INTERMEDIATE THERMODYNAMICS
Joseph M. Powers
Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering
University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, Indiana 465565637
USA
updated
02 May 2012, 10:03am
2
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
Contents
Preface 7
1 Review 9
2 Cycle analysis 17
2.1 Carnot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.2 Exergy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.3 Rankine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.3.1 Classical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.3.2 Reheat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.3.3 Regeneration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.3.4 Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.3.5 Cogeneration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.4 Air standard cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.5 Brayton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.5.1 Classical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.5.2 Regeneration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.5.3 Ericsson Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.5.4 Jet propulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.6 Reciprocating engine power cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.7 Otto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.8 Diesel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.9 Stirling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2.10 Refrigeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.10.1 Vaporcompression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.10.2 Air standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
3 Gas mixtures 71
3.1 Some general issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
3.2 Ideal and nonideal mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
3.3 Ideal mixtures of ideal gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
3.3.1 Dalton model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
3.3.1.1 Binary mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
3
4 CONTENTS
3.3.1.2 Entropy of mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
3.3.1.3 Mixtures of constant mass fraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.3.2 Summary of properties for the Dalton mixture model . . . . . . . . . 86
3.3.3 Amagat model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
3.4 Gasvapor mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
3.4.1 First law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
3.4.2 Adiabatic saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
3.4.3 Wetbulb and drybulb temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
3.4.4 Psychrometric chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
4 Mathematical foundations of thermodynamics 101
4.1 Exact dierentials and state functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
4.2 Two independent variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
4.3 Legendre transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
4.4 Heat capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
4.5 Van der Waals gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
4.6 RedlichKwong gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
4.7 Compressibility and generalized charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
4.8 Mixtures with variable composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
4.9 Partial molar properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
4.9.1 Homogeneous functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
4.9.2 Gibbs free energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
4.9.3 Other properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
4.9.4 Relation between mixture and partial molar properties . . . . . . . . 132
4.10 Irreversible entropy production in a closed system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
4.11 Equilibrium in a twocomponent system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
4.11.1 Phase equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
4.11.2 Chemical equilibrium: introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
4.11.2.1 Isothermal, isochoric system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
4.11.2.2 Isothermal, isobaric system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
4.11.3 Equilibrium condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
5 Thermochemistry of a single reaction 149
5.1 Molecular mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
5.2 Stoichiometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
5.2.1 General development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
5.2.2 Fuelair mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
5.3 First law analysis of reacting systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
5.3.1 Enthalpy of formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
5.3.2 Enthalpy and internal energy of combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
5.3.3 Adiabatic ame temperature in isochoric stoichiometric systems . . . 164
5.3.3.1 Undiluted, cold mixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
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CONTENTS 5
5.3.3.2 Dilute, cold mixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
5.3.3.3 Dilute, preheated mixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
5.3.3.4 Dilute, preheated mixture with minor species . . . . . . . . 168
5.4 Chemical equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
5.5 Chemical kinetics of a single isothermal reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
5.5.1 Isochoric systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
5.5.2 Isobaric systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
5.6 Some conservation and evolution equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
5.6.1 Total mass conservation: isochoric reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
5.6.2 Element mass conservation: isochoric reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
5.6.3 Energy conservation: adiabatic, isochoric reaction . . . . . . . . . . . 191
5.6.4 Energy conservation: adiabatic, isobaric reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
5.6.5 Entropy evolution: ClausiusDuhem relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
5.7 Simple onestep kinetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
6 Thermochemistry of multiple reactions 203
6.1 Summary of multiple reaction extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
6.2 Equilibrium conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
6.2.1 Minimization of G via Lagrange multipliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
6.2.2 Equilibration of all reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
6.3 Concise reaction rate law formulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
6.3.1 Reaction dominant: J (N L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
6.3.2 Species dominant: J < (N L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
6.4 Adiabatic, isochoric kinetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
7 Kinetics in some more detail 223
7.1 Isothermal, isochoric kinetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
7.1.1 O O
2
dissociation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
7.1.1.1 Pair of irreversible reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
7.1.1.1.1 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
7.1.1.1.2 Example calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
7.1.1.1.2.1 Species concentration versus time . . . . . . 233
7.1.1.1.2.2 Pressure versus time . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
7.1.1.1.2.3 Dynamical system form . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
7.1.1.1.3 Eect of temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
7.1.1.2 Single reversible reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
7.1.1.2.1 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
7.1.1.2.1.1 Kinetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
7.1.1.2.1.2 Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
7.1.1.2.2 Example calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
7.1.2 Zeldovich mechanism of NO production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
7.1.2.1 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
6 CONTENTS
7.1.2.1.1 Standard model form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
7.1.2.1.2 Reduced form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
7.1.2.1.3 Example calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
7.1.2.2 Stiness, time scales, and numerics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
7.1.2.2.1 Eect of temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
7.1.2.2.2 Eect of initial pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
7.1.2.2.3 Stiness and numerics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
7.2 Adiabatic, isochoric kinetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
7.2.1 Thermal explosion theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
7.2.1.1 Onestep reversible kinetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
7.2.1.2 First law of thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
7.2.1.3 Dimensionless form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
7.2.1.4 Example calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
7.2.1.5 High activation energy asymptotics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
7.2.2 Detailed H
2
O
2
N
2
kinetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Bibliography 281
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
Preface
These are lecture notes for AME 50531 Intermediate Thermodynamics, the second of two
undergraduate courses in thermodynamics taught in the Department of Aerospace and Me
chanical Engineering at the University of Notre Dame. Most of the students in this course
are juniors or seniors majoring in aerospace or mechanical engineering. The objective of the
course is to survey both practical and theoretical problems in classical thermodynamics.
The notes draw heavily on the text specied for the course, Borgnakke and Sonntags
(BS) Fundamentals of Thermodynamics, Seventh Edition, John Wiley, New York, 2009, es
pecially Chapters 1016. In general the nomenclature of BS is used, and much of the notes
follow a similar structure as that text. In addition, Abbott and van Nesss Thermodynamics,
McGrawHill, New York, 1972, has been used to guide some of the mathematical develop
ments. Many example problems have been directly taken from BS and other texts; specic
citations are given where they arise. Many of the unique aspects of these notes, which focus
on thermodynamics of reactive gases with detailed nite rate kinetics, have arisen due to
the authors involvement in research supported by the National Science Foundation under
Grant No. CBET0650843. The author is grateful for the support. Any opinions, ndings,
and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and
do not necessarily reect the views of the National Science Foundation.
These notes emphasize both problemsolving as well as some rigorous undergraduate
level development of the underlying classical theory; the student should call on textbooks
and other reference materials to ll some of the gaps. It should also be remembered that
practice is essential to the learning process; the student would do well to apply the techniques
presented here by working as many problems as possible.
The notes, along with information on the course, can be found on the world wide web at
http://www.nd.edu/powers/ame.50531. At this stage, anyone is free to make copies for
their own use. I would be happy to hear from you about suggestions for improvement.
Joseph M. Powers
powers@nd.edu
http://www.nd.edu/powers
Notre Dame, Indiana; USA
CC
BY:
$
\
=
02 May 2012
The content of this book is licensed under Creative Commons AttributionNoncommercialNo Derivative
Works 3.0.
7
8 CONTENTS
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
Chapter 1
Review
Review BS, Chapters 19.
Here is a brief review of some standard concepts from a rst course in thermodynamics.
property: characterizes the thermodynamics state of the system
extensive: proportional to systems extent, upper case variables
V : total volume, SIbased units are m
3
,
U: total internal energy, SIbased units are kJ,
H: total enthalpy, SIbased units are kJ,
S: total entropy, SIbased units are kJ/K.
intensive: independent of systems extent, lower case variables (exceptions are
temperature T and pressure P, which are intensive). Intensive properties can be
on a mass basis or a molar basis:
v: specic volume, SIbased units are m
3
/kg,
u: specic internal energy, SIbased units are kJ/kg,
h: specic enthalpy, SIbased units are kJ/kg,
s: specic entropy, SIbased units are kJ/kg/K.
v: molar specic volume, SIbased units are m
3
/kmole,
u: molar specic internal energy, SIbased units are kJ/kmole,
h: molar specic enthalpy, SIbased units are kJ/kmole,
s: molar specic entropy, SIbased units are kJ/kmole/K.
density: = 1/v, mass per unit volume, SIbased units are kg/m
3
.
equations of state: relate properties
Calorically Perfect Ideal Gas (CPIG) has Pv = RT and u u
o
=
c
v
(T T
o
),
9
10 CHAPTER 1. REVIEW
Calorically Imperfect Ideal Gas (CIIG) has Pv = RT and u u
o
=
_
T
To
c
v
(
T) d
T.
Nonideal state equations have P = P(T, v), u = u(T, v).
Any intensive thermodynamic property can be expressed as a function of at most two
other intensive thermodynamic properties (for simple compressible systems).
P = RT/v: thermal equation of state for ideal gas, SIbased units are kPa.
c =
v
=
T
c
v
. (1.5)
Next recall the denition of enthalpy, h:
h = u +Pv. (1.6)
We can dierentiate Eq. (1.6) to get
dh = du +Pdv +vdP. (1.7)
Substitute Eq. (1.7) into the Gibbs equation, (1.1), to eliminate du in favor of dh to get
Tds = dh Pdv vdP
. .
=du
+Pdv, (1.8)
= dh vdP. (1.9)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
12 CHAPTER 1. REVIEW
v
P
s
T
q = w
cycle cycle
Figure 1.2: Sketch of thermodynamic cycle.
For an ideal gas, dh = c
P
dT, where c
P
is at most a function of T, so
Tds = c
P
dT
. .
=dh
vdP. (1.10)
Now for the isobar, dP = 0. Thus on an isobar, we have
Tds = c
P
dT, on an isobar. (1.11)
And so the slope on an isobar in the T s plane is
T
s
P
=
T
c
P
. (1.12)
Since c
P
> c
v
, (recall for an ideal gas that c
P
(T) c
v
(T) = R > 0), we can say that the slope of the
isochore is steeper than the isobar in the T s plane.
Example 1.2
Consider the following isobaric process for air, modeled as a CPIG, from state 1 to state 2. P
1
=
100 kPa, T
1
= 300 K, T
2
= 400 K. Show the second law is satised.
Since the process is isobaric, P = 100 kPa describes a straight line in the P v and P T planes
and P
2
= P
1
= 100 kPa. Since we have an ideal gas, we have for the v T plane:
v =
_
R
P
_
T, straight lines! (1.13)
v
1
=
RT
1
P
1
=
_
0.287
kJ
kg K
_
(300 K)
100 kPa
= 0.861
m
3
kg
, (1.14)
v
2
=
RT
2
P
2
=
_
0.287
kJ
kg K
_
(400 K)
100 kPa
= 1.148
m
3
kg
. (1.15)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
13
Since the gas is ideal:
du = c
v
dT. (1.16)
Since our ideal gas is also calorically perfect, c
v
is a constant, and we get
_
u2
u1
du = c
v
_
T2
T1
dT, (1.17)
u
2
u
1
= c
v
(T
2
T
1
), (1.18)
=
_
0.7175
kJ
kg K
_
(400 K 300 K), (1.19)
= 71.750
kJ
kg
. (1.20)
Also we have
Tds = du +Pdv, (1.21)
Tds = c
v
dT +Pdv, (1.22)
from ideal gas : v =
RT
P
: dv =
R
P
dT
RT
P
2
dP, (1.23)
Tds = c
v
dT +RdT
RT
P
dP, (1.24)
ds = (c
v
+R)
dT
T
R
dP
P
, (1.25)
= (c
v
+c
P
c
v
)
dT
T
R
dP
P
, (1.26)
= c
P
dT
T
R
dP
P
, (1.27)
_
s2
s1
ds = c
P
_
T2
T1
dT
T
R
_
P2
P1
dP
P
, (1.28)
s
2
s
1
= c
P
ln
_
T
2
T
1
_
Rln
_
P
2
P
1
_
. (1.29)
(1.30)
Now since P is a constant,
s
2
s
1
= c
P
ln
_
T
2
T
1
_
, (1.31)
=
_
1.0045
kJ
kg K
_
ln
_
400 K
300 K
_
, (1.32)
= 0.2890
kJ
kg K
. (1.33)
Then one nds
1
w
2
=
_
v2
v1
Pdv = P
_
v2
v1
dv, (1.34)
= P (v
2
v
1
) , (1.35)
= (100 kPa)
_
1.148
m
3
kg
0.861
m
3
kg
_
, (1.36)
= 28.700
kJ
kg
. (1.37)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
14 CHAPTER 1. REVIEW
Now
du = q w, (1.38)
q = du +w, (1.39)
_
2
1
q =
_
2
1
du +
_
2
1
w, (1.40)
1
q
2
= (u
2
u
1
) +
1
w
2
, (1.41)
1
q
2
= 71.750
kJ
kg
+ 28.700
kJ
kg
, (1.42)
1
q
2
= 100.450
kJ
kg
. (1.43)
Now in this process the gas is heated from 300 K to 400 K. One would expect at a minimum that the
surroundings were at 400 K. Check for second law satisfaction.
s
2
s
1
1
q
2
T
surr
? (1.44)
0.2890
kJ
kg K
100.450 kJ/kg
400 K
? (1.45)
0.2890
kJ
kg K
0.2511
kJ
kg K
, yes. (1.46)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
15
v
P
T = 300 K
1
T
2
= 400 K
v
2
v
1
P = P = 100 kPa
1 2
12 12 2
1
w = P dv
12 1
2
s
T
q = T ds
12
1
2
u  u = q  w
v
2
v
1
s
2
s
1
T
T
1
2
T
P
T
v
v
1
v
2
T
2
T
1
P = P = 100 kPa
1 2
P = P = 100 kPa
1 2
T
1
T
2
v
1
v
2
1 2
1
2
1
2
1 2
Figure 1.3: Sketch for isobaric example problem.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
16 CHAPTER 1. REVIEW
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
Chapter 2
Cycle analysis
Read BS, Chapters 7, 8, 10, 11, 12.
2.1 Carnot
The Carnot cycle is the most wellknown thermodynamic cycle. It is a useful idealization,
but is very dicult to realize in practice. Its real value lies in serving as a standard to which
other cycles can be compared. These are usually fully covered in introductory courses. The
cycle can be considered as follows
1 2: isentropic compression,
2 3: isothermal expansion,
3 4: isentropic expansion, and
4 1: isothermal compression.
This forms a rectangle in the T s plane The P v plane is more complicated. Both
are shown in Figure 2.1. For this discussion, consider a calorically perfect ideal gas. The
isotherms are then straightforward and are hyperbolas described by
P = RT
1
v
. (2.1)
The slope of the isotherms in the P v plane is found by dierentiation:
P
v
T
= RT
1
v
2
, (2.2)
=
P
v
. (2.3)
The slope of the isentrope is found in the following way. Consider rst the Gibbs equation,
Eq. (1.1):
Tds = du + Pdv. (2.4)
17
18 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
v
P T
s
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
w
cycle
= P dv = q
cycle
= T ds
i
s
e
n
t
r
o
p
e
i
s
e
n
t
r
o
p
e
isotherm
isotherm
i
s
e
n
t
r
o
p
e
i
s
o
t
h
e
r
m
is
o
t
h
e
r
m
i
s
e
n
t
r
o
p
e
Figure 2.1: Sketch of P v and T s planes for a CPIG in a Carnot cycle.
Because the gas is calorically perfect, one has
du = c
v
dT, (2.5)
so the Gibbs equation, Eq. (2.4), becomes
Tds = c
v
dT + Pdv. (2.6)
Now for the ideal gas, one has
Pv = RT, (2.7)
Pdv + vdP = RdT, (2.8)
Pdv + vdP
R
= dT. (2.9)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.1. CARNOT 19
So then
Tds = c
v
_
Pdv + vdP
R
_
. .
=dT
+Pdv, (2.10)
Tds =
_
c
v
R
+ 1
_
Pdv +
c
v
R
vdP, Take ds = 0, (2.11)
0 =
_
c
v
R
+ 1
_
P +
c
v
R
v
P
v
s
, (2.12)
P
v
s
=
cv
R
+ 1
cv
R
P
v
, (2.13)
=
cv
c
P
cv
+ 1
cv
c
P
cv
P
v
, (2.14)
=
c
v
+ c
P
c
v
c
v
P
v
, (2.15)
=
c
P
c
v
P
v
, (2.16)
= k
P
v
. (2.17)
Since k > 1, the magnitude of the slope of the isentrope is greater than the magnitude of
the slope of the isotherm:
P
v
>
P
v
. (2.18)
Example 2.1
(Adapted from BS, 7.94, p. 274) Consider an ideal gas Carnot cycle with air in a piston cylinder
with a high temperature of 1200 K and a heat rejection at 400 K. During the heat addition, the volume
triples. The gas is at 1.00 m
3
/kg before the isentropic compression. Analyze.
Take state 1 to be the state before the compression. Then
T
1
= 400 K, v
1
= 1.00
m
3
kg
. (2.19)
By the ideal gas law
P
1
=
RT
1
v
1
=
_
0.287
kJ
kg K
_
(400 K)
1.00
m
3
kg
= 1.148 10
2
kPa. (2.20)
Now isentropically compress to state 2. By the standard relations for a CPIG, one nds
T
2
T
1
=
_
v
1
v
2
_
k1
=
_
P
2
P
1
_k1
k
. (2.21)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
20 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
So
v
2
= v
1
_
T
1
T
2
_ 1
k1
=
_
1.00
m
3
kg
__
400 K
1200 K
_ 1
1.41
= 0.06415
m
3
kg
. (2.22)
Note that v
2
< v
1
as is typical in a compression. The isentropic relation between pressure and volume
can be rearranged to give the standard
P
2
v
k
2
= P
1
v
k
1
. (2.23)
Thus, one nds that
P
2
= P
1
_
v
1
v
2
_
k
= (1.148 10
2
kPa)
_
1.00
m
3
kg
0.06415
m
3
kg
_1.4
= 5.36866 10
3
kPa. (2.24)
Note the pressure has increased in the isentropic compression. Check to see if the ideal gas law is
satised at state 2:
P
2
=
RT
2
v
2
=
_
0.287
kJ
kg K
_
(1200 K)
0.06415
m
3
kg
= 5.36866 10
3
kPa. (2.25)
This matches. Now the expansion from state 2 to 3 is isothermal. This is the heat addition step in
which the volume triples. So one gets
v
3
= 3v
2
= 3
_
0.06415
m
3
kg
_
= 0.19245
m
3
kg
. (2.26)
T
3
= T
2
= 1200 K. (2.27)
The ideal gas law then gives
P
3
=
RT
3
v
3
=
_
0.287
kJ
kg K
_
(1200 K)
0.19245
m
3
kg
= 1.78955 10
3
kPa. (2.28)
Process 3 to 4 is an isentropic expansion back to 400 K. Using the isentropic relations for the CPIG,
one gets
v
4
= v
3
_
T
3
T
4
_ 1
k1
=
_
0.19245
m
3
kg
__
1200 K
400 K
_ 1
1.41
= 3.000
m
3
kg
. (2.29)
P
4
= P
3
_
v
3
v
4
_
k
= (1.78955 10
3
kPa)
_
0.19245
m
3
kg
3.000
m
3
kg
_1.4
= 3.82667 10
1
kPa. (2.30)
Check:
P
4
=
RT
4
v
4
=
_
0.287
kJ
kg K
_
(400 K)
3.000
m
3
kg
= 3.82667 10
1
kPa. (2.31)
A summary of the states is given in Table 2.1.
Now calculate the work, heat transfer and eciency. Take the adiabatic exponent for air to be
k = 1.4. Now since
k =
c
P
c
v
, c
P
c
v
= R, (2.32)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.1. CARNOT 21
T (K) P (kPa) v (
m
3
kg
)
1 400 1.148 10
2
1.000
2 1200 5.36886 10
3
0.06415
3 1200 1.78955 10
3
0.19245
4 400 3.82667 10
2
3.000
Table 2.1: State properties for Carnot cycle.
one gets
k =
R +c
v
c
v
, (2.33)
kc
v
= R +c
v
, (2.34)
c
v
(k 1) = R, (2.35)
c
v
=
R
k 1
=
0.287
kJ
kg K
1.4 1
= 0.7175
kJ
kg K
. (2.36)
Recall the rst law:
u
2
u
1
=
1
q
2
1
w
2
. (2.37)
Recall also the caloric equation of state for a CPIG:
u
2
u
1
= c
v
(T
2
T
1
). (2.38)
Now process 1 2 is isentropic, so it is also adiabatic, hence
1
q
2
= 0, so one has
u
2
u
1
=
1
q
2
..
=0
1
w
2
, (2.39)
c
v
(T
2
T
1
) =
1
w
2
, (2.40)
_
0.7175
kJ
kg K
_
(1200 K 400 K) =
1
w
2
, (2.41)
1
w
2
= 5.7400 10
2
kJ
kg
. (2.42)
The work is negative as work is being done on the system in the compression process.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
22 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
Process 2 3 is isothermal, so there is no internal energy change. The rst law gives
u
3
u
2
=
2
q
3
2
w
3
, (2.43)
c
v
(T
3
T
2
)
. .
=0
=
2
q
3
2
w
3
, (2.44)
0 =
2
q
3
2
w
3
, (2.45)
2
q
3
=
2
w
3
=
_
v3
v2
P dv, (2.46)
=
_
v3
v2
RT
v
dv, (2.47)
= RT
2
_
v3
v2
dv
v
, (2.48)
= RT
2
ln
v
3
v
2
, (2.49)
=
_
0.287
kJ
kg K
_
(1200 K) ln
0.19245
m
3
kg
0.06415
m
3
kg
, (2.50)
= 3.78362 10
2
kJ
kg
. (2.51)
The work is positive, which is characteristic of the expansion process.
Process 3 4 is adiabatic so
3
q
4
= 0. The rst law analysis gives then
u
4
u
3
=
3
q
4
..
=0
3
w
4
, (2.52)
c
v
(T
4
T
3
) =
3
w
4
, (2.53)
_
0.7175
kJ
kg K
_
(400 K 1200 K) =
3
w
4
, (2.54)
3
w
4
= 5.74000 10
2
kJ
kg
. (2.55)
Process 4 1 is isothermal. Similar to the other isothermal process, one nds
u
1
u
4
=
4
q
1
4
w
1
, (2.56)
c
v
(T
1
T
4
)
. .
=0
=
4
q
1
4
w
1
, (2.57)
0 =
4
q
1
4
w
1
, (2.58)
4
q
1
=
4
w
1
=
_
v1
v4
P dv, (2.59)
=
_
v1
v4
RT
v
dv, (2.60)
= RT
4
ln
v
1
v
4
, (2.61)
=
_
0.287
kJ
kg K
_
(400 K) ln
1.0000
m
3
kg
3.0000
m
3
kg
, (2.62)
= 1.26121 10
2
kJ
kg
. (2.63)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.1. CARNOT 23
Process u
_
kJ
kg
_
q
_
kJ
kg
_
w
_
kJ
kg
_
1 2 5.74000 10
2
0 5.74000 10
2
2 3 0 3.78362 10
2
3.78362 10
2
3 4 5.74000 10
2
0 5.74000 10
2
4 1 0 1.26121 10
2
1.26121 10
2
Total 0 2.52241 10
2
2.52241 10
2
Table 2.2: First law parameters for Carnot cycle.
Table 2.2 summarizes the rst law considerations. The cycle work is found by adding the work of each
individual process:
w
cycle
=
1
w
2
+
2
w
3
+
3
w
4
+
4
w
1
, (2.64)
= (5.74 + 3.78362 + 5.74 1.26121) 10
2
= 2.52241 10
2
kJ
kg
. (2.65)
The cycle heat transfer is
q
cycle
=
1
q
2
+
2
q
3
+
3
q
4
+
4
q
1
, (2.66)
= (0 + 3.78362 + 0 1.26121) 10
2
= 2.52241 10
2
kJ
kg
. (2.67)
Note that
w
cycle
= q
cycle
. (2.68)
Check now for the cycle eciency. Recall that the thermal eciency is
=
what you want
what you pay for
=
w
cycle
q
in
. (2.69)
Here this reduces to
=
w
cycle
2
q
3
=
2.52241 10
2 kJ
kg
3.78362 10
2 kJ
kg
= 0.6667. (2.70)
Recall that the eciency for any Carnot cycle should be
= 1
T
low
T
high
. (2.71)
So general Carnot theory holds that the eciency should be
= 1
400 K
1200 K
=
2
3
0.6667. (2.72)
Recall further that for a Carnot cycle, one has
q
low
q
high
=
T
low
T
high
. (2.73)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
24 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
For this problem then one has
4
q
1
2
q
3
=
T
low
T
high
, (2.74)
1.26121 10
2 kJ
kg
3.78362 10
2
kJ
kg
=
400 K
1200 K
, (2.75)
1
3
=
1
3
. (2.76)
Indeed, the appropriate relation holds.
2.2 Exergy
Here we will introduce the concept of exergy. This concept is widely used in some industrial
design applications; its use in the fundamental physics literature is not extensive, likely
because it is not a thermodynamic property of a material, but also includes mechanical
properties. This system quantity is one measure of how much useful work can be extracted
from a system which is brought into equilibrium with a socalled reference rest state.
First let us imagine that the surroundings are at a reference temperature of T
o
and a
reference pressure of P
o
. This yields a reference enthalpy of h
o
and a reference entropy of s
o
.
We also take the surroundings to be at rest with a velocity of v = 0, and a reference height
of z
o
.
Consider the sketch of Fig. 2.2. Let us consider a steady ow into and out of a control
volume. The conservation of mass equation yields
dm
cv
dt
= m
in
m
out
. (2.77)
For steady ow conditions, we have d/dt = 0, so we recover
m
in
= m
out
= m. (2.78)
The rst law of thermodynamics for the control volume yields
dE
cv
dt
=
Q
cv
W
cv
+ m
in
_
h
in
+
1
2
v
in
v
in
+ gz
in
_
m
out
_
h
out
+
1
2
v
out
v
out
+ gz
out
_
. (2.79)
We will soon relate
Q
cv
/ m to q
H,Carnot
as sketched in Fig. 2.2; this will introduce a sign
convention problem. For now, we will maintain the formal sign convention associated with
Q
cv
connoting heat transfer into the control volume. For steady ow conditions, we get
0 =
Q
cv
W
cv
+ m
_
h
in
h
out
+
1
2
(v
in
v
in
v
out
v
out
) + g(z
in
z
out
)
_
. (2.80)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.2. EXERGY 25
h + (1/2) v v+ g z
h + gz
o
.
q
L,Carnot
w
Carnot
Carnot
engine
T
o
o
control
volume
q
H,Carnot
Figure 2.2: Sketch of control volume balance for exergy discussion.
Now take the in state to be simply a generic state with no subscript, and the out
state to be the reference state, so
0 =
Q
cv
W
cv
+ m
_
h h
o
+
1
2
(v v) + g(z z
o
)
_
. (2.81)
Let us next scale by m so as to get
0 = q
cv
w
cv
+ h h
o
+
1
2
v v + g(z z
o
). (2.82)
Here we have taken q
cv
Q
cv
/ m and w
cv
=
W
cv
/ m.
Now, let us insist that w
cv
= 0, and solve for q
cv
to get
q
cv
=
_
h h
o
+
1
2
v v + g(z z
o
)
_
. (2.83)
Now, we imagine the working uid to be at an elevated enthalpy, velocity, and height
relative to its rest state. Thus in the process of bringing it to its rest state, we will induce
q
cv
< 0. By our standard sign convention, this means that thermal energy is leaving the
system. This energy which leaves the system can be harnessed, in the best of all possible
worlds, by a Carnot engine in contact with a thermal reservoir at temperature T
o
to generate
useful work. It is this work which represents the available energy, also known as the exergy.
For the Carnot engine, we have
w
Carnot
= q
H,Carnot
q
L,Carnot
. (2.84)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
26 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
Note the standard sign convention for work and heat transfer is abandoned for the Carnot
analysis! It is w
Carnot
which gives the availability or exergy, which we dene as :
= q
H,Carnot
q
L,Carnot
. (2.85)
Now let us require that the heat input to the Carnot engine be the heat associated with the
heat transfer from the control volume. Because of the inconsistency in sign conventions, this
requires that
q
cv
= q
H,Carnot
. (2.86)
Now for Carnot cycles, we know that
q
H,Carnot
= T(s s
o
), (2.87)
q
L,Carnot
= T
o
(s s
o
). (2.88)
So, by substituting Eqs. (2.86) and (2.88) into Eq. (2.85), the availability is
= q
cv
T
o
(s s
o
). (2.89)
Now use Eq. (2.83) to eliminate q
cv
from Eq. (2.89) to get
=
_
h h
o
+
1
2
v v + g(z z
o
)
_
T
o
(s s
o
), (2.90)
=
_
h T
o
s +
1
2
v v + gz
_
(h
o
T
o
s
o
+ gz
o
) . (2.91)
So the exergy, that is, the ability to useful work, is enhanced by
high enthalpy h, which for ideal gases implies high temperature T,
high velocity v,
high height z, and
low entropy (or high order or structure) s.
Example 2.2
Find the exergy for a CPIG.
For a CPIG, we have
h h
o
= c
P
(T T
o
), (2.92)
s s
o
= c
P
ln
_
T
T
o
_
Rln
_
P
P
o
_
. (2.93)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.2. EXERGY 27
So we get
= c
P
(T T
o
) T
o
_
c
P
ln
_
T
T
o
_
Rln
_
P
P
o
__
+
1
2
v v +g(z z
o
). (2.94)
For T T
o
P P
o
, we can use Taylor series to simplify this somewhat. First, we recall the general
Taylor series for a log function near unity. Consider
y(x) = ln x, (2.95)
for x 1. For a Taylor series near x = 1, we have
y(x) y(1) +
dy
dx
x=1
(x 1) +
1
2
d
2
y
dx
