The rotor voltage limitation is essential for the

rotor speed interval, because the required rotor voltage to provide a certain eld is directly proportional to the

slip. Thus, the possible rotor speed is limited by the possible rotor voltage.

The idea of the Y/ switch in Figure 1 is to switch from - to Y-coupling of the stator and thereby reduce

the stator winding voltage when the wind speed and consequently power are low. With reduced stator winding

voltage, less voltage is required on the rotor, and the voltage capacity of the power converter and the rotor

windings can be utilized to increase the slip approximately with a factor compared to connection. Another

advantage of operating the stator at lower voltage when the production is low is that the magnetizing losses

are reduced. The Y-coupling of course limits the current capacity, which also inuences the reactive power

capability as will be shown below.

Wind Turbine Control Strategy

A typical steady-state strategy for rotor speed control of a wind turbine is illustrated in Figure 3. The control

strategy is divided into three modes: minimum rotor speed, rotor speed optimization and maximum rotor speed.

The curve for the rotor speed optimization mode can be obtained by the power equation

(1)

where the power coefcient C

p

C

p

(l, q) depends on the tip speed ratio l and the pitch angle q. Inserting

the wind speed, v, from the tip speed ratio relation:

(2)

Equation (1) can be rewritten to

(3) P C A

R

p mech

WT

( )

1

2

3

r

w

l

l

w

WT

R

v

P P C A v

p mech aero

1

2

3

r

3

Reactive Power Capability of a Wind Turbine with DFIG 381

Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Wind Energ 2007; 10:379394

DOI: 10.1002/we

In the power optimization mode, the maximum power coefcient C

p

C

p

max

is used together with the cor-

responding optimal tip speed ratio l l

opt

. In that case, equation (3) will provide the relation between P

mech

and w

WT

in the optimization mode.

The wind turbine is designed for a certain maximum steady-state speed, w

max

, which is determined by

mechanical loads, noise emission and other design issues. For a given DFIG and converter, the synchronous

speed and consequently the gear ratio should be selected so that the DFIG can operate at the speed w

max

plus

an intervale.g. 5%for dynamic speed variations. The minimum speed w

min

is then given by the slip limi-

tations in the DFIG, taking into account the possibility to switch to star connection at low speeds.

The DFIG

In the following, a mathematical model of the DFIG is used both for exact calculations and for derivation of

simplied rules of thumb. The basic idea is to derive the boundaries dened by the rotor current, the rotor

voltage and the stator current separately and compare them in the end.

Mathematical Model

In this paper, a steady-state T-equivalent model is used to derive the operation diagrams of the DFIG. Equa-

tions (4) and (5) describe the relation between rotor and stator voltages and currents.

6

The rotor voltage and

current are referred to the stator side which means that the physical rotor voltage is obtained by multiplying

the model rotor voltage with the turns ratio, and the physical rotor current is the model rotor current divided

by the turns ratio.

(4)

(5)

To transform the inductances into reactances, equation (5) is normalized by the slip, equation (6), which

leads to equation (7):

(6)

(7)

R

s

j L I j L I I

V

s

r

s r m r s m s r

r

+

( )

+ + ( ) w s w

s

s r

s

w w

w

R j L I j L I I V

r s r r m r s r m s r r

+ ( ) ( ) + ( ) + ( ) w w s w w

R j L I j L I I V

s s s m s s m s r s

+ ( ) + + ( ) w s w

382 T. Lund, P. Srensen and J. Eek

Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Wind Energ 2007; 10:379394

DOI: 10.1002/we

Figure 3. Steady-state control strategy for variable speed wind turbine with DFIG

Equations (4) and (7) can be represented by the equivalent circuit in Figure 4. Compared to the standard

equivalent circuit for the short-circuit induction generator (SCIG), a rotor voltage which is dependent of the

slip, has been introduced.

For the SCIG, it is common to split the dissipation in the virtual rotor resistance into losses in the physical

resistance and a mechanical power contribution from the prime mover. Figure 5 shows a similar transforma-

tion for the DFIG.

V

r

I*

r

represents the actual apparent power delivered by the rotor converter. The active power dissipation in

the virtual resistance and the virtual voltage source in the dashed box represent the mechanical power from

the prime mover.

