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# CFOOTING

COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN FOR COMBINED FOOTINGS Version - 2.0 BY LIMIT-STATE METHOD OF IS:456-1978

INTRODUCTION
A computer program CFOOTING has been developed by TGB/MV which can help our design engineers to design combined footings as per IS 456:1978 .The program is user friendly and the program reduces the time considerably taken for designing combined footings.The user can try various sizes of footings to arrive at the most economical one.All efforts have been taken to validate the accuracy of the program results.It is hoped that our design engineers will find CFOOTING very useful.This program is a guidance to design combined footings on a regular basis and only saves the Design Engineers time by checking the routine procedures of combined footing design.Any special conditions ,are to be checked by the Design Engineer based on the different type of loads to which the footing is subjected.Any suggestions regarding the improvement of this software is appreciated.

## The procedure followed in the design of Combined Footings are as follows.

1.0 Design of Combined Footings Given the column loads and sizes the resultant forces about the C.G of the footing are calculated as follows. If xbar be the C.G of the footing along x-axis and distx the distance of the column from the left end.
n

Qr

=
n

Pi
i=1

Mxr

=
n

Mxi
i=1 n

Mzr

## (Pi (distx - xbar) +

i=1 i=1

Mzi

Now the pressures at the four corners are calculated as per IS:2950-1973.The pressure distribution (q) under the footing is determined by the following formula. i.Q Maximum edge pressure q = A Where Q = Total axial load on the footing, A = Total area of the footing, i = Coefficient from Table 4(pg-16) (Clause D-1.1.1) Where ex ez Cx Cz Mx Mz = = = = = = Mz/Q, in m Mx/Q, in m L/2 - ex, in m B/2 - ez, in m Moment about x axis Moment about z axis

The pressures are interpolated at different locations on the footing and the

bending moments and shear forces are calculated.The gross pressures are calculated taking into account the self weight of the footing and the soil above it. The maximum pressure is checked with the safe bearing capacity of the soil.The net pressures at the four corners of the footing are printed.The pressures are interpolated at different locations on the footing and the bending moments and shear forces are calculated.The gross pressures are calculated taking into account the self weight of footing and the soil above it.The maximum pressure is checked with the safe bearing capacity of the soil.The net pressures are printed on the screen.Deflection check is not made as it involves interaction of the soil beneath nd above the footing.Tension or uplift of the footing is not allowed. CALCULATION OF SHEAR FORCE & BENDING MOMENTS

## Along Longitudinal direction

Pressure at the left edge Pleft Pressure at the right edge Pright = (p4+p1)/2 = (p2+p3)/2

## Vx = 0.5.(Pleft + Px) . x .breadth - [ Pi if (distx < x)]

Mx =

0.5.(Pleft + Px) . x . breadth . (2.Pleft + Px) .x / (3.(Pleft + Px)) + [Pi . (x-distx) + Miz if (distx < x)]

## Along Transverse direction

Effective width available , b' Shear force V Bending moment M = = = breadth/2 - beamw/2 Pmax Pmax . b'/2

Where Pmax = Maximum pressure out of the four corners. The raft portion is designed as a slab.

## Limit -State of Collapse - Flexure

The design for flexure by Limit-State method is based on the assumptions given in cl.37.1 of IS:456-1978.

Rectangular Sections
The moment of resistance of a singly reinforced rectangular section(under reinforced) is calculated by the following expressions. Assuming the depth of the neutral axis to lie within the limiting values(see clause 37.1 of the code) the Moment of Resistance of the section is calculated using the equation shown below: Mu Where = d fy Ast fck b 0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1 - Ast.fy/(b.d.fck)) = = = = = Effective depth of the section, Characteristic strength of reinforcement, Area of tension reinforcement, Characteristic compressive strength of concrete, Width of compression flange.

Substituting the limiting value of Xu/d, the limiting moment of resistance is calculated by the following equation. Mu,lim = 0.36.(Xu,max/d).(1 - 0.42.(Xu,max/d)).b.d.fck If the applied moment is greater than Mu,lim then the beam is designed as a doubly reinforced section. The compression reinforcement is calculated by the following equations, Mu - Mu,lim Where fsc Asc d' = = = = fsc.Asc.(d - d')

Design stress in compression steel corresponding to a strain of 0.0035.(Xu,max - d')/Xu,max Area of compression steel, Depth of compression steel from compression face.