2
x=1
(x 1)
2
+. . . . (2.96)
Now for y = ln x, we have
dy
dx
=
1
x
,
d
2
y
dx
2
=
1
x
2
, (2.97)
and thus
y(1) = ln(1) = 0,
dy
dx
x=1
= 1,
d
2
y
dx
2
x=1
= 1 (2.98)
So
y(x) = ln x 0 + (x 1)
1
2
(x 1)
2
+. . . (2.99)
We then expand via the following steps:
= c
P
(T T
o
) c
P
T
o
ln
_
T
T
o
_
+RT
o
ln
_
P
P
o
_
+
1
2
v v +g(z z
o
), (2.100)
= c
P
T
o
__
T
T
o
1
_
ln
_
T
T
o
_
+
k 1
k
ln
_
P
P
o
__
+
1
2
v v +g(z z
o
), (2.101)
= c
P
T
o
_
_
T
T
o
1
_
_
_
T
T
o
1
_
1
2
_
T
T
o
1
_
2
+. . .
_
+
k 1
k
_
P
P
o
1 +. . .
_
_
+
1
2
v v +g(z z
o
), (2.102)
= c
P
T
o
__
1
2
_
T
T
o
1
_
2
+. . .
_
+
k 1
k
_
P
P
o
1 +. . .
_
_
+
1
2
v v +g(z z
o
). (2.103)
Note that in the neighborhood of the ambient state, relative pressure dierences are more eective than
relative temperature dierences at inducing high exergy.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
28 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
2.3 Rankine
2.3.1 Classical
The Rankine cycle forms the foundation for the bulk of power generating devices which
utilize steam as a working uid. The ideal cycle is described by
1 2: isentropic pumping process in the pump,
2 3: isobaric heat transfer in the boiler,
3 4: isentropic expansion in the turbine, and
4 1: isobaric heat transfer in the condenser.
Note that to increase cycle eciency one can
lower the condenser pressure (increases liquid water in turbine),
superheat the steam, or
increase the pressure during heat addition.
A schematic for the Rankine cycle and the associated path in the T s plane is shown
in Figure 2.3.
pump
boiler
turbine
condenser
1
2
3
4
T
s
1
2
3
4
Figure 2.3: Schematic for Rankine cycle and the associated T s plane.
Example 2.3
(adopted from Moran and Shapiro, p. 312) Consider steam in an ideal Rankine cycle. Saturated
vapor enters the turbine at 8.0 MPa. Saturated liquid exits the condenser at P = 0.008 MPa. The
net power output of the cycle is 100 MW. Find
thermal eciency
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.3. RANKINE 29
back work ratio
mass ow rate of steam
rate of heat transfer
Q
in
to the uid in the boiler
rate of heat transfer
Q
out
in the condenser
mass ow rate of condenser cooling water if the cooling water enters at 15
C and exits at 35
C.
Use the steam tables to x the state. At the turbine inlet, one has P
3
= 8.0 MPa, and x
3
= 1 (saturated
steam). This gives two properties to x the state, so that
h
3
= 2758
kJ
kg
, s
3
= 5.7432
kJ
kg K
. (2.104)
State 4 has P
4
= 0.008 MPa and s
4
= s
3
= 5.7432 kJ/kg/K, so the state is xed. From the saturation
tables, it is found then that
x
4
=
s
4
s
f
s
g
s
f
=
_
5.7432
kJ
kg K
_
_
0.5926
kJ
kg K
_
7.6361
kJ
kg K
= 0.6745. (2.105)
Note the quality is 0 x
4
1, as it must be. The enthalpy is then
h
4
= h
f
+x
4
h
fg
=
_
173.88
kJ
kg
_
+ (0.6745)
_
2403.1
kJ
kg
_
= 1794.8
kJ
kg
. (2.106)
State 1 is saturated liquid at 0.008 MPa, so x
1
= 0, P
1
= 0.008 MPa. One then gets h
1
= h
f
=
173.88 kJ/kg, v
1
= v
f
= 0.0010084 m
3
/kg.
Now state 2 is xed by the boiler pressure and s
2
= s
1
. But this requires use of the sparse
compressed liquid tables. Alternatively, the pump work is easily approximated by assuming an incom
pressible uid so that
h
2
= h
1
+
W
m
= h
1
+v
1
(P
2
P
1
), (2.107)
h
2
=
_
173.88
kJ
kg
_
+
_
0.0010084
m
3
kg
_
(8000 kPa 8 kPa) = 181.94
kJ
kg
. (2.108)
The net power is
W
cycle
=
W
t
+
W
p
. (2.109)
Now the rst law for the turbine and pump give
W
t
m
= h
3
h
4
,
W
p
m
= h
1
h
2
. (2.110)
The energy input that is paid for is
Q
in
m
= h
3
h
2
. (2.111)
The thermal eciency is then found by
=
W
t
+
W
p
Q
in
=
(h
3
h
4
) + (h
1
h
2
)
h
3
h
2
, (2.112)
=
__
2758
kJ
kg
_
_
1794.8
kJ
kg
_
+
_
173.88
kJ
kg
_
_
181.94
kJ
kg
__
__
2758
kJ
kg
_
_
181.94
kJ
kg
__ , (2.113)
= 0.371. (2.114)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
30 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
By denition the back work ratio bwr is the ratio of pump work to turbine work:
bwr =
W
p
W
t
, (2.115)
=
h
1
h
2
h
3
h
4
, (2.116)
=
__
173.88
kJ
kg
_
_
181.94
kJ
kg
__
__
2758
kJ
kg
_
_
1794.8
kJ
kg
__
, (2.117)
= 0.00837. (2.118)
The desired mass ow can be determined since we know the desired net power. Thus
m =
W
cycle
(h
3
h
4
) + (h
1
h
2
)
, (2.119)
=
100 10
3
kW
__
2758
kJ
kg
_
_
1794.8
kJ
kg
_
+
_
173.88
kJ
kg
_
_
181.94
kJ
kg
__, (2.120)
= 104.697
kg
s
, (2.121)
=
_
104.697
kg
s
_
_
3600
s
hr
_
= 3.769 10
5
kg
hr
. (2.122)
The necessary heat transfer rate in the boiler is then
Q
in
= m(h
3
h
2
), (2.123)
=
_
104.697
kg
s
___
2758
kJ
kg
_
_
181.94
kJ
kg
__
, (2.124)
= 269706 kW, (2.125)
= 269.7 MW. (2.126)
In the condenser, one nds
Q
out
= m(h
1
h
4
), (2.127)
=
_
104.697
kg
s
___
173.88
kJ
kg
_
_
1794.8
kJ
kg
__
, (2.128)
= 169705 kW, (2.129)
= 169.7 MW. (2.130)
Note also for the cycle that one should nd
W
cycle
=
Q
in
+
Q
out
= (269.7 MW) (169.7 MW) = 100 MW. (2.131)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.3. RANKINE 31
For the condenser mass ow rate now perform a mass balance:
dE
cv
dt
. .
=0
=
Q
cv
..
=0
W
cv
..
=0
+ m
c
(h
in
h
out
) + m(h
4
h
1
), (2.132)
0 = m
c
(h
in
h
out
) + m(h
4
h
1
), (2.133)
m
c
=
m(h
4
h
1
)
h
in
h
out
, (2.134)
=
_
104.697
kg
s
___
1794.8
kJ
kg
_
_
173.88
kJ
kg
__
__
62.99
kJ
kg
_
_
146.68
kJ
kg
__ , (2.135)
= 2027.79
kg
s
, (2.136)
=
_
2027.79
kg
s
__
3600 s
hr
_
, (2.137)
= 7.3 10
6
kg
hr
. (2.138)
The enthalpy for the cooling water was found by assuming values at the saturated state at the respective
temperatures of 15
C and 35
C.
Example 2.4
Compute the exergy at various points in the ow of a Rankine cycle as considered in the previous
example problem. For that example, we had at state 1, the pump inlet that
h
1
= 173.88
kJ
kg
, s
1
= 0.5926
kJ
kg K
. (2.139)
After the pump, at state 2, we have
h
2
= 181.94
kJ
kg
, s
2
= 0.5926
kJ
kg K
. (2.140)
After the boiler, at state 3, we have
h
3
= 2758
kJ
kg
, s
3
= 5.7432
kJ
kg K
. (2.141)
After the turbine, at state 4, we have
h
4
= 1794.8
kJ
kg
, s
4
= 5.7432
kJ
kg K
. (2.142)
Now for this example, kinetic and potential energy contributions to the exergy are negligible, so we
can say in general that
= (h T
o
s) (h
o
T
o
s
o
). (2.143)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
32 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
Now for this problem, we have T
o
= 298.15 K, h
o
= 104.89 kJ/kg, s
o
= 0.3674 kJ/kg/K. We have
estimated h
o
and s
o
as the enthalpy and entropy of a saturated liquid at 25
C = 298.15 K.
So the exergies are as follows. At the pump entrance, we get
1
= (h
1
T
o
s
1
) (h
o
T
o
s
o
) , (2.144)
=
__
173.88
kJ
kg
_
(298.15 K)
_
0.5926
kJ
kg K
__
__
104.89
kJ
kg
_
(298.15 K)
_
0.3674
kJ
kg K
__
, (2.145)
= 1.84662
kJ
kg
. (2.146)
After the pump, just before the boiler, we have
2
= (h
2
T
o
s
2
) (h
o
T
o
s
o
) , (2.147)
=
__
181.94
kJ
kg
_
(298.15 K)
_
0.5926
kJ
kg K
__
__
104.89
kJ
kg
_
(298.15 K)
_
0.3674
kJ
kg K
__
, (2.148)
= 9.90662
kJ
kg
. (2.149)
So the exergy has gone up. Note here that
2
1
= h
2
h
1
because the process is isentropic. Here
1
= h
2
= h
1
= 181.94 173.88 = 8.06 kJ/kg.
After the boiler, just before the turbine, we have
3
= (h
3
T
o
s
3
) (h
o
T
o
s
o
) , (2.150)
=
__
2758
kJ
kg
_
(298.15 K)
_
5.7432
kJ
kg K
__
__
104.89
kJ
kg
_
(298.15 K)
_
0.3674
kJ
kg K
__
, (2.151)
= 1050.32
kJ
kg
. (2.152)
Relative to the pump, the boiler has added much more exergy to the uid. After the turbine, just
before the condenser, we have
4
= (h
4
T
o
s
4
) (h
o
T
o
s
o
) , (2.153)
=
__
1794.8
kJ
kg
_
(298.15 K)
_
5.7432
kJ
kg K
__
__
104.89
kJ
kg
_
(298.15 K)
_
0.3674
kJ
kg K
__
, (2.154)
= 87.1152
kJ
kg
. (2.155)
Note that
4
3
= h
4
h
3
because the process is isentropic. The actual exergy (or available work)
at the exit of the turbine is relative low, even though the enthapy state at the turbine exit remains at
an elevated value.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.3. RANKINE 33
2.3.2 Reheat
In a Rankine cycle with reheat, the steam is extracted from an intermediate stage of the
turbine and reheated in the boiler. It is then expanded through the turbine again to the
condenser pressure. One also avoids liquid in the turbine with this strategy. This generally
results in a gain in cycle eciency. Geometrically, the behavior on a T s diagram looks
more like a Carnot cycle. This is often covered in an introductory thermodynamics class, so
no formal example will be given here. A schematic for the Rankine cycle with reheat and
the associated T s diagram is shown in Figure 2.4.
Pump
Boiler
Turbine
Condenser
1
2
3
6
5
4
T
s
1
2
3
4
5
6
Figure 2.4: Schematic for Rankine cycle with reheat along with the relevant T s diagram.
2.3.3 Regeneration
In a Rankine cycle with regeneration, some steam is extracted from the turbine and used
to preheat the liquid which is exiting the pump. This can lead to an increased thermal
eciency, all else being equal. The analysis is complicated by the need to take care of more
complex mass and energy balances in some components. A schematic for the Rankine cycle
with regeneration and open feedwater heating is shown in Figure 2.5.
Example 2.5
(BS, Ex. 11.4, pp. 438440) Steam leaves boiler and enters turbine at 4 MPa, 400
C. After
expansion to 400 kPa, some stream is extracted for heating feedwater in an open feedwater heater.
Pressure in feedwater heater is 400 kPa, and water leaves it at a saturated state at 400 kPa. The rest
of the steam expands through the turbine to 10 kPa. Find the cycle eciency.
1 2: compression through Pump P1,
2 & 6 3: mixing in open feedwater heater to saturated liquid state,
3 4: compression through Pump P2,
4 5: heating in boiler,
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
34 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
Pump
Boiler
Turbine
Condenser
Feedwater
Heater
Pump
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
P1
P2
Figure 2.5: Schematic for Rankine cycle with regeneration and open feedwater heating.
5 6: partial expansion in turbine,
6 7: completion of turbine expansion, and
7 1: cooling in condenser.
From the tables, one can nd
h
5
= 3213.6
kJ
kg
, h
6
= 2685.6
kJ
kg
, h
7
= 2144.1
kJ
kg
, h
1
= 191.8
kJ
kg
, h
3
= 604.73
kJ
kg
,
v
1
= 0.00101
m
3
kg
, v
3
= 0.001084
m
3
kg
. (2.156)
First consider the low pressure pump.
h
2
= h
1
+v
1
(P
2
P
1
), (2.157)
=
_
191.8
kJ
kg
_
+
_
0.00101
m
3
kg
_
((400 kPa) (10 kPa)) , (2.158)
= 192.194
kJ
kg
(2.159)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.3. RANKINE 35
The pump work is
w
P1
= v
1
(P
1
P
2
), (2.160)
=
_
0.00101
m
3
kg
_
((10 kPa) (400 kPa)) , (2.161)
= 0.3939
kJ
kg
. (2.162)
Note, a sign convention consistent with work done by the uid is used here. At this point the text
abandons this sign convention instead.
Now consider the turbine
dm
cv
dt
. .
=0
= m
5
m
6
m
7
, (2.163)
m
5
= m
6
+ m
7
, (2.164)
1 =
m
6
m
5
+
m
7
m
5
, (2.165)
dE
cv
dt
. .
=0
=
Q
cv
..
=0
W
cv
+ m
5
h
5
m
6
h
6
m
7
h
7
, (2.166)
W
cv
= m
5
h
5
m
6
h
6
m
7
h
7
. (2.167)
On a per mass basis, we get,
w
t
=
W
cv
m
5
= h
5
m
6
m
5
h
6
m
7
m
5
h
7
, (2.168)
= h
5
m
6
m
5
h
6
_
1
m
6
m
5
_
h
7
, (2.169)
= h
5
h
6
+h
6
m
6
m
5
h
6
_
1
m
6
m
5
_
h
7
, (2.170)
= h
5
h
6
+h
6
_
1
m
6
m
5
_
_
1
m
6
m
5
_
h
7
, (2.171)
= h
5
h
6
+
_
1
m
6
m
5
_
(h
6
h
7
). (2.172)
Now consider the feedwater heater. The rst law for this device gives
dE
cv
dt
. .
=0
=
Q
cv
..
=0
W
cv
..
=0
+ m
2
h
2
+ m
6
h
6
m
3
h
3
, (2.173)
h
3
=
m
2
m
3
h
2
+
m
6
m
3
h
6
, (2.174)
=
m
7
m
5
h
2
+
m
6
m
5
h
6
, (2.175)
=
_
1
m
6
m
5
_
h
2
+
m
6
m
5
h
6
, (2.176)
_
604.73
kJ
kg
_
=
_
1
m
6
m
5
__
192.194
kJ
kg
_
+
m
6
m
5
_
2685.6
kJ
kg
_
, (2.177)
m
6
m
5
= 0.165451. (2.178)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
36 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
Now get the turbine work
w
t
= h
5
h
6
+
_
1
m
6
m
5
_
(h
6
h
7
), (2.179)
=
_
3213.6
kJ
kg
_
_
2685.6
kJ
kg
_
+(1 0.165451)
__
2685.6
kJ
kg
_
_
2144.1
kJ
kg
__
, (2.180)
= 979.908
kJ
kg
. (2.181)
Now get the work for the highpressure pump
w
P2
= v
3
(P
3
P
4
), (2.182)
=
_
0.001084
m
3
kg
_
((400 kPa) (4000 kPa)) , (2.183)
= 3.9024
kJ
kg
. (2.184)
Now
h
4
= h
3
+v
3
(P
4
P
3
), (2.185)
=
_
604.73
kJ
kg
_
+
_
0.001084
m
3
kg
_
((4000 kPa) (400 kPa)) , (2.186)
= 608.6
kJ
kg
. (2.187)
Now get the net work
W
net
= m
5
w
t
+ m
1
w
P1
+ m
5
w
P2
, (2.188)
w
net
= w
t
+
m
1
m
5
w
P1
+w
P2
, (2.189)
= w
t
+
m
7
m
5
w
P1
+w
P2
, (2.190)
= w
t
+
_
1
m
6
m
5
_
w
P1
+w
P2
, (2.191)
=
_
979.908
kJ
kg
_
+ (1 0.165451)
_
0.3939
kJ
kg
_
_
3.9024
kJ
kg
_
, (2.192)
= 975.677
kJ
kg
. (2.193)
Now for the heat transfer in the boiler, one has
q
h
= h
5
h
4
, (2.194)
=
_
3213.6
kJ
kg
_
_
608.6
kJ
kg
_
, (2.195)
= 2605.0
kJ
kg
. (2.196)
Thus, the thermal eciency is
=
w
net
q
h
=
975.677
kJ
kg
2605.0
kJ
kg
= 0.375. (2.197)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.4. AIR STANDARD CYCLES 37
This does represent an increase of eciency over a comparable Rankine cycle without regeneration,
which happens to be 0.369.
2.3.4 Losses
Turbine: These are typically the largest losses in the system. The turbine eciency is
dened by
=
w
t
w
ts
=
h
3
h
4
h
3
h
4s
. (2.198)
Here h
4s
and w
ts
are the enthalpy and work the working uid would have achieved had
the process been isentropic. Note this is for a control volume.
Pump: Pump losses are usually much smaller in magnitude than those for turbines.
The pump eciency for a control volume is dened by
=
w
ps
w
p
=
h
2s
h
1
h
2
h
1
. (2.199)
Piping: pressure drops via viscous and turbulent ow eects induce entropy gains
in uid owing through pipes. There can also be heat transfer from pipes to the
surroundings and vice versa.
Condenser: Losses are relatively small here.
Losses will always degrade the overall thermal eciency of the cycle.
2.3.5 Cogeneration
Often steam is extracted after the boiler for alternative uses. A good example is the Notre
Dame power plant, where steam at high pressure and temperature is siphoned from the
turbines to heat the campus in winter. The analysis for such a system is similar to that for
a system with regeneration.
A schematic for cogeneration cycle is shown in Figure 2.6.
2.4 Air standard cycles
It is useful to model several real engineering devices by what is known as an air standard
cycle. This is based on the following assumptions:
CPIG,
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
38 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
Pump
P1
Steam
Generator
(e.g. ND power
plant)
Low pressure
turbine
Condenser
1
2
3
6
5
4
High pressure
turbine
Mixer
Pump
P2
Q
L
.
7
Thermal
process
steam load
(e.g. heating the
ND campus)
8
Liquid
Liquid
W
T
.
W
P1
.
W
P2
.
Q
H
.
(e.g. to St. Josephs Lake)
Figure 2.6: Schematic for Rankine cycle with cogeneration.
no inlet or exhaust stages,
combustion process replaced by heat transfer process,
cycle completed by heat transfer to surroundings (not exhaust), and
all process internally reversible.
In some cycles, it is common to model the working uid as a xed mass. In others, it is
common to model the system as a control volume.
2.5 Brayton
2.5.1 Classical
The Brayton cycle is the air standard model for gas turbine engines. It is most commonly
modeled on a control volume basis. It has the following components:
1 2: isentropic compression,
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.5. BRAYTON 39
2 3: isobaric heat transfer to combustion chamber,
3 4: isentropic expansion through turbine, and
4 1: isobaric heat exchange with surroundings.
A schematic for the Brayton cycle is shown in Figure 2.7. Diagrams for P v and T s for
Turbine
Compressor
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Air
Products
environmental exhaust return
1
2
3
4
w
Figure 2.7: Schematic for Brayton cycle.
the Brayton cycle are shown in Figure 2.8.
P
v
T
s
1
2
3
4
isobar
isobar
1
2 3
4
isentrope
isentrope
Figure 2.8: P v and T s diagrams for the Brayton cycle.
The eciency of the air standard Brayton cycle is found as
=
w
net
q
H
. (2.200)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
40 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
For the cycle, the rst law holds that
w
net
= q
net
= q
H
q
L
. (2.201)
One notes for an isobaric control volume combustor that
dE
cv
dt
. .
=0
=
Q
cv
W
cv
..
=0
+ mh
in
mh
out
. (2.202)
So
Q
cv
= m(h
out
h
in
), (2.203)
Q
cv
m
= h
out
h
in
, (2.204)
q = h
out
h
in
, (2.205)
q = c
P
(T
out
T
in
). (2.206)
So the thermal eciency is
=
w
net
q
H
=
q
H
q
L
q
H
= 1
q
L
q
H
= 1
c
P
(T
4
T
1
)
c
P
(T
3
T
2
)
= 1
T
1
_
T
4
T
1
1
_
T
2
_
T
3
T
2
1
_. (2.207)
Now because of the denition of the process, one also has
P
3
P
4
=
P
2
P
1
. (2.208)
And because 1 2 and 3 4 are isentropic, one has
P
2
P
1
=
_
T
2
T
1
_
k/(k1)
=
P
3
P
4
=
_
T
3
T
4
_
k/(k1)
. (2.209)
So one then has
T
2
T
1
=
T
3
T
4
. (2.210)
Crossmultiplying, one nds
T
3
T
2
=
T
4
T
1
. (2.211)
Subtracting unity from both sides gives
T
3
T
2
1 =
T
4
T
1
1. (2.212)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.5. BRAYTON 41
So the thermal eciency takes the form
= 1
T
1
T
2
= 1
1
T
2
T
1
= 1
1
_
P
2
P
1
_
(k1)/k
. (2.213)
Note that if a Carnot cycle were operating between the same temperature bounds that
Carnot
= 1 T
1
/T
3
would be greater than that for the Brayton cycle.
Relative to the Rankine cycle, the Brayton cycle has a large fraction of compressor work.
So the backwork ratio bwr is larger.
One must also account for deviations from ideality. These eects are summarized in
component eciencies. The relevant eciencies here, assuming a control volume approach,
are
c
=
h
2s
h
1
h
2
h
1
, (2.214)
t
=
h
3
h
4
h
3
h
4s
. (2.215)
For a CPIG, one gets then
c
=
T
2s
T
1
T
2
T
1
, (2.216)
t
=
T
3
T
4
T
3
T
4s
. (2.217)
Example 2.6
(adopted from Moran and Shapiro, Example 9.6) Air enters the compressor of an airstandard
Brayton cycle at 100 kPa, 300 K with a volumetric ow rate is 5 m
3
/s. The pressure ratio in the
compressor is 10. The turbine inlet temperature is 1400 K. Find the thermal eciency, the back work
ratio and the net power. Both the compressor and turbine have eciencies of 0.8.
First calculate the state after the compressor if the compressor were isentropic.
P
2
P
1
=
_
T
2s
T
1
_
k/(k1)
= 10, (2.218)
T
2s
= T
1
(10)
(k1)/k
, (2.219)
= (300 K)(10)
(1.41)/1.4
, (2.220)
= 579.209 K. (2.221)
Now
c
=
T
2s
T
1
T
2
T
1
, (2.222)
T
2
= T
1
+
T
2s
T
1
c
, (2.223)
= (300 K) +
(579.209 K) (300 K)
0.8
, (2.224)
= 649.012 K. (2.225)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
42 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
Now state three has T
3
= 1400 K. Recall that 2 3 involves heat addition in a combustion chamber.
Now calculate T
4s
for the ideal turbine. Recall that the expansion is to the same pressure as the
compressor inlet so that P
3
/P
4
= 10. The isentropic relations give
_
T
4s
T
3
_
k/(k1)
=
P
4
P
3
, (2.226)
T
4s
= T
3
_
P
4
P
3
_
(k1)/k
, (2.227)
= (1400 K)
_
1
10
_
(1.41)/1.4
, (2.228)
= 725.126 K. (2.229)
Now account for the actual behavior in the turbine:
t
=
T
3
T
4
T
3
T
4s
, (2.230)
T
4
= T
3
t
(T
3
T
4s
), (2.231)
= (1400 K) (0.8)((1400 K) (725.126 K)), (2.232)
= 860.101 K. (2.233)
Now calculate the thermal eciency of the actual cycle.
=
w
net
q
H
=
q
H
q
L
q
H
= 1
q
L
q
H
= 1
c
P
(T
4
T
1
)
c
P
(T
3
T
2
)
= 1
T
4
T
1
T
3
T
2
, (2.234)
= 1
860.101 K 300 K
1400 K 649.012 K
, (2.235)
= 0.254181. (2.236)
If the cycle were ideal, one would have
ideal
=
w
net
q
H
=
q
H
q
L
q
H
= 1
q
L
q
H
= 1
c
P
(T
4s
T
1
)
c
P
(T
3
T
2s
)
= 1
T
4s
T
1
T
3
T
2s
, (2.237)
= 1
(725.126 K) (300 K)
(1400 K) (579.209 K)
, (2.238)
= 0.482053. (2.239)
Note also that for the ideal cycle one also has
ideal
= 1
T
1
T
2s
= 1
300 K
579.209 K
= 0.482053. (2.240)
The back work ratio is
bwr =
w
comp
w
turb
, (2.241)
=
c
P
(T
2
T
1
)
c
P
(T
3
T
4
)
, (2.242)
=
T
2
T
1
T
3
T
4
, (2.243)
=
(649.012 K) (300 K)
(1400 K) (860.101 K)
, (2.244)
= 0.646439. (2.245)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.5. BRAYTON 43
If the process were ideal, the back work ratio would have been
bwr
ideal
=
w
comp
w
turb
, (2.246)
=
c
P
(T
2s
T
1
)
c
P
(T
3
T
4s
)
, (2.247)
=
T
2s
T
1
T
3
T
4s
, (2.248)
=
(579.209 K) (300 K)
(1400 K) (725.126 K)
, (2.249)
= 0.413721. (2.250)
Now get the net work. First get the mass ow rate from the volume ow rate. This requires the specic
volume.
v
1
=
RT
1
P
1
=
_
0.287
kJ
kg K
_
(300 K)
100 kPa
= 0.861
m
3
kg
. (2.251)
Now
m =
1
V =
V
v
1
=
5
m
3
s
0.861
m
3
kg
= 5.8072
kg
s
. (2.252)
Recall c
P
= kc
v
= 1.4(717.5 J/kg/K) = 1004.5 J/kg/K = 1.0045 kJ/kg/K. Now
W
cycle
= mc
P
((T
3
T
4
) (T
2
T
1
), (2.253)
=
_
5.8072
kg
s
__
1.0045
kJ
kg K
_
((1400 K) (860.101 K) (649.012 K) + (300 K)), (2.254)
= 1113.51 kW. (2.255)
If the cycle were ideal, one would have
W
ideal
= mc
P
((T
3
T
4s
) (T
2s
T
1
), (2.256)
=
_
5.8072
kg
s
__
1.0045
kJ
kg K
_
((1400 K) (725.126 K) (579.209 K) + (300 K)), (2.257)
= 2308.04 kW. (2.258)
Note that the ineciencies had a signicant eect on both the back work ratio and the net work of the
engine.
2.5.2 Regeneration
One can improve cycle eciency by regeneration. The hot gas in the turbine is used to
preheat the gas exiting the compressor before it enters the combustion chamber. In this
cycle, one takes
1 2: compression,
2 x: compression exit gas goes through regenerator (heat exchanger),
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
44 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
x 3: combustion chamber,
3 4: expansion in turbine, and
4 y: turbine exit gas goes through regenerator (heat exchanger).
A schematic for the Brayton cycle is shown in Figure 2.9.
Turbine
Compressor
1
4
w
Regenerator
Combustion
chamber
2
3
x
y
Figure 2.9: Schematic for Brayton cycle with regeneration.
For this to work, the gas at the turbine exit must have a higher temperature than the gas
at the compressor exit. If the compression ratio is high, the compressor exit temperature is
high, and there is little benet to regeneration.
Now consider the regenerator, which is really a heat exchanger. The rst law holds that
dE
cv
dt
. .
=0
=
Q
cv
..
=0
W
cv
..
=0
+ mh
2
mh
x
+ mh
4
mh
y
, (2.259)
0 = h
2
h
x
+ h
4
h
y
, (2.260)
= c
P
(T
2
T
x
) + c
P
(T
4
T
y
), (2.261)
= T
2
T
x
+ T
4
T
y
. (2.262)
Now consider the inlet temperatures to be known. Then the rst law constrains the outlet
temperatures such that
T
2
+ T
4
= T
x
+ T
y
. (2.263)
If the heat exchanger were an ideal coow heat exchanger, one might expect the outlet
temperatures to be the same, that is, T
x
= T
y
, and one would have T
x
= T
y
= (1/2)(T
2
+T
4
).
But in fact one can do better. If a counterow heat exchanger is used, one could ideally
expect to nd
T
x
= T
4
, T
y
= T
2
. (2.264)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.5. BRAYTON 45
The thermal eciency is
=
w
net
q
H
, (2.265)
=
w
t
w
c
q
H
, (2.266)
=
c
P
(T
3
T
4
) c
P
(T
2
T
1
)
c
P
(T
3
T
x
)
, (2.267)
=
(T
3
T
4
) (T
2
T
1
)
T
3
T
x
, (2.268)
=
(T
3
T
4
) (T
2
T
1
)
T
3
T
4
, (2.269)
= 1
T
2
T
1
T
3
T
4
, (2.270)
= 1
T
1
_
T
2
T
1
1
_
T
3
_
1
T
4
T
3
_, (2.271)
= 1
T
1
_
_
P
2
P
1
_
(k1)/k
1
_
T
3
_
1
_
P
4
P
3
_
(k1)/k
_, (2.272)
= 1
T
1
_
_
P
2
P
1
_
(k1)/k
1
_
T
3
_
1
_
P
1
P
2
_
(k1)/k
_, (2.273)
= 1
T
1
T
3
_
P
2
P
1
_
(k1)/k
1
_
P
1
P
2
_
(k1)/k
1
_
P
1
P
2
_
(k1)/k
, (2.274)
= 1
T
1
T
3
_
P
2
P
1
_
(k1)/k
. (2.275)
Note this is the Carnot eciency moderated by the pressure ratio. As the pressure ratio
rises, the thermal eciency declines.
The regenerator itself will not be perfect. To achieve the performance postulated here
would require innite time or an innite area heat exchanger. As both increase, viscous
losses increase, and so there is a tradeo. One can summarize the behavior of an actual
regenerator by an eciency dened as
reg
=
h
x
h
2
h
x
h
2
=
actual
ideal
. (2.276)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
46 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
If we have a CPIG, then
reg
=
T
x
T
2
T
x
T
2
. (2.277)
Example 2.7
(extension for Moran and Shapiro, Example 9.6) How would the addition of a regenerator aect
the thermal eciency of the isentropic version of the previous example problem?
One may take the rash step of trusting the analysis to give a prediction from Eq. (2.275) of
= 1
T
1
T
3
_
P
2
P
1
_
(k1)/k
, (2.278)
= 1
_
300 K
1400 K
_
(10)
(1.41)/1.4
= 0.586279. (2.279)
Without regeneration, the thermal eciency of the ideal Brayton cycle had a value of 0.482053. Had
the engine used a Carnot cycle between the same temperature limits, the eciency would have been
0.785714.
2.5.3 Ericsson Cycle
If one used isothermal compression and expansion, which is slow and impractical, in place
of isentropic processes in the Brayton cycle, one would obtain the Ericsson cycle. Diagrams
for P v and T s for the Ericsson cycle are shown in Figure 2.10.
P
v
T
s
1 2
3 4
1
2 3
4
isotherm
isotherm
isobar
isobar
Figure 2.10: P v and T s diagram for the Ericsson cycle.
One can outline the Ericsson cycle as follows:
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.5. BRAYTON 47
1 2: isothermal compression,
2 3: isobaric heating in the combustion chamber,
3 4: isothermal expansion in turbine, and
4 1: isobaric heat transfer in surroundings.
One also takes the control volume approach.
First consider the work in the isothermal compressor. For the control volume, one recalls
that the work is given by the enthalpy dierence, and that dh = Tds + vdP = q
c
w
c
,
with q
c
= Tds and w
c
= vdP, so
w
c
=
_
2
1
v dP = RT
1
_
2
1
dP
P
= RT
1
ln
P
2
P
1
. (2.280)
Note that P
2
/P
1
> 1, so w
c
< 0; work is done on the uid in the compressor.
For the turbine, again for the control volume, the key is the enthalpy dierence and
dh = Tds +vdP = q
t
w
t
, with q
t
= Tds and w
t
= vdP. The turbine work would be
w
t
=
_
4
3
v dP = RT
3
_
4
3
dP
P
= RT
3
ln
P
4
P
3
. (2.281)
But because P
2
= P
3
and P
1
= P
4
, the turbine work is also
w
t
= RT
3
ln
P
1
P
2
= RT
3
ln
P
2
P
1
. (2.282)
Note that because P
2
/P
1
> 1, the turbine work is positive.
In the combustion chamber, one has from the rst law
h
3
h
2
= q
C
(2.283)
c
P
(T
3
T
2
) = q
C
. (2.284)
For the isothermal turbine, one has dh = c
P
dT = 0 = q
t
w
t
, so q
t
= w
t
. The heat
transfer necessary to keep the turbine isothermal is
q
t
= w
t
= RT
3
ln
P
2
P
1
. (2.285)
So the total heat that one pays for is
q
H
= q
C
+ q
t
= c
P
(T
3
T
1
) + RT
3
ln
P
2
P
1
. (2.286)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
48 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
So the thermal eciency is
=
w
t
+ w
c
q
H
, (2.287)
=
R(T
3
T
1
) ln
P
2
P
1
c
P
(T
3
T
1
) + RT
3
ln
P
2
P
1
, (2.288)
=
_
1
T
1
T
3
_
ln
P
2
P
1
k
k1
_
1
T
1
T
3
_
+ ln
P
2
P
1
, (2.289)
=
_
1
T
1
T
3
_
ln
_
P
2
P
1
_
(k1)/k
_
1
T
1
T
3
_
+ ln
_
P
2
P
1
_
(k1)/k
, (2.290)
=
_
1
T
1
T
3
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
1 +
1
T
1
T
3
ln
P
2
P
1
(k1)/k
_
_
_
_
_
, (2.291)
_
1
T
1
T
3
_
. .
Carnot
_
_
_
1
1
T
1
T
3
ln
_
P
2
P
1
_
(k1)/k
+ . . .
_
_
_
. .
correction
. (2.292)
This is expressed as a Carnot eciency modied by a correction which degrades the eciency.
Note the eciency is less than that of a Carnot cycle. For high temperature ratios and high
pressure ratios, the eciency approaches that of a Carnot engine.
Now if one used multiple staged intercooling on the compressors and multiple staged
expansions with reheat on the turbines, one can come closer to the isothermal limit, and
better approximate the Carnot cycle.
2.5.4 Jet propulsion
If one modies the Brayton cycle so that the turbine work is just sucient to drive the
compressor and the remaining enthalpy at the turbine exit is utilized in expansion in a
nozzle to generate thrust, one has the framework for jet propulsion. Here the control volume
approach is used. A schematic for a jet engine is shown in Figure 2.11. Diagrams for P v
and T s for the jet propulsion Brayton cycle are shown in Figure 2.12. An important
component of jet propulsion analysis is the kinetic energy of the ow. In the entrance region
of the engine, the ow is decelerated, inducing a ram compression eect. For high velocity
applications, this eect provides sucient compression for the cycle and no compressor or
turbine are needed! However, such a device, known as a ramjet, is not selfstarting, and so
is not practical for many applications.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.5. BRAYTON 49
Turbine
Compressor
Burner
environmental exhaust return
1
2
3
4
Diuser
Nozzle
a
5
Figure 2.11: Schematic for jet propulsion.
T
s
1
2
3
4
isobar
isobar
a
5
P
v
1
2
3
4
a
5
isentrope
isentrope
Figure 2.12: P v and T s diagrams for jet propulsion Brayton cycle.
One can outline the ideal jet propulsion cycle as follows:
1 a: deceleration and ram compression in diuser,
a 2: isentropic compression in the compressor,
2 3: isobaric heating in the combustion chamber,
3 4: isentropic expansion in turbine,
4 5: isentropic conversion of thermal energy to kinetic energy in nozzle, and
5 1: isobaric heat transfer in surroundings.
The goal of the jet propulsion cycle is to produce a thrust force which is necessary to
balance a uidinduced aerodynamic drag force. When such a balance exists, the system is
in steady state. One can analyze such a system in the reference frame in which the engine
is stationary. In such a frame, Newtons second law gives
d
dt
(m
CV
v
CV
)
. .
=0
= F
..
thrust force
+P
1
A
1
i P
5
A
5
i
. .
small
+ mv
1
mv
5
. (2.293)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
50 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
Solving for the thrust force, neglecting the small dierences in pressure, one gets,
F = m(v
5
v
1
) . (2.294)
The work done by the thrust force is the product of this force and the air speed, v
1
. This
gives