The power exchange through the stator and the rotor is considered positive out of the generator. This leads

to equations (8) and (9):

(8)

(9)

The mechanical power is considered positive into the generator, which gives equation (10):

(10)

The active power taken out through the rotor converter must be transferred to the grid through the grid-side

converter. The total apparent power delivered to the grid can be described by equation (11), where S

loss

covers

the active and reactive losses in the transformer, the inverters and the lters, and Q

gc

is the reactive power,

delivered to the grid from the grid-side converter:

(11)

The reactive power output from the grid-side converter can in principle be controlled independently of the

active power output with the constraint that the rated power is not exceeded (equation (12)):

(12) Q S P

gc gc gc

max max

2 2

S S S Q S

s r gc tot loss

+ + Re

P V

s

I I I R

s

r r r r r mech

* *

( )

( )

Re

1

1

1

1

S V I

r r r

*

S V I

s s s

*

Reactive Power Capability of a Wind Turbine with DFIG 383

Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Wind Energ 2007; 10:379394

DOI: 10.1002/we

Figure 4. Steady-state T-equivalent circuit for the DFIG

Figure 5. Modied equivalent which shows the inuence from the mechanical power

However, in normal operation, the grid-side converter is usually providing a power factor of 1.

7

Two-port Parameters

In the investigation of the inuence of limitations, the equivalent circuit (Figure 4) is transformed into a two-

port model like the one in Figure 6.

Equations (13)(15) allow calculation of any two of the following three values: I

r

, I

s

and V

r

/s, when V

s

and

one of the three values are known. These equations will be used below to quantify the limitations in a conve-

nient way.

(13)

(14)

(15)

The calculation of the matrices is described in Appendix C.

The Inuence of Limitations

If the DFIG is connected to a strong grid, the voltage on the primary side of the transformer will be close to

1p.u. If the impedance of the transformer is neglected or included in the stator impedance in Figure 5, a con-

stant stator voltage can be assumed. The only degree of freedom is therefore the magnitude and the angle of

the rotor voltage. The rotor voltage is constrained by the current and voltage ratings of the rotor-side converter

and the current rating of the stator windings.

Rotor Current as Limitation

The PQ diagram of a DFIG in rotor current limitation is derived by assuming a rotor current with the rated

magnitude and a variable angle relative to the stator voltage. The rotor voltage and the stator current can be

calculated using the G matrix (Appendix C, equation (48)).

The apparent stator power, given the stator voltage and the rotor current, can be found by inserting the cal-

culated stator current in equation (8). This gives the expression in equation (16):

(16)

To illustrate the dependency of the rotor current, equation (16) is reformulated in equation (17):

(17) S V

V Z I

Z Z

V V

Z Z

I V

Z

Z Z

s Ir s

s m r

s m

s s

s m

r s

m

s m

_

+

_

,

+

_

,

+

+

_

,

*

*

*

*

*

1

S V I V G V G I V

V Z I

Z Z

s Ir s s s s r s

s m r

s m

_

*

+ ( )

+

_

,

*

*

11 12

V

s

I

V

I

r

r

s

s

1

]

1

1

]

1

B

I

V

s

V

I

s

r

s

r

1

]

1

1

]

1

G

I

I

V

V

s

s

r

s

r

1

]

1

1

]

1

Y

384 T. Lund, P. Srensen and J. Eek

Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Wind Energ 2007; 10:379394

DOI: 10.1002/we

Figure 6. The principle of the two-port parameters

Since the slip is not a part of equation (16) or (17), the stator power with a given rotor current and a given

stator voltage is independent of the slip. When magnitude of the rotor current is kept constant and the angle

is changed, equation (17) can be expressed as a circle in the complex plane with a center in equation (18) and

a radius dened by equation (19):

(18)

(19)

Since |Z

m

| >> |Z

s

| when the generator is connected to a strong grid, and Z

m

is almost purely imaginary, the

center of the circle is located close to the negative imaginary axis. Intuitively, this offset corresponds to the

no load magnetizing losses of the generator.