The total area of tension steel is calculated from the following equation, Ast = Ast1 + Ast2 Where Ast Ast1 = = Area of total tensile reinforcement, Area of tensile steel for a singly reinforced

Ast2

section, = Asc.fsc/(0.87.fy)

a) Minimum Reinforcement Minimum reinforcement is provided as per the following equation. As/Bw.d = 0.85/fy Where As = Area of tension reinforcement. b) Maximum Reinforcement Area of maximum reinforcement shall not exceed 0.04.b.D.The user is asked to revise the section if the area of steel exceeds the above value.

## Limit -State of Collapse - Shear

The nominal shear stress Tv in beams of uniform depth shall be obtained by the following equation: Tv = Vu/(b.d) Where Vu = Factored Shear force. b = breadth of the member,which for flanged sections shall be taken as the breadth of the web,bw;and d = effective depth This shear stress is compared with the design shear strength of concrete Tc as per Table 13 of IS:456-1978 and shear stirrups are provided if Tv > Tc,for a shear of Vus = Vu - Tc.b.d. The spacing of stirrups is calculated from the following equation. Vus = Where Vus = Asv = 0.87.fy.Asv.d / sv Strength of shear reinforcement, Area of shear reinforcement

If Tv > Tcmax of Table 14 of IS:456-1978 the cross-section of the beam has to be increased by the user and the program to be rerun with different parameters.

## a) Minimum Shear Reinforcement

Minimum reinforcement is provided as per the following equation. Asv/Bw.sv = 0.4/fy Where Asv = Area of shear reinforcement.

Sample Calculation
Input data: Footing Description Left overhang of Footing Right overhang of Footing Breadth of footing Breadth of beam Depth of beam Concrete grade. Steel grade. Net safe bearing capacity Depth below G.L Load factor. Overhang portion is sloped. Total axial load = = = = = = 2534.0 + 2039.0 4573.0 KN 2039 x 1.7 - 2534 x 1.7 + 15.6 + 1.7 -824.2 KNm 327 + 38 365 KNm = = = = = = = = = = = CF124 1.500 m 1.500 m 2.600 m 800 mm 700 mm 20 N/mm 415 N/mm 400 KN/m 2.000 m 1.500

## Calculation of Corner Pressures

4573 (-824.2 x 6 ) (365 x 6)

p1 = 6.4 x 2.6 4573 p2 = 6.4 x 2.6 4573 p3 = 6.4 x 2.6 4573 p4 = 6.4 x 2.6 Effective depth

2.6 x 6.4 (-824.2 x 6 ) + 2.6 x 6.4 (-824.2 x 6 ) 2.6 x 6.4 (-824.2 x 6 ) + 2.6 x 6.4 = =

+ 2.6 x 6.4 (365 x 6) + 2.6 x 6.4 (365 x 6) 2.6 x 6.4 (365 x 6) 2.6 x 6.4 600 - 25 - 25/2 562.5 mm =

371.876 KN/m

279.004 KN/m

177.764 KN/m

270.636 KN/m

## Calculation of Shear force & Bending moment

The shear force and bending moments are printed out at every 1/10th of the section between overhang and columns.For the design of steel the calculation of shear force is done at distance 'd' from the face of the column on both sides of the column and the bending moment is calculated at the face of the column. The section for maximum hogging moment is also identified by the program and the section is designed.The calculation of shear force and bending moment at few sections are given below. Vx=1.250 = = 0.5 x (321.256 + 303.109) x 1.250 x 2.6 1014.593 KN (2 x 321.256 + 303.109) 1014.593 x ( 321.256 + 303.109) 640.264 KNm 1.250 x 3

Mx=1.250 =

Vx=2.402

Mx=2.402 =

1897.420 x

## -2534 x (2.402- 1.5) + 1.7 = 38.425 KNm

Similarly the shear force and bending moments are calculated at the other locations.