W
p
 = F v
1
 =  m(v
5
v
1
) v
1
 . (2.295)
Now the eciency of the cycle is a bit dierent. The net work of the turbine and compressor
is zero. Instead, the propulsive eciency is dened as
p
=
Propulsive Power
Energy Input Rate
=

W
p


Q
H

, (2.296)
=
 mv
1
(v
5
v
1
)
m(h
3
h
2
)
. (2.297)
Note the following unusual behavior for ight in an ideal inviscid atmosphere in which
the ow always remains attached. In such a ow DAlemberts paradox holds: there is
no aerodynamic drag. Consequently there is no need for thrust generation in steady state
operation. Thrust would only be needed to accelerate to a particular velocity. For such
an engine then the exit velocity would equal the entrance velocity: v
5
= v
1
and F = 0.
Moreover, the propulsive eciency is
p
= 0.
Example 2.8
(adopted from C engal and Boles, p. 485). A turbojet ies with a velocity of 850
ft
s
at an altitude
where the air is at 5 psia and 40 F. The compressor has a pressure ratio of 10, and the temperature
at the turbine inlet is 2000 F. Air enters the compressor at a rate of m = 100
lbm
s
. Assuming an air
standard with CPIG air, nd the
temperature and pressure at the turbine exit,
velocity of gas at nozzle exit, and
propulsive eciency.
For the English units of this problem, one recalls that
1 Btu = 777.5 ft lbf, g
c
= 32.2
lbm ft
lbf s
2
, 1
Btu
lbm
= 25037
ft
2
s
2
. (2.298)
For air, one has
c
P
= 0.240
Btu
lbm
R
, R = 53.34
ft lbf
lbm
R
= 1717.5
ft
2
s
2
R
= 0.0686
Btu
lbm
R
, k = 1.4. (2.299)
First one must analyze the ram compression process. An energy balance gives
h
1
+
v
1
v
1
2
= h
a
+
v
a
v
a
2
. .
small
. (2.300)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.5. BRAYTON 51
It is usually sucient to neglect the kinetic energy of the uid inside the engine. While it still has
a nonzero velocity, it has been slowed enough so that enthalpy dominates kinetic energy inside the
engine. So one takes
h
a
= h
1
+
v
1
v
1
2
, (2.301)
0 = h
1
h
a
+
v
1
v
1
2
, (2.302)
0 = c
P
(T
1
T
a
) +
v
1
v
1
2
, (2.303)
T
a
= T
1
+
v
1
v
1
2c
P
. (2.304)
The ambient temperature is
T
1
= 40 + 460 = 420
R. (2.305)
So after ram compression, the temperature at the inlet to the compressor is
T
a
= (420
R) +
_
850
ft
s
_
2
2
_
0.240
Btu
lbm
R
_
1
Btu
lbm
25037
ft
2
s
2
= 480
R. (2.306)
Now get the pressure at the compressor inlet via the isentropic relations:
P
a
= P
1
_
T
a
T
1
_
k/(k1)
= (5 psia)
_
480
R
420
R
_
1.4/(1.41)
= 8.0 psia. (2.307)
Now consider the isentropic compressor.
P
2
= 10P
a
= 10(8.0 psia) = 80 psia. (2.308)
Now get the temperature after passage through the compressor.
T
2
= T
a
_
P
2
P
a
_
(k1)/k
= (480
R) (10)
(1.41)/1.4
= 927
R. (2.309)
The temperature at the entrance of the turbine is known to be 2000 F = 2460
R. Now the turbine
work is equal to the compressor work, so
w
c
= w
t
, (2.310)
h
2
h
a
= h
3
h
4
, (2.311)
c
P
(T
2
T
a
) = c
P
(T
3
T
4
), (2.312)
T
2
T
a
= T
3
T
4
, (2.313)
T
4
= T
3
T
2
+T
a
, (2.314)
= 2460
R 927
R + 480
R, (2.315)
= 2013
R. (2.316)
Use the isentropic relations to get P
4
:
P
4
= P
3
_
T
4
T
3
_
k/(k1)
= (80 psia)
_
2013
R
2460
R
_
1.4/(1.41)
= 39.7 psia. (2.317)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
52 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
Expansion through the nozzle completes the cycle. Assume an isentropic nozzle, therefore
T
5
= T
4
_
P
5
P
4
_
(k1)/k
, (2.318)
= T
4
_
P
1
P
4
_
(k1)/k
, (2.319)
= = (2013
R)
_
5 psia
39.7 psia
_
(1.41)/1.4
, (2.320)
= 1114
R. (2.321)
Now consider the energy balance in the nozzle:
h
5
+
v
5
v
5
2
= h
4
+
v
4
v
4
2
. .
small
, (2.322)
0 = h
5
h
4
+
v
2
5
2
, (2.323)
= c
P
(T
5
T
4
) +
v
5
v
5
2
, (2.324)
v
5
=
_
2c
P
(T
4
T
5
), (2.325)
=
_
2
_
0.240
Btu
lbm
R
_
(2013
R 1114
R)
_
25037
ft
2
s
2
1
Btu
lbm
_
, (2.326)
= 3288
ft
s
. (2.327)
Now nd the thrust force magnitude
F = m(v
5
v
1
) =
_
100
lbm
s
__
3288
ft
s
850
ft
s
_
= 243800
ft lbm
s
2
, (2.328)
=
243800
ft lbm
s
2
32.2
lbm ft
lbf s
2
, (2.329)
= 7571.4 lbf. (2.330)
The power is the product of the thrust force and the air speed, so

W
P
 = F v
1
 = (7571.4 lbf)
_
850
ft
s
__
Btu
777.5 ft lbf
_
, (2.331)
= 8277
Btu
s
, (2.332)
=
_
8277
Btu
s
_
_
1.415 hp
Btu
s
_
, (2.333)
= 11711 hp. (2.334)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.6. RECIPROCATING ENGINE POWER CYCLES 53
Now for the heat transfer in the combustion chamber
Q
H
= m(h
3
h
2
), (2.335)
= mc
P
(T
3
T
2
), (2.336)
=
_
100
lbm
s
__
0.240
Btu
lbm
R
_
(2460
R 927
R), (2.337)
= 36792
Btu
s
. (2.338)
So the propulsion eciency is
p
=
W
P
Q
H
=
8277
Btu
s
36792
Btu
s
= 0.225. (2.339)
The remainder of the energy is excess kinetic energy and excess thermal energy, both of which ultimately
dissipate so as to heat the atmosphere.
Other variants of the turbojet engine include the very important turbofan engine in which
a large cowling is added to the engine and a an additional fan in front of the compressor
forces a large fraction of the air to bypass the engine. The turbofan engine is used in most
large passenger jets. Analysis reveals a signicant increase in propulsive eciency as well as
a reduction in jet noise. Other important variants include the turboprop, propfan, ramjet,
scramjet, jet with afterburners, and rocket.
2.6 Reciprocating engine power cycles
Here are some common notions for engines that depend on pistons driving in cylinders. The
piston has a bore diameter B. The piston is connected to the crankshaft, and the stroke S
of the piston is twice the radius of the crank, R
crank
:
S = 2R
crank
. (2.340)
See Figure 2.13 for an illustration of this geometry for a pistoncylinder arrangement in two
congurations. The total displacement for all the cylinders is
V
displ
= N
cyl
(V
max
V
min
) = N
cyl
A
cyl
S. (2.341)
Note that
A
cyl
=
B
2
4
. (2.342)
The compression ratio is not the ratio of pressures; it is the ratio of volumes:
r
v
= CR =
V
max
V
min
. (2.343)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
54 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
B
2R
crank
S
Figure 2.13: Pistoncylinder congurations illustrating geometric denitions.
For these engines the volumes are closed in expansion and compression, so the net work is
w
net
=
_
P dv = P
meff
(v
max
v
min
). (2.344)
Here one has dened a mean eective pressure: P
meff
. The net work per cylinder per cycle
is
W
net
= mw
net
= P
meff
m(v
max
v
min
) = P
meff
(V
max
V
min
). (2.345)
Now consider the total power developed for all the cylinders. Assume the piston operates at
a frequency of cycles/s:
W
net
= N
cyl
P
meff
(V
max
V
min
). (2.346)
It is more common to express in revolutions per minute: RPM = (60
s
min
), so
W
net
= P
meff
N
cyl
(V
max
V
min
)
. .
=V
displ
RPM
60
s
min
, (2.347)
= P
meff
V
displ
RPM
60
s
min
. (2.348)
This applies for a twostroke engine. If the engine is a four stroke engine, the net power is
reduced by a factor of 1/2.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.7. OTTO 55
2.7 Otto
The airstandard Otto cycle approximates the gasoline engine. It employs a xed mass
approach.
Diagrams for P v and T s for the Otto cycle are shown in Figure 2.14.
P
v
T
s
1
2
3
4
isochore
isochore
1
2
3
4
isentrope
isentrope
Figure 2.14: P v and T s diagrams for the Otto cycle.
One can outline the Otto cycle as follows:
1 2: isentropic compression in the compression stroke,
2 3: isochoric heating in the combustion stroke during spark ignition,
3 4: isentropic expansion in power stroke, and
4 1: isochoric rejection of heat to the surroundings.
Note for isochoric heating, such as 2 3, in a xed mass environment, the rst law gives
u
3
u
2
=
2
q
3
2
w
3
, (2.349)
u
3
u
2
=
2
q
3
_
v
3
v
2
P dv, but v
2
= v
3
, (2.350)
u
3
u
2
=
2
q
3
_
v
2
v
2
P dv
. .
=0
, (2.351)
2
q
3
= u
3
u
2
, (2.352)
2
q
3
= c
v
(T
3
T
2
), if CPIG. (2.353)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
56 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
The thermal eciency is found as follows:
=
w
net
q
H
, (2.354)
=
q
H
q
L
q
H
, (2.355)
= 1
q
L
q
H
, (2.356)
= 1
c
v
(T
4
T
1
)
c
v
(T
3
T
2
)
, (2.357)
= 1
T
4
T
1
T
3
T
2
, (2.358)
= 1
T
1
_
T
4
T
1
1
_
T
2
_
T
3
T
2
1
_. (2.359)
Now one also has the isentropic relations:
T
2
T
1
=
_
V
1
V
2
_
k1
, (2.360)
T
3
T
4
=
_
V
4
V
3
_
k1
. (2.361)
But V
4
= V
1
and V
2
= V
3
, so
T
3
T
4
=
_
V
1
V
2
_
k1
=
T
2
T
1
. (2.362)
Cross multiplying the temperatures, one nds
T
3
T
2
=
T
4
T
1
. (2.363)
Thus the thermal eciency reduces to
= 1
T
1
T
2
. (2.364)
In terms of the compression ratio r
v
=
V
1
V
2
, one has
= 1 r
1k
v
= 1
1
r
k1
v
. (2.365)
Note if the compression ratio increases, the thermal eciency increases. High compression
ratios introduce detonation in the fuel air mixture. This induces strong pressure waves in
the cylinder and subsequent engine knock. It can cause degradation of piston walls.
Some deviations of actual performance from that of the airstandard Otto cycle are as
follows:
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.7. OTTO 57
specic heats actually vary with temperature,
combustion may be incomplete (induces pollution and lowers fuel eciency),
work of inlet and exhaust ignored, and
losses of heat transfer to engine walls ignored.
Example 2.9
(adopted from Moran and Shapiro, p. 363). The temperature at the beginning of the compression
process of an airstandard Otto cycle with a compression ratio of 8 is 540
R, the pressure is 1 atm,
and the cylinder volume is 0.02 ft
3
. The maximum temperature is 3600
R. Find
temperature and pressure at each stage of the process,
thermal eciency, and
P
meff
in atm.
For the isentropic compression,
T
2
= T
1
_
V
1
V
2
_
k1
, (2.366)
= (540
R)(8)
1.41
, (2.367)
= 1240.69
R. (2.368)
One can use the ideal gas law to get the pressure at state 2:
P
2
V
2
T
2
=
P
1
V
1
T
1
, (2.369)
P
2
= P
1
V
1
V
2
T
2
T
1
, (2.370)
= (1 atm)(8)
_
1240.69
R
540
R
_
, (2.371)
= 18.3792 atm. (2.372)
Now V
3
= V
2
since the combustion is isochoric. And the maximum temperature is T
3
= 3600
R. This
allows use of the ideal gas law to get P
3
:
P
3
V
3
T
3
=
P
2
V
2
T
2
, (2.373)
P
3
= P
2
V
2
V
3
..
=1
T
3
T
2
, (2.374)
= (18.3792 atm)(1)
_
3600
R
1240.59
R
_
, (2.375)
= 53.3333 atm. (2.376)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
58 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
One uses the isentropic relations for state 4:
T
3
T
4
=
_
V
4
V
3
_
k1
, (2.377)
T
4
T
3
=
_
V
3
V
4
_
k1
, (2.378)
T
4
= T
3
_
V
2
V
1
_
k1
, (2.379)
T
4
= T
3
_
V
1
V
2
_
1k
, (2.380)
= (3600
R)(8)
11.4
, (2.381)
= 1566.99
R. (2.382)
For the pressure at state 4, use the ideal gas law:
P
4
V
4
T
4
=
P
3
V
3
T
3
, (2.383)
P
4
= P
3
V
3
V
4
T
4
T
3
, (2.384)
= P
3
V
2
V
1
T
4
T
3
, (2.385)
= (53.3333 atm)
_
1
8
_
1566.99
R
3600
R
, (2.386)
= 2.90184 atm. (2.387)
The thermal eciency is
= 1
1
r
k1
v
, (2.388)
= 1
1
8
1.41
, (2.389)
= 0.564725. (2.390)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.8. DIESEL 59
Now get the mean eective pressure P
meff
.
W
net
= P
meff
(V
max
V
min
), (2.391)
P
meff
=
W
net
V
max
V
min
, (2.392)
=
m(u
3
u
4
) +m(u
1
u
2
)
V
1
V
2
, (2.393)
= m
c
v
V
1
T
3
T
4
+T
1
T
2
1
V2
V1
, (2.394)
=
P
1
V
1
RT
1
c
v
V
1
T
3
T
4
+T
1
T
2
1
V2
V1
, (2.395)
=
P
1
T
1
c
v
R
T
3
T
4
+T
1
T
2
1
V2
V1
, (2.396)
=
P
1
T
1
1
k 1
T
3
T
4
+T
1
T
2
1
V2
V1
, (2.397)
=
1 atm
540
R
1
1.4 1
3600
R 1566.99
R + 540
R 1240.59
R
1
1
8
, (2.398)
= 7.04981 atm. (2.399)
2.8 Diesel
The air standard Diesel cycle approximates the behavior of a Diesel engine. It is modeled
as a xed mass system. Here the compression is done before injection, so there is no danger
of premature ignition due to detonation. No spark plugs are used. Diagrams for P v and
T s for the Diesel cycle are shown in Figure 2.15. One can outline the Diesel cycle as
follows:
1 2: isentropic compression in the compression stroke,
2 3: isobaric heating in the combustion stroke,
3 4: isentropic expansion in power stroke, and
4 1: isochoric rejection of heat to the surroundings.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
60 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
P
v
T
s
1
2
3
4
isobar
isochore
1
2
3
4
isentrope
isentrope
Figure 2.15: P v and T s diagrams for the Diesel cycle.
The thermal eciency is found as follows:
=
w
net
q
H
, (2.400)
=
q
H
q
L
q
H
, (2.401)
= 1
q
L
q
H
, (2.402)
= 1
u
4
u
1
h
3
h
2
, (2.403)
= 1
c
v
(T
4
T
1
)
c
P
(T
3
T
2
)
, (2.404)
= 1
1
k
T
1
T
2
T
4
T
1
1
T
3
T
2
1
. (2.405)
All else being equal, the Otto cycle will have higher eciency than the Diesel cycle.
However, the Diesel can operate at higher compression ratios because detonation is not as
serious a problem in the compression ignition engine as it is in the spark ignition.
Example 2.10
(adopted from BS, Ex. 12.8 pp. 501502). An air standard Diesel cycle has a compression ratio of
20, and the heat transferred to the working uid has 1800 kJ/kg. Take air to be an ideal gas with
variable specic heat. At the beginning of the compression process, P
1
= 0.1 MPa, and T
1
= 15
C.
Find
Pressure and temperature at each point in the process,
Thermal eciency,
P
meff
, the mean eective pressure.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.8. DIESEL 61
The enthalpies and entropies at the reference pressure for variable specic heat air are tabulated
as functions of temperature in Table A7.1. Recall that
h(T) = h
ref
+
_
T
T
ref
c
P
(
T) d
T. (2.406)
Recall further that
Tds = dh vdP, (2.407)
ds =
dh
T
v
T
dP. (2.408)
Now for an ideal gas it can be shown that dh = c
P
(T)dT; one also has v/T = R/P. Making these
substitutions into Eq. (2.408) gives
ds =
c
P
(T)dT
T
R
dP
P
. (2.409)
Integrating gives
s(T, P) = s
ref
+
_
T
T
ref
c
P
(
T)
T
d
T
. .
=s
o
T
Rln
P
P
ref
, (2.410)
s(T, P) = s
o
T
(T) Rln
P
P
ref
. (2.411)
Here the reference pressure is P
ref
= 0.1 MPa. Note that this happens to be the inlet state, which
is a coincidence; so at the inlet there is no correction to the entropy for pressure deviation from its
reference value. At the inlet, one has T
1
= 15 +273.15 = 288.15 K. One then gets from interpolating
Table A7.1 that
h
1
= 288.422
kJ
kg
, s
o
T1
= s
1
= 6.82816
kJ
kg K
, u
1
= 205.756
kJ
kg
. (2.412)
For the isentropic compression, one has
s
2
= s
1
= 6.82816
kJ
kg K
, V
2
=
1
20
V
1
. (2.413)
Now from the ideal gas law, one has
P
2
V
2
T
2
=
P
1
V
1
T
1
, (2.414)
P
2
P
1
=
T
2
T
1
V
1
V
2
, (2.415)
P
2
P
ref
= 20
T
2
288 K
. (2.416)
Now
s
2
(T
2
, P
2
) = s
o
T2
Rln
P
2
P
ref
, (2.417)
_
6.82816
kJ
kg K
_
= s
o
T2
_
0.287
kJ
kg K
_
ln
_
20
T
2
288 K
_
, (2.418)
0 = s
o
T2
_
0.287
kJ
kg K
_
ln
_
20
T
2
288 K
_
_
6.82816
kJ
kg K
_
F(T
2
). (2.419)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
62 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
T
2
(K) s
o
T
2
_
kJ
kg K
_
F(T
2
)
_
kJ
kg K
_
900 8.01581 8.57198 10
4
1000 8.13493 8.97387 10
2
800 7.88514 9.60091 10
2
850 7.95207 4.64783 10
2
899.347 8.01237 2.37449 10
3
Table 2.3: Iteration for T
2
.
This then becomes a trial and error search in Table A7.1 for the T
2
which satises the previous equa
tion. If one guesses T
2
900 K, one gets s
o
T2
= 8.01581 kJ/kg/K, and the right side evaluates to
0.000857198 kJ/kg/K. Performing a trial and error procedure, one nds the results summarized in
Table 2.3. Take T
2
= 900 K as close enough!
Then
P
2
= P
1
T
2
T
1
V
1
V
2
, (2.420)
= (0.1 MPa)
900 K
288 K
(20), (2.421)
= 6.25 MPa. (2.422)
Now at state 2, T
2
= 900 K, one nds that
h
2
= 933.15
kJ
kg
, u
2
= 674.82
kJ
kg
. (2.423)
The heat is added at constant pressure, so
q
H
= h
3
h
2
, (2.424)
h
3
= h
2
+q
H
, (2.425)
=
_
933.15
kJ
kg
_
+
_
1800
kJ
kg
_
, (2.426)
= 2733.15
kJ
kg
. (2.427)
One can then interpolate Table A7.1 to nd T
3
and s
o
T3
T
3
= (2350 K) +
_
2733.15
kJ
kg
_
_
2692.31
kJ
kg
_
_
2755
kJ
kg
_
_
2692.31
kJ
kg
_ ((2400 K) (2350 K)), (2.428)
= 2382.17 K, (2.429)
s
o
T3
=
_
9.16913
kJ
kg K
_
+
_
2733.15
kJ
kg
_
_
2692.31
kJ
kg
_
_
2755
kJ
kg
_
_
2692.31
kJ
kg
_
__
9.19586
kJ
kg K
_
_
9.16913
kJ
kg K
__
, (2.430)
= 9.18633
kJ
kg K
. (2.431)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.8. DIESEL 63
T
4
(K) s
o
T
4
_
kJ
kg K
_
F(T
4
)
_
kJ
kg K
_
400 7.15926 9.34561 10
1
800 7.88514 4.07614 10
1
1400 8.52891 7.55464 10
2
1200 8.34596 6.31624 10
2
1300 8.44046 8.36535 10
3
1250 8.39402 2.68183 10
2
1288 8.42931 1.23117 10
4
Table 2.4: Iteration for T
4
.
One also has P
3
= P
2
= 6.25 MPa. Now get the actual entropy at state 3:
s
3
(T
3
, P
3
) = s
o
T3
Rln
P
3
P
ref
, (2.432)
=
_
9.18633
kJ
kg K
_
_
0.287
kJ
kg K
_
ln
_
6.25 MPa
0.1 MPa
_
, (2.433)
= 7.99954
kJ
kg K
. (2.434)
Now 3 4 is an isentropic expansion to state 4, which has the same volume as state 1; V
1
= V
4
. So
the ideal gas law gives
P
4
V
4
T
4
=
P
1
V
1
T
1
, (2.435)
P
4
P
1
=
T
4
T
1
V
1
V
4
, (2.436)
P
4
P
ref
=
T
4
T
1
V
1
V
4
. (2.437)
Now consider the entropy at state 4, which must be the same as that at state 3:
s
4
(T
4
, P
4
) = s
o
T4
Rln
P
4
P
ref
, (2.438)
s
3
= s
o
T4
Rln
_
_
_
_
T
4
T
1
V
1
V
4
..
=1
_
_
_
_
, (2.439)
_
7.99954
kJ
kg K
_
= s
o
T4
_
0.287
kJ
kg K
_
ln
_
T
4
288 K
_
, (2.440)
0 = s
o
T4
_
0.287
kJ
kg K
_
ln
_
T
4
288 K
_
_
7.99954
kJ
kg K
_
= F(T
4
). (2.441)
Using Table A7.1, this equation can be iterated until T
4
is found. So T
4
= 1288 K. At this temperature,
one has
h
4
= 1381.68
kJ
kg
, u
4
= 1011.98
kJ
kg
. (2.442)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
64 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
Now one can calculate the cycle eciency:
= 1
u
4
u
1
h
3
h
2
, (2.443)
= 1
_
1011.98
kJ
kg
_
_
205.756
kJ
kg
_
_
2733.15
kJ
kg
_
_
933.15
kJ
kg
_ , (2.444)
= 0.552098. (2.445)
Now one has
q
L
= u
1
u
4
=
_
205.756
kJ
kg
_
_
1011.98
kJ
kg
_
= 806.224
kJ
kg
. (2.446)
So,
w
net
= q
H
+q
L
=
_
1800
kJ
kg
_
_
806.224
kJ
kg
_
= 993.776
kJ
kg
. (2.447)
So
P
meff
=
W
net
V
max
V
min
, (2.448)
=
w
net
v
max
v
min
, (2.449)
=
w
net
v
1
v
2
, (2.450)
=
w
net
RT1
P1
RT2
P2
, (2.451)
=
993.776
kJ
kg
_
0.287
kJ
kg K
_
_
288 K
100 kPa
900 K
6250 kPa
_
, (2.452)
= 1265.58 kPa. (2.453)
2.9 Stirling
Another oftenstudied airstandard engine is given by the Stirling cycle. This is similar to
the Otto cycle except the adiabatic processes are replaced by isothermal ones. The eciency
can be shown to be equal to that of a Carnot engine. Stirling engines are dicult to build.
Diagrams for P v and T s for the Stirling cycle are shown in Figure 2.16.
One can outline the Stirling cycle as follows:
1 2: isothermal compression in the compression stroke,
2 3: isochoric heat transfer in the combustion stroke,
3 4: expansion in power stroke, and
4 1: isochoric rejection of heat to the surroundings.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.10. REFRIGERATION 65
P
v
T
s
1
2
3
4
isochore
isochore
1
2
3
4
isotherm
isotherm
Figure 2.16: P v and T s diagrams for the Stirling cycle.
2.10 Refrigeration
A simple way to think of a refrigerator is a cyclic heat engine operating in reverse. Rather
than extracting work from heat transfer from a high temperature source and rejecting heat
to a low temperature source, the refrigerator takes a work input to move heat from a low
temperature source to a high temperature source.
2.10.1 Vaporcompression
A common refrigerator is based on a vaporcompression cycle. This is a Rankine cycle in
reverse. While one could employ a turbine to extract some work, it is often impractical.
Instead the high pressure gas is simply irreversibly throttled down to low low pressure.
One can outline the vaporcompression refrigeration cycle as follows:
1 2: isentropic compression
2 3: isobaric heat transfer to high temperature reservoir in condenser,
3 4: adiabatic expansion in throttling valve, and
4 1: isobaric (and often isothermal) heat transfer to low temperature reservoir in
evaporator.
A schematic for the vaporcompression refrigeration cycle is shown in Figure 2.17. A T s
diagram for the vaporcompression refrigeration cycle is shown in Figure 2.18.
The eciency does not make sense for a refrigerator as 0 1. Instead a coecient
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
66 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
Compressor
4
w
Compressor
Condenser
Evaporator
Expansion
valve
3
2
1
Figure 2.17: Schematic diagram for the vaporcompression refrigeration cycle.
of performance, , is dened as
=
what one wants
what one pays for
, (2.454)
=
q
L
w
c
. (2.455)
Note that a heat pump is eectively the same as a refrigerator, except one desires q
H
rather than q
L
. So for a heat pump, the coecient of performance,
, is dened as
=
q
H
w
c
. (2.456)
It is possible for both and
W
c
= m(h
2
h
1
), (2.464)
=
_
0.008
kg
s
___
205.1
kJ
kg
_
_
195.78
kJ
kg
__
, (2.465)
= 0.075 kW. (2.466)
Now one desires the heat which leaves the cold region to be high for a good refrigerator. This is the
heat transfer at the low temperature part of the T s diagram, which here gives
Q
L
= m(h
1
h
4
), (2.467)
=
_
0.008
kg
s
___
195.78
kJ
kg
_
_
74.59
kJ
kg
__
, (2.468)
= 0.9695 kW, (2.469)
=
_
0.9695
kJ
s
__
60 s
min
_
_
1 ton
211
kJ
min
_
, (2.470)
= 0.276 ton. (2.471)
The units ton is used for power and is common in the refrigeration industry. It is the power required
to freeze one short ton of water at 0
C in 24 hours. It is 12000 Btu/hr, 3.516853 kW, or 4.7162 hp.
A short ton is a U.S ton, which is 2000 lbm. A long ton is British and is 2240 lbm. A metric ton is
1000 kg and is 2204 lbm.
The coecient of performance is
=
Q
L
W
c
, (2.472)
=
0.9695 kW
0.075 kW
, (2.473)
= 12.93. (2.474)
The equivalent Carnot refrigerator would have
max
=
Q
L
W
c
, (2.475)
=
Q
L
Q
H
Q
L
, (2.476)
=
1
QH
QL
1
, (2.477)
=
1
TH
TL
1
, (2.478)
=
T
L
T
H
T
L
, (2.479)
=
20 + 273.15
40 + 273.15 (20 + 273.15)
, (2.480)
= 14.6575. (2.481)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
2.10. REFRIGERATION 69
2.10.2 Air standard
This is eectively the inverse Brayton cycle. It is used in the liquefaction of air and other
gases. It is also used in aircraft cabin cooling. It has the following components:
1 2: isentropic compression,
2 3: isobaric heat transfer to a high temperature environment
3 4: isentropic expansion through turbine, and
4 1: isobaric heat exchange with low temperature surroundings.
A schematic for the air standard refrigeration cycle is shown in Figure 2.19. A T s diagram
Compressor Expander
1
2
3
4
 w
Q
H
Q
L
Figure 2.19: Schematic for air standard refrigeration cycle.
for the air standard refrigeration cycle is shown in Figure 2.20.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
70 CHAPTER 2. CYCLE ANALYSIS
T
s
1
2
3
4
isobar
isobar
Figure 2.20: T s diagram for air standard refrigeration Brayton cycle.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
Chapter 3
Gas mixtures
Read BS, Chapter 13.
See for background Sandler, Chapter 7.
See for background Smith, van Ness, and Abbott, Chapter 10.
See for background Tester and Modell.
One is often faced with mixtures of simple compressible substances, and it the thermody
namics of such mixtures upon which attention is now xed. Here a discussion of some of
the fundamentals of mixture theory will be given. In general, thermodynamics of mixtures
can be a challenging topic about which much remains to be learned. In particular, these
notes will focus on ideal mixtures of ideal gases, for which results are often consistent with
intuition. The chemical engineering literature contains a full discussion of the many nuances
associated with nonideal mixtures of nonideal materials.
3.1 Some general issues
Here the notation of BS will be used. There is no eective consensus on notation for mixtures.
That of BS is more unusual than most; however, the ideas are correct, which is critical.
Consider a mixture of N components, each a pure substance, so that the total mass and
total number of moles are
m = m
1
+ m
2
+ m
3
+ + m
N
=
N
i=1
m
i
, mass, units= kg, (3.1)
n = n
1
+ n
2
+ n
3
+ + n
N
=
N
i=1
n
i
, moles, units= kmole. (3.2)
Recall 1 mole = 6.02214179 10
23
molecule. The mass fraction of component i is dened
as c
i
:
c
i
m
i
m
, mass fraction, dimensionless. (3.3)
71
72 CHAPTER 3. GAS MIXTURES
The mole fraction of component i is dened as y
i
:
y
i
n
i
n
, mole fraction, dimensionless. (3.4)
Now the molecular mass of species i is the mass of a mole of species i. It units are typically
g/mole. This is an identical unit to kg/kmole. Molecular mass is sometimes called molec
ular weight, but this is formally incorrect, as it is a mass measure, not a force measure.
Mathematically the denition of M
i
corresponds to
M
i
m
i
n
i
,
_
kg
kmole
=
g
mole
_
. (3.5)
Then one gets mass fraction in terms of mole fraction as
c
i
=
m
i
m
, (3.6)
=
n
i
M
i
m
, (3.7)
=
n
i
M
i
N
j=1
m
j
, (3.8)
=
n
i
M
i
N
j=1
n
j
M
j
, (3.9)
=
n
i
M
i
n
1
n
N
j=1
n
j
M
j
, (3.10)
=
n
i
M
i
n
N
j=1
n
j
M
j
n
, (3.11)
=
y
i
M
i
N
j=1
y
j
M
j
. (3.12)
Similarly, one nds mole fraction in terms of mass fraction by the following:
y
i
=
n
i
n
, (3.13)
=
m
i
M
i
N
j=1
m
j
M
j
, (3.14)
=
m
i
M
i
m
N
j=1
m
j
M
j
m
, (3.15)
=
c
i
M
i
N
j=1
c
j
M
j
. (3.16)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
3.1. SOME GENERAL ISSUES 73
The mixture itself has a mean molecular mass:
M
m
n
, (3.17)
=
N
i=1
m
i
n
, (3.18)
=
N
i=1
n
i
M
i
n
, (3.19)
=
N
i=1
y
i
M
i
. (3.20)
Example 3.1
Air is often modeled as a mixture in the following molar ratios:
O
2
+ 3.76N
2
. (3.21)
Find the mole fractions, the mass fractions, and the mean molecular mass of the mixture.
Take O
2
to be species 1 and N
2
to be species 2. Consider the number of moles of O
2
to be
n
1
= 1 kmole, (3.22)
and N
2
to be
n
2
= 3.76 kmole. (3.23)
The molecular mass of O
2
is M
1
= 32 kg/kmole. The molecular mass of N
2
is M
2
= 28 kg/kmole.
The total number of moles is
n = 1 kmole + 3.76 kmole = 4.76 kmole. (3.24)
So the mole fractions are
y
1
=
1 kmole
4.76 kmole
= 0.2101, (3.25)
y
2
=
3.76 kmole
4.76 kmole
= 0.7899. (3.26)
Note that
N
i=1
y
i
= 1. (3.27)
That is to say y
1
+y
2
= 0.2101 + 0.7899 = 1. Now for the masses, one has
m
1
= n
1
M
1
= (1 kmole)
_
32
kg
kmole
_
= 32 kg, (3.28)
m
2
= n
2
M
2
= (3.76 kmole)
_
28
kg
kmole
_
= 105.28 kg. (3.29)
So one has
m = m
1
+m
2
= 32 kg + 105.28 kg = 137.28 kg. (3.30)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
74 CHAPTER 3. GAS MIXTURES
The mass fractions then are
c
1
=
m
1
m
=
32 kg
137.28 kg
= 0.2331, (3.31)
c
2
=
m
2
m
=
105.28 kg
137.28 kg
= 0.7669. (3.32)
Note that
N
i=1
c
i
= 1. (3.33)
That is c
1
+c
2
= 0.2331 + 0.7669 = 1. Now for the mixture molecular mass, one has
M =
m
n
=
137.28 kg
4.76 kmole
= 28.84
kg
kmole
. (3.34)
Check against another formula.
M =
N
i=1
y
i
M
i
= y
1
M
1
+y
2
M
2
= (0.2101)
_
32
kg
kmole
_
+ (0.7899)
_
28
kg
kmole
_
= 28.84
kg
kmole
. (3.35)
Now postulates for mixtures are not as well established as those for pure substances.
The literature has much controversial discussion of the subject. A strong advocate of the
axiomatic approach, C. A. Truesdell, proposed the following metaphysical principles for
mixtures, which are worth considering.
1. All properties of the mixture must be mathematical consequences of properties of the
constituents.
2. So as to describe the motion of a constituent, we may in imagination isolate it from the
rest of the mixture, provided we allow properly for the actions of the other constituents
upon it.
3. The motion of the mixture is governed by the same equations as is a single body.
Most important for the present discussion is the rst principle. When coupled with uid
mechanics, the second two take on additional importance. The approach of mixture theory
is to divide and conquer. One typically treats each of the constituents as a single material
and then devises appropriate average or mixture properties from those of the constituents.
The best example of this is air, which is not a single material, but is often treated as
such.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
3.2. IDEAL AND NONIDEAL MIXTURES 75
3.2 Ideal and nonideal mixtures
A general extensive property, such as U, for an Nspecies mixture will be such that
U = U(T, P, n
1
, n
2
, . . . , n
N
). (3.36)
A partial molar property is a generalization of an intensive property, and is dened such that
it is the partial derivative of an extensive property with respect to number of moles, with T
and P held constant. For internal energy, then the partial molar internal energy is
u
i
U
n
i
T,P,n
j
,i=j
. (3.37)
Pressure and temperature are held constant because those are convenient variables to control
in an experiment. One also has the partial molar volume
v
i
=
V
n
i
T,P,n
j
,i=j
. (3.38)
It shall be soon seen that there are other natural ways to think of the volume per mole.
Now in general one would expect to nd
u
i
= u
i
(T, P, n
1
, n
2
, . . . , n
N
), (3.39)
v
i
= v
i
(T, P, n
1
, n
2
, . . . , n
N
). (3.40)
This is the case for what is known as a nonideal mixture. An ideal mixture is dened as a
mixture for which the partial molar properties u
i
and v
i
are not functions of the composition,
that is
u
i
= u
i
(T, P), if ideal mixture, (3.41)
v
i
= v
i
(T, P), if ideal mixture. (3.42)
An ideal mixture also has the property that h
i
= h
i
(T, P), while for a nonideal mixture
h
i
= h
i
(T, P, n
1
, . . . , n
N
). Though not obvious, it will turn out that some properties of an
ideal mixture will depend on composition. For example, the entropy of a constituent of an
ideal mixture will be such that
s
i
= s
i
(T, P, n
1
, n
2
, . . . , n
N
). (3.43)
3.3 Ideal mixtures of ideal gases
The most straightforward mixture to consider is an ideal mixture of ideal gases. Even here,
there are assumptions necessary that remain dicult to verify absolutely.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
76 CHAPTER 3. GAS MIXTURES
3.3.1 Dalton model
The most common model for a mixture of ideal gases is the Dalton model. Key assumptions
dene this model
Each constituent shares a common temperature.
Each constituent occupies the entire volume.
Each constituent possesses a partial pressure which sums to form the total pressure of
the mixture.
The above characterize a Dalton model for any gas, ideal or nonideal. One also takes for
convenience
Each constituent behaves as an ideal gas.
The mixture behaves as a single ideal gas.
It is more convenient to deal on a molar basis for such a theory. For the Dalton model,
additional useful quantities, the species mass concentration
i
, the mixture mass concentra
tion , the species molar concentration
i
, and the mixture molar concentration , can be
dened. As will be seen, these denitions for concentrations are useful; however, they are not
in common usage. Following BS, the bar notation, , will be reserved for properties which
are molebased rather than massbased. As mentioned earlier, the notion of a partial molal
property is discussed extensively in the chemical engineering literature and has implications
beyond those considered here. For the Dalton model, in which each component occupies the
same volume, one has
V
i
= V. (3.44)
The mixture mass concentration, also called the density is simply
=
m
V
,
_
kg
m
3
_
. (3.45)
The mixture molar concentration is
=
n
V
,
_
kmole
m
3
_
. (3.46)
For species i, the equivalents are
i
=
m
i
V
,
_
kg
m
3
_
, (3.47)
i
=
n
i
V
,
_
kmole
m
3
_
. (3.48)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
3.3. IDEAL MIXTURES OF IDEAL GASES 77
One can nd a convenient relation between species molar concentration and species mole
fraction by the following operations
i
=
n
i
V
n
n
, (3.49)
=
n
i
n
n
V
, (3.50)
= y
i
. (3.51)
A similar relation exists between species molar concentration and species mass fraction via
i
=
n
i
V
m
m
M
i
M
i
, (3.52)
=
m
V
=m
i
..
n
i
M
i
mM
i
, (3.53)
=
=c
i
..
m
i
m
1
M
i
, (3.54)
=
c
i
M
i
. (3.55)
The specic volumes, mass and molar, are similar. One takes
v =
V
m
, v =
V
n
, (3.56)
v
i
=
V
m
i
, v
i
=
V
n
i
. (3.57)
Note that this denition of molar specic volume is not the partial molar volume dened in
the chemical engineering literature, which takes the form v
i
= V/n
i