The radius of the circle can be approximated by the product of the magnitude of the stator voltage and the

rotor current. It should be noted that the physical rotor current is typically two to four times smaller than I

r

due to the turns ratio between the stator and the rotor.

The power taken out through the rotor converter can be calculated by inserting the expression for V

r

in equa-

tion (9).

(20)

(21)

Equation (21) can be transformed into a circle with a center described by equation (22) and a radius given

by equation (23):

(22)

(23)

Since no reactive power is transferred through the DC link, only the real part of equation (21) is of

interest.

Because the reactances are typically much larger than the resistances, the rst term in equation (21) will

mainly be imaginary with the opposite sign of the slip. Comparing equations (17) and (21), it can be seen that

the active rotor power can be approximated by equation (24):

(24)

Figure 7 shows the circles dened by equations (22) and (23). It can be seen that the centers of the circles

are located close to the imaginary axis.

The total power from the DFIG is the sum of the power from the stator and the active rotor power. It can

be calculated directly by adding equation (16) and the real part of equation (20). However, a simplied expres-

sion can be derived using equation (24):

(25)

(26)

Combining equations (18), (19), (25) and (26), the total apparent power at the rotor current limitation can

be expressed as an ellipsis in the complex plane:

(27) P jQ V

Z Z

V I

Z

Z Z

s j

s

s m

s r

m

s m

tot tot

*

+

+

_

,

+

+

( )

( ) + ( ) ( )

2

1

1 cos sin g g

Q Q

s tot

P P P P s

r s s tot

+

( )

1

P sP

r s

r V I s

Z

Z Z

V I s

SrIr s r

m

s m

s r

+

c I s

Z Z Z Z Z

Z Z

SrIr r

r s m s r

s m

+ ( ) +

+

2

S I I s

Z Z Z Z Z

Z Z

I V s

Z

Z Z

r Ir r r

r s m s r

s m

r s

m

s m

_

+ ( ) +

+

+

_

,

* *

S V I G V G I s I

Z V I Z Z Z Z Z

Z Z

s I

r Ir r r s r r

m s r r s m s r

s m

r _

+ ( )

+ + ( ) + ( )

+

* * *

21 22

r V I

Z

Z Z

V I

SsIr s r

m

s m

s r

+

c V

Z Z

SsIr s

s m

+

_

,

2

1

*

Reactive Power Capability of a Wind Turbine with DFIG 385

Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Wind Energ 2007; 10:379394

DOI: 10.1002/we

386 T. Lund, P. Srensen and J. Eek

Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Wind Energ 2007; 10:379394

DOI: 10.1002/we

Figure 7. Rotor power with a constant rotor current magnitude

Figure 8 shows a PQ diagram of the DFIG in rotor current limitation. At 0 active production, no active

power is transferred through the rotor which means that the reactive capacity is determined by equation (16)

and that it is independent of the slip. When the slip is zero, the current limitation simply forms a circle which

is similar to the eld current limit of a synchronous generator.

Rotor Voltage Limitation

Given the stator voltage and the rotor voltage, the stator and rotor current can be calculated from the admit-

tance matrix, Y (Appendix C, equation (45)). The apparent stator power, equation (28), for a rotor voltage with

xed magnitude and varying angle can be described by a circle with a center in equation (29) and a radius

given by equation (30):

(28)

The fraction in equation (29) corresponds to the rst diagonal element of the admittance matrix (equation

(45)). The center of the circle therefore denotes the apparent stator power when the rotor voltage is zero. For

values of the slip which lay far beyond the stalling point of an equivalent SCIG, zero rotor voltage will cause

a high reactive power consumption of the generator:

(29)

The radius of the circle is the product of the mutual admittance of the rotor and the stator, the stator voltage,

the rotor voltage and the reciprocal slip:

(30) r

V

s

V

Z

Z Z Z Z Z

SsVr

r

s

m

r s m s r

+ ( ) +

c V

Z Z

Z Z Z Z Z

SsVr s

r m

r s m s r

+

+ ( ) +

_

,

2

*

S V I V Y V Y

V

s

V

V Z Z

V

s

Z

Z Z Z Z Z

s Vr s s s s

r

s

s r m

r

m

r s m s r

_

+

( )

+ ( )

+ ( ) +

_

,

*

*

*

11 12

The power from the rotor-side converter is calculated analogously to the stator power:

(31)

Figure 9 (left panel) shows the PQ curves for the stator for a constant stator voltage and a constant rotor

voltage magnitude. The voltage rating of the rotor converter is set to the same value as the grid voltage. Only

relatively high values of the slip have been plotted, since this is where the rotor voltage has a limiting effect.