## Calculation of steel for beam

At x = 1.25m Bending Moment, M Effective depth Effective cover at top Effective cover at bottom Mu/bd d'/d = = = = = = = 640.264 KNm 652 mm 37.5 mm 48.0 mm

## Check for Shear

At x = 2.402 m Shear force, V Bending Moment, M Effective depth Effective cover at top Effective cover at bottom Mu/bd = = = = = = 636.580 KN 38.425 KNm 652 mm 37.5 mm 48.0 mm

## 1.5 x 38.425 x 106/(800 x 652)

0.1695

From Table 2 of SP-16 pg-48 Pt Tv = = = 0.205 % 1.5 x 636.580 x 103 / (800 x 652) 1.831 N/mm

For Pt = 0.205 % Tc = 0.330 N/mm < Tv < Tcmax=2.8 N/mm Since Tc < Tv design for shear reinforcement is done. Assuming 4 - legged ,12 mm dia stirrups Effective shear to be carried by stirrups: Vus = Vu - Tc.b.d = 1.5 x 636.58 x 103 - 0.33 x 800 x 652 = 782.742 x 103 N = 782.742 KN Vus = sv = = = sv1 = sv2 = = = sv3 = = = = 0.87.fy.Asv.d / sv , Asv = 4 x (/4) x 12 0.87.fy.Asv.d / Vus 0.87 x 415 x 452.389 x 652 / (782.742 x 103) 136 say 130 mm 130 mm Asv.fy / (0.4.B) 452.389 x 415 / (0.4 x 800) 586.7 say 500 mm 0.7D 0.7 x 700 490 mm 450 mm = 452.389 mm

sv4

## Calculation of steel along Transverse direction

Effective width, b' Shear force V Bending moment M = = = (2.6 - 0.8) / 2 = 371.875 x 0.9 = 334.688 x 0.9 / 2 = 0.9 m 334.688 KN 150.610 KNm

Mu/b.d Pt

= = =

## Check for Shear

Tv = 1.5 x 334.688 x 103 / (1000 x 652) = 0.770 N/mm For Pt = 0.152 % , Tc = 0.289 N/mm < Tv. Hence shear reinforcement is designed. Effective shear to be taken by stirrups: Vus = Vu - Tc.b.d = 1.5 x 334.688 x 103 - 0.289 x 1000 x 652 = 313.604 x 103 N = 313.604 KN Vus = sv = = = sv1 = sv2 = = = = = = = 0.87.fy.Asv.d / sv , Asv = 4 x (/4) x 12 0.87.fy.Asv.d / Vus 0.87 x 415 x 452.389 x 652 / (313.604 x 103) 339 say 330 mm 330 mm Asv.fy / (0.4.B) 452.389 x 415 / (0.4 x 800) 586.7 say 500 mm 0.7D 0.7 x 700 490 mm 450 mm = 452.389 mm

sv2 sv3

sv4

Hence Shear reinforcement spacing required = 330 mm C/C. Hence the Program results are well comparable with the manual calculations. If the section to be designed lies in the overhang portion which is sloped then the effective width for steel calculation is given by,

beff =

## colz + (breadth - colz)/8

and the effective depth is interpolated at this section.The area resisted for shear is the trapezoidal area given by, Ashear = (dmin x breadth) + 0.5 (b' + breadth).(d' - dmin) Where Ashear dmin breadth b' d' colz = = = = = = Area resisting the shear force, depth of footing at the edge, breadth of the footing, breadth of the footing at the defined section, depth of the footing at the defined section. dimension of column along z-direction.

Finally the quantities for concrete ,steel and shuttering are printed out. REFERENCES

1. IS:456-1978 ,Code of Practice For Plain and Reinforced Concrete ( Third Revision). 2. SP:24-1983 ,Explanatory handbook on Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete (IS:456-1978). 3. SP:16-1980 ,Design Aids For Reinforced Concrete to IS:456-1978. 4. Reinforced Concrete Structural Elements,Behaviour,Analysis and Design.P.PURUSHOTHAMAN