T,P,n
j
,i=j
.
For the partial pressure of species i, one can say for the Dalton model
P =
N
i=1
P
i
. (3.58)
For species i, one has
P
i
V = n
i
RT, (3.59)
P
i
=
n
i
RT
V
, (3.60)
N
i=1
P
i
. .
=P
=
N
i=1
n
i
RT
V
, (3.61)
P =
RT
V
N
i=1
n
i
. .
=n
. (3.62)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
78 CHAPTER 3. GAS MIXTURES
So, for the mixture, one has
PV = nRT. (3.63)
One could also say
P =
n
V
..
=
RT = RT. (3.64)
Here n is the total number of moles in the system. Additionally R is the universal gas
constant with value
R = 8.314472
kJ
kmole K
= 8.314472
J
mole K
. (3.65)
Sometimes this is expressed in terms of k
B
, the Boltzmann constant, and N, Avogadros
number:
R = k
B
N, (3.66)
N = 6.02214179 10
23
molecule
mole
, (3.67)
k
B
= 1.380650 10
23
J
K molecule
. (3.68)
Example 3.2
Compare the molar specic volume dened here with the partial molar volume from the chemical
engineering literature.
The partial molar volume v
i
, is given by
v
i
=
V
n
i
T,P,nj ,i=j
. (3.69)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
3.3. IDEAL MIXTURES OF IDEAL GASES 79
For the ideal gas, one has
PV = RT
N
k=1
n
k
, (3.70)
V =
RT
N
k=1
n
k
P
, (3.71)
V
n
i
T,P,nj ,i=j
=
RT
N
k=1
n
k
ni
P
, (3.72)
=
RT
N
k=1
ki
P
, (3.73)
=
RT
_
_
=0
..
1i
+
=0
..
2i
+ +
=1
..
ii
+ +
=0
..
Ni
_
_
P
, (3.74)
v
i
=
RT
P
, (3.75)
=
V
N
k=1
n
k
, (3.76)
=
V
n
. (3.77)
Here the socalled Kronecker delta function has been employed, which is much the same as the identity
matrix:
ki
= 0, k = i, (3.78)
ki
= 1, k = i. (3.79)
Contrast this with the earlier adopted denition of molar specic volume
v
i
=
V
n
i
. (3.80)
So, why is there a dierence? The molar specic volume is a simple denition. One takes the
instantaneous volume V , which is shared by all species in the Dalton model, and scales it by the
instantaneous number of moles of species i, and acquires a natural denition of molar specic volume
consistent with the notion of a mass specic volume. On the other hand, the partial molar volume
species how the volume changes if the number of moles of species i changes, while holding T and P
and all other species mole numbers constant. One can imagine adding a mole of species i, which would
necessitate a change in V in order to guarantee the P remain xed.
3.3.1.1 Binary mixtures
Consider now a binary mixture of two components A and B. This is easily extended to a
general mixture of N components. First the total number of moles is the sum of the parts:
n = n
A
+ n
B
. (3.81)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
80 CHAPTER 3. GAS MIXTURES
Now, write the ideal gas law for each component:
P
A
V
A
= n
A
RT
A
, (3.82)
P
B
V
B
= n
B
RT
B
. (3.83)
But by the assumptions of the Dalton model, V
A
= V
B
= V , and T
A
= T
B
= T, so
P
A
V = n
A
RT, (3.84)
P
B
V = n
B
RT. (3.85)
One also has
PV = nRT. (3.86)
Solving for n, n
A
and n
B
, one nds
n =
PV
RT
, (3.87)
n
A
=
P
A
V
RT
, (3.88)
n
B
=
P
B
V
RT
. (3.89)
Now n = n
A
+ n
B
, so one has
PV
RT
=
P
A
V
RT
+
P
B
V
RT
. (3.90)
P = P
A
+ P
B
. (3.91)
That is the total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures. This is a mixture rule for
pressure
One can also scale each constituent ideal gas law by the mixture ideal gas law to get
P
A
V
PV
=
n
A
RT
nRT
, (3.92)
P
A
P
=
n
A
n
, (3.93)
= y
A
, (3.94)
P
A
= y
A
P. (3.95)
Likewise
P
B
= y
B
P. (3.96)
Now, one also desires rational mixture rules for energy, enthalpy, and entropy. Invoke Trues
dells principles on a mass basis for internal energy. Then the total internal energy U (with
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
3.3. IDEAL MIXTURES OF IDEAL GASES 81
units J) for the binary mixture must be
U = mu = m
A
u
A
+ m
B
u
B
, (3.97)
= m
_
m
A
m
u
A
+
m
B
m
u
B
_
, (3.98)
= m(c
A
u
A
+ c
B
u
B
) , (3.99)
u = c
A
u
A
+ c
B
u
B
. (3.100)
For the enthalpy, one has
H = mh = m
A
h
A
+ m
B
h
B
, (3.101)
= m
_
m
A
m
h
A
+
m
B
m
h
B
_
, (3.102)
= m(c
A
h
A
+ c
B
h
B
) , (3.103)
h = c
A
h
A
+ c
B
h
B
. (3.104)
It is easy to extend this to a mole fraction basis rather than a mass fraction basis. One can
also obtain a gas constant for the mixture on a mass basis. For the mixture, one has
PV = nRT mRT, (3.105)
PV
T
mR = nR, (3.106)
= (n
A
+ n
B
)R, (3.107)
=
_
m
A
M
A
+
m
B
M
B
_
R, (3.108)
=
_
m
A
R
M
A
+ m
B
R
M
B
_
, (3.109)
= (m
A
R
A
+ m
B
R
B
) , (3.110)
R =
_
m
A
m
R
A
+
m
B
m
R
B
_
, (3.111)
R = (c
A
R
A
+ c
B
R
B
) . (3.112)
For the entropy, one has
S = ms = = m
A
s
A
+ m
B
s
B
, (3.113)
= m
_
m
A
m
s
A
+
m
B
m
s
B
_
, (3.114)
= m(c
A
s
A
+ c
B
s
B
) , (3.115)
s = c
A
s
A
+ c
B
s
B
. (3.116)
Note that s
A
is evaluated at T and P
A
, while s
B
is evaluated at T and P
B
. For a CPIG, one
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
82 CHAPTER 3. GAS MIXTURES
has
s
A
= s
o
298,A
+ c
PA
ln
_
T
T
o
_
. .
s
o
T,A
R
A
ln
_
P
A
P
o
_
, (3.117)
= s
o
298,A
+ c
PA
ln
_
T
T
o
_
R
A
ln
_
y
A
P
P
o
_
. (3.118)
Likewise
s
B
= s
o
298,B
+ c
PB
ln
_
T
T
o
_
. .
s
o
T,B
R
B
ln
_
y
B
P
P
o
_
. (3.119)
Here the o denotes some reference state. As a superscript, it typically means that the
property is evaluated at a reference pressure. For example, s
o
T,A
denotes the portion of the
entropy of component A that is evaluated at the reference pressure P
o
and is allowed to vary
with temperature T. Note also that s
A
= s
A
(T, P, y
A
) and s
B
= s
B
(T, P, y
B
), so the entropy
of a single constituent depends on the composition of the mixture and not just on T and P.
This contrasts with energy and enthalpy for which u
A
= u
A
(T), u
B
= u
B
(T), h
A
= h
A
(T),
h
B
= h
B
(T) if the mixture is composed of ideal gases. Occasionally, one nds h
o
A
and h
o
B
used as a notation. This denotes that the enthalpy is evaluated at the reference pressure.
However, if the gas is ideal, the enthalpy is not a function of pressure and h
A
= h
o
A
, h
B
= h
o
B
.
If one is employing a calorically imperfect ideal gas model, then one nds for species i
that
s
i
= s
o
T,i
R
i
ln
_
y
i
P
P
o
_
, i = A, B. (3.120)
3.3.1.2 Entropy of mixing
Example 3.3
Initially calorically perfect ideal gases A and B are segregated within the same large volume by
a thin frictionless, thermally conducting diaphragm. Thus, both are at the same initial pressure and
temperature, P
1
and T
1
. The total volume is thermally insulated and xed, so there are no global heat
or work exchanges with the environment. The diaphragm is removed, and A and B are allowed to mix.
Assume A has mass m
A
and B has mass m
B
. The gases are allowed to have distinct molecular masses,
M
A
and M
B
. Find the nal temperature T
2
, pressure P
2
, and the change in entropy.
The ideal gas law holds that at the initial state
V
A1
=
m
A
R
A
T
1
P
1
, V
B1
=
m
B
R
B
T
1
P
1
. (3.121)
At the nal state one has
V
2
= V
A2
= V
B2
= V
A1
+V
B1
= (m
A
R
A
+m
B
R
B
)
T
1
P
1
. (3.122)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
3.3. IDEAL MIXTURES OF IDEAL GASES 83
Mass conservation gives
m
2
= m
1
= m
A
+ m
B
. (3.123)
One also has the rst law
U
2
U
1
=
1
Q
2
1
W
2
, (3.124)
U
2
U
1
= 0, (3.125)
U
2
= U
1
, (3.126)
m
2
u
2
= m
A
u
A1
+m
B
u
B1
, (3.127)
(m
A
+m
B
)u
2
= m
A
u
A1
+m
B
u
B1
, (3.128)
0 = m
A
(u
A1
u
2
) +m
B
(u
B1
u
2
), (3.129)
0 = m
A
c
vA
(T
1
T
2
) +m
B
c
vB
(T
1
T
2
), (3.130)
T
2
=
m
A
c
vA
T
1
+m
B
c
vB
T
1
m
A
c
vA
+m
B
c
vB
, (3.131)
T
2
= T
1
. (3.132)
The nal pressure by Daltons law then is
P
2
= P
A2
+P
B2
, (3.133)
=
m
A
R
A
T
2
V
2
+
m
B
R
B
T
2
V
2
, (3.134)
=
m
A
R
A
T
1
V
2
+
m
B
R
B
T
1
V
2
, (3.135)
=
(m
A
R
A
+ m
B
R
B
) T
1
V
2
, (3.136)
substitute for V
2
from Eq. (3.122) (3.137)
=
(m
A
R
A
+ m
B
R
B
) T
1
(m
A
R
A
+m
B
R
B
)
T1
P1
, (3.138)
= P
1
. (3.139)
So the initial and nal temperatures and pressures are identical.
Now the entropy change of gas A is
s
A2
s
A1
= c
PA
ln
_
T
A2
T
A1
_
R
A
ln
_
P
A2
P
A1
_
, (3.140)
= c
PA
ln
_
T
2
T
1
_
R
A
ln
_
y
A2
P
2
y
A1
P
1
_
, (3.141)
= c
PA
ln
_
T
1
T
1
_
. .
=0
R
A
ln
_
y
A2
P
1
y
A1
P
1
_
, (3.142)
= R
A
ln
_
y
A2
P
1
(1)P
1
_
, (3.143)
= R
A
ln y
A2
. (3.144)
Likewise
s
B2
s
B1
= R
B
ln y
B2
. (3.145)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
84 CHAPTER 3. GAS MIXTURES
So the change in entropy of the mixture is
S = m
A
(s
A2
s
A1
) +m
B
(s
B2
s
B1
), (3.146)
= m
A
R
A
ln y
A2
m
B
R
B
ln y
B2
, (3.147)
= (n
A
M
A
)
. .
=mA
_
R
M
A
_
. .
=RA
ln y
A2
(n
B
M
B
)
. .
=mB
_
R
M
B
_
. .
=RB
ln y
B2
, (3.148)
= R(n
A
ln y
A2
+n
B
ln y
B2
), (3.149)
= R
_
_
_
_
_
n
A
ln
_
n
A
n
A
+n
B
_
. .
0
+n
B
ln
_
n
B
n
A
+n
B
_
. .
0
_
_
_
_
_
, (3.150)
0. (3.151)
We can also scale Eq. (3.149) by Rn to get
1
R
S
n
..
=s
=
_
_
_
_
n
A
n
..
=yA2
ln y
A2
+
n
B
n
..
=yB2
ln y
B2
_
_
_
_
, (3.152)
s
R
= (y
A2
ln y
A2
+y
B2
ln y
B2
) , (3.153)
= (ln y
yA2
A2
+ ln y
yB2
B2
) , (3.154)
= ln (y
yA2
A2
y
yB2
B2
) . (3.155)
For an Ncomponent mixture, mixed in the same fashion such that P and T are constant,
this extends to
S = R
N
k=1
n
k
ln y
k
, (3.156)
= R
N
k=1
n
k
ln
_
n
k
N
i=1
n
i
_
. .
0
0, (3.157)
= R
N
k=1
n
k
n
nlny
k
, (3.158)
= Rn
N
k=1
n
k
n
lny
k
, (3.159)
= R
m
M
N
k=1
y
k
ln y
k
, (3.160)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
3.3. IDEAL MIXTURES OF IDEAL GASES 85
= Rm
N
k=1
ln y
y
k
k
, (3.161)
= Rm(ln y
y
1
1
+ ln y
y
2
2
+ + ln y
y
N
N
) , (3.162)
= Rmln (y
y
1
1
y
y
2
2
. . . y
y
N
N
) , (3.163)
= Rmln
_
N
k=1
y
y
k
k
_
, (3.164)
Dividing by m to recover an intensive property and R to recover a dimensionless property,
we get
s
R
=
s
R
= ln
_
N
k=1
y
y
k
k
_
. (3.165)
Note that there is a fundamental dependency of the mixing entropy on the mole fractions.
Since 0 y
k
1, the product is guaranteed to be between 0 and 1. The natural logarithm
of such a number is negative, and thus the entropy change for the mixture is guaranteed
positive semidenite. Note also that for the entropy of mixing, Truesdells third principle
is not enforced.
Now if one mole of pure N
2
is mixed with one mole of pure O
2
, one certainly expects
the resulting homogeneous mixture to have a higher entropy than the two pure components.
But what if one mole of pure N
2
is mixed with another mole of pure N
2
. Then we would
expect no increase in entropy. However, if we had the unusual ability to distinguish N
2
molecules whose origin was from each respective original chamber, then indeed there would
be an entropy of mixing. Increases in entropy thus do correspond to increases in disorder.
3.3.1.3 Mixtures of constant mass fraction
If the mass fractions, and thus the mole fractions, remain constant during a process, the
equations simplify. This is often the case for common nonreacting mixtures. Air at moderate
values of temperature and pressure behaves this way. In this case, all of Truesdells principles
can be enforced. For a CPIG, one would have
u
2
u
1
= c
A
c
vA
(T
2
T
1
) + c
B
c
vB
(T
2
T
1
), (3.166)
= c
v
(T
2
T
1
). (3.167)
where
c
v
c
A
c
vA
+ c
B
c
vB
. (3.168)
Similarly for enthalpy
h
2
h
1
= c
A
c
PA
(T
2
T
1
) + c
B
c
PB
(T
2
T
1
), (3.169)
= c
P
(T
2
T
1
). (3.170)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
86 CHAPTER 3. GAS MIXTURES
where
c
P
c
A
c
PA
+ c
B
c
PB
. (3.171)
For the entropy
s
2
s
1
= c
A
(s
A2
s
A1
) + c
B
(s
B2
s
B1
), (3.172)
= c
A
_
c
PA
ln
_
T
2
T
1
_
R
A
ln
_
y
A
P
2
y
A
P
1
__
+ c
B
_
c
PB
ln
_
T
2
T
1
_
R
B
ln
_
y
B
P
2
y
B
P
1
__
,
= c
A
_
c
PA
ln
_
T
2
T
1
_
R
A
ln
_
P
2
P
1
__
+ c
B
_
c
PB
ln
_
T
2
T
1
_
R
B
ln
_
P
2
P
1
__
,(3.173)
= c
P
ln
_
T
2
T
1
_
Rln
_
P
2
P
1
_
. (3.174)
The mixture behaves as a pure substance when the appropriate mixture properties are de
ned. One can also take
k =
c
P
c
v
. (3.175)
3.3.2 Summary of properties for the Dalton mixture model
Listed here is a summary of mixture properties for an Ncomponent mixture of ideal gases
on a mass basis:
M =
N
i=1
y
i
M
i
, (3.176)
=
N
i=1
i
, (3.177)
v =
1
N
i=1
1
v
i
=
1
, (3.178)
u =
N
i=1
c
i
u
i
, (3.179)
h =
N
i=1
c
i
h
i
, (3.180)
R =
R
M
=
N
i=1
c
i
R
i
=
N
i=1
y
i
=R
..
M
i
R
i
N
j=1
y
j
M
j
. .
=M
=
R
M
N
i=1
y
i
. .
=1
, (3.181)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
3.3. IDEAL MIXTURES OF IDEAL GASES 87
c
v
=
N
i=1
c
i
c
vi
, (3.182)
c
v
= c
P
R, if ideal gas, (3.183)
c
P
=
N
i=1
c
i
c
Pi
, (3.184)
k =
c
P
c
v
, (3.185)
s =
N
i=1
c
i
s
i
, (3.186)
c
i
=
y
i
M
i
M
, (3.187)
P
i
= y
i
P, (3.188)
i
= c
i
, (3.189)
v
i
=
v
c
i
=
1
i
, (3.190)
V = V
i
, (3.191)
T = T
i
, (3.192)
h
i
= h
o
i
, if ideal gas, (3.193)
h
i
= u
i
+
P
i
i
= u
i
+ P
i
v
i
= u
i
+ R
i
T
. .
if ideal gas
, (3.194)
h
i
= h
o
298,i
+
_
T
298
c
Pi
(
T) d
T
. .
if ideal gas
, (3.195)
s
i
= s
o
298,i
+
_
T
298
c
Pi
(
T)
T
d
T
. .
=s
o
T,i
R
i
ln
_
P
i
P
o
_
. .
if ideal gas
, (3.196)
s
i
= s
o
T,i
R
i
ln
_
y
i
P
P
o
_
. .
if ideal gas
= s
o
T,i
R
i
ln
_
P
i
P
o
_
. .
if ideal gas
, (3.197)
P
i
=
i
R
i
T = R
i
Tc
i
=
R
i
T
v
i
. .
if ideal gas
, (3.198)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
88 CHAPTER 3. GAS MIXTURES
P = RT = RT
N
i=1
c
i
M
i
=
RT
v
. .
if ideal gas
, (3.199)
h =
N
i=1
c
i
h
o
298,i
+
_
T
298
c
P
(
T) d
T
. .
if ideal gas
, (3.200)
h = u +
P
= u + Pv = u + RT
. .
if ideal gas
, (3.201)
s =
N
i=1
c
i
s
o
298,i
+
_
T
298
c
P
(
T)
T
d
T Rln
_
P
P
o
_
Rln
_
N
i=1
y
y
i
i
_
.
. .
if ideal gas
(3.202)
These relations are not obvious. A few are derived in examples here.
Example 3.4
Derive the expression h = u +P/.
Start from the equation for the constituent h
i
, multiply by mass fractions, sum over all species,
and use properties of mixtures:
h
i
= u
i
+
P
i
i
, (3.203)
c
i
h
i
= c
i
u
i
+c
i
P
i
i
, (3.204)
N
i=1
c
i
h
i
=
N
i=1
c
i
u
i
+
N
i=1
c
i
P
i
i
, (3.205)
N
i=1
c
i
h
i
. .
=h
=
N
i=1
c
i
u
i
. .
=u
+
N
i=1
c
i
i
R
i
T
i
, (3.206)
h = u +T
N
i=1
c
i
R
i
. .
=R
, (3.207)
= u +RT, (3.208)
= u +
P
. (3.209)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
3.3. IDEAL MIXTURES OF IDEAL GASES 89
Example 3.5
Find the expression for mixture entropy of the ideal gas.
s
i
= s
o
298,i
+
_
T
298
c
Pi
(
T)
T
d
T R
i
ln
_
P
i
P
o
_
, (3.210)
c
i
s
i
= c
i
s
o
298,i
+c
i
_
T
298
c
Pi
(
T)
T
d
T c
i
R
i
ln
_
P
i
P
o
_
, (3.211)
s =
N
i=1
c
i
s
i
=
N
i=1
c
i
s
o
298,i
+
N
i=1
c
i
_
T
298
c
Pi
(
T)
T
d
T
N
i=1
c
i
R
i
ln
_
P
i
P
o
_
, (3.212)
=
N
i=1
c
i
s
o
298,i
+
_
T
298
N
i=1
c
i
c
Pi
(
T)
T
d
T
N
i=1
c
i
R
i
ln
_
P
i
P
o
_
, (3.213)
= s
o
298
+
_
T
298
c
P
(
T)
T
d
T
N
i=1
c
i
R
i
ln
_
P
i
P
o
_
. (3.214)
All except the last term are natural extensions of the property for a single material. Consider now the
last term involving pressure ratios.
i=1
c
i
R
i
ln
_
P
i
P
o
_
=
_
N
i=1
c
i
R
i
ln
_
P
i
P
o
_
+Rln
P
P
o
Rln
P
P
o
_
, (3.215)
= R
_
N
i=1
c
i
R
i
R
ln
_
P
i
P
o
_
+ ln
P
P
o
ln
P
P
o
_
, (3.216)
= R
_
N
i=1
c
i
R/M
i
N
j=1
c
j
R/M
j
ln
_
P
i
P
o
_
+ ln
P
P
o
ln
P
P
o
_
, (3.217)
= R
_
_
_
_
_
_
N
i=1
_
c
i
/M
i
N
j=1
c
j
/M
j
_
. .
=yi
ln
_
P
i
P
o
_
+ ln
P
P
o
ln
P
P
o
_
_
_
_
_
_
, (3.218)
= R
_
N
i=1
y
i
ln
_
P
i
P
o
_
+ ln
P
P
o
ln
P
P
o
_
, (3.219)
= R
_
N
i=1
ln
_
P
i
P
o
_
yi
ln
P
P
o
+ ln
P
P
o
_
, (3.220)
= R
_
ln
_
N
i=1
_
P
i
P
o
_
yi
_
+ ln
P
o
P
+ ln
P
P
o
_
, (3.221)
= R
_
ln
_
P
o
P
N
i=1
_
P
i
P
o
_
yi
_
+ ln
P
P
o
_
, (3.222)
= R
_
ln
_
P
o
P
P
N
i=1
yi
1
P
P
N
i=1
yi
o
N
i=1
(P
i
)
yi
_
+ ln
P
P
o
_
, (3.223)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
90 CHAPTER 3. GAS MIXTURES
= R
_
ln
_
N
i=1
_
P
i
P
_
yi
_
+ ln
P
P
o
_
, (3.224)
= R
_
ln
_
N
i=1
_
y
i
P
P
_
yi
_
+ ln
P
P
o
_
, (3.225)
= R
_
ln
_
N
i=1
y
yi
i
_
+ ln
P
P
o
_
. (3.226)
So the mixture entropy becomes
s = s
o
298
+
_
T
298
c
P
(
T)
T
d
T R
_
ln
_
N
i=1
y
yi
i
_
+ ln
P
P
o
_
, (3.227)
= s
o
298
+
_
T
298
c
P
(
T)
T
d
T Rln
P
P
o
. .
classical entropy of a single body
Rln
_
N
i=1
y
yi
i
_
. .
nonTruesdellian
. (3.228)
The extra entropy is not found in the theory for a single material, and in fact is not in the form suggested
by Truesdells postulates. While it is in fact possible to redene the constituent entropy denition in
such a fashion that the mixture entropy in fact takes on the classical form of a single material via the
denition s
i
= s
o
298,i
+
_
T
298
cPi(
T)
T
d
T R
i
ln
_
Pi
Po
_
+ R
i
ln y
i
, this has the disadvantage of predicting
no entropy change after mixing two pure substances. Such a theory would suggest that this obviously
irreversible process is in fact reversible.
On a molar basis, one has the equivalents
=
N
i=1
i
=
n
V
=
M
, (3.229)
v =
1
N
i=1
1
v
i
=
V
n
=
1
= vM, (3.230)
u =
N
i=1
y
i
u
i
= uM, (3.231)
h =
N
i=1
y
i
h
i
= hM, (3.232)
c
v
=
N
i=1
y
i
c
vi
= c
v
M, (3.233)
c
v
= c
P
R, (3.234)
c
P
=
N
i=1
y
i
c
Pi
= c
P
M, (3.235)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
3.3. IDEAL MIXTURES OF IDEAL GASES 91
k =
c
P
c
v
, (3.236)
s =
N
i=1
y
i
s
i
= sM, (3.237)
i
= y
i
=
i
M
i
, (3.238)
v
i
=
V
n
i
=
v
y
i
=
1
i
= v
i
M
i
, (3.239)
v
i
=
V
n
i
P,T,n
j
=
V
n
= v = vM
. .
if ideal gas
, (3.240)
P
i
= y
i
P, (3.241)
P = RT =
RT
v
. .
if ideal gas
, (3.242)
P
i
=
i
RT =
RT
v
i
. .
if ideal gas
, (3.243)
h = u +
P
= u + Pv = u + RT
. .
if ideal gas
= hM, (3.244)
h
i
= h
o
i
, if ideal gas, (3.245)
h
i
= u
i
+
P
i
i
= u
i
+ P
i
v
i
= u
i
+ Pv
i
= u
i
+ RT
. .
if ideal gas
= h
i
M
i
, (3.246)
h
i
= h
o
298,i
+
_
T
298
c
Pi
(
T) d
T
. .
if ideal gas
= h
i
M
i
, (3.247)
s
i
= s
o
298,i
+
_
T
298
c
Pi
(
T)
T
d
T
. .
=s
o
T,i
Rln
_
y
i
P
P
o
_
. .
if ideal gas
, (3.248)
s
i
= s
o
T,i
Rln
_
y
i
P
P
o
_
. .
if ideal gas
= s
i
M
i
, (3.249)
s =
N
i=1
y
i
s
o
298,i
+
_
T
298
c
P
(
T)
T
d
T Rln
_
P
P
o
_
Rln
_
N
i=1
y
y
i
i
_
. .
if ideal gas
= sM.
(3.250)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
92 CHAPTER 3. GAS MIXTURES
3.3.3 Amagat model
The Amagat model is an entirely dierent paradigm than the Dalton model. It is not used
as often. In the Amagat model,
all components share a common temperature T,
all components share a common pressure P, and
each component has a dierent volume.
Consider, for example, a binary mixture of calorically perfect ideal gases, A and B. For
the mixture, one has
PV = nRT, (3.251)
with
n = n
A
+ n
B
. (3.252)
For the components one has
PV
A
= n
A
RT, (3.253)
PV
B
= n
B
RT. (3.254)
Then n = n
A
+ n
B
reduces to
PV
RT
=
PV
A
RT
+
PV
B
RT
. (3.255)
Thus
V = V
A
+ V
B
, (3.256)
1 =
V
A
V
+
V
B
V
. (3.257)
3.4 Gasvapor mixtures
Next consider a mixture of ideal gases in which one of the components may undergo a phase
transition to its liquid state. The most important practical example is an airwater mixture.
Assume the following:
The solid or liquid contains no dissolved gases.
The gaseous phases are all well modeled as ideal gases.
When the gas mixture and the condensed phase are at a given total pressure and tem
perature, the equilibrium between the condensed phase and its vapor is not inuenced
by the other component. So for a binary mixture of A and B where A could have both
gas and liquid components P
A
= P
sat
. That is the partial pressure of A is equal to its
saturation pressure at the appropriate temperature.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
3.4. GASVAPOR MIXTURES 93
Considering an air water vapor mixture, one models the water vapor as an ideal gas and
expresses the total pressure as
P = P
a
+ P
v
. (3.258)
Here v denotes vapor and a denotes air. A good model for the enthalpy of the water vapor
is to take
h
v
(T, lowP) = h
g
(T). (3.259)
If T is given in degrees Celsius, a good model from the steam tables is
h
g
(T) = 2501.3
kJ
kg
+
_
1.82
kJ
kg
C
_
T. (3.260)
Some denitions:
absolute humidity: , the mass of water present in a unit mass of dry air, also called
humidity ratio,
m
v
m
a
, (3.261)
=
M
v
n
v
M
a
n
a
, (3.262)
=
M
v
M
a
PvV
RT
PaV
RT
, (3.263)
=
M
v
P
v
M
a
P
a
, (3.264)
=
_
18.015
kg
kmole
_
P
v
_
28.97
kg
kmole
_
P
a
, (3.265)
= 0.622
P
v
P
a
, (3.266)
= 0.622
P
v
P P
v
. (3.267)
dew point: temperature at which the vapor condenses when it is cooled isobarically.
saturated air: The vapor in the airvapor mixture is at the saturation temperature and
pressure.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
94 CHAPTER 3. GAS MIXTURES
relative humidity: The ratio of the mole fraction of the vapor in the mixture to the mole
fraction of vapor in a saturated mixture at the same temperature and total pressure:
nv
n
ng
n
, (3.268)
=
n
v
n
g
, (3.269)
=
PvV
RT
PgV
RT
, (3.270)
=
P
v
P
g
. (3.271)
Note, here the subscript g denotes saturated gas values. Combining, one can relate the
relative humidity to the absolute humidity:
=
P
a
0.622P
g
. (3.272)
Example 3.6
(from C engal and Boles, p. 670) A 5 m5 m3 m room contains air at 25
C and 100 kPa at a
relative humidity of 75%. Find the
partial pressure of dry air,
absolute humidity (i.e. humidity ratio),
masses of dry air and water vapor in the room, and the
dew point.
The relation between partial and total pressure is
P = P
a
+P
v
. (3.273)
Now from the denition of relative humidity,
P
v
= P
g
. (3.274)
Here P
g
is the saturation pressure at the same temperature, which is 25
C. At 25
C, the tables give
P
g