Because of the large offset in the center of the circles, even small relative changes in the radius will have a

large impact on the reactive power capacity. If the slip is changed form 02 to 03, the reactive capacity goes

from 1 to 09p.u. at no load. Figure 9 (right panel) shows the PQ curves for the total power. The dashed box

shows the normal operation area of the DFIG. It can be seen that the lowest reactive capacity is available at

large positive slips, i.e. subsynchronous operation.

Stator Current Limitation

The PQ curve for the stator power in stator current limitation is straight forward, since both quantities in equa-

tion (8) are given. The curve will form a circle with a center in 0 and a radius of the product of the stator

current and the stator voltage (equations (32)(34)):

(32)

(33)

(34)

r I V

SsIs s s

c

SsIs

0

S V I

s Is s s _

*

S V I V Y V Y

V

s

V

V Z

Vr

s

Z Z

Z Z Z Z Z

r Vr r r r s

r

r

s m s m

r s m s r

_

+

( )

+ + ( )

+ ( ) +

_

,

*

*

*

21 22

Reactive Power Capability of a Wind Turbine with DFIG 387

Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Wind Energ 2007; 10:379394

DOI: 10.1002/we

Figure 8. Total apparent power with different values of the slip and a constant rotor current magnitude

The power of the rotor converter with a xed magnitude of the stator current can be calculated from the

matrix B (Appendix C, equation (50)):

(35)

Figure 10 shows PQ curves for the stator current limitation calculated from equations (32) and (35). It can

be seen that equation (25) provides a good estimate of the power taken out of the rotor, since the active losses

in the generator are relatively small. A comparison between the PQ curves for the stator current limitation

(Figure 10) and the PQ curves for the rotor current limitation (Figure 8) shows that the main difference between

the two is the offset from the no load magnetizing current with open rotor.

Comparison of the Three Limitations

The resulting PQ curve for the DFIG is formed by the minimum absolute value of the three previously men-

tioned limiting curves. Figure 11 shows all three limitations for different values of the slip. At 22% slip, the

upper limit of the reactive capability is dened by the rotor voltage limit up to an active power production of

065p.u. where the rotor current limit takes over. The lower limit is determined by the stator current limita-

tion. In the remaining curves, the upper limit is determined by the rotor current limit and the lower limit is

determined by the stator current limitation.

The Inuence from Y- to -Coupling of the Stator

As described in Petersson

8

and Bolik,

4

it is common to operate the stator of the DFIG with a -coupling at

high wind speeds and a Y-coupling at low wind speeds. There are two reasons for this. Firstly, the Y-coupling

at lower wind speeds and thereby lower power production makes it possible to lower the magnetizing level of

the machine and thereby reducing the losses. Secondly, the Y-coupling makes it possible to operate at higher

slips with the same rotor voltage. This, however, comes at the expense of the rotor and stator current

limitations.

S V I s B V B I B V B I

Z

Z

V Z

Z Z

Z

Z I s I

V I Z

Z

r Is r r s s s s

r

m

s r

s r

m

s s s

s s s

m

_

+ ( ) ( )

+

_

,

+ +

_

,

_

,

+

_

,

*

*

*

11 12 21 22

1

388 T. Lund, P. Srensen and J. Eek

Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Wind Energ 2007; 10:379394

DOI: 10.1002/we

Figure 9. Power taken out through the stator with different values of the slip and a constant rotor voltage magnitude

(left). The sum of rotor and stator power (right)

Reactive Power Capability of a Wind Turbine with DFIG 389

Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Wind Energ 2007; 10:379394

DOI: 10.1002/we

Figure 10. Power delivered to the grid (disregarding transformer and converter losses) with different values of the slip

and a constant stator current magnitude

Disregarding the impedance in the grid and the transformer, a change from - to Y-coupling of the stator

will have the same effect as lowering the stator voltage with a factor of . An estimate of the reactive capac-

ity in rotor voltage limitation at 0 active power production can be derived from equations (29) and (30).

The reactive power output is approximately equal to the sum of the center and the radius of the circles in

Figure 9. This gives the expression in equation (36) which describes a parable with a top point which is

dependent on :

(36)

Figure 12 shows the relation between the stator voltage and the reactive power limit caused by the rotor

voltage and the rotor current. At zero active production, the limitation from the rotor current is independent

of the slip. It can be seen that at 22% slip, the maximal reactive capacity is about 05p.u. both when the stator

is - and Y-coupled. At the -coupling, the limiting factor is the rotor voltage, and at Y-coupling, the rotor

current denes the limit. Since the current limit is less sensitive to changes in the slip than the voltage limit,

it is best to operate the machine with Y-coupled stator at slips above 20%.

In a real wind turbine, a certain hysteresis is required to keep the number of couplings low.

Reactive Power from the Grid-side Converter

In periods where only little active power is transferred through the rotor, the grid-side converter could in prin-

ciple provide some reactive power to the grid. Equation (37) can be derived from equation (25):

(37) P P

s

s

gc

( )

tot

1

Q V

V

s

Z

Z Z Z Z Z

V

Z Z

Z Z Z Z Z

p s

r m

r s m s r

s

r m

r s m s r

max

+ ( ) +

+

+ ( ) +

_

,

0

2

*

Vr

s

3

390 T. Lund, P. Srensen and J. Eek

Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Wind Energ 2007; 10:379394

DOI: 10.1002/we

Figure 12. The inuence of - or Y-coupling of the stator

Figure 11. PQ-limiting curves for the DFIG with different slips. At a slip of 01, the rotor voltage limit is not relevant

Inserting equation (37) in equation (12) gives equation (38):

(38)

Looking at Figure 3, it can be seen that the wind turbine used for the investigation has a slip of zero at a

production of 03p.u. Therefore, the grid-side converter would have the highest capacity at zero production

and at 03p.u. power production. If reactive power is needed at full power production, the grid-side converter

must be over-dimensioned.

Reactive Power from a Wind Turbine

For a wind turbine, the steady-state slip is given by the optimal utilization of the wind as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 13 shows a PQ diagram of a wind turbine with the parameters given in Appendix B. It is a ctive gen-

erator which is used only for illustration. The stator is Y-coupled when the slip is lower than 20%. The reac-

tive power production is limited by the rotor current and the reactive absorption is limited by the stator current.

The PQ diagram in Figure 13 is for a single wind turbine on the low voltage terminals. If a PQ diagram for

a wind farm in the connection point is needed, the effect of step-up transformers, wind farm grid and auxil-

iary equipment should also be taken into account.

Conclusion

The aim of the article has been to derive a PQ diagram for a wind turbine with a DFIG, similar to the one typ-

ically used for a synchronous generator. A set of general steady-state equations for the PQ relations of the

DFIG under rotor current, rotor voltage and stator current limitation has been presented. Further, the effect of

switching between - and Y-coupling of the stator has been investigated. The theory has been used to gener-

ate a PQ diagram for an example wind turbine model. The following observations have been made:

Q S P

s

s

gc gc

( )

max max

2

2

1

tot

Reactive Power Capability of a Wind Turbine with DFIG 391

Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Wind Energ 2007; 10:379394

DOI: 10.1002/we

Figure 13. Working diagram for a 2MW, 22MVA wind turbine with DFIG

1. The limiting factor for the production of reactive power will typically be the rotor current, since the rotor

converter will have to provide the reactive power consumed by the generator.

2. The limiting factor for absorption of reactive power will be the stator current.

3. At high slips, the rotor voltage will limit the reactive power production. It is, however, not advisable to

operate the generator close to the rotor voltage limit, since the reactive power capacity is very sensitive to

small changes in the slip.

4. Changing from to Yconnection of the stator at low wind speeds with large subsynchronous slips will give

a better utilization of the rotor voltage. This, however, narrows the limits caused by the rotor and stator current.