25
C
= 3.169 kPa. (3.275)
So
P
v
= 0.75(3.169 kPa) = 2.3675 kPa. (3.276)
So from the denition of partial pressure
P
a
= P P
v
, (3.277)
= 100 kPa 2.3675 kPa, (3.278)
= 97.62 kPa. (3.279)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
3.4. GASVAPOR MIXTURES 95
Now for the absolute humidity (or specic humidity), one has
= 0.622
P
v
P
a
, (3.280)
= 0.622
2.3675 kPa
97.62 kPa
, (3.281)
= 0.0152
kg H
2
O
kg dry air
. (3.282)
Now for the masses of air and water, one can use the partial pressures:
m
a
=
P
a
V
RT
M
a
, (3.283)
=
P
a
V
R
a
T
, (3.284)
=
(97.62 kPa)
_
75 m
3
_
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
28.97
kg
kmole
_
(298 K)
, (3.285)
= 85.61 kg. (3.286)
m
v
=
P
v
V
RT
M
v
, (3.287)
=
P
v
V
R
v
T
, (3.288)
=
(2.3675 kPa)
_
75 m
3
_
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
18.015
kg
kmole
_
(298 K)
, (3.289)
= 1.3 kg. (3.290)
Also one could get m
v
from
m
v
= m
a
, (3.291)
= (0.0152)(85.61 kg), (3.292)
= 1.3 kg. (3.293)
Now the dew point is the saturation temperature at the partial pressure of the water vapor. With
P
v
= 2.3675 kPa, the saturation tables give
T
dew point
= 20.08
C. (3.294)
3.4.1 First law
The rst law can be applied to airwater mixtures.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
96 CHAPTER 3. GAS MIXTURES
Example 3.7
(BS, Ex. 13.5, pp. 536537.) An airwater vapor mixture enters the cooling coils of an air conditioner
unit. The inlet is at P
1
= 105 kPa, T
1
= 30
C,
1
= 0.80. The exit state is P
2
= 100 kPa, T
2
= 15
C,
2
= 0.95. Liquid water at 15
C also exits the system. Find the heat transfer per kilogram of dry air.
Mass conservation for air and water give
m
a1
= m
a2
m
a
, (3.295)
m
v1
= m
v2
+ m
l2
. (3.296)
Note at state 2, the mass ow of water is in both liquid and vapor form.
The rst law for the control volume give
dE
cv
dt
. .
=0
=
Q
cv
W
cv
..
=0
+ m
a
h
a1
+ m
v1
h
v1
m
a
h
a2
m
v2
h
v2
m
l2
h
l2
, (3.297)
Q
cv
+ m
a
h
a1
+ m
v1
h
v1
= m
a
h
a2
+ m
v2
h
v2
+ ( m
v1
m
v2
)h
l2
, (3.298)
Q
cv
m
a
+h
a1
+
m
v1
m
a
h
v1
= h
a2
+
m
v2
m
a
h
v2
+
m
v1
m
v2
m
a
h
l2
, (3.299)
Q
cv
m
a
+h
a1
+
1
h
v1
= h
a2
+
2
h
v2
+ (
1
2
)h
l2
, (3.300)
Q
cv
m
a
= h
a2
h
a1
1
h
v1
+
2
h
v2
+ (
1
2
)h
l2
, (3.301)
= c
pa
(T
2
T
1
)
1
h
v1
+
2
h
v2
+ (
1
2
)h
l2
. (3.302)
Now at the inlet, one has from the denition of relative humidity
1
=
P
v1
P
g1
. (3.303)
Here P
g
is the saturated vapor pressure at the inlet temperature, T
1
= 30
C. This is P
g1
= 4.246 kPa.
So one gets
P
v1
=
1
P
g1
, (3.304)
= (0.80)(4.246 kPa), (3.305)
= 3.397 kPa. (3.306)
Now the absolute humidity (humidity ratio) is
1
= 0.622
P
v1
P
1
P
v1
, (3.307)
= 0.622
3.397 kPa
105 kPa 3.397 kPa
, (3.308)
= 0.0208. (3.309)
At the exit temperature, the saturation pressure is P
g2
= 1.705 kPa. So
P
v2
=
2
P
g2
, (3.310)
= (0.95)(1.705 kPa), (3.311)
= 1.620 kPa. (3.312)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
3.4. GASVAPOR MIXTURES 97
Now the absolute humidity (humidity ratio) is
2
= 0.622
P
v2
P
2
P
v2
, (3.313)
= 0.622
1.620 kPa
100 kPa 1.620 kPa
, (3.314)
= 0.0102. (3.315)
Then, substituting, one gets
Q
cv
m
a
=
_
1.004
kJ
kg K
_
(15
C 30
C) 0.0208
_
2556.3
kJ
kg
_
+0.0102
_
2528.9
kJ
kg
_
+ (0.0208 0.0102)
_
62.99
kJ
kg
_
, (3.316)
= 41.77
kJ
kg dry air
. (3.317)
3.4.2 Adiabatic saturation
In an adiabatic saturation process, an airvapor mixture contacts a body of water in a well
insulated duct. If the initial humidity of the mixture is less than 100%, some water will
evaporate and join the mixture.
If the mixture leaving the duct is saturated, and the process is adiabatic, the exit temper
ature is the adiabatic saturation temperature. Assume the liquid water entering the system
enters at the exit temperature of the mixture.
Mass conservation for air and water and the rst law for the control volume give
dm
air
cv
dt
. .
=0
= m
a1
m
a2
, air (3.318)
dm
water
cv
dt
. .
=0
= m
v1
+ m
l
m
v2
, water (3.319)
dE
cv
dt
. .
=0
=
Q
cv
..
=0
W
cv
..
=0
+ m
a1
h
a1
+ m
v1
h
v1
+ m
l
h
l
m
a2
h
a2
m
v2
h
v2
. (3.320)
For steady state results, these reduce to
0 = m
a1
m
a2
, air (3.321)
0 = m
v1
+ m
l
m
v2
, water (3.322)
0 = m
a1
h
a1
+ m
v1
h
v1
+ m
l
h
l
m
a2
h
a2
m
v2
h
v2
. (3.323)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
98 CHAPTER 3. GAS MIXTURES
Now mass conservation for air gives
m
a1
= m
a2
m
a
. (3.324)
Mass conservation for water gives
m
l
= m
v2
m
v1
. (3.325)
Then energy conservation becomes
0 = m
a
h
a1
+ m
v1
h
v1
+ ( m
v2
m
v1
)h
l
m
a
h
a2
m
v2
h
v2
, (3.326)
0 = h
a1
+
m
v1
m
a
h
v1
+
_
m
v2
m
a
m
v1
m
a
_
h
l
h
a2
m
v2
m
a
h
v2
, (3.327)
0 = h
a1
+
1
h
v1
+ (
2
1
) h
l
h
a2
2
h
v2
, (3.328)
0 = h
a1
h
a2
+
1
(h
v1
h
l
) +
2
(h
l
h
v2
), (3.329)
1
(h
v1
h
l
) = h
a1
h
a2
+
2
(h
l
h
v2
), (3.330)
1
(h
v1
h
l
) = h
a2
h
a1
+
2
(h
v2
h
l
), (3.331)
1
(h
v1
h
l
) = c
pa
(T
2
T
1
) +
2
h
fg2
. (3.332)
Example 3.8
(BS, 13.7E, p. 540). The pressure of the mixture entering and leaving the adiabatic saturater is
14.7 psia, the entering temperature is 84 F, and the temperature leaving is 70 F, which is the adiabatic
saturation temperature. Calculate the humidity ratio and the relative humidity of the airwater vapor
mixture entering.
The exit state 2 is saturated, so
P
v2
= P
g2
. (3.333)
The tables give P
v2
= P
g2
= 0.363 psia. Thus one can calculate the absolute humidity by its denition:
2
= 0.622
P
v2
P
2
P
v2
, (3.334)
= 0.622
0.363 psia
(14.7 psia) (0.363 psia)
, (3.335)
= 0.0157485
lbm H
2
O
lbm dry air
. (3.336)
The earlier derived result from the energy balance allows calculation then of
1
:
1
(h
v1
h
l
) = c
pa
(T
2
T
1
) +
2
h
fg2
, (3.337)
1
=
c
pa
(T
2
T
1
) +
2
h
fg2
h
v1
h
l
, (3.338)
=
0.240
Btu
lbm F
((70 F) (84 F)) + 0.0157485
_
1054.0
Btu
lbm
_
_
1098.1
Btu
lbm
_
_
38.1
Btu
lbm
_ , (3.339)
= 0.012895
lbm H
2
O
lbm dry air
. (3.340)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
3.4. GASVAPOR MIXTURES 99
Here h
v1
was estimated as the saturated vapor value at T = 84 F by interpolating the tables. In the
absence of more information regarding the initial vapor state, this estimate is good as any. The value
of h
l
is estimated as the saturated liquid value at T = 70 F. Now
1
= 0.622
P
v1
P
1
P
v1
, (3.341)
P
v1
=
P
1
1
0.622 +
1
, (3.342)
=
(14.7 psia)(0.0124895)
0.622 + 0.0124895
, (3.343)
= 0.28936 psia. (3.344)
For the relative humidity
1
=
P
v1
P
g1
, (3.345)
=
0.28936 psia
0.584 psia
, (3.346)
= 0.495. (3.347)
3.4.3 Wetbulb and drybulb temperatures
Humidity is often measured with a psychrometer, which has a wet bulb and dry bulb ther
mometer.
The dry bulb measures the air temperature.
The wet bulb measures the temperature of a water soaked thermometer.
If the two temperatures are equal, the air is saturated. If they are dierent, some of
the water on the web bulb evaporates, cooling the wet bulb thermometer.
The evaporative cooling process is commonly modeled (with some error) as an adiabatic
saturation process.
These temperatures are also inuenced by nonthermodynamic issues such as heat and
mass transfer rates, which induce errors in the device.
Capacitancebased electronic devices are often used as an alternative to the traditional
psychrometer.
3.4.4 Psychrometric chart
This wellknown chart summarizes much of what is important for binary mixtures of air and
water, in which the properties depend on three variables, e.g. temperature, pressure, and
composition of the mixture.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
100 CHAPTER 3. GAS MIXTURES
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
Chapter 4
Mathematical foundations of
thermodynamics
Read Abbott and van Ness, Chapter 3.
Read BS, 14.214.4, 14.9, 16.116.4.
See Vincenti and Kruger, Chapter 3, for more background.
4.1 Exact dierentials and state functions
In thermodynamics, one is faced with many systems of the form of the wellknown Gibbs
equation, Eq. (1.1):
du = Tds Pdv. (4.1)
This is known to be an exact dierential with the consequence that internal energy u is a
function of the state of the system and not the details of any process which led to the state.
As a counterexample, the work,
w = Pdv, (4.2)
can be shown to be an inexact dierential so that the work is indeed a function of the process
involved. Here we use the notation to emphasize that this is an inexact dierential.
Example 4.1
Show the work is not a state function. If work were a state function, one might expect it to have
the form
w = w(P, v), provisional assumption, to be tested. (4.3)
In such a case, one would have the corresponding dierential form
w =
w
v
P
dv +
w
P
v
dP. (4.4)
101
102 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
Now since w = Pdv from Newtonian mechanics, one deduces that
w
v
P
= P, (4.5)
w
P
v
= 0. (4.6)
Integrating Eq. (4.5), one nds
w = Pv +f(P), (4.7)
where f(P) is some function of P to be determined. Dierentiating Eq. (4.7) with respect to P, one
gets
w
P
v
= v +
df(P)
dP
. (4.8)
Now use Eq. (4.6) to eliminate w/P
v
in Eq. (4.8) so as to obtain
0 = v +
df(P)
dP
, (4.9)
df(P)
dP
= v. (4.10)
Equation (4.10) cannot be: a function of P only cannot be a function of v. So, w cannot be a state
property:
w = w(P, v). (4.11)
Consider now the more general form
1
dx
1
+
2
dx
2
+ +
N
dx
N
=
N
i=1
i
dx
i
. (4.12)
Here
i
and x
i
, i = 1, . . . , N, may be thermodynamic variables. This form is known in
mathematics as a Pfa dierential form. As formulated, one takes at this stage
x
i
: independent thermodynamic variables, and
i
: thermodynamic variables which are functions of x
i
.
Now, if the dierential in Eq. (4.12), when set to a dierential dy, can be integrated to form
the function
y = y(x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
N
), (4.13)
the dierential is said to be exact. In such a case, one has
dy =
1
dx
1
+
2
dx
2
+ +
N
dx
N
=
N
i=1
i
dx
i
. (4.14)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.1. EXACT DIFFERENTIALS AND STATE FUNCTIONS 103
Now, if the algebraic denition of Eq. (4.13) holds, what amounts to the denition of the
partial derivative gives the parallel result that
dy =
y
x
1
x
j
,j=1
dx
1
+
y
x
2
x
j
,j=2
dx
2
+ +
y
x
N
x
j
,j=N
dx
N
. (4.15)
Now, combining Eqs. (4.14) and (4.15) to eliminate dy, one gets
1
dx
1
+
2
dx
2
+ +
N
dx
N
=
y
x
1
x
j
,j=1
dx
1
+
y
x
2
x
j
,j=2
dx
2
+ +
y
x
N
x
j
,j=N
dx
N
.
(4.16)
Rearranging, one gets
0 =
_
y
x
1
x
j
,j=1
1
_
dx
1
+
_
y
x
2
x
j
,j=2
2
_
dx
2
+ +
_
y
x
N
x
j
,j=N
N
_
dx
N
.
(4.17)
Since the variables x
i
, i = 1, . . . , N, are independent, dx
i
, i = 1, . . . , N, are all indepen
dent in Eq. (4.17), and in general nonzero. For equality, one must require that each of the
coecients be zero, so
1
=
y
x
1
x
j
,j=1
,
2
=
y
x
2
x
j
,j=2
, . . . ,
N
=
y
x
N
x
j
,j=N
. (4.18)
So when dy is exact, one says that each of the
i
and x
i
are conjugate to each other.
From here on out, for notational ease, the j = 1, j = 2, . . . , j = N will be ignored in
the notation for the partial derivatives. It becomes especially confusing for higher order
derivatives, and is fairly obvious for all derivatives.
If y and all its derivatives are continuous and dierentiable, then one has for all i =
1, . . . , N, and k = 1, . . . , N that
2
y
x
k
x
i
=
2
y
x
i
x
k
. (4.19)
Now from Eq. (4.18), one has
k
=
y
x
k
x
j
,
l
=
y
x
l
x
j
. (4.20)
Taking the partial of the rst of Eq. (4.20) with respect to x
l
and the second with respect
to x
k
, one gets
k
x
l
x
j
=
2
y
x
l
x
k
,
l
x
k
x
j
=
2
y
x
k
x
l
. (4.21)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
104 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
Since by Eq. (4.19) the order of the mixed second partials does not matter, one deduces from
Eq. (4.21) that
k
x
l
x
j
=
l
x
k
x
j
. (4.22)
This is a necessary and sucient condition for the exactness of Eq. (4.12). It is a gen
eralization of what can be found in most introductory calculus texts for functions of two
variables.
For the Gibbs equation, (4.1), du = Pdv + Tds, one has
y u, x
1
v, x
2
s,
1
P
2
T. (4.23)
and one expects the natural, or canonical form of
u = u(v, s). (4.24)
Here, P is conjugate to v, and T is conjugate to s. Application of the general form of
Eq. (4.22) to the Gibbs equation (4.1) gives then
T
v
s
=
P
s
v
. (4.25)
Equation (4.25) is known as a Maxwell relation. Moreover, specialization of Eq. (4.20) to
the Gibbs equation (4.1) gives
P =
u
v
s
, T =
u
s
v
. (4.26)
If the general dierential dy =
N
i=1
i
dx
i
is exact, one also can show
The path integral y
B
y
A
=
_
B
A
N
i=1
i
dx
i
is independent of the path of the integral.
The integral around a closed contour is zero:
_
dy =
_
N
i=1
i
dx
i
= 0. (4.27)
The function y can only be determined to within an additive constant. That is, there
is no absolute value of y; physical signicance is only ascribed to dierences in y. In
fact now, other means, extraneous to this analysis, can be used to provide absolute
values of key thermodynamic variables. This will be important especially for ows
with reaction.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.1. EXACT DIFFERENTIALS AND STATE FUNCTIONS 105
Example 4.2
Show the heat transfer q is not a state function. Assume all processes are fully reversible. The rst
law gives
du = q w, (4.28)
q = du +w, (4.29)
= du +Pdv. (4.30)
Take now the noncanonical, although acceptable, form u = u(T, v). Then one gets
du =
u
v
T
dv +
u
T
v
dT. (4.31)
So
q =
u
v
T
dv +
u
T
v
dT +Pdv, (4.32)
=
_
u
v
T
+P
_
. .
M
dv +
u
T
v
. .
N
dT. (4.33)
= M dv +N dT. (4.34)
Now by Eq. (4.22), for q to be exact, one must have
M
T
v
=
N
v
T
, (4.35)
(4.36)
This reduces to
2
u
Tv
+
P
T
v
=
2
u
vT
. (4.37)
This can only be true if
P
T
v
= 0. But this is not the case; consider an ideal gas for which
P
T
v
= R/v.
So dq is not exact.
Example 4.3
Show conditions for ds to be exact in the Gibbs equation.
du = Tds Pdv, (4.38)
ds =
du
T
+
P
T
dv, (4.39)
=
1
T
_
u
v
T
dv +
u
T
v
dT
_
+
P
T
dv, (4.40)
=
_
1
T
u
v
T
+
P
T
_
. .
M
dv +
1
T
u
T
v
. .
N
dT. (4.41)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
106 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
Again, invoking Eq. (4.22), one gets then
T
_
1
T
u
v
T
+
P
T
_
v
=
v
_
1
T
u
T
v
_
T
, (4.42)
1
T
2
u
Tv
1
T
2
u
v
T
+
1
T
P
T
P
T
2
=
1
T
2
u
vT
, (4.43)
1
T
2
u
v
T
+
1
T
P
T
P
T
2
= 0. (4.44)
This is the condition for an exact ds. Experiment can show if it is true. For example, for an ideal gas,
one nds from experiment that u = u(T) and Pv = RT, so one gets
0 +
1
T
R
v
1
T
2
RT
v
= 0, (4.45)
0 = 0. (4.46)
So ds is exact for an ideal gas. In fact, the relation is veried for so many gases, ideal and nonideal,
that one simply asserts that ds is exact, rendering s to be pathindependent and a state variable.
4.2 Two independent variables
Consider a general implicit function linking three variables, x, y, z:
f(x, y, z) = 0. (4.47)
In x y z space, this will represent a surface. If the function can be inverted, it will be
possible to write the explicit forms
x = x(y, z), y = y(x, z), z = z(x, y). (4.48)
Dierentiating the rst two of the Eqs. (4.48) gives
dx =
x
y
z
dy +
x
z
y
dz, (4.49)
dy =
y
x
z
dx +
y
z
x
dz. (4.50)
Now use Eq. (4.50) to eliminate dy in Eq. (4.49):
dx =
x
y
z
_
y
x
z
dx +
y
z
x
dz
_
. .
=dy
+
x
z
y
dz, (4.51)
_
1
x
y
z
y
x
z
_
dx =
_
x
y
z
y
z
x
+
x
z
y
_
dz, (4.52)
0dx + 0dz =
_
x
y
z
y
x
z
1
_
. .
=0
dx +
_
x
y
z
y
z
x
+
x
z
y
_
. .
=0
dz. (4.53)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.2. TWO INDEPENDENT VARIABLES 107
Since x and z are independent, so are dx and dz, and the coecients on each in Eq. (4.53)
must be zero. Therefore from the coecient on dx in Eq. (4.53)
x
y
z
y
x
z
1 = 0, (4.54)
x
y
z
y
x
z
= 1. (4.55)
So
x
y
z
=
1
y
x
z
, (4.56)
and also from the coecient on dz in Eq. (4.53)
x
y
z
y
z
x
+
x
z
y
= 0, (4.57)
x
z
y
=
x
y
z
y
z
x
, . (4.58)
So
x
z
y
y
x
z
z
y
x
= 1. (4.59)
If one now divides Eq. (4.49) by a fourth dierential, dw, one gets
dx
dw
=
x
y
z
dy
dw
+
x
z
y
dz
dw
. (4.60)
Demanding that z be held constant in Eq. (4.60) gives
x
w
z
=
x
y
z
y
w
z
, (4.61)
x
w
z
y
w
z
=
x
y
z
, (4.62)
x
w
z
w
y
z
=
x
y
z
. (4.63)
If x = x(y, w), one then gets
dx =
x
y
w
dy +
x
w
y
dw. (4.64)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
108 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
Divide now by dy while holding z constant so
x
y
z
=
x
y
w
+
x
w
y
w
y
z
. (4.65)
These general operations can be applied to a wide variety of thermodynamic operations.
Example 4.4
Apply Eq. (4.65) to a standard P v T system and let
x
y
z
=
T
v
s
. (4.66)
So T = x, v = y, and s = z. Let now u = w. So Eq. (4.65) becomes
T
v
s
=
T
v
u
+
T
u
v
u
v
s
. (4.67)
Now by denition
c
v
=
u
T
v
, (4.68)
so
T
u
v
=
1
c
v
. (4.69)
Now by Eq. (4.26), one has
u
v
s
= P, so one gets
T
v
s
=
T
v
P
c
v
. (4.70)
For an ideal gas, u = u(T). Inverting, one gets T = T(u), and so
T
v
u
= 0, thus
T
v
s
=
P
c
v
. (4.71)
For an isentropic process in an ideal gas, one gets
dT
dv
=
P
c
v
=
RT
c
v
v
, (4.72)
dT
T
=
R
c
v
dv
v
, (4.73)
= (k 1)
dv
v
, (4.74)
ln
T
T
o
= (k 1) ln
v
o
v
, (4.75)
T
T
o
=
_
v
o
v
_
k1
. (4.76)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.3. LEGENDRE TRANSFORMATIONS 109
4.3 Legendre transformations
The Gibbs equation (4.1), du = Pdv + Tds, is the fundamental equation of classical
thermodynamics. It is a canonical form which suggests the most natural set of variables in
which to express internal energy u are s and v:
u = u(v, s). (4.77)
However, v and s may not be convenient for a particular problem. There may be other
combinations of variables whose canonical form gives a more convenient set of independent
variables for a particular problem. An example is the enthalpy:
h u + Pv. (4.78)
Dierentiating the enthalpy gives
dh = du + Pdv + vdP. (4.79)
Use now Eq. (4.79) to eliminate du in the Gibbs equation to give
dh Pdv vdP
. .
=du
= Pdv + Tds. (4.80)
So
dh = Tds + vdP. (4.81)
So the canonical variables for h are s and P. One then expects
h = h(s, P). (4.82)
This exercise can be systematized with the Legendre transformation,
1
which denes a set
of second order polynomial combinations of variables. Consider again the exact dierential
Eq. (4.14):
dy =
1
dx
1
+
2
dx
2
+ +
N
dx
N
. (4.83)
1
Two dierentiable functions f and g are said to be Legendre transformations of each other if their rst
derivatives are inverse functions of each other: Df = (Dg)
1
. With some eort, not shown here, one can
prove that the Legendre transformations of this section satisfy this general condition.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
110 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
For N independent variables x
i
and N conjugate variables
i
, by denition there are 2
N
1
Legendre transformed variables:
1
=
1
(
1
, x
2
, x
3
, . . . , x
N
) = y
1
x
1
, (4.84)
2
=
2
(x
1
,
2
, x
3
, . . . , x
N
) = y
2
x
2
, (4.85)
.
.
.
N
=
N
(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, . . . ,
N
) = y
N
x
N
, (4.86)
1,2
=
1,2
(
1
,
2
, x
3
, . . . , x
N
) = y
1
x
1
2
x
2
, (4.87)
1,3
=
1,3
(
1
, x
2
,
3
, . . . , x
N
) = y
1
x
1
3
x
3
, (4.88)
.
.
.
1,...,N
=
1,...,N
(
1
,
2
,
3
, . . . ,
N
) = y
N
i=1
i
x
i
. (4.89)
Each is a new dependent variable. Each has the property that when it is known as a
function of its N canonical variables, the remaining N variables from the original expression
(the x
i
and the conjugate
i
) can be recovered by dierentiation of . In general this is not
true for arbitrary transformations.
Example 4.5
Let y = y(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
). This has the associated dierential form
dy =
1
dx
1
+
2
dx
2
+
3
dx
3
. (4.90)
Choose now a Legendre transformed variable
1
z(
1
, x
2
, x
3
):
z = y
1
x
1
. (4.91)
Then
dz =
z
x2,x3
d
1
+
z
x
2
1,x3
dx
2
+
z
x
3
1,x2
dx
3
. (4.92)
Now dierentiating Eq. (4.91), one also gets
dz = dy
1
dx
1
x
1
d
1
. (4.93)
Elimination of dy in Eq. (4.93) by using Eq. (4.90) gives
dz =
1
dx
1
+
2
dx
2
+
3
dx
3
. .
=dy
1
dx
1
x
1
d
1
, (4.94)
= x
1
d
1
+
2
dx
2
+
3
dx
3
. (4.95)
Thus from Eq. (4.92), one gets
x
1
=
z
x2,x3
,
2
=
z
x
2
1,x3
,
3
=
z
x
3
1,x2
. (4.96)
So the original expression had three independent variables x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, and three conjugate variables
1
,
2
,
3
. Denition of the Legendre function z with canonical variables
1
, x
2
, and x
3
allowed
determination of the remaining variables x
1
,
2
, and
3
in terms of the canonical variables.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.3. LEGENDRE TRANSFORMATIONS 111
For the Gibbs equation, (4.1), du = Pdv +Tds, one has y = u, two canonical variables,
x
1
= v and x
2
= s, and two conjugates,
1
= P and
2
= T. Thus N = 2, and one can
expect 2
2
1 = 3 Legendre transformations. They are
1
= y
1
x
1
= h = h(P, s) = u + Pv, enthalpy, (4.97)
2
= y
2
x
2
= a = a(v, T) = u Ts, Helmholtz free energy, (4.98)
1,2
= y
1
x
1
2
x
2
= g = g(P, T) = u + Pv Ts, Gibbs free energy.
(4.99)
It has already been shown for the enthalpy that dh = Tds + vdP, so that the canonical
variables are s and P. One then also has
dh =
h
s
P
ds +
h
P
s
dP, (4.100)
from which one deduces that
T =
h
s
P
, v =
h
P
s
. (4.101)
From Eq. (4.101), a second Maxwell relation can be deduced by dierentiation of the rst
with respect to P and the second with respect to s:
T
P
s
=
v
s
P
. (4.102)
The relations for Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies each supply additional useful relations
including two new Maxwell relations. First consider the Helmholtz free energy
a = u Ts, (4.103)
da = du Tds sdT, (4.104)
= (Pdv + Tds) Tds sdT, (4.105)
= Pdv sdT. (4.106)
So the canonical variables for a are v and T. The conjugate variables are P and s. Thus
da =
a
v
T
dv +
a
T
v
dT. (4.107)
So one gets
P =
a
v
T
, s =
a
T
v
. (4.108)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
112 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
and the consequent Maxwell relation
P
T
v
=
s
v
T
. (4.109)
For the Gibbs free energy
g = u + Pv
. .
=h
Ts, (4.110)
= h Ts, (4.111)
dg = dh Tds sdT, (4.112)
= (Tds + vdP)
. .
=dh
Tds sdT, (4.113)
= vdP sdT. (4.114)
So for Gibbs free energy, the canonical variables are P and T while the conjugate variables
are v and s. One then has g = g(P, T), which gives
dg =
g
P
T
dP +
g
T
P
dT. (4.115)
So one nds
v =
g
P
T
, s =
g
T
P
. (4.116)
The resulting Maxwell function is then
v
T
P
=
s
P
T
. (4.117)
Example 4.6
Canonical Form
If
h(s, P) = c
P
T
o
_
P
P
o
_
R/cP
exp
_
s
c
P
_
+ (h
o
c
P
T
o
) , (4.118)
and c
P
, T
o
, R, P
o
, and h
o
are all constants, derive both thermal and caloric state equations P(v, T)
and u(v, T).
Now for this material
h
s
P
= T
o
_
P
P
o
_
R/cP
exp
_
s
c
P
_
, (4.119)
h
P
s
=
RT
o
P
o
_
P
P
o
_
R/cP1
exp
_
s
c
P
_
. (4.120)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.3. LEGENDRE TRANSFORMATIONS 113
Now since
h
s
P
= T, (4.121)
h
P
s
= v, (4.122)
one has
T = T
o
_
P
P
o
_
R/cP
exp
_
s
c
P
_
, (4.123)
v =
RT
o
P
o
_
P
P
o
_
R/cP 1
exp
_
s
c
P
_
. (4.124)
Dividing Eq. (4.123) by Eq. (4.124) gives
T
v
=
P
R
, (4.125)
Pv = RT, (4.126)
which is the thermal equation of state. Substituting from Eq. (4.123) into the canonical equation for
h, Eq. (4.118), one also nds for the caloric equation of state
h = c
P
T + (h
o
c
P
T
o
) , (4.127)
h = c
P
(T T
o
) +h
o
, (4.128)
which is useful in itself. Substituting in for T and T
o
,
h = c
P
_
Pv
R
P
o
v
o
R
_
+h
o
. (4.129)
Using, Eq. (4.78), h u +Pv, we get
u +Pv = c
P
_
Pv
R
P
o
v
o
R
_
+u
o
+P
o
v
o
. (4.130)
So
u =
_
c
P
R
1
_
Pv
_
c
P
R
1
_
P
o
v
o
+u
o
, (4.131)
u =
_
c
P
R
1
_
(Pv P
o
v
o
) +u
o
, (4.132)
u =
_
c
P
R
1
_
(RT RT
o
) +u
o
, (4.133)
u = (c
P
R) (T T
o
) +u
o
, (4.134)
u = (c
P
(c
P
c
v
)) (T T
o
) +u
o
, (4.135)
u = c
v
(T T
o
) +u
o
. (4.136)
So one canonical equation gives us all the information one needs. Often, it is dicult to do a single
experiment to get the canonical form.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
114 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
4.4 Heat capacity
Recall that
c
v
=
u
T
v
, (4.137)
c
P
=
h
T
P
. (4.138)
Then perform operations on the Gibbs equation
du = Tds Pdv, (4.139)
u
T
v
= T
s
T
v
, (4.140)
c
v
= T
s
T
v
. (4.141)
Likewise,
dh = Tds + vdP, (4.142)
h
T
P
= T
s
T
P
, (4.143)
c
P
= T
s
T
P
. (4.144)
One nds further useful relations by operating on the Gibbs equation:
du = Tds Pdv, (4.145)
u
v
T
= T
s
v
T
P, (4.146)
= T
P
T
v
P. (4.147)
So one can then say
u = u(T, v), (4.148)
du =
u
T
v
dT +
u
v
T
dv, (4.149)
= c
v
dT +
_
T
P
T
v
P
_
dv. (4.150)
For an ideal gas, one has
u
v
T
= T
P
T
v
P = T
_
R
v
_
RT
v
, (4.151)
= 0. (4.152)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.4. HEAT CAPACITY 115
Consequently, u is not a function of v for an ideal gas, so u = u(T) alone. Since Eq. (4.78),
h = u + Pv, for an ideal gas reduces to h = u + RT
h = u(T) + RT = h(T). (4.153)
Now return to general equations of state. With s = s(T, v) or s = s(T, P), one gets
ds =
s
T
v
dT +
s
v
T
dv, (4.154)
ds =
s
T
P
dT +
s
P
T
dP. (4.155)
Now using Eqs. (4.102, 4.117, 4.141, 4.144) one gets
ds =
c
v
T
dT +
P
T
v
dv, (4.156)
ds =
c
P
T
dT
v
T
P
dP. (4.157)
Subtracting Eq. (4.157) from Eq. (4.156), one nds
0 =
c
v
c
P
T
dT +
P
T
v
dv +
v
T
P
dP, (4.158)
(c
P
c
v
)dT = T
P
T
v
dv + T
v
T
P
dP. (4.159)
Now divide both sides by dT and hold either P or v constant. In either case, one gets
c
P
c
v
= T
P
T
v
v
T
P
. (4.160)
Also, since P/T
v
= (P/v
T
)(v/T
P
), Eq. (4.160) can be rewritten as
c
P
c
v
= T
_
v
T
P
_
2
P
v
T
. (4.161)
Now since T > 0, (v/T
P
)
2
> 0, and for all known materials P/v
T
< 0, we must have
c
P
> c
v
. (4.162)
Example 4.7
For an ideal gas nd c
P
c
v
.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
116 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
For the ideal gas, Pv = RT, one has
P
T
v
=
R
v
,
v
T
P
=
R
P
. (4.163)
So, from Eq. (4.160), we have
c
P
c
v
= T
R
v
R
P
, (4.164)
= T
R
2
RT
, (4.165)
= R. (4.166)
This holds even if the ideal gas is calorically imperfect. That is
c
P
(T) c
v
(T) = R. (4.167)
For the ratio of specic heats for a general material, one can use Eqs. (4.141) and (4.144)
to get
k =
c
P
c
v
=
T
s
T
P
T
s
T
v
, then apply Eq. (4.56) to get (4.168)
=
s
T
P
T
s
v
, then apply Eq. (4.58) to get (4.169)
=
_
s
P
T
P
T
s
__
T
v
s
v
s
T
_
, (4.170)
=
_
v
s
T
s
P
T
__
P
T
s
T
v
s
_
. (4.171)
So for general materials
k =
v
P
T
P
v
s
. (4.172)
The rst term can be obtained from P v T data. The second term is related to the
isentropic sound speed of the material, which is also a measurable quantity.
Example 4.8
For a calorically perfect ideal gas with gas constant R and specic heat at constant volume c
v
,
nd expressions for the thermodynamic variable s and thermodynamic potentials u, h, a, and g, as
functions of T and P.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.4. HEAT CAPACITY 117
First get the entropy:
du = Tds Pdv, (4.173)
Tds = du +Pdv, (4.174)
Tds = c
v
dT +Pdv, (4.175)
ds = c
v
dT
T
+
P
T
dv, (4.176)
= c
v
dT
T
+R
dv
v
, (4.177)
_
ds =
_
c
v
dT
T
+
_
R
dv
v
, (4.178)
s s
0
= c
v
ln
T
T
0
+Rln
v
v
0
, (4.179)
s s
0
c
v
= ln
T
T
0
+
R
c
v
ln
RT/P
RT
0
/P
0
, (4.180)
= ln
_
T
T
0
_
+ ln
_
T
T
0
P
0
P
_
R/cv
, (4.181)
= ln
_
T
T
0
_
1+R/cv
+ ln
_
P
0
P
_
R/cv
, (4.182)
= ln
_
T
T
0
_
1+(cpcv)/cv
+ ln
_
P
0
P
_
(cpcv)/cv
, (4.183)
= ln
_
T
T
0
_
k
+ ln
_
P
0
P
_
k1
. (4.184)
So
s = s
0
+c
v
ln
_
T
T
0
_
k
+c
v
ln
_
P
0
P
_
k1
. (4.185)
Now, for the calorically perfect ideal gas, one has
u = u
o
+c
v
(T T
o
). (4.186)
For the enthalpy, one gets
h = u +Pv, (4.187)
= u +RT, (4.188)
= u
o
+c
v
(T T
o
) +RT, (4.189)
= u
o
+c
v
(T T
o
) +RT +RT
o
RT
o
, (4.190)
= u
o
+RT
o
. .
=ho
+c
v
(T T
o
) +R(T T
o
), (4.191)
= h
o
+ (c
v
+R)
. .
=cp
(T T
o
). (4.192)
So
h = h
o
+c
p
(T T
o
). (4.193)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
118 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
For the Helmholtz free energy, one gets
a = u Ts. (4.194)
Thus,
a = u
o
+c
v
(T T
o
) T
_
s
0
+c
v
ln
_
T
T
0
_
k
+c
v
ln
_
P
0
P
_
k1
_
. (4.195)
For the Gibbs free energy, one gets
g = h Ts. (4.196)
Thus
g = h
o
+c
p
(T T
o
) T
_
s
0
+c
v
ln
_
T
T
0
_
k
+c
v
ln
_
P
0
P
_
k1
_
. (4.197)
4.5 Van der Waals gas
A van der Waals gas is a common model for a nonideal gas. It can capture some of the
behavior of a gas as it approaches the vapor dome. Its form is
P(T, v) =
RT
v b
a
v
2
, (4.198)
where b accounts for the nite volume of the molecules, and a accounts for intermolecular
forces.
Example 4.9
Find a general expression for u(T, v) if
P(T, v) =
RT
v b
a
v
2
. (4.199)
Proceed as before: First we have
du =
u
T
v
dT +
u
v
T
dv, (4.200)
recalling that
u
T
v
= c
v
,
u
v
T
= T
P
T
v
P. (4.201)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.5. VAN DER WAALS GAS 119
Now for the van der Waals gas, we have
P
T
v
=
R
v b
, (4.202)
T
P
T
v
P =
RT
v b
P, (4.203)
=
RT
v b
_
RT
v b
a
v
2
_
=
a
v
2
. (4.204)
So we have
u
v
T
=
a
v
2
, (4.205)
u(T, v) =
a
v
+f(T). (4.206)
Here f(T) is some asofyet arbitrary function of T. To evaluate f(T), take the derivative with respect
to T holding v constant:
u
T
v
=
df
dT
= c
v
. (4.207)
Since f is a function of T at most, here c
v
can be a function of T at most, so we allow c
v
= c
v
(T).
Integrating, we nd f(T) as
f(T) = C +
_
T
To
c
v
(
T)d
T, (4.208)
where C is an integration constant. Thus u is
u(T, v) = C +
_
T
To
c
v
(
T)d
T
a
v
. (4.209)
Taking C = u
o
+a/v
o
, we get
u(T, v) = u
o
+
_
T
To
c
v
(
T)d
T +a
_
1
v
o
1
v
_
. (4.210)
We also nd
h = u +Pv = u
o
+
_
T
To
c
v
(
T)d
T +a
_
1
v
o
1
v
_
+Pv, (4.211)
h(T, v) = u
o
+
_
T
To
c
v
(
T)d
T +a
_
1
v
o
1
v
_
+
RTv
v b
a
v
. (4.212)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
120 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
Example 4.10
A van der Waals gas with
R = 200
J
kg K
, (4.213)
a = 150
Pa m
6
kg
2
, (4.214)
b = 0.001
m
3
kg
, (4.215)
c
v
=
_
350
J
kg K
_
+
_
0.2
J
kg K
2
_
(T (300 K)), (4.216)
begins at T
1
= 300 K, P
1
= 110
5