5. If the grid-side converter is used to deliver reactive power to the grid in no load periods, it must have a

rating corresponding to the required reactive power. If the reactive power is delivered by the rotor converter,

through the rotor and the stator, each MVA of converter capacity can provide n

winding

MVA (minus the reac-

tive consumption of the generator).

Appendix A: Nomenclature

Symbol Unit Description

A m

2

Turbine rotor area

w

r

rads

1

Mechanical rotor speed of the generator multiplied with the number of pole pairs

w

s

rads

1

Grid frequency

w

WT

rads

1

Wind turbine rotor speed

s Slip (w

s

w

r

)/w

s

C

p

Power coefcient

C

p

max

Power coefcient at optimal tip speed ratio

r kgm

3

Air density

R M Rotor radius

l Tip speed ratio

q Rad Pitch angle

v ms

1

Wind speed

V

s

p.u. Stator voltage

V

r

p.u. Complex rotor voltage with the stator voltage as reference

I

s

p.u. Complex stator current with the stator voltage as reference (motor sign)

I

r

p.u. Complex rotor current with the stator voltage as reference (motor sign)

S

s

, P

s

and Q

s

p.u. Apparent (complex), active and reactive stator power (generator sign)

S

r

, P

r

and Q

r

p.u. Apparent (complex), active and reactive rotor power (generator sign)

S

gc

, P

gc

and Q

gc

p.u. Apparent (complex), active and reactive power of the grid-side converter (generator sign)

S

tot

, P

tot

and Q

tot

p.u. Apparent (complex), active and reactive total power (generator sign)

L

m

p.u. Main inductance

s

s

p.u. Stator stray coefcient

Z

r

p.u. Rotor impedance

Z

s

p.u. Stator impedance R

s

+ jX

r

Z

m

p.u. Main impedance jX

m

S

s_Ir

p.u. Apparent (complex) stator power given the stator voltage and the rotor current magnitude.

S

r_Ir

p.u. Apparent (complex) rotor power given the stator voltage and the rotor current magnitude.

S

s_Vr

p.u. Apparent (complex) stator power given the stator voltage and the rotor voltage magnitude.

S

r_Vr

p.u. Apparent (complex) rotor power given the stator voltage and the rotor voltage magnitude.

S

s_Is

p.u. Apparent (complex) stator power given the stator voltage and the stator current magnitude.

S

r_Is

p.u. Apparent (complex) rotor power given the stator voltage and the stator current magnitude.

radians Generic angle for description of ellipsis

* Complex conjugate

Re{}

Real part

+

R

s

jX

r

r

w

WT

R

v

392 T. Lund, P. Srensen and J. Eek

Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Wind Energ 2007; 10:379394

DOI: 10.1002/we

Appendix B: Generator Parameters

Symbol Value Unit

P

n

2000 kW Nominal active power

S

n

2210 kVA Nominal apparent power

V

sn

690 V Nominal stator voltage

V

rn

2760 V Rotor voltage with blocked rotor

n

winding

4 Turn ratio between rotor and stator

R

s

00059 p.u. Stator resistance

X

s

01107 p.u. Stator leakage reactance

X

m

47351 p.u. Main reactance

R

r

00066; p.u. Rotor resistance (referred to stator side)

X

r

01193 p.u. Rotor leakage reactance (referred to stator side)

Appendix C: Derivation of Two-port Matrices for the DFIG

The following section briey shows the derivation of the two-port parameters which are used to derive the

limits. The theory of two-port matrices is described in Johnstone and Deane.