Pa. It is isothermally compressed to state 2 where P
2
= 110
6
Pa.
It is then isochorically heated to state 3 where T
3
= 1000 K. Find
1
w
3
,
1
q
3
, and s
3
s
1
. Assume the
surroundings are at 1000 K.
Recall
P =
RT
v b
a
v
2
, (4.217)
so at state 1
_
10
5
Pa
_
=
_
200
J
kg K
_
(300 K)
v
1
_
0.001
m
3
kg
_
150
Pa m
6
kg
2
v
2
1
. (4.218)
Expanding, one gets
0.15 +
_
150
kg
m
3
_
v
1
_
60100
kg
2
m
6
_
v
2
1
+
_
100000
kg
3
m
9
_
v
3
1
= 0. (4.219)
This is a cubic equation which has three solutions:
v
1
= 0.598
m
3
kg
, physical, (4.220)
v
1
= 0.00125 0.0097i
m
3
kg
not physical, (4.221)
v
1
= 0.00125 + 0.0097i
m
3
kg
not physical. (4.222)
Now at state 2, P
2
and T
2
are known, so v
2
can be determined:
_
10
6
Pa
_
=
_
200
J
kg K
_
(300 K)
v
2
_
0.001
m
3
kg
_
150
Pa m
6
kg
2
v
2
2
. (4.223)
The physical solution is v
2
= 0.0585 m
3
/kg. Now at state 3 it is known that v
3
= v
2
and T
3
= 1000 K.
Determine P
3
:
P
3
=
_
200
J
kg K
_
(1000 K)
_
0.0585
m
3
kg
_
_
0.001
m
3
kg
_
150
Pa m
6
kg
2
_
0.0585
m
3
kg
_
2
, (4.224)
= (3478261 Pa) (43831 Pa), (4.225)
= 3434430 Pa. (4.226)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.5. VAN DER WAALS GAS 121
Now
1
w
3
=
1
w
2
+
2
w
3
=
_
2
1
Pdv +
_
3
2
Pdv =
_
2
1
Pdv since 2 3 is at constant volume. So
1
w
3
=
_
v2
v1
_
RT
v b
a
v
2
_
dv, (4.227)
= RT
1
_
v2
v1
dv
v b
a
_
v2
v1
dv
v
2
, (4.228)
= RT
1
ln
_
v
2
b
v
1
b
_
+a
_
1
v
2
1
v
1
_
, (4.229)
=
_
200
J
kg K
_
(300 K) ln
_
_
_
0.0585
m
3
kg
_
_
0.001
m
3
kg
_
_
0.598
m
3
kg
_
_
0.001
m
3
kg
_
_
_
+
_
150
Pa m
6
kg
2
_
_
1
0.0585
m
3
kg
1
0.598
m
3
kg
_
, (4.230)
=
_
140408
J
kg
_
+
_
2313
J
kg
_
, (4.231)
= 138095
J
kg
, (4.232)
= 138.095
kJ
kg
. (4.233)
The gas is compressed, so the work is negative. Since u is a state property:
u
3
u
1
=
_
T3
T1
c
v
(T)dT +a
_
1
v
1
1
v
3
_
. (4.234)
Now
c
v
=
_
350
J
kg K
_
+
_
0.2
J
kg K
2
_
(T (300 K)), (4.235)
=
_
290
J
kg K
_
+
_
0.2
J
kg K
2
_
T. (4.236)
so
u
3
u
1
=
_
T3
T1
__
290
J
kg K
_
+
_
0.2
J
kg K
2
_
T
_
dT +a
_
1
v
1
1
v
3
_
, (4.237)
=
_
290
J
kg K
_
(T
3
T
1
) +
_
0.1
J
kg K
2
_
_
T
2
3
T
2
1
_
+a
_
1
v
1
1
v
3
_
, (4.238)
=
_
290
J
kg K
_
((1000 K) (300 K)) +
_
0.1
J
kg K
2
_
_
(1000 K)
2
(300 K)
2
_
+
_
150
Pa m
6
kg
2
_
_
1
0.598
m
3
kg
1
0.0585
m
3
kg
_
, (4.239)
=
_
203000
J
kg
_
+
_
91000
J
kg
_
_
2313
J
kg
_
, (4.240)
= 291687
J
kg
, (4.241)
= 292
kJ
kg
. (4.242)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
122 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
Now from the rst law
u
3
u
1
=
1
q
3
1
w
3
, (4.243)
1
q
3
= u
3
u
1
+
1
w
3
, (4.244)
1
q
3
=
_
292
kJ
kg
_
_
138
kJ
kg
_
, (4.245)
1
q
3
= 154
kJ
kg
. (4.246)
The heat transfer is positive as heat was added to the system.
Now nd the entropy change. Manipulate the Gibbs equation:
Tds = du +Pdv, (4.247)
ds =
1
T
du +
P
T
dv, (4.248)
ds =
1
T
_
c
v
(T)dT +
a
v
2
dv
_
+
P
T
dv, (4.249)
ds =
1
T
_
c
v
(T)dT +
a
v
2
dv
_
+
1
T
_
RT
v b
a
v
2
_
dv, (4.250)
ds =
c
v
(T)
T
dT +
R
v b
dv, (4.251)
s
3
s
1
=
_
T3
T1
c
v
(T)
T
dT +Rln
v
3
b
v
1
b
, (4.252)
=
_
1000
300
_
_
_
290
J
kg K
_
T
+
_
0.2
J
kg K
2
_
_
_
dT +Rln
v
3
b
v
1
b
, (4.253)
=
_
290
J
kg K
_
ln
_
1000 K
300 K
_
+
_
0.2
J
kg K
2
_
((1000 K) (300 K))
+
_
200
J
kg K
_
ln
_
0.0585
m
3
kg
_
_
0.001
m
3
kg
_
_
0.598
m
3
kg
_
_
0.001
m
3
kg
_ , (4.254)
=
_
349
J
kg K
_
+
_
140
J
kg K
_
_
468
J
kg K
_
, (4.255)
= 21
J
kg K
, (4.256)
= 0.021
kJ
kg K
. (4.257)
Is the second law satised for each portion of the process?
First look at 1 2
u
2
u
1
=
1
q
2
1
w
2
, (4.258)
1
q
2
= u
2
u
1
+
1
w
2
, (4.259)
1
q
2
=
_
_
T2
T1
c
v
(T)dT +a
_
1
v
1
1
v
2
_
_
+
_
RT
1
ln
_
v
2
b
v
1
b
_
+a
_
1
v
2
1
v
1
__
. (4.260)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.5. VAN DER WAALS GAS 123
Recalling that T
1
= T
2
and canceling the terms in a, one gets
1
q
2
= RT
1
ln
_
v
2
b
v
1
b
_
, (4.261)
=
_
200
J
kg K
_
(300 K) ln
_
_
_
0.0585
m
3
kg
_
_
0.001
m
3
kg
_
_
0.598
m
3
kg
_
_
0.001
m
3
kg
_
_
_
, (4.262)
= 140408
J
kg
. (4.263)
Since the process is isothermal,
s
2
s
1
= Rln
_
v
2
b
v
1
b
_
(4.264)
=
_
200
J
kg K
_
ln
_
_
_
0.0585
m
3
kg
_
_
0.001
m
3
kg
_
_
0.598
m
3
kg
_
_
0.001
m
3
kg
_
_
_
, (4.265)
= 468.0
J
kg K
. (4.266)
Entropy drops because heat was transferred out of the system.
Check the second law. Note that in this portion of the process in which the heat is transferred out
of the system, that the surroundings must have T
surr
300 K. For this portion of the process let us
take T
surr
= 300 K.
s
2
s
1
1
q
2
T
? (4.267)
468.0
J
kg K
140408
J
kg
300 K
, (4.268)
468.0
J
kg K
468.0
J
kg K
ok. (4.269)
Next look at 2 3
2
q
3
= u
3
u
2
+
2
w
3
, (4.270)
2
q
3
=
_
_
T3
T2
c
v
(T)dT +a
_
1
v
2
1
v
3
_
_
+
__
v3
v2
Pdv
_
, (4.271)
since isochoric
2
q
3
=
_
T3
T2
c
v
(T)dT, (4.272)
=
_
1000 K
300 K
__
290
J
kg K
_
+
_
0.2
J
kg K
2
_
T
_
dT, (4.273)
= 294000
J
kg
. (4.274)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
124 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
Now look at the entropy change for the isochoric process:
s
3
s
2
=
_
T3
T2
c
v
(T)
T
dT, (4.275)
=
_
T3
T2
_
_
_
290
J
kg K
_
T
+
_
0.2
J
kg K
2
_
_
_
dT, (4.276)
=
_
290
J
kg K
_
ln
_
1000 K
300 K
_
+
_
0.2
J
kg K
2
_
((1000 K) (300 K)), (4.277)
= 489
J
kg K
. (4.278)
Entropy rises because heat transferred into system.
In order to transfer heat into the system we must have a dierent thermal reservoir. This one must
have T
surr
1000 K. Assume here that the heat transfer was from a reservoir held at 1000 K to assess
the inuence of the second law.
s
3
s
2
2
q
3
T
? (4.279)
489
J
kg K
294000
J
kg
1000 K
, (4.280)
489
J
kg K
294
J
kg K
, ok. (4.281)
4.6 RedlichKwong gas
The RedlichKwong equation of state is
P =
RT
v b
a
v(v + b)T
1/2
. (4.282)
It is modestly more accurate than the van der Waals equation in predicting material behavior.
Example 4.11
For the case in which b = 0, nd an expression for u(T, v) consistent with the RedlichKwong state
equation.
Here the equation of state is now
P =
RT
v
a
v
2
T
1/2
. (4.283)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.7. COMPRESSIBILITY AND GENERALIZED CHARTS 125
Proceeding as before, we have
u
v
T
= T
P
T
v
P, (4.284)
= T
_
R
v
+
a
2v
2
T
3/2
_
_
RT
v
a
v
2
T
1/2
_
, (4.285)
=
3a
2v
2
T
1/2
. (4.286)
Integrating, we nd
u(T, v) =
3a
2vT
1/2
+f(T). (4.287)
Here f(T) is a yettobespecied function of temperature only. Now the specic heat is found by the
temperature derivative of u:
c
v
(T, v) =
u
T
v
=
3a
4vT
3/2
+
df
dT
. (4.288)
Obviously, for this material, c
v
is a function of both T and v.
Let us dene c
vo
(T) via
df
dT
c
vo
(T). (4.289)
Integrating, then one gets
f(T) = C +
_
T
To
c
vo
(
T) d
T. (4.290)
Let us take C = u
o
+3a/2/v
o
/T
1/2
o
. Thus we arrive at the following expressions for c
v
(T, v) and u(T, v):
c
v
(T, v) = c
vo
(T) +
3a
4vT
3/2
, (4.291)
u(T, v) = u
o
+
_
T
To
c
vo
(
T) d
T +
3a
2
_
1
v
o
T
1/2
o
1
vT
1/2
_
. (4.292)
4.7 Compressibility and generalized charts
A simple way to quantify the deviation from ideal gas behavior is to determine the socalled
compressibility Z, where
Z
Pv
RT
. (4.293)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
126 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
For an ideal gas, Z = 1. For substances with a simple molecular structure, Z can be
tabulated as functions of the socalled reduced pressure P
r
and reduced temperature T
r
. T
r
and P
r
are dimensionless variables found by scaling their dimensional counterparts by the
specic materials temperature and pressure at the critical point, T
c
and P
c
:
T
r
T
T
c
, P
r
P
P
c
. (4.294)
Often charts are available which give predictions of all reduced thermodynamic properties.
These are most useful to capture the nonideal gas behavior of materials for which tables are
not available.
4.8 Mixtures with variable composition
Consider now mixtures of N species. The focus here will be on extensive properties and
molar properties. Assume that each species has n
i
moles, and the the total number of moles
is n =
N
i=1
n
i
. Now one might expect the extensive energy to be a function of the entropy,
the volume and the number of moles of each species:
U = U(V, S, n
i
). (4.295)
The extensive version of the Gibbs law in which all of the n
i
are held constant is
dU = PdV + TdS. (4.296)
Thus
U
V
S,n
i
= P,
U
S
V,n
i
= T. (4.297)
In general, since U = U(S, V, n
i
), one should expect, for systems in which the n
i
are allowed
to change that
dU =
U
V
S,n
i
dV +
U
S
V,n
i
dS +
N
i=1
U
n
i
S,V,n
j
dn
i
. (4.298)
Dening the new thermodynamics property, the chemical potential
i
, as
i
U
n
i
S,V,n
j
, (4.299)
one has the important Gibbs equation for multicomponent systems:
dU = PdV + TdS +
N
i=1
i
dn
i
. (4.300)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.8. MIXTURES WITH VARIABLE COMPOSITION 127
Obviously, by its denition,
i
is on a per mole basis, so it is given the appropriate overline
notation. In Eq. (4.300), the independent variables and their conjugates are
x
1
= V,
1
= P, (4.301)
x
2
= S,
2
= T, (4.302)
x
3
= n
1
,
3
=
1
, (4.303)
x
4
= n
2
,
4
=
2
, (4.304)
.
.
.
.
.
.
x
N+2
= n
N
,
N+2
=
N
. (4.305)
Equation (4.300) has 2
N+1
1 Legendre functions. Three are in wide usage: the extensive
analog to those earlier found. They are
H = U + PV, (4.306)
A = U TS, (4.307)
G = U + PV TS. (4.308)
A set of nontraditional, but perfectly acceptable additional Legendre functions would be
formed from U
1
n
1
. Another set would be formed from U + PV
2
n
2
. There are
many more, but one in particular is sometimes noted in the literature: the socalled grand
potential, . The grand potential is dened as
U TS
N
i=1
i
n
i
. (4.309)
Dierentiating each dened Legendre function, Eqs. (4.3064.309), and combining with
Eq. (4.300), one nds
dH = TdS + V dP +
N
i=1
i
dn
i
, (4.310)
dA = SdT PdV +
N
i=1
i
dn
i
, (4.311)
dG = SdT + V dP +
N
i=1
i
dn
i
, (4.312)
d = PdV SdT
N
i=1
n
i
d
i
. (4.313)
Thus, canonical variables for H are H = H(S, P, n
i
). One nds a similar set of relations as
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
128 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
before from each of the dierential forms:
T =
U
S
V,n
i
=
H
S
P,n
i
, (4.314)
P =
U
V
S,n
i
=
A
V
T,n
i
=
V
T,
i
, (4.315)
V =
H
P
S,n
i
=
G
P
T,n
i
, (4.316)
S =
A
T
V,n
i
=
G
T
P,n
i
=
T
V,
i
, (4.317)
n
i
=
V,T,
j
. (4.318)
i
=
U
n
i
S,V,n
j
=
H
n
i
S,P,n
j
=
A
n
i
T,V,n
j
=
G
n
i
T,P,n
j
(4.319)
Each of these induces a corresponding Maxwell relation, obtained by cross dierentiation.
These are
T
V
S,n
i
=
P
S
V,n
i
, (4.320)
T
P
S,n
i
=
V
S
P,n
i
, (4.321)
P
T
V,n
i
=
S
V
T,n
i
, (4.322)
V
T
P,n
i
=
S
P
T,n
i
, (4.323)
i
T
P,n
j
=
S
n
i
V,n
j
, (4.324)
i
P
T,n
j
=
V
n
i
V,n
j
, (4.325)
l
n
k
T,P,n
j
=
k
n
l
T,P,n
j
, (4.326)
S
V
T,
i
=
P
T
V,
i
, (4.327)
n
i
V,T,
j
,j=k
=
n
k
V,T,
j
,j=i
(4.328)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.9. PARTIAL MOLAR PROPERTIES 129
4.9 Partial molar properties
4.9.1 Homogeneous functions
In mathematics, a homogeneous function f(x
1
, . . . , x
N
) of order m is one such that
f(x
1
, . . . , x
N
) =
m
f(x
1
, . . . , x
N
). (4.329)
If m = 1, one has
f(x
1
, . . . , x
N
) = f(x
1
, . . . , x
N
). (4.330)
Thermodynamic variables are examples of homogeneous functions.
4.9.2 Gibbs free energy
Consider an extensive property, such as the Gibbs free energy G. One has the canonical
form
G = G(T, P, n
1
, n
2
, . . . , n
N
). (4.331)
One would like to show that if each of the mole numbers n
i
is increased by a common factor,
say , with T and P constant, that G increases by the same factor :
G(T, P, n
1
, n
2
, . . . , n
N
) = G(T, P, n
1
, n
2
, . . . , n
N
). (4.332)
Dierentiate both sides of Eq. (4.332) with respect to , while holding P, T, and n
j
constant,
to get
G(T, P, n
1
, n
2
, . . . , n
N
) =
G
(n
1
)
n
j
,P,T
d(n
1
)
d
+
G
(n
2
)
n
j
,P,T
d(n
2
)
d
+ +
G
(n
N
)
n
j
,P,T
d(n
N
)
d
, (4.333)
=
G
(n
1
)
n
j
,P,T
n
1
+
G
(n
2
)
n
j
,P,T
n
2
+ +
G
(n
N
)
n
j
,P,T
n
N
, (4.334)
This must hold for all , including = 1, so one requires
G(T, P, n
1
, n
2
, . . . , n
N
) =
G
n
1
n
j
,P,T
n
1
+
G
n
2
n
j
,P,T
n
2
+ +
G
n
N
n
j
,P,T
n
N
,
(4.335)
=
N
i=1
G
n
i
n
j
,P,T
n
i
. (4.336)
Recall now the denition partial molar property, the derivative of an extensive variable with
respect to species n
i
holding n
j
, i = j, T, and P constant. Because the result has units per
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
130 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
mole, an overline superscript is utilized. The partial molar Gibbs free energy of species i, g
i
is then
g
i
G
n
i
n
j
,P,T
, (4.337)
so that
G =
N
i=1
g
i
n
i
. (4.338)
Using the denition of chemical potential, Eq. (4.319), one also notes then that
G(T, P, n
1
, n
2
, . . . , n
N
) =
N
i=1
i
n
i
. (4.339)
The temperature and pressure dependence of G must lie entirely within
i
(T, P, n
j
), which
one notes is also allowed to be a function of n
j
as well. Consequently, one also sees that the
Gibbs free energy per unit mole of species i is the chemical potential of that species:
g
i
=
i
. (4.340)
Using Eq. (4.338) to eliminate G in Eq. (4.308), one recovers an equation for the energy:
U = PV + TS +
N
i=1
i
n
i
. (4.341)
4.9.3 Other properties
A similar result also holds for any other extensive property such as V , U, H, A, or S. One
can also show that
V =
N
i=1
n
i
V
n
i
n
j
,A,T
, (4.342)
U =
N
i=1
n
i
U
n
i
n
j
,V,S
(4.343)
H =
N
i=1
n
i
H
n
i
n
j
,P,S
, (4.344)
A =
N
i=1
n
i
A
n
i
n
j
,T,V
, (4.345)
S =
N
i=1
n
i
S
n
i
n
j
,U,T
. (4.346)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.9. PARTIAL MOLAR PROPERTIES 131
Note that these expressions do not formally involve partial molar properties since P and T
are not constant.
Take now the appropriate partial molar derivatives of G for an ideal mixture of ideal
gases to get some useful relations:
G = H TS, (4.347)
G
n
i
T,P,n
j
=
H
n
i
T,P,n
j
T
S
n
i
T,P,n
j
. (4.348)
Now from the denition of an ideal mixture h
i
= h
i
(T, P), so one has
H =
N
k=1
n
k
h
k
(T, P), (4.349)
H
n
i
T,P,n
j
=
n
i
_
N
k=1
n
k
h
k
(T, P)
_
, (4.350)
=
N
k=1
n
k
n
i
..
=
ik
h
k
(T, P), (4.351)
=
N
k=1
ik
h
k
(T, P), (4.352)
= h
i
(T, P). (4.353)
Here, the Kronecker delta function
ki
has been again used. Now for an ideal gas one further
has h
i
= h
i
(T). The analysis is more complicated for the entropy, in which
S =
N
k=1
n
k
_
s
o
T,k
Rln
_
P
k
P
o
__
, (4.354)
=
N
k=1
n
k
_
s
o
T,k
Rln
_
y
k
P
P
o
__
, (4.355)
=
N
k=1
n
k
_
s
o
T,k
Rln
_
P
P
o
_
Rln
_
n
k
N
q=1
n
q
__
, (4.356)
=
N
k=1
n
k
_
s
o
T,k
Rln
_
P
P
o
__
R
N
k=1
n
k
ln
_
n
k
N
q=1
n
q
_
, (4.357)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
132 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
S
n
i
T,P,n
j
=
n
i
N
k=1
n
k
_
s
o
T,k
Rln
_
P
P
o
__
R
n
i
T,P,n
j
_
N
k=1
n
k
ln
_
n
k
N
q=1
n
q
__
, (4.358)
=
N
k=1
n
k
n
i
..
=
ik
_
s
o
T,k
Rln
_
P
P
o
__
R
n
i
T,P,n
j
_
N
k=1
n
k
ln
_
n
k
N
q=1
n
q
__
, (4.359)
=
_
s
o
T,i
Rln
_
P
P
o
__
R
n
i
T,P,n
j
_
N
k=1
n
k
ln
_
n
k
N
q=1
n
q
__
.(4.360)
Evaluation of the nal term on the right side requires closer examination, and in fact, after
tedious but straightforward analysis, yields a simple result which can easily be veried by
direct calculation:
n
i
T,P,n
j
_
N
k=1
n
k
ln
_
n
k
N
q=1
n
q
__
= ln
_
n
i
N
q=1
n
q
_
. (4.361)
So the partial molar entropy is in fact
S
n
i
T,P,n
j
= s
o
T,i
Rln
_
P
P
o
_
Rln
_
n
i
N
q=1
n
q
_
, (4.362)
= s
o
T,i
Rln
_
P
P
o
_
Rln y
i
, (4.363)
= s
o
T,i
Rln
_
P
i
P
o
_
, (4.364)
= s
i
(4.365)
Thus, one can in fact claim for the ideal mixture of ideal gases that
g
i
= h
i
Ts
i
. (4.366)
4.9.4 Relation between mixture and partial molar properties
A simple analysis shows how the partial molar property for an individual species is related
to the partial molar property for the mixture. Consider, for example, the Gibbs free energy.
The mixtureaveraged Gibbs free energy per unit mole is
g =
G
n
. (4.367)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.10. IRREVERSIBLE ENTROPY PRODUCTION IN A CLOSED SYSTEM 133
Now take a partial molar derivative and analyze to get
g
n
i
T,P,n
j
=
1
n
G
n
i
T,P,n
j
G
n
2
n
n
i
T,P,n
j
, (4.368)
=
1
n
G
n
i
T,P,n
j
G
n
2
n
i
T,P,n
j
_
N
k=1
n
k
_
, (4.369)
=
1
n
G
n
i
T,P,n
j
G
n
2
N
k=1
n
k
n
i
T,P,n
j
, (4.370)
=
1
n
G
n
i
T,P,n
j
G
n
2
N
k=1
ik
, (4.371)
=
1
n
G
n
i
T,P,n
j
G
n
2
, (4.372)
=
1
n
g
i
g
n
. (4.373)
Multiplying by n and rearranging, one gets
g
i
= g + n
g
n
i
T,P,n
j
. (4.374)
A similar result holds for other properties.
4.10 Irreversible entropy production in a closed system
Consider a multicomponent thermodynamic system closed to mass exchanges with its sur
roundings coming into equilibrium. Allow the system to be exchanging work and heat with
its surroundings. Assume the temperature dierence between the system and its surround
ings is so small that both can be considered to be at temperature T. If Q is introduced
into the system, then the surroundings suer a loss of entropy:
dS
surr
=
Q
T
. (4.375)
The systems entropy S can change via this heat transfer, as well as via other internal
irreversible processes, such as internal chemical reaction. The second law of thermodynamics
requires that the entropy change of the universe be positive semidenite:
dS + dS
surr
0. (4.376)
Eliminating dS
surr
, one requires for the system that
dS
Q
T
. (4.377)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
134 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
Consider temporarily the assumption that the work and heat transfer are both reversible.
Thus, the irreversible entropy production must be associated with internal chemical reaction.
Now the rst law for the entire system gives
dU = QW, (4.378)
= QPdV, (4.379)
Q = dU + PdV. (4.380)
Note because the system is closed, there can be no species entering or exiting, and so there
is no change dU attributable to dn
i
. While within the system the dn
i
may not be 0, the net
contribution to the change in total internal energy is zero. A nonzero dn
i
within the system
simply repartitions a xed amount of total energy from one species to another. Substituting
Eq. (4.380) into Eq. (4.377) to eliminate Q, one gets
dS
1
T
(dU + PdV )
. .
=Q
, (4.381)
TdS dU PdV 0, (4.382)
dU TdS + PdV 0. (4.383)
Eq. (4.383) involves properties only and need not require assumptions of reversibility for
processes in its derivation. In special cases, it reduces to simpler forms.
For processes which are isentropic and isochoric, the second law expression, Eq. (4.383),
reduces to
dU
S,V
0. (4.384)
For processes which are isoenergetic and isochoric, the second law expression, Eq. (4.383),
reduces to
dS
U,V
0. (4.385)
Now using Eq. (4.300) to eliminate dS in Eq. (4.385), one can express the second law as
_
1
T
dU +
P
T
dV
1
T
N
i=1
i
dn
i
_
. .
=dS
U,V
0, (4.386)
1
T
N
i=1
i
dn
i
. .
irreversible entropy production
0. (4.387)
The irreversible entropy production associated with the internal chemical reaction must be
the left side of Eq. (4.387). Often the irreversible entropy production is dened as , with
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.10. IRREVERSIBLE ENTROPY PRODUCTION IN A CLOSED SYSTEM 135
the second law requiring d 0. Equation (4.387) in terms of d is
d =
1
T
N
i=1
i
dn
i
0. (4.388)
Now, while most standard texts focusing on equilibrium thermodynamics go to great lengths
to avoid the introduction of time, it really belongs in a discussion describing the approach
to equilibrium. One can divide Eq. (4.387) by a positive time increment dt to get
1
T
N
i=1
i
dn
i
dt
0. (4.389)
Since T 0, one can multiply Eq. (4.389) by T to get
N
i=1
i
dn
i
dt
0. (4.390)
This will hold if a model for
dn
i
dt
is employed which guarantees that the left side of Eq. (4.390)
is negative semidenite. One will expect then for dn
i
/dt to be related to the chemical
potentials
i
.
Elimination of dU in Eq. (4.383) in favor of dH from dH = dU + PdV + V dP gives
dH PdV V dP
. .
=dU
TdS + PdV 0, (4.391)
dH V dP TdS 0. (4.392)
Thus, one nds for isobaric, isentropic equilibration that
dH
P,S
0. (4.393)
For the Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies, one analogously nds
dA
T,V
0, (4.394)
dG
T,P
0. (4.395)
The expression of the second law in terms of dG is especially useful as it may be easy in an
experiment to control so that P and T are constant. This is especially true in an isobaric
phase change, in which the temperature is guaranteed to be constant as well.
Now one has
G =
N
i=1
n
i
g
i
, (4.396)
=
N
i=1
n
i
i
. (4.397)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
136 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
One also has from Eq. (4.312): dG = SdT +V dP +
N
i=1
i
dn
i
, holding T and P constant
that
dG
T,P
=
N
i=1
i
dn
i
. (4.398)
Here the dn
i
are associated entirely with internal chemical reactions. Substituting Eq. (4.398)
into Eq. (4.395), one gets the important version of the second law which holds that
dG
T,P
=
N
i=1
i
dn
i
0. (4.399)
In terms of time rates of change, one can divide Eq. (4.399) by a positive time increment
dt > 0 to get
G
t
T,P
=
N
i=1
i
dn
i
dt
0. (4.400)
4.11 Equilibrium in a twocomponent system
A major task of nonequilibrium thermodynamics is to nd a functional form for dn
i
/dt
which guarantees satisfaction of the second law, Eq. (4.400) and gives predictions which
agree with experiment. This will be discussed in more detail in the following chapter on
thermochemistry. At this point, some simple examples will be given in which a nave but
useful functional form for dn
i
/dt is posed which leads at least to predictions of the correct
equilibrium values. A much better model which gives the correct dynamics in the time
domain of the system as it approaches equilibrium will be presented in the chapter on
thermochemistry.
4.11.1 Phase equilibrium
Here, consider two examples describing systems in phase equilibrium.
Example 4.12
Consider an equilibrium twophase mixture of liquid and vapor H
2
O at T = 100
C, x = 0.5. Use
the steam tables to check if equilibrium properties are satised.
In a twophase gas liquid mixture one can expect the following reaction:
H
2
O
(l)
H
2
O
(g)
. (4.401)
That is one mole of liquid, in the forward phase change, evaporates to form one mole of gas. In the
reverse phase change, one mole of gas condenses to form one mole of liquid.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.11. EQUILIBRIUM IN A TWOCOMPONENT SYSTEM 137
Because T is xed at 100
C and the material is a two phase mixture, the pressure is also xed at a
constant. Here there are two phases at saturation; g for gas and l for liquid. Equation (4.399) reduces
to
l
dn
l
+
g
dn
g
0. (4.402)
Now for the pure H
2
O if a loss of moles from one phase must be compensated by the addition to
another. So one must have
dn
l
+dn
g
= 0. (4.403)
Hence
dn
g
= dn
l
. (4.404)
So Eq. (4.402), using Eq. (4.404) becomes
l
dn
l
g
dn
l
0, (4.405)
dn
l
(
l
g
) 0. (4.406)
At this stage of the analysis, most texts, grounded in equilibrium thermodynamics, assert that
l
=
g
,
ignoring the fact that they could be dierent but dn
l
could be zero. That approach will not be taken
here. Instead divide Eq. (4.406) by a positive time increment, dt 0 to write the second law as
dn
l
dt
(
l
g
) 0. (4.407)
One convenient, albeit nave, way to guarantee second law satisfaction is to let
dn
l
dt
= (
l
g
), 0, convenient, but nave model (4.408)
Here is some positive semidenite scalar rate constant which dictates the time scale of approach to
equilibrium. Note that Eq. (4.408) is just a hypothesized model. It has no experimental verication; in
fact, other more complex models exist which both agree with experiment and satisfy the second law.
For the purposes of the present argument, however, Eq. (4.408) will suce. With this assumption, the
second law reduces to
(
l
g
)
2
0, 0, (4.409)
which is always true.
Eq. (4.408) has two important consequences:
Dierences in chemical potential drive changes in the number of moles.
The number of moles of liquid, n
l
, increases when the chemical potential of the liquid is less than that
of the gas,
l
<
g
. That is to say, when the liquid has a lower chemical potential than the gas, the
gas is driven towards the phase with the lower potential. Because such a phase change is isobaric and
isothermal, the Gibbs free energy is the appropriate variable to consider, and one takes = g. When
this is so, the Gibbs free energy of the mixture, G = n
l
l
+n
g
g
is being driven to a lower value. So
when dG = 0, the system has a minimum G.
The system is in equilibrium when the chemical potentials of liquid and gas are equal:
l
=
g
.
The chemical potentials, and hence the molar specic Gibbs free energies must be the same for
each constituent of the binary mixture at the phase equilibrium. That is
g
l
= g
g
. (4.410)
Now since both the liquid and gas have the same molecular mass, one also has the mass specic Gibbs
free energies equal at phase equilibrium:
g
l
= g
g
. (4.411)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
138 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
This can be veried from the steam tables, using the denition g = h Ts. From the tables
g
l
= h
l
Ts
l
= 419.02
kJ
kg
((100 + 273.15) K)
_
1.3068
kJ
kg K
_
= 68.6
kJ
kg
, (4.412)
g
g
= h
g
Ts
g
= 2676.05
kJ
kg
((100 + 273.15) K)
_
7.3548
kJ
kg K
_
= 68.4
kJ
kg
. (4.413)
The two values are essentially the same; the dierence is likely due to table inaccuracies.
Example 4.13
This example is from BS, 16.20, p. 700. A container has liquid water at 20
C, 100 kPa, in
equilibrium with a mixture of water vapor and dry air, also at 20
C, 100 kPa. Find the water vapor
pressure and the saturated water vapor pressure.
Now at this temperature, the tables easily show that the pressure of a saturated vapor is P
sat
=
2.339 kPa . From the previous example, it is known that for the water liquid and vapor in equilibrium,
one has
g
liq
= g
vap
. (4.414)
Now if both the liquid and the vapor were at the saturated state, they would be in phase equilibrium
and that would be the end of the problem. But they have slight deviations from the saturated state.
One can estimate these deviations with the standard formula
dg = sdT +vdP. (4.415)
The tables will be used to get values at 20
C, for which one can take dT = 0. This allows the
approximation of dg v dP. So for the liquid,
g
liq
g
f
=
_
v dP v
f
(P P
sat
), (4.416)
g
liq
= g
f
+v
f
(P P
sat
). (4.417)
For the vapor, approximated here as an ideal gas, one has
g
vap
g
g
=
_
v dP, (4.418)
= RT
_
dP
P
, (4.419)
= RT ln
P
vap
P
sat
, (4.420)
g
vap
= g
g
+RT ln
P
vap
P
sat
. (4.421)
Here, once again, one allows for deviations of the pressure of the vapor from the saturation pressure.
Now at equilibrium, one enforces g
liq
= g
vap
, so one has
g
f
+v
f
(P P
sat
)
. .
=g
liq
= g
g
+RT ln
P
vap
P
sat
. .
=gvap
. (4.422)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.11. EQUILIBRIUM IN A TWOCOMPONENT SYSTEM 139
10
5
10
6
10
7
10
8
10
9
10
3
10
4
10
5
P (Pa)
P
v
a
p
(
P
a
)
Figure 4.1: Pressure of water vapor as a function of total pressure for example problem.
Now g
f
= g
g
, so one gets
v
f
(P P
sat
) = RT ln
P
vap
P
sat
. (4.423)
Solving for P
vap
, one gets
P
vap
= P
sat
exp
_
v
f
(P P
sat
)
RT
_
, (4.424)
= (2.339 kPa) exp
_
_
_
0.001002
m
3
kg
_
(100 kPa 2.339 kPa)
_
0.4615
kJ
kg K
_
(293.15 K)
_
_
, (4.425)
= 2.3407 kPa. (4.426)
The pressure is very near the saturation pressure. This justies assumptions that for such mixtures, one
can take the pressure of the water vapor to be that at saturation if the mixture is in equilibrium. If the
pressure is higher, the pressure of the vapor becomes higher as well. Figure 4.1 shows how the pressure
of the equilibrium vapor pressure varies with total pressure. Clearly, a very high total pressure, on
the order of 1 GPa is needed to induce the vapor pressure to deviate signicantly from the saturation
value.
4.11.2 Chemical equilibrium: introduction
Here consider two examples which identify the equilibrium state of a chemically reactive
system.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
140 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
4.11.2.1 Isothermal, isochoric system
The simplest system to consider is isothermal and isochoric. The isochoric assumption
implies there is no work in coming to equilibrium.
Example 4.14
At high temperatures, collisions between diatomic nitrogen molecules induce the production of
monatomic nitrogen molecules. The chemical reaction can be described by the model
N
2
+N
2
2N +N
2
. (4.427)
Here one of the N
2
molecules behaves as an inert third body. An N
2
molecule has to collide with
something, to induce the reaction. Some authors leave out the third body and write instead N
2
2N,
but this does not reect the true physics as well. The inert third body is especially important when
the time scales of reaction are considered. It plays no role in equilibrium chemistry.
Consider 1 kmole of N
2
and 0 kmole of N at a pressure of 100 kPa and a temperature of 6000 K.
Using the ideal gas tables, nd the equilibrium concentrations of N and N
2
if the equilibration process
is isothermal and isochoric.
The ideal gas law can give the volume.
P
1
=
n
N2
RT
V
, (4.428)
V =
n
N2
RT
P
1
, (4.429)
=
(1 kmole)
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
_
(6000 K)
100 kPa
, (4.430)
= 498.84 m
3
. (4.431)
Initially, the mixture is all N
2
, so its partial pressure is the total pressure, and the initial partial pressure
of N is 0.
Now every time an N
2
molecule reacts and thus undergo a negative change, 2 N molecules are
created and thus undergo a positive change, so
dn
N2
=
1
2
dn
N
. (4.432)
This can be parameterized by a reaction progress variable , also called the degree of reaction, dened
such that
d = dn
N2
, (4.433)
d =
1
2
dn
N
. (4.434)
As an aside, one can integrate this, taking = 0 at the initial state to get
= n
N2

t=0
n
N2
, (4.435)
=
1
2
n
N
. (4.436)
Thus
n
N2
= n
N2

t=0
, (4.437)
n
N
= 2. (4.438)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.11. EQUILIBRIUM IN A TWOCOMPONENT SYSTEM 141
One can also eliminate to get n
N
in terms of n
N2
:
n
N
= 2 ( n
N2

t=0
n
N2
) . (4.439)
Now for the reaction, one must have, for second law satisfaction, that
N2
dn
N2
+
N
dn
N
0, (4.440)
N2
(d) +
N
(2d) 0, (4.441)
_
N2
+ 2
N
_
d 0 (4.442)
_
N2
+ 2
N
_
d
dt
0. (4.443)
In order to satisfy the second law, one can usefully, but navely, hypothesize that the nonequilibrium
reaction kinetics are given by
d
dt
= k(
N2
+ 2
N
), k 0, convenient, but nave model (4.444)
Note there are other ways to guarantee second law satisfaction. In fact, a more complicated model is
well known to t data well, and will be studied later. For the present purposes, this nave model will
suce. With this assumption, the second law reduces to
k(
N2
+ 2
N
)
2
0, k 0, (4.445)
which is always true. Obviously, the reaction ceases when d/dt = 0, which holds only when
2
N
=
N2
. (4.446)
Away from equilibrium, for the reaction to go forward, one must expect d/dt > 0, and then one
must have
N2
+ 2
N
0, (4.447)
2
N
N2
. (4.448)
The chemical potentials are the molar specic Gibbs free energies; thus, for the reaction to go forward,
one must have
2g
N
g
N2
. (4.449)
Substituting using the denitions of Gibbs free energy, one gets
2
_
h
N
T s
N
_
h
N2
T s
N2
, (4.450)
2
_
h
N
T
_
s
o
T,N
Rln
_
y
N
P
P
o
___
h
N2
T
_
s
o
T,N2
Rln
_
y
N2
P
P
o
__
, (4.451)
2
_
h
N
T s
o
T,N
_
_
h
N2
T s
o
T,N2
_
2RT ln
_
y
N
P
P
o
_
+RT ln
_
y
N2
P
P
o
_
, (4.452)
2
_
h
N
T s
o
T,N
_
+
_
h
N2
T s
o
T,N2
_
2RT ln
_
y
N
P
P
o
_
RT ln
_
y
N2
P
P
o
_
, (4.453)
2
_
h
N
T s
o
T,N
_
+
_
h
N2
T s
o
T,N2
_
RT ln
_
y
2
N
P
2
P
2
o
P
o
Py
N2
_
, (4.454)
2
_
h
N
T s
o
T,N
_
+
_
h
N2
T s
o
T,N2
_
RT ln
_
y
2
N
y
N2
P
P
o
_
. (4.455)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
142 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
At the initial state, one has y
N
= 0, so the right hand side approaches , and the inequality holds.
At equilibrium, one has equality.
2
_
h
N
T s
o
T,N
_
+
_
h
N2
T s
o
T,N2
_
= RT ln
_
y
2
N
y
N2
P
P
o
_
. (4.456)
Taking numerical values from Table A.9:
2
_
5.9727 10
5
kJ
kmole
(6000 K)
_
216.926
kJ
kg K
__
+
_
2.05848 10
5
kJ
kmole
(6000 K)
_
292.984
kJ
kg K
__
=
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
_
(6000 K) ln
_
y
2
N
y
N2
P
P
o
_
,
2.87635
. .
lnKP
= ln
_
y
2
N
y
N2
P
P
o
_
, (4.457)
0.0563399
. .
KP
=
y
2
N
y
N2
P
P
o
, (4.458)
=
_
nN
nN+nN
2
_
2
_
nN
2
nN+nN
2
_ (n
N
+n
N2
)
RT
P
o
V
, (4.459)
=
n
2
N
n
N2
RT
P
o
V
, (4.460)
=
(2 ( n
N2

t=0
n
N2
))
2
n
N2
RT
P
o
V
, (4.461)
=
(2 (1 kmole n
N2
))
2
n
N2
(8.314)(6000)
(100)(498.84)
. (4.462)
This is a quadratic equation for n
N2
. It has two roots
n
N2
= 0.888154 kmole physical; n
N2
= 1.12593 kmole, nonphysical (4.463)
The second root generates more N
2
than at the start, and also yields nonphysically negative n
N
=
0.25186 kmole. So at equilibrium, the physical root is
n
N
= 2(1 n
N2
) = 2(1 0.888154) = 0.223693 kmole. (4.464)
The diatomic species is preferred.
Note in the preceding analysis, the term K
P
was introduced. This is the socalled equilibrium
constant which is really a function of temperature. It will be described in more detail later, but one
notes that it is commonly tabulated for some reactions. Its tabular value can be derived from the more
fundamental quantities shown in this example. BSs Table A.11 gives for this reaction at 6000 K the
value of ln K
P
= 2.876. Note that K
P
is fundamentally dened in terms of thermodynamic properties
for a system which may or may not be at chemical equilibrium. Only at chemical equilibrium, can it
can further be related to mole fraction and pressure ratios.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.11. EQUILIBRIUM IN A TWOCOMPONENT SYSTEM 143
The pressure at equilibrium is
P
2
=
(n
N2
+ n
N
)RT
V
, (4.465)
=
(0.888154 kmole + 0.223693 kmole)
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
_
(6000 K)
498.84
, (4.466)
= 111.185 kPa. (4.467)
The pressure has increased because there are more molecules with the volume and temperature being
equal.
The molar concentrations
i
at equilibrium, are
N
=
0.223693 kmole
498.84 m
3
= 4.484 10
4
kmole
m
3
= 4.484 10
7
mole
cm
3
, (4.468)
N2
=
0.888154 kmole
498.84 m
3
= 1.78044 10
3
kmole
m
3
= 1.78044 10
6
mole
cm
3
. (4.469)
Now consider the heat transfer. One knows for the isochoric process that
1
Q
2
= U
2
U
1
. The
initial energy is given by
U
1
= n
N2
u
N2
, (4.470)
= n
N2
(h
N2
RT), (4.471)
= (1 kmole)
_
2.05848 10
5
kJ
kmole
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
_
(6000 K)
_
, (4.472)
= 1.555964 10
5
kJ. (4.473)
The energy at the nal state is
U
2
= n
N2
u
N2
+n
N
u
N
, (4.474)
= n
N2
(h
N2
RT) +n
N
(h
N
RT), (4.475)
= (0.888154 kmole)
_
2.05848 10
5
kJ
kmole
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
_
(6000 K)
_
(4.476)
+(0.223693 kmole)
_
5.9727 10
5
kJ
kmole
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
_
(6000 K)
_
, (4.477)
= 2.60966 10
5
kJ. (4.478)
So
1
Q
2
= U
2
U
1
, (4.479)
= 2.60966 10
5
kJ 1.555964 10
5
kJ, (4.480)
= 1.05002 10
5
kJ. (4.481)
Heat needed to be added to keep the system at the constant temperature. This is because the nitrogen
dissociation process is endothermic.
One can check for second law satisfaction in two ways. Fundamentally, one can demand that
Eq. (4.377), dS Q/T, be satised for the process, giving
S
2
S
1
_
2
1
Q
T
. (4.482)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
144 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
For this isothermal process, this reduces to
S
2
S
1
1
Q
2
T
, (4.483)
(n
N2
s
N2
+n
N
s
N
)
2
(n
N2
s
N2
+n
N
s
N
)
1
1
Q
2
T
, (4.484)
_
n
N2
_
s
o
T,N2
Rln
_
y
N2
P
P
o
__
+n
N
_
s
o
T,N
Rln
_
y
N
P
P
o
___
_
n
N2
_
s
o
T,N2
Rln
_
y
N2
P
P
o
__
+n
N
_
s
o
T,N
Rln
_
y
N
P
P
o
___
1
Q
2
T
, (4.485)
_
n
N2
_
s
o
T,N2
Rln
_
P
N2
P
o
__
+n
N
_
s
o
T,N
Rln
_
P
N
P
o
___
_
n
N2
_
s
o
T,N2
Rln
_
P
N2
P
o
__
+n
N
_
s
o
T,N
Rln
_
P
N
P
o
___
1
Q
2
T
, (4.486)
_
n
N2
_
s
o
T,N2
Rln
_
n
N2
RT
P
o
V
__
+n
N
_
s
o
T,N
Rln
_
n
N
RT
P
o
V
___
_
_
n
N2
_
s
o
T,N2
Rln
_
n
N2
RT
P
o
V
__
+ n
N
..
=0
_
s
o
T,N
Rln
_
n
N
RT
P
o
V
__
_
_
1
Q
2
T
. (4.487)
Now at the initial state n
N
= 0 kmole, and RT/P
o
/V has a constant value of
RT
P
o
V
=
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
_
(6000 K)
(100 kPa)(498.84 m
3
)
= 1
1
kmole
, (4.488)
so Eq. (4.487) reduces to
_
n
N2
_
s
o
T,N2
Rln
_
n
N2
1 kmole
__
+n
N
_
s
o
T,N
Rln
_
n
N
1 kmole
___
_
n
N2
_
s
o
T,N2
Rln
_
n
N2
1 kmole
___
1
Q
2
T
,
(4.489)
((0.888143) (292.984 8.314 ln(0.88143)) + (0.223714) (216.926 8.314 ln(0.223714)))
2
((1) (292.984 8.314 ln(1)))
1
105002
6000
,
19.4181
kJ
K
17.5004
kJ
K
. (4.490)
Indeed, the second law is satised. Moreover the irreversible entropy production of the chemical reaction
is 19.4181 17.5004 = +1.91772 kJ/K.
For the isochoric, isothermal process, it is also appropriate to use Eq. (4.394), dA
T,V
0, to check
for second law satisfaction. This turns out to give an identical result. Since by Eq. (4.307), A = UTS,
A
2
A
1
= (U
2
T
2
S
2
) (U
1
T
1
S
1
). Since the process is isothermal, A
2
A
1
= U
2
U
1
T(S
2
S
1
).
For A
2
A
1
0, one must demand U
2
U
1
T(S
2
S
1
) 0, or U
2
U
1
T(S
2
S
1
), or
S
2
S
1
(U
2
U
1
)/T. Since
1
Q
2
= U
2
U
1
for this isochoric process, one then recovers S
2
S
1
1
Q
2
/T.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.11. EQUILIBRIUM IN A TWOCOMPONENT SYSTEM 145
4.11.2.2 Isothermal, isobaric system
Allowing for isobaric rather than isochoric equilibration introduces small variation in the
analysis.
Example 4.15
Consider the same reaction
N
2
+N
2
2N +N
2
. (4.491)
for an isobaric and isothermal process. That is, consider 1 kmole of N
2
and 0 kmole of N at a pressure
of 100 kPa and a temperature of 6000 K. Using the ideal gas tables, nd the equilibrium concentrations
of N and N
2
if the equilibration process is isothermal and isobaric.
The initial volume is the same as from the previous example:
V
1
= 498.84 m
3
. (4.492)
Note the volume will change in this isobaric process. Initially, the mixture is all N
2
, so its partial
pressure is the total pressure, and the initial partial pressure of N is 0.
A few other key results are identical to the previous example:
n
N
= 2 ( n
N2

t=0
n
N2
) , (4.493)
and
2g
N
g
N2
. (4.494)
Substituting using the denitions of Gibbs free energy, one gets
2
_
h
N
T s
N
_
h
N2
T s
N2
, (4.495)
2
_
h
N
T
_
s
o
T,N
Rln
_
y
N
P
P
o
___
h
N2
T
_
s
o
T,N2
Rln
_
y
N2
P
P
o
__
, (4.496)
2
_
h
N
T s
o
T,N
_
_
h
N2
T s
o
T,N2
_
2RT ln
_
y
N
P
P
o
_
+RT ln
_
y
N2
P
P
o
_
, (4.497)
2
_
h
N
T s
o
T,N
_
+
_
h
N2
T s
o
T,N2
_
2RT ln
_
y
N
P
P
o
_
RT ln
_
y
N2
P
P
o
_
, (4.498)
2
_
h
N
T s
o
T,N
_
+
_
h
N2
T s
o
T,N2
_
RT ln
_
y
2
N
P
2
P
2
o
P
o
Py
N2
_
. (4.499)
In this case P
o
= P, so one gets
2
_
h
N
T s
o
T,N
_
+
_
h
N2
T s
o
T,N2
_
RT ln
_
y
2
N
y
N2
_
. (4.500)
At the initial state, one has y
N
= 0, so the right hand side approaches , and the inequality holds.
At equilibrium, one has equality.
2
_
h
N
T s
o
T,N
_
+
_
h
N2
T s
o
T,N2
_
= RT ln
_
y
2
N
y
N2
_
. (4.501)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
146 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
Taking numerical values from Table A.9:
2
_
5.9727 10
5
kJ
kmole
(6000 K)
_
216.926
kJ
kg K
__
+
_
2.05848 10
5
kJ
kmole
(6000 K)
_
292.984
kJ
kg K
__
=
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
_
(6000 K) ln
_
y
2
N
y
N2
_
,
2.87635
. .
ln KP
= ln
_
y
2
N
y
N2
_
, (4.502)
0.0563399
. .
KP
=
y
2
N
y
N2
, (4.503)
=
_
nN
nN+nN
2
_
2
_
nN
2
nN+nN
2
_ , (4.504)
=
n
2
N
n
N2
(n
N
+n
N2
)
, (4.505)
=
(2 (n
N2