9

As a basis for the derivations, the Z matrix is used. The Z matrix has been constructed per inspection from

the equivalent circuit in Figure 4. The rst column corresponds to the stator and rotor voltage when a stator

current of 1p.u is injected and the rotor current is zero. The second column is derived by injecting a rotor

current of 1p.u. with an open stator:

(39)

(40)

(41)

(42)

(43)

The remaining derivations are made by inserting the Z matrix in the transformation equations from

Johnstone and Deane:

9

(44)

(45)

(46)

(47)

I

V

s

V

I

s

r

s

r

1

]

1

1

]

1

G

det Z

( )

+ ( ) +

+ ( ) + +

+

+ + ( )

( )

Z Z Z Z Z

X X X

R R

s

X X j

X R X R

s

R X X

r s m s r

m r s

s r

s r

m r s r

s r m

Y Z

Z

Z Z

Z Z

( )

1

]

1

+

( )

( )

( )

+

( )

1

]

1

1

1

1

22 12

21 11

1

det

det det

det det

Z Z

Z Z

Z Z Z

Z Z Z

r m m

m s m

I

I

V

V

s

s

r

s

r

1

]

1

1

]

1

Y

Z jX

m m

Z R jX

s s s

+

Z

R

s

jX

r

r

r

+

Z

+

+

1

]

1

Z Z Z

Z Z Z

s m m

m r m

V

V

s

I

I

s

r

s

r

1

]

1

1

]

1

Z

Reactive Power Capability of a Wind Turbine with DFIG 393

Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Wind Energ 2007; 10:379394

DOI: 10.1002/we

(48)

(49)

(50)

Acknowledgements

This work has been nanced by the Danish transmission system operator, Energinet.dk and Nordic Energy

Research.

References

1. Eltra, Elkraft System. Wind turbines connected to grids with voltages above 100kV. Regulation TF 3.2.5. Doc No

214439 v3, 3 December 2004.

2. Hansen AD, Iov F, Blaabjerg F, Hansen LH. Review of contemporary wind turbine concepts and their market pene-

tration. Wind Engineering 2004; 28: 247263.

3. Kundur P. Power System Stability and Control. McGraw Hill: New York, 1994.

4. Bolik S. Modelling and analysis of variable speed wind turbines with induction generator during grid fault. PhD Thesis,

Aalborg University, Department of Energy Technology, 2005.

5. Bindner H, Hansen AD. Dobbelt styrbar 3-bladet vindmlle: sammenligning mellem pitchreguleret vindmlle og

pitchreguleret vindmlle med variabelt omlbstal. Ris-R-1072(DA), 1998, 40 p.

6. Leonard W. Control of Electrical Drives (2nd edn). Springer: Berlin, Germany, 1997

7. Akhmatov V. Analysis of dynamic behaviour of electric power system with large amount of wind power. PhD Thesis,

Technical University of Denmark, 2003.

8. Petersson A. Analysis, modelling and control of doubly-fed induction generators for wind turbines. PhD Thesis,

Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Electric Power Engineering, 2005.

9. Johnstone GG, Deane JHB. The relations between two-port parameters, Int. Journal of Electronics 1991, 71: 107116.

B

Z

( )

1

]

1

+

+ +

_

,

+

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

12

22

11

Z

Z

Z

Z Z

Z

Z Z

Z Z

Z

Z

Z Z

Z

r m

m

r s

s r

m

m

s m

m

det

V

s

I

V

I

r

r

s

s

1

]

1

1

]

1

B

G

Z

( )

1

]

1

+

+

+

+ ( ) +

+

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

11

12

21

Z

Z

Z

Z Z

Z

Z Z

Z

Z Z

Z Z Z Z Z

Z Z

s m

m

s m

m

s m

r s m s r

s m

det

394 T. Lund, P. Srensen and J. Eek

Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Wind Energ 2007; 10:379394

DOI: 10.1002/we

- Local energyHochgeladen vonCătălin
- Diode FailureHochgeladen vonpimco12
- Electrical Q&AHochgeladen vonOkore Philip Nwankwo
- Design of Electrical Apparatus Solved ProblemsHochgeladen vonnandhakumarme
- Electrical MachinesHochgeladen vonSUSHMA
- Presentation 1Hochgeladen vonSatyajit Das
- Research and Simulation of Double-fed Wind Power Generation Rotor Side Control TechnologyHochgeladen vonHazrul_Mohamed_Basri
- Balkan Energy Solutions Team bulletinHochgeladen vonLjuba_P
- Performance of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator by changing various system parametersHochgeladen vonIJIRAE
- Wind Turbine DoublyHochgeladen vonasksiva
- Vol97_No4_2Hochgeladen vonReshmi Parikal Raghavan
- PSCAD EMTDC BASED SIMULATION OF DOUBLE FEDINDUCTION GENERATOR FOR WIND TURBINESHochgeladen vonCuong Nguyen
- STCW class lll/1 certificate of competency assignment for Marine EngineersHochgeladen vonjoel jeffery Sarkar
- The 12 volt Doctor´s _ Alternator Book _ 1986 _ SPA CREEK.pdfHochgeladen vonpevare
- Vijay Vittal, Raja Ayyanar Auth. Grid Integration and Dynamic Impact of Wind EnergyHochgeladen vonMohammad Zayed Ahmed Abo Al Keshek
- Alternator Product KnowledgeHochgeladen vonShanmugam Balasubramaniam
- Insulation System in Turbo Generators (2)Hochgeladen vonVamshi Raj
- 35041469 Bhel Mini Pro Report on Turbo Generators CopyHochgeladen vonVishal Garg
- 9.pdfHochgeladen vonMaroju Santosh Kiran
- Wind Power as an AbundantHochgeladen vonsaiberz
- a040mem III (1)Hochgeladen vonkumar m
- 10.1.1.463.2488Hochgeladen vonMaiman Lato
- o1Hochgeladen vonmonu991
- EE360- Synchronous MachinesHochgeladen vonAliAl-jaziri
- 05715870Hochgeladen vonFarhad Ilahi Bakhsh
- Analysis of Dynamic Behaviour of Electric Power Systems WithHochgeladen vontechwsg
- Basics_DFIG.pdfHochgeladen vonStefania Oliveira
- Home Power Magazine - Issue 003 - 1988-02.pdfHochgeladen vonwienslaw5804
- GPR (19-2015)code 81Hochgeladen vonAlaa Sobh
- III 1 Electrification 1 28Hochgeladen vonSannyBombeoJomoc

- Wheel Load Contact AreaHochgeladen vonGnabBang
- application_form.new.pdfHochgeladen vonEmily Lopez
- 2382Hochgeladen vonMuhammad Ahmad
- Thrust Block DesignHochgeladen vonJorge Castro Cucurella
- Fixed head piles.pdfHochgeladen vonPhani Kanth Vedula
- Actuators Guide (1)Hochgeladen vongeekdc
- m1 on VectorsHochgeladen vonjainam
- Compressor FoulingHochgeladen vonSheriff Atef
- Myford ML7 Lubrication ChartHochgeladen vonjimxxx
- Dynamics Practice Problems-2011!09!28Hochgeladen vonLester Cabungcal
- Evaluation of Soil SettlementHochgeladen vonSanjay Muthekar
- 1-s2.0-S0257897297005227-mainHochgeladen vonuzairmetallurgist
- Significance of Transformed Section Properties in Analysis for Required Prestressing_jl-02-november-december-7.pdfHochgeladen vonNguyen Quoc Vu
- Angel EoS OnlineHochgeladen vonEndimion Simmons
- DownloadHochgeladen vonsri9987
- Bomba Grasa Pump Master 3 4241521Hochgeladen vonAlex Molina
- Principal.5svbk8Hochgeladen vonbadillojd
- Applications of Nastran in Gust Response AnalysisHochgeladen vonkarthikkrishnamurthy
- RF Series-Catalog 3800_SectionAHochgeladen vonStefan Dinu
- 51374775 Flange Asme ViiiHochgeladen vonsudoku
- Pinout Pcm Sbec IIIHochgeladen vongtran
- Bosch - Rexroth - Marine Technic - 2002Hochgeladen vonnguyenvanhai19031981
- HL-04-4449Hochgeladen vondanielchmpm
- WEIDER 8530Hochgeladen vonVincentGagnon
- maquina principal 710 despiece.pdfHochgeladen vonAlejandro Rivera Villa
- deva roboticsHochgeladen vonapi-281945654
- aehq6039-02Hochgeladen vonJavier Alfonso Baquero Puello
- Tutorial Chapter 2Hochgeladen vonNur Kamilia
- Deflection and crackingHochgeladen voncoolsef
- R_0368_RM_0606_R1200RT_01Hochgeladen vonTaher Al Tayeb

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.