t=0
n
N2
))
2
n
N2
(2 ( n
N2

t=0
n
N2
) +n
N2
)
, (4.506)
=
(2 (1 kmole n
N2
))
2
n
N2
(2 (1 kmole n
N2
) +n
N2
)
. (4.507)
This is a quadratic equation for n
N2
. It has two roots
n
N2
= 0.882147 kmole physical; n
N2
= 1.11785 kmole, nonphysical (4.508)
The second root generates more N
2
than at the start, and also yields nonphysically negative n
N
=
0.235706 kmole. So at equilibrium, the physical root is
n
N
= 2(1 n
N2
) = 2(1 0.882147) = 0.235706 kmole. (4.509)
Again, the diatomic species is preferred. As the temperature is raised, one could show that the
monatomic species would come to dominate.
The volume at equilibrium is
V
2
=
(n
N2
+n
N
)RT
P
, (4.510)
=
(0.882147 kmole + 0.235706 kmole)
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
_
(6000 K)
100 kPa
, (4.511)
= 557.630 m
3
. (4.512)
The volume has increased because there are more molecules with the pressure and temperature being
equal.
The molar concentrations
i
at equilibrium, are
N
=
0.235706 kmole
557.636 m
3
= 4.227 10
4
kmole
m
3
= 4.227 10
7
mole
cm
3
, (4.513)
N2
=
0.882147 kmole
557.636 m
3
= 1.58196 10
3
kmole
m
3
= 1.58196 10
6
mole
cm
3
. (4.514)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
4.11. EQUILIBRIUM IN A TWOCOMPONENT SYSTEM 147
The molar concentrations are a little smaller than for the isochoric case, mainly because the volume is
larger at equilibrium.
Now consider the heat transfer. One knows for the isobaric process that Q = H
2
H
1
. The initial
enthalpy is given by
H
1
= n
N2
h
N2
= (1 kmole)
_
2.05848 10
5
kJ
kmole
_
= 2.05848 10
5
kJ. (4.515)
The enthalpy at the nal state is
H
2
= n
N2
h
N2
+n
N
h
N
, (4.516)
= (0.882147 kmole)
_
2.05848 10
5
kJ
kmole
_
+ (0.235706 kmole)
_
5.9727 10
5
kJ
kmole
_
, (4.517)
= 3.22368 10
5
kJ. (4.518)
So
1
Q
2
= H
2
H
1
= 3.22389 10
5
kJ 2.05848 10
5
kJ = 1.16520 10
5
kJ. (4.519)
Heat needed to be added to keep the system at the constant temperature. This is because the nitrogen
dissociation process is endothermic. Relative to the isochoric process, more heat had to be added to
maintain the temperature. This to counter the cooling eect of the expansion.
Lastly, it is a straightforward exercise to show that the second law is satised for this process.
4.11.3 Equilibrium condition
The results of both of the previous examples, in which a functional form of a progress
variables time variation, d/dt, was postulated in order to satisfy the second law gave a
condition for equilibrium. This can be generalized so as to require at equilibrium that
N
i=1
i
. .
= 0. (4.520)
Here
i
represents the net number of moles of species i generated in the forward reaction.
This negation of the term on the left side of Eq (4.520) is sometimes dened as the chemical
anity, :
N
i=1
i
. (4.521)
So in the phase equilibrium example, Eq. (4.520) becomes
l
(1) +
g
(1) = 0. (4.522)
In the nitrogen chemistry example, Eq. (4.520) becomes
N
2
(1) +
N
(2) = 0. (4.523)
This will be discussed in detail in the following chapter.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
148 CHAPTER 4. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
Chapter 5
Thermochemistry of a single reaction
Read BS, Chapters 15, 16
See Abbott and Van Ness, Chapter 7
See Kondepudi and Prigogine, Chapters 4, 5, 7, 9
See Turns, Chapter 2
See Kuo, Chapters 1, 2
This chapter will further develop notions associated with the thermodynamics of chemical
reactions. The focus will be on single chemical reactions.
5.1 Molecular mass
The molecular mass of a molecule is a straightforward notion from chemistry. One simply
sums the product of the number of atoms and each atoms atomic mass to form the molecular
mass. If one denes L as the number of elements present in species i,
li
as the number of
moles of atomic element l in species i, and M
l
as the atomic mass of element l, the molecular
mass M
i
of species i
M
i
=
L
l=1
M
l
li
, i = 1, . . . , N. (5.1)
In vector form, one would say
M
T
= M
T
, or M =
T
M. (5.2)
Here M is the vector of length N containing the molecular masses, Mis the vector of length
L containing the elemental masses, and is the matrix of dimension L N containing the
number of moles of each element in each species. Generally, is full rank. If N > L, has
rank L. If N < L, has rank N. In any problem involving an actual chemical reaction, one
will nd N L, and in most cases N > L. In isolated problems not involving a reaction,
one may have N < L. In any case, M lies in the column space of
T
, which is the row space
of .
149
150 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
Example 5.1
Find the molecular mass of H
2
O. Here, one has two elements H and O, so L = 2, and one species,
so N = 1; thus, in this isolated problem, N < L. Take i = 1 for species H
2
O. Take l = 1 for
element H. Take l = 2 for element O. From the periodic table, one gets M
1
= 1 kg/kmole for H,
M
2
= 16 kg/kmole for O. For element 1, there are 2 atoms, so
11
= 2. For element 2, there is 1 atom
so
21
= 1. So the molecular mass of species 1, H
2
O is
M
1
=
_
M
1
M
2
_
11
21
_
, (5.3)
= M
1
11
+M
2
21
, (5.4)
=
_
1
kg
kmole
_
(2) +
_
16
kg
kmole
_
(1), (5.5)
= 18
kg
kmole
. (5.6)
Example 5.2
Find the molecular masses of the two species C
8
H
18
and CO
2
. Here, for practice, the vector matrix
notation is exercised. In a certain sense this is overkill, but it is useful to be able to understand a
general notation.
One has N = 2 species, and takes i = 1 for C
8
H
18
and i = 2 for CO
2
. One also has L = 3 elements
and takes l = 1 for C, l = 2 for H, and l = 3 for O. Now for each element, one has M
1
= 12 kg/kmole,
M
2
= 1 kg/kmole, M
3
= 16 kg/kmole. The molecular masses are then given by
_
M
1
M
2
_
=
_
M
1
M
2
M
3
_
_
_
11
12
21
22
31
32
_
_
, (5.7)
=
_
12 1 16
_
_
_
8 1
18 0
0 2
_
_
, (5.8)
=
_
114 44
_
. (5.9)
That is for C
8
H
18
, one has molecular mass M
1
= 114 kg/kmole. For CO
2
, one has molecular mass
M
2
= 44 kg/kmole.
5.2 Stoichiometry
5.2.1 General development
Stoichiometry represents a mass balance on each element in a chemical reaction. For example,
in the simple global reaction
2H
2
+ O
2
2H
2
O, (5.10)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.2. STOICHIOMETRY 151
one has 4 H atoms in both the reactant and product sides and 2 O atoms in both the reactant
and product sides. In this section stoichiometry will be systematized.
Consider now a general reaction with N species. This reaction can be represented by
N
i=1
i=1
i
i
. (5.11)
Here
i
is the i
th
chemical species,
i
is the forward stoichiometric coecient of the i
th
reaction, and
i
is the reverse stoichiometric coecient of the i
th
reaction. Both
i
and
i
are to be interpreted as pure dimensionless numbers.
In Equation (5.10), one has N = 3 species. One might take
1
= H
2
,
2
= O
2
, and
3
= H
2
O. The reaction is written in more general form as
(2)
1
+ (1)
2
+ (0)
3
(0)
1
+ (0)
2
+ (2)
3
, (5.12)
(2)H
2
+ (1)O
2
+ (0)H
2
O (0)H
2
+ (0)O
2
+ (2)H
2
O. (5.13)
Here, one has
1
= 2,
1
= 0, (5.14)
2
= 1,
2
= 0, (5.15)
3
= 0,
3
= 2. (5.16)
It is common and useful to dene another pure dimensionless number, the net stoichio
metric coecients for species i,
i
. Here
i
represents the net production of number if the
reaction goes forward. It is given by
i
=
i
. (5.17)
For the reaction 2H
2
+ O
2
2H
2
O, one has
1
=
1
= 0 2 = 2, (5.18)
2
=
2
= 0 1 = 1, (5.19)
3
=
3
= 2 0 = 2. (5.20)
With these denitions, it is possible to summarize a chemical reaction as
N
i=1
i
= 0. (5.21)
In vector notation, one would say
T
= 0. (5.22)
For the reaction of this section, one might write the nontraditional form
2H
2
O
2
+ 2H
2
O = 0. (5.23)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
152 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
It remains to enforce a stoichiometric balance. This is achieved if, for each element, l =
1, . . . , L, one has the following equality:
N
i=1
li
i
= 0, l = 1, . . . , L. (5.24)
That is to say, for each element, the sum of the product of the net species production and
the number of elements in the species must be zero. In vector notation, this becomes
= 0. (5.25)
One may recall from linear algebra that this demands that lie in the right null space of .
Example 5.3
Show stoichiometric balance is achieved for 2H
2
O
2
+ 2H
2
O = 0.
Here again, the number of elements L = 2, and one can take l = 1 for H and l = 2 for O. Also
the number of species N = 3, and one takes i = 1 for H
2
, i = 2 for O
2
, and i = 3 for H
2
O. Then for
element 1, H, in species 1, H
2
, one has
11
= 2, H in H
2
. (5.26)
Similarly, one gets
12
= 0, H in O
2
, (5.27)
13
= 2, H in H
2
O, (5.28)
21
= 0, O in H
2
, (5.29)
22
= 2, O in O
2
, (5.30)
23
= 1, O in H
2
O. (5.31)
In matrix form then,
N
i=1
li
i
= 0 gives
_
2 0 2
0 2 1
_
_
_
3
_
_
=
_
0
0
_
. (5.32)
This is two equations in three unknowns. Thus, it is formally underconstrained. Certainly the trivial
solution
1
=
2
=
3
= 0 will satisfy, but one seeks nontrivial solutions. Assume
3
has a known value
3
= . Then, the system reduces to
_
2 0
0 2
__
2
_
=
_
2
_
. (5.33)
The inversion here is easy, and one nds
1
= ,
2
=
1
2
. Or in vector form,
_
_
3
_
_
=
_
_
1
2
_
_
, (5.34)
=
_
_
1
1
2
1
_
_
, R
1
. (5.35)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.2. STOICHIOMETRY 153
Again, this amounts to saying the solution vector (
1
,
2
,
3
)
T
lies in the right null space of the coecient
matrix
li
.
Here is any real scalar. If one takes = 2, one gets
_
_
3
_
_
=
_
_
2
1
2
_
_
, (5.36)
This simply corresponds to
2H
2
O
2
+ 2H
2
O = 0. (5.37)
If one takes = 4, one still achieves stoichiometric balance, with
_
_
3
_
_
=
_
_
4
2
4
_
_
, (5.38)
which corresponds to the equally valid
4H
2
+ 2O
2
4H
2
O = 0. (5.39)
In summary, the stoichiometric coecients are nonunique but partially constrained by mass conserva
tion. Which set is chosen is to some extent arbitrary, and often based on traditional conventions from
chemistry. But others are equally valid.
There is a small issue with units here, which will be seen to be dicult to reconcile.
In practice, it will have little to no importance. In the previous example, one might be
tempted to ascribe units of kmoles to
i
. Later, it will be seen that in classical reaction
kinetics,
i
is best interpreted as a pure dimensionless number, consistent with the denition
of this section. So in the context of the previous example, one would then take to be
dimensionless as well, which is perfectly acceptable for the example. In later problems, it
will be more useful to give the units of kmoles. Note that multiplication of by any scalar,
e.g. kmole/(6.02 10
26
), still yields an acceptable result.
Example 5.4
Balance an equation for hypothesized ethane combustion
1
C
2
H
6
+
2
O
2
3
CO
2
+
4
H
2
O. (5.40)
One could also say in terms of the net stoichiometric coecients
1
C
2
H
6
+
2
O
2
+
3
CO
2
+
4
H
2
O = 0. (5.41)
Here one takes
1
= C
2
H
6
,
2
= O
2
,
3
CO
2
, and
4
= H
2
O. So there are N = 4 species. There are
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
154 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
also L = 3 elements: l = 1 : C, l = 2 : H, l = 3 : O. One then has
11
= 2, C in C
2
H
6
, (5.42)
12
= 0, C in O
2
, (5.43)
13
= 1, C in CO
2
, (5.44)
14
= 0, C in H
2
O, (5.45)
21
= 6, H in C
2
H
6
, (5.46)
22
= 0, H in O
2
, (5.47)
23
= 0, H in CO
2
, (5.48)
24
= 2, H in H
2
O, (5.49)
31
= 0, O in C
2
H
6
, (5.50)
32
= 2, O in O
2
, (5.51)
33
= 2, O in CO
2
, (5.52)
34
= 1, O in H
2
O. (5.53)
So the stoichiometry equation,
N
i=1
li
i
= 0, is given by
_
_
2 0 1 0
6 0 0 2
0 2 2 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
4
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
. (5.54)
Here, there are three equations in four unknowns, so the system is underconstrained. There are many
ways to address this problem. Here, choose the robust way of casting the system into row echelon form.
This is easily achieved by Gaussian elimination. Row echelon form seeks to have lots of zeros in the
lower left part of the matrix. The lower left corner has a zero already, so that is useful. Now, multiply
the top equation by 3 and subtract the result from the second to get
_
_
2 0 1 0
0 0 3 2
0 2 2 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
4
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
. (5.55)
Next switch the last two equations to get
_
_
2 0 1 0
0 2 2 1
0 0 3 2
_
_
_
_
_
_
4
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
. (5.56)
Now divide the rst by 2, the second by 2 and the third by 3 to get unity in the diagonal:
_
_
1 0
1
2
0
0 1 1
1
2
0 0 1
2
3
_
_
_
_
_
_
4
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
. (5.57)
Socalled bound variables have nonzero coecients on the diagonal, so one can take the bound variables
to be
1
,
2
, and
3
. The remaining variables are free variables. Here one takes the free variable to be
4
. So, set
4
= , and rewrite the system as
_
_
1 0
1
2
0 1 1
0 0 1
_
_
_
_
3
_
_
=
_
_
0
1
2
2
3
_
_
. (5.58)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.2. STOICHIOMETRY 155
Solving, one nds
_
_
_
_
4
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
1
3
7
6
2
3
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
1
3
7
6
2
3
1
_
_
_
_
, R
1
. (5.59)
Again, one nds a nonunique solution in the right null space of . If one chooses = 6, then one gets
_
_
_
_
4
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
2
7
4
6
_
_
_
_
, (5.60)
which corresponds to the stoichiometrically balanced reaction
2C
2
H
6
+ 7O
2
4CO
2
+ 6H
2
O. (5.61)
In this example, is dimensionless.
Example 5.5
Consider stoichiometric balance for a propane oxidation reaction which may produce carbon monox
ide and hydroxyl in addition to carbon dioxide and water.
The hypothesized reaction takes the form
1
C
3
H
8
+
2
O
2
3
CO
2
+
4
CO +
5
H
2
O +
6
OH. (5.62)
In terms of net stoichiometric coecients, this becomes
1
C
3
H
8
+
2
O
2
+
3
CO
2
+
4
CO +
5
H
2
O +
6
OH = 0. (5.63)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
156 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
There are N = 6 species and L = 3 elements. One then has
11
= 3, C in C
3
H
8
, (5.64)
12
= 0, C in O
2
, (5.65)
13
= 1, C in CO
2
, (5.66)
14
= 1, C in CO, (5.67)
15
= 0, C in H
2
O, (5.68)
16
= 0, C in OH, (5.69)
21
= 8, H in C
3
H
8
, (5.70)
22
= 0, H in O
2
, (5.71)
23
= 0, H in CO
2
, (5.72)
24
= 0, H in CO, (5.73)
25
= 2, H in H
2
O, (5.74)
26
= 1, H in OH, (5.75)
31
= 0, O in C
3
H
8
, (5.76)
32
= 2, O in O
2
, (5.77)
33
= 2, O in CO
2
, (5.78)
34
= 1, O in CO, (5.79)
35
= 1, O in H
2
O, (5.80)
36
= 1, O in OH. (5.81)
The equation = 0, then becomes
_
_
3 0 1 1 0 0
8 0 0 0 2 1
0 2 2 1 1 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
6
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
. (5.82)
Multiplying the rst equation by 8/3 and adding it to the second gives
_
_
3 0 1 1 0 0
0 0
8
3
8
3
2 1
0 2 2 1 1 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
6
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
. (5.83)
Trading the second and third rows gives
_
_
3 0 1 1 0 0
0 2 2 1 1 1
0 0
8
3
8
3
2 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
6
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
. (5.84)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.2. STOICHIOMETRY 157
Dividing the rst row by 3, the second by 2 and the third by 8/3 gives
_
_
1 0
1
3
1
3
0 0
0 1 1
1
2
1
2
1
2
0 0 1 1
3
4
3
8
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
6
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
. (5.85)
Take bound variables to be
1
,
2
, and
3
and free variables to be
4
,
5
, and
6
. So set
4
=
1
,
5
=
2
, and
6
=
3
, and get
_
_
1 0
1
3
0 1 1
0 0 1
_
_
_
_
3
_
_
=
_
_
1
3
1
2
2
2
3
2
1
+
3
4
2
+
3
8
3
_
_
. (5.86)
Solving, one nds
_
_
3
_
_
=
_
_
1
8
(2
2
3
)
1
8
(4
1
10
2
7
3
)
1
8
(8
1
+ 6
2
+ 3
3
)
_
_
. (5.87)
For all the coecients, one then has
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
6
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
8
(2
2
3
)
1
8
(4
1
10
2
7
3
)
1
8
(8
1
+ 6
2
+ 3
3
)
3
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
1
8
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
4
8
8
0
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
+
2
8
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2
10
6
0
8
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
+
3
8
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
7
3
0
0
8
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (5.88)
Here, one nds three independent vectors in the right null space. To simplify the notation, take
1
=
1
/8,
2
=
2
/8, and
3
=
3
/8. Then,
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
6
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
4
8
8
0
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
+
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2
10
6
0
8
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
+
3
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
7
3
0
0
8
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (5.89)
The most general reaction that can achieve a stoichiometric balance is given by
(2
3
)C
3
H
8
+(4
1
10
2
7
3
)O
2
+(8
1
+6
2
+3
3
)CO
2
+8
1
CO+8
2
H
2
O+8
3
OH = 0. (5.90)
Rearranging, one gets
(2
2
+
3
)C
3
H
8
+(4
1
+10
2
+7
3
)O
2
(8
1
+6
2
+3
3
)CO
2
+8
1
CO+8
2
H
2
O+8
3
OH. (5.91)
This will be balanced for all
1
,
2
, and
3
. The values that are actually achieved in practice depend
on the thermodynamics of the problem. Stoichiometry only provides some limitations.
A slightly more familiar form is found by taking
2
= 1/2 and rearranging, giving
(1 +
3
) C
3
H
8
+ (5 4
1
+ 7
3
) O
2
(3 8
1
+ 3
3
) CO
2
+ 4 H
2
O + 8
1
CO + 8
3
OH. (5.92)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
158 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
One notes that often the production of CO and OH will be small. If there is no production of CO or
OH,
1
=
3
= 0 and one recovers the familiar balance of
C
3
H
8
+ 5 O
2
3 CO
2
+ 4 H
2
O. (5.93)
One also notes that stoichiometry alone admits unusual solutions. For instance, if
1
= 100,
2
= 1/2,
and
3
= 1, one has
2 C
3
H
8
+ 794 CO
2
388 O
2
+ 4 H
2
O + 800 CO + 8 OH. (5.94)
This reaction is certainly admitted by stoichiometry but is not observed in nature. To determine
precisely which of the innitely many possible nal states are realized requires a consideration of the
equilibrium condition
N
i=1
i
= 0.
Looked at in another way, we can think of three independent classes of reactions admitted by the
stoichiometry, one for each of the linearly independent null space vectors. Taking rst
1
= 1/4,
2
= 0,
3
= 0, one gets, after rearrangement
2CO +O
2
2CO
2
, (5.95)
as one class of reaction admitted by stoichiometry. Taking next
1
= 0,
2
= 1/2,
3
= 0, one gets
C
3
H
8
+ 5O
2
3CO
2
+ 4H
2
O, (5.96)
as the second class admitted by stoichiometry. The third class is given by taking
1
= 0,
2
= 0,
3
= 1,
and is
C
3
H
8
+ 7O
2
3CO
2
+ 8OH. (5.97)
In this example, both and
are dimensionless.
In general, one can expect to nd the stoichiometric coecients for N species composed
of L elements to be of the following form:
i
=
NL
k=1
D
ik
k
, i = 1, . . . , N. (5.98)
Here D
ik
is a dimensionless component of a full rank matrix of dimension N (N L)
and rank N L, and
k
is a dimensionless component of a vector of parameters of length
N L. The matrix whose components are D
ik
are constructed by populating its columns
with vectors which lie in the right null space of
li
. Note that multiplication of
k
by any
constant gives another set of
i
, and mass conservation for each element is still satised.
For later use, we associate
i
with the number of moles n
i
, and consider a dierential
change in the number of moles dn
i
from Eq. (5.98) and arrive at
dn
i
=
NL
k=1
D
ik
d
k
, i = 1, . . . , N. (5.99)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.2. STOICHIOMETRY 159
5.2.2 Fuelair mixtures
In combustion with air, one often models air as a simple mixture of diatomic oxygen and
inert diatomic nitrogen:
(O
2
+ 3.76N
2
). (5.100)
The airfuel ratio, A and its reciprocal, the fuelair ratio, F, can be dened on a mass
and mole basis.
A
mass
=
m
air
m
fuel
, A
mole
=
n
air
n
fuel
. (5.101)
Via the molecular masses, one has
A
mass
=
m
air
m
fuel
=
n
air
M
air
n
fuel
M
fuel
= A
mole
M
air
M
fuel
. (5.102)
If there is not enough air to burn all the fuel, the mixture is said to be rich. If there is
excess air, the mixture is said to be lean. If there is just enough, the mixture is said to be
stoichiometric. The equivalence ratio, , is dened as the actual fuelair ratio scaled by the
stoichiometric fuelair ratio:
F
actual
F
stoichiometric
=
A
stoichiometric
A
actual
. (5.103)
The ratio is the same whether Fs are taken on a mass or mole basis, because the ratio of
molecular masses cancel.
Example 5.6
Calculate the stoichiometry of the combustion of methane with air with an equivalence ratio of
= 0.5. If the pressure is 0.1 MPa, nd the dew point of the products.
First calculate the coecients for stoichiometric combustion:
1
CH
4
+
2
(O
2
+ 3.76N
2
)
3
CO
2
+
4
H
2
O +
5
N
2
, (5.104)
or
1
CH
4
+
2
O
2
+
3
CO
2
+
4
H
2
O + (
5
+ 3.76
2
)N
2
= 0. (5.105)
Here one has N = 5 species and L = 4 elements. Adopting a slightly more intuitive procedure for
variety, one writes a conservation equation for each element to get
1
+
3
= 0, C, (5.106)
4
1
+ 2
4
= 0, H, (5.107)
2
2
+ 2
3
+
4
= 0, O, (5.108)
3.76
2
+
5
= 0, N. (5.109)
In matrix form this becomes
_
_
_
_
1 0 1 0 0
4 0 0 2 0
0 2 2 1 0
0 3.76 0 0 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
5
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
0
0
0
0
_
_
_
_
. (5.110)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
160 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
Now, one might expect to have one free variable, since one has ve unknowns in four equations.
While casting the equation in row echelon form is guaranteed to yield a proper solution, one can often
use intuition to get a solution more rapidly. One certainly expects that CH
4
will need to be present
for the reaction to take place. One might also expect to nd an answer if there is one mole of CH
4
. So
take
1
= 1. Realize that one could also get a physically valid answer by assuming
1
to be equal to
any scalar. With
1
= 1, one gets
_
_
_
_
0 1 0 0
0 0 2 0
2 2 1 0
3.76 0 0 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
5
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
1
4
0
0
_
_
_
_
. (5.111)
One easily nds the unique inverse does exist, and that the solution is
_
_
_
_
5
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
2
1
2
7.52
_
_
_
_
. (5.112)
If there had been more than one free variable, the four by four matrix would have been singular, and
no unique inverse would have existed.
In any case, the reaction under stoichiometric conditions is
CH
4
2O
2
+CO
2
+ 2H
2
O + (7.52 + (3.76)(2))N
2
= 0, (5.113)
CH
4
+ 2(O
2
+ 3.76N
2
) CO
2
+ 2H
2
O + 7.52N
2
. (5.114)
For the stoichiometric reaction, the fuelair ratio on a mole basis is
F
stoichiometric
=
1
2 + 2(3.76)
= 0.1050. (5.115)
Now = 0.5, so
F
actual
= F
stoichiometric
, (5.116)
= (0.5)(0.1050), (5.117)
= 0.0525. (5.118)
By inspection, one can write the actual reaction equation as
CH
4
+ 4(O
2
+ 3.76N
2
) CO
2
+ 2H
2
O + 2O
2
+ 15.04N
2
. (5.119)
Check:
F
actual
=
1
4 + 4(3.76)
= 0.0525. (5.120)
For the dew point of the products, one needs the partial pressure of H
2
O. The mole fraction of
H
2
O is
y
H2O
=
2
1 + 2 + 2 + 15.04
= 0.0499 (5.121)
So the partial pressure of H
2
O is
P
H2O
= y
H2O
P = 0.0499(100 kPa) = 4.99 kPa. (5.122)
From the steam tables, the saturation temperature at this pressure is T
sat
= T
dew point
= 32.88
C . If
the products cool to this temperature in an exhaust device, the water could condense in the apparatus.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.3. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS OF REACTING SYSTEMS 161
5.3 First law analysis of reacting systems
One can easily use the rst law to learn much about chemically reacting systems.
5.3.1 Enthalpy of formation
The enthalpy of formation is the enthalpy that is required to form a molecule from combining
its constituents at P = 0.1 MPa and T = 298 K. Consider the reaction (taken here to be
irreversible)
C + O
2
CO
2
. (5.123)
In order to maintain the process at constant temperature, it is found that heat transfer to
the volume is necessary. For the steady constant pressure process, one has
U
2
U
1
=
1
Q
2
1
W
2
, (5.124)
=
1
Q
2
_
2
1
PdV, (5.125)
=
1
Q
2
P(V
2
V
1
), (5.126)
1
Q
2
= U
2
U
1
+ P(V
2
V
1
), (5.127)
= H
2
H
1
, (5.128)
1
Q
2
= H
products
H
reactants
. (5.129)
So
1
Q
2
=
products
n
i
h
i
reactants
n
i
h
i
. (5.130)
In this reaction, one measures that
1
Q
2
= 393522 kJ for the reaction of 1 kmole of C
and O
2
. That is the reaction liberates such energy to the environment. So measuring the
heat transfer can give a measure of the enthalpy dierence between reactants and products.
Assign a value of enthalpy zero to elements in their standard state at the reference state.
Thus, C and O
2
both have enthalpies of 0 kJ/kmole at T = 298 K, P = 0.1 MPa. This
enthalpy is designated, for species i,
h
o
f,i
= h
o
298,i
, (5.131)
and is called the enthalpy of formation. So the energy balance for the products and reactants,
here both at the standard state, becomes
1
Q
2
= n
CO
2
h
o
f,CO
2
n
C
h
o
f,C
n
O
2
h
o
f,O
2
, (5.132)
393522 kJ = (1 kmole)h
o
f,CO
2
(1 kmole)
_
0
kJ
kmole
_
(1 kmole)
_
0
kJ
kmole
_
.
(5.133)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
162 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
Thus, the enthalpy of formation of CO
2
is h
o
f,CO
2
= 393522 kJ/kmole, since the reaction
involved creation of 1 kmole of CO
2
.
Often values of enthalpy are tabulated in the forms of enthalpy dierences h
i
. These
are dened such that
h
i
= h
o
f,i
+ (h
i
h
o
f,i
)
. .
=h
i
, (5.134)
= h
o
f,i
+ h
i
. (5.135)
Lastly, one notes for an ideal gas that the enthalpy is a function of temperature only,
and so does not depend on the reference pressure; hence
h
i
= h
o
i
, h
i
= h
o
i
, if ideal gas. (5.136)
Example 5.7
(BS, Ex. 15.6 pp. 629630). Consider the heat of reaction of the following irreversible reaction in a
steady state, steady ow process conned to the standard state of P = 0.1 MPa, T = 298 K:
CH
4
+ 2O
2
CO
2
+ 2H
2
O(). (5.137)
The rst law holds that
Q
cv
=
products
n
i
h
i
reactants
n
i
h
i
. (5.138)
All components are at their reference states. Table A.10 gives properties, and one nds
Q
cv
= n
CO2
h
CO2
+ n
H2O
h
H2O
n
CH4
h
CH4
n
O2
h
O2
, (5.139)
= (1 kmole)
_
393522
kJ
kmole
_
+ (2 kmole)
_
285830
kJ
kmole
_
(1 kmole)
_
74873
kJ
kmole
_
(2 kmole)
_
0
kJ
kmole
_
, (5.140)
= 890309 kJ. (5.141)
A more detailed analysis is required in the likely case in which the system is not at the
reference state.
Example 5.8
(adopted from Moran and Shapiro, p. 619) A mixture of 1 kmole of gaseous methane and 2 kmole
of oxygen initially at 298 K and 101.325 kPa burns completely in a closed, rigid, container. Heat
transfer occurs until the nal temperature is 900 K. Find the heat transfer and the nal pressure.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.3. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS OF REACTING SYSTEMS 163
The combustion is stoichiometric. Assume that no small concentration species are generated. The
global reaction is given by
CH
4
+ 2O
2
CO
2
+ 2H
2
O. (5.142)
The rst law analysis for the closed system is slightly dierent:
U
2
U
1
=
1
Q
2
1
W
2
. (5.143)
Since the process is isochoric,
1
W
2
= 0. So
1
Q
2
= U
2
U
1
, (5.144)
= n
CO2
u
CO2
+n
H2O
u
H2O
n
CH4
u
CH4
n
O2
u
O2
, (5.145)
= n
CO2
(h
CO2
RT
2
) +n
H2O
(h
H2O
RT
2
) n
CH4
(h
CH4
RT
1
) n
O2
(h
O2
RT
1
), (5.146)
= h
CO2
+ 2h
H2O
h
CH4
2h
O2
3R(T
2
T
1
), (5.147)
= (h
o
CO2,f
+ h
CO2
) + 2(h
o
H2O,f
+ h
H2O
) (h
o
CH4,f
+ h
CH4
) 2(h
o
O2,f
+ h
O2
)
3R(T
2
T
1
), (5.148)
= (393522 + 28030) + 2(241826 + 21937) (74873 + 0) 2(0 + 0)
3(8.314)(900 298), (5.149)
= 745412 kJ. (5.150)
For the pressures, one has
P
1
V
1
= (n
CH4
+n
O2
)RT
1
, (5.151)
V
1
=
(n
CH4
+n
O2
)RT
1
P
1
, (5.152)
=
(1 kmole + 2 kmole)
_
8.314
kJ
kg K
_
(298 K)
101.325 kPa
, (5.153)
= 73.36 m
3
. (5.154)
Now V
2
= V
1
, so
P
2
=
(n
CO2
+n
H2O
)RT
2
V
2
, (5.155)
=
(1 kmole + 2 kmole)
_
8.314
kJ
kg K
_
(900 K)
73.36 m
3
, (5.156)
= 306.0 kPa. (5.157)
The pressure increased in the reaction. This is entirely attributable to the temperature rise, as the
number of moles remained constant here.
5.3.2 Enthalpy and internal energy of combustion
The enthalpy of combustion is the dierence between the enthalpy of products and reactants
when complete combustion occurs at a given pressure and temperature. It is also known
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
164 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
as the heating value or the heat of reaction. The internal energy of combustion is related
and is the dierence between the internal energy of products and reactants when complete
combustion occurs at a given volume and temperature.
The term higher heating value refers to the energy of combustion when liquid water is in
the products. Lower heating value refers to the energy of combustion when water vapor is
in the product.
5.3.3 Adiabatic ame temperature in isochoric stoichiometric sys
tems
The adiabatic ame temperature refers to the temperature which is achieved when a fuel and
oxidizer are combined with no loss of work or heat energy. Thus, it must occur in a closed,
insulated, xed volume. It is generally the highest temperature that one can expect to
achieve in a combustion process. It generally requires an iterative solution. Of all mixtures,
stoichiometric mixtures will yield the highest adiabatic ame temperatures because there is
no need to heat the excess fuel or oxidizer.
Here four examples will be presented to illustrate the following points.
The adiabatic ame temperature can be well over 5000 K for seemingly ordinary
mixtures.
Dilution of the mixture with an inert diluent lowers the adiabatic ame temperature.
The same eect would happen in rich and lean mixtures.
Preheating the mixture, such as one might nd in the compression stroke of an engine,
increases the adiabatic ame temperature.
Consideration of the presence of minor species lowers the adiabatic ame temperature.
5.3.3.1 Undiluted, cold mixture
Example 5.9
A closed, xed, adiabatic volume contains a stoichiometric mixture of 2 kmole of H
2
and 1 kmole
of O
2
at 100 kPa and 298 K. Find the adiabatic ame temperature and nal pressure assuming the
irreversible reaction
2H
2
+O
2
2H
2
O. (5.158)
The volume is given by
V =
(n
H2
+n
O2
)RT
1
P
1
, (5.159)
=
(2 kmole + 1 kmole)
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
_
(298 K)
100 kPa
, (5.160)
= 74.33 m
3
. (5.161)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.3. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS OF REACTING SYSTEMS 165
The rst law gives
U
2
U
1
=
1
Q
2
1
W
2
, (5.162)
U
2
U
1
= 0, (5.163)
n
H2O
u
H2O
n
H2
u
H2
n
O2
u
O2
= 0, (5.164)
n
H2O
(h
H2O
RT
2
) n
H2
(h
H2
RT
1
) n
O2
(h
O2
RT
1
) = 0, (5.165)
2h
H2O
2 h
H2
..
=0
h
O2
..
=0
+R(2T
2
+ 3T
1
) = 0, (5.166)
2h
H2O
+ (8.314) ((2) T
2
+ (3) (298)) = 0, (5.167)
h
H2O
8.314T
2
+ 3716.4 = 0, (5.168)
h
o
f,H2O
+ h
H2O
8.314T
2
+ 3716.4 = 0, (5.169)
241826 + h
H2O
8.314T
2
+ 3716.4 = 0, (5.170)
238110 + h
H2O
8.314T
2
= 0. (5.171)
At this point, one begins an iteration process, guessing a value of T
2
and an associated h
H2O
. When
T
2
is guessed at 5600 K, the left side becomes 6507.04. When T
2
is guessed at 6000 K, the left side
becomes 14301.4. Interpolate then to arrive at
T
2
= 5725 K. (5.172)
This is an extremely high temperature. At such temperatures, in fact, one can expect other species to
coexist in the equilibrium state in large quantities. These may include H, OH, O, HO
2
, and H
2
O
2
,
among others.
The nal pressure is given by
P
2
=
n
H2O
RT
2
V
, (5.173)
=
(2 kmole)
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
_
(5725 K)
74.33 m
3
, (5.174)
= 1280.71 kPa. (5.175)
The nal concentration of H
2
O is
H2O
=
2 kmole
74.33 m
3
= 2.69 10
2
kmole
m
3
. (5.176)
5.3.3.2 Dilute, cold mixture
Example 5.10
Consider a variant on the previous example in which the mixture is diluted with an inert, taken
here to be N
2
. A closed, xed, adiabatic volume contains a stoichiometric mixture of 2 kmole of H
2
,
1 kmole of O
2
, and 8 kmole of N
2
at 100 kPa and 298 K. Find the adiabatic ame temperature and
the nal pressure, assuming the irreversible reaction
2H
2
+O
2
+ 8N
2
2H
2
O + 8N
2
. (5.177)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
166 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
The volume is given by
V =
(n
H2
+n
O2
+n
N2
)RT
1
P
1
, (5.178)
=
(2 kmole + 1 kmole + 8 kmole)
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
_
(298 K)
100 kPa
, (5.179)
= 272.533 m
3
. (5.180)
The rst law gives
U
2
U
1
=
1
Q
2
1
W
2
,
U
2
U
1
= 0,
n
H2O
u
H2O
n
H2
u
H2
n
O2
u
O2
+n
N2
(u
N22
u
N21
) = 0,
n
H2O
(h
H2O
RT
2
) n
H2
(h
H2
RT
1
) n
O2
(h
O2
RT
1
) +n
N2
((h
N22
RT
2
) (h
N21
RT
1
)) = 0,
2h
H2O
2 h
H2
..
=0
h
O2
..
=0
+R(10T
2
+ 11T
1
) + 8( h
N22
..
=hN
2
h
N21
..
=0
) = 0,
2h
H2O
+ (8.314) (10T
2
+ (11)(298)) + 8h
N22
= 0,
2h
H2O
83.14T
2
+ 27253.3 + 8h
N22
= 0,
2h
o
f,H2O
+ 2h
H2O
83.14T
2
+ 27253.3 + 8h
N22
= 0,
2(241826) + 2h
H2O
83.14T
2
+ 27253.3 + 8h
N22
= 0,
456399 + 2h
H2O
83.14T
2
+ 8h
N22
= 0.
At this point, one begins an iteration process, guessing a value of T
2
and an associated h
H2O
. When
T
2
is guessed at 2000 K, the left side becomes 28006.7. When T
2
is guessed at 2200 K, the left side
becomes 33895.3. Interpolate then to arrive at
T
2
= 2090.5 K. (5.181)
The inert diluent signicantly lowers the adiabatic ame temperature. This is because the N
2
serves as
a heat sink for the energy of reaction. If the mixture were at nonstoichiometric conditions, the excess
species would also serve as a heat sink, and the adiabatic ame temperature would be lower than that
of the stoichiometric mixture.
The nal pressure is given by
P
2
=
(n
H2O
+n
N2
)RT
2
V
, (5.182)
=
(2 kmole + 8 kmole)
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
_
(2090.5 K)
272.533 m
3
, (5.183)
= 637.74 kPa. (5.184)
The nal concentrations of H
2
O and N
2
are
H2O
=
2 kmole
272.533 m
3
= 7.34 10
3
kmole
m
3
, (5.185)
N2
=
8 kmole
272.533 m
3
= 2.94 10
2
kmole
m
3
. (5.186)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.3. FIRST LAW ANALYSIS OF REACTING SYSTEMS 167
5.3.3.3 Dilute, preheated mixture
Example 5.11
Consider a variant on the previous example in which the diluted mixture is preheated to 1000 K.
One can achieve this via an isentropic compression of the cold mixture, such as might occur in an engine.
To simplify the analysis here, the temperature of the mixture will be increased, while the pressure will
be maintained. A closed, xed, adiabatic volume contains a stoichiometric mixture of 2 kmole of H
2
,
1 kmole of O
2
, and 8 kmole of N
2
at 100 kPa and 1000 K. Find the adiabatic ame temperature and
the nal pressure, assuming the irreversible reaction
2H
2
+O
2
+ 8N
2
2H
2
O + 8N
2
. (5.187)
The volume is given by
V =
(n
H2
+n
O2
+n
N2
)RT
1
P
1
, (5.188)
=
(2 kmole + 1 kmole + 8 kmole)
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
_
(1000 K)
100 kPa
, (5.189)
= 914.54 m
3
. (5.190)
The rst law gives
U
2
U
1
=
1
Q
2
1
W
2
,
U
2
U
1
= 0,
n
H2O
u
H2O
n
H2
u
H2
n
O2
u
O2
+n
N2
(u
N22
u
N21
) = 0,
n
H2O
(h
H2O
RT
2
) n
H2
(h
H2
RT
1
) n
O2
(h
O2
RT
1
) +n
N2
((h
N22
RT
2
) (h
N21
RT
1
)) = 0,
2h
H2O
2h
H2
h
O2
+R(10T
2
+ 11T
1
) + 8(h
N22
h
N21
) = 0,
2(241826 + h
H2O
) 2(20663) 22703 + (8.314) (10T
2
+ (11)(1000)) + 8h
N22
8(21463) = 0,
2h
H2O
83.14T
2
627931 + 8h
N22
= 0.
At this point, one begins an iteration process, guessing a value of T
2
and an associated h
H2O
. When
T
2
is guessed at 2600 K, the left side becomes 11351. When T
2
is guessed at 2800 K, the left side
becomes 52787. Interpolate then to arrive at
T
2
= 2635.4 K. (5.191)
The preheating raised the adiabatic ame temperature. Note that the preheating was by (1000 K)
(298 K) = 702 K. The new adiabatic ame temperature is only (2635.4 K) (2090.5 K) = 544.9 K
greater.
The nal pressure is given by
P
2
=
(n
H2O
+n
N2
)RT
2
V
, (5.192)
=
(2 kmole + 8 kmole)
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
_
(2635.4 K)
914.54 m
3
, (5.193)
= 239.58 kPa. (5.194)
The nal concentrations of H
2
O and N
2
are
H2O
=
2 kmole
914.54 m
3
= 2.19 10
3
kmole
m
3
, (5.195)
N2
=
8 kmole
914.54 m
3
= 8.75 10
3
kmole
m
3
. (5.196)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
168 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
5.3.3.4 Dilute, preheated mixture with minor species
Example 5.12
Consider a variant on the previous example. Here allow for minor species to be present at equilib
rium. A closed, xed, adiabatic volume contains a stoichiometric mixture of 2 kmole of H
2
, 1 kmole
of O
2
, and 8 kmole of N
2
at 100 kPa and 1000 K. Find the adiabatic ame temperature and the nal
pressure, assuming reversible reactions. Here, the details of the analysis are postponed, but the result
is given which is the consequence of a calculation involving detailed reactions rates. One can also solve
an optimization problem to minimize the Gibbs free energy of a wide variety of products to get the
same answer. In this case, the equilibrium temperature and pressure are found to be
T = 2484.8 K, P = 227.89 kPa. (5.197)
Equilibrium species concentrations are found to be
minor product
H2
= 1.3 10
4
kmole
m
3
, (5.198)
minor product
H
= 1.9 10
5
kmole
m
3
, (5.199)
minor product
O
= 5.7 10
6
kmole
m
3
, (5.200)
minor product
O2
= 3.6 10
5
kmole
m
3
, (5.201)
minor product
OH
= 5.9 10
5
kmole
m
3
, (5.202)
major product
H2O
= 2.0 10
3
kmole
m
3
, (5.203)
trace product
HO2
= 1.1 10
8
kmole
m
3
, (5.204)
trace product
H2O2
= 1.2 10
9
kmole
m
3
, (5.205)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.4. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 169
trace product
N
= 1.7 10
9
kmole
m
3
, (5.206)
trace product
NH
= 3.7 10
10
kmole
m
3
, (5.207)
trace product
NH2
= 1.5 10
10
kmole
m
3
, (5.208)
trace product
NH3
= 3.1 10
10
kmole
m
3
, (5.209)
trace product
NNH
= 1.0 10
10
kmole
m
3
, (5.210)
minor product
NO
= 3.1 10
6
kmole
m
3
, (5.211)
trace product
NO2
= 5.3 10
9
kmole
m
3
, (5.212)
trace product
N2O
= 2.6 10
9
kmole
m
3
, (5.213)
trace product
HNO
= 1.7 10
9
kmole
m
3
, (5.214)
major product
N2
= 8.7 10
3
kmole
m
3
. (5.215)
Note that the concentrations of the major products went down when the minor species were considered.
The adiabatic ame temperature also went down by a signicant amount: 2635 2484.8 = 150.2 K.
Some thermal energy was necessary to break the bonds which induce the presence of minor species.
5.4 Chemical equilibrium
Often reactions are not simply unidirectional, as alluded to in the previous example. The
reverse reaction, especially at high temperature, can be important.
Consider the four species reaction
1
+
3
+
4
. (5.216)
In terms of the net stoichiometric coecients, this becomes
1
+
2
2
+
3
3
+
4
4
= 0. (5.217)
One can dene a variable , the reaction progress. Take the dimension of to be kmoles.
When t = 0, one takes = 0. Now as the reaction goes forward, one takes d > 0. And a
forward reaction will decrease the number of moles of
1
and
2
while increasing the number
of moles of
3
and
4
. This will occur in ratios dictated by the stoichiometric coecients of
the problem:
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
170 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
dn
1
=
1
d, (5.218)
dn
2
=
2
d, (5.219)
dn
3
= +
3
d, (5.220)
dn
4
= +
4
d. (5.221)
Note that if n
i
is taken to have units of kmoles,
i
, and
i
are taken as dimensionless, then
must have units of kmoles. In terms of the net stoichiometric coecients, one has
dn
1
=
1
d, (5.222)
dn
2
=
2
d, (5.223)
dn
3
=
3
d, (5.224)
dn
4
=
4
d. (5.225)
Again, for arguments sake, assume that at t = 0, one has
n
1

t=0
= n
1o
, (5.226)
n
2

t=0
= n
2o
, (5.227)
n
3

t=0
= n
3o
, (5.228)
n
4

t=0
= n
4o
. (5.229)
Then after integrating, one nds
n
1
=
1
+ n
1o
, (5.230)
n
2
=
2
+ n
2o
, (5.231)
n
3
=
3
+ n
3o
, (5.232)
n
4
=
4
+ n
4o
. (5.233)
One can also eliminate the parameter in a variety of fashions and parameterize the
reaction one of the species mole numbers. Choosing, for example, n
1
as a parameter, one
gets
=
n
1
n
1o
1
. (5.234)
Eliminating then one nds all other mole numbers in terms of n
1
:
n
2
=
2
n
1
n
1o
1
+ n
2o
, (5.235)
n
3
=
3
n
1
n
1o
1
+ n
3o
, (5.236)
n
4
=
4
n
1
n
1o
1
+ n
4o
. (5.237)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.4. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 171
Written another way, one has
n
1
n
1o
1
=
n
2
n
2o
2
=
n
3
n
3o
3
=
n
4
n
4o
4
= . (5.238)
For an Nspecies reaction,
N
i=1
i
= 0, one can generalize to say
dn
i
= =
i
d, (5.239)
n
i
=
i
+ n
io
, (5.240)
n
i
n
io
i
= . (5.241)
Note that
dn
i
d
=
i
. (5.242)
Now, from the previous chapter, one manifestation of the second law is Eq. (4.399):
dG
T,P
=
N
i=1
i
dn
i
0. (5.243)
Now, one can eliminate dn
i
in Eq. (5.243) by use of Eq. (5.239) to get
dG
T,P
=
N
i=1
i
d 0, (5.244)
G
T,P
=
N
i=1
i
0, (5.245)
= 0. (5.246)
Then for the reaction to go forward, one must require that the anity be positive:
0. (5.247)
One also knows from the previous chapter that the irreversible entropy production takes the
form of Eq. (4.387):
1
T
N
i=1
i
dn
i
0, (5.248)
1
T
d
N
i=1
i
0, (5.249)
1
T
d
dt
N
i=1
i
0. (5.250)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
172 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
In terms of the chemical anity, =
N
i=1
i
, Eq. (5.250) can be written as
1
T
d
dt
0. (5.251)
Now one straightforward, albeit nave, way to guarantee positive semideniteness of the
irreversible entropy production and thus satisfaction of the second law is to construct the
chemical kinetic rate equation so that
d
dt
= k
N
i=1
i
= k, k 0, provisional, nave assumption (5.252)
This provisional assumption of convenience will be supplanted later by a form which agrees
well with experiment. Here k is a positive semidenite scalar. In general, it is a function of
temperature, k = k(T), so that reactions proceed rapidly at high temperature and slowly at
low temperature. Then certainly the reaction progress variable will cease to change when
the equilibrium condition
N
i=1
i
= 0, (5.253)
is met. This is equivalent to requiring
= 0. (5.254)
Now, while Eq. (5.253) is the most compact form of the equilibrium condition, it is not
the most commonly used form. One can perform the following analysis to obtain the form
in most common usage. Start by equating the chemical potential with the Gibbs free energy
per unit mole for each species i:
i
= g
i
. Then employ the denition of Gibbs free energy
for an ideal gas, and carry out a set of operations:
N
i=1
g
i
i
= 0, at equilibrium, (5.255)
N
i=1
(h
i
Ts
i
)
i
= 0, at equilibrium. (5.256)
For the ideal gas, one can substitute for h
i
(T) and s
i
(T, P) and write the equilibrium con
dition as
N
i=1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
h
o
298,i
+
_
T
298
c
Pi
(
T) d
T
. .
=h
o
T,i
. .
=h
o
T,i
=h
T,i
T
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
s
o
298,i
+
_
T
298
c
Pi
(
T)
T
d
T
. .
=s
o
T,i
Rln
_
y
i
P
P
o
_
. .
=s
T,i
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
i
= 0.
(5.257)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.4. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 173
Now writing the equilibrium condition in terms of the enthalpies and entropies referred to
the standard pressure, one gets
N
i=1
_
h
o
T,i
T
_
s
o
T,i
Rln
_
y
i
P
P
o
___
i
= 0, (5.258)
N
i=1
_
h
o
T,i
Ts
o
T,i
_
. .
=g
o
T,i
=
o
T,i
i
=
N
i=1
RT
i
ln
_
y
i
P
P
o
_
, (5.259)
i=1
g
o
T,i
i
. .
G
o
= RT
N
i=1
ln
_
y
i
P
P
o
_
i
, (5.260)
G
o
RT
=
N
i=1
ln
_
y
i
P
P
o
_
i
, (5.261)
= ln
_
N
i=1
_
y
i
P
P
o
_
i
_
, (5.262)
exp
_
G
o
RT
_
. .
K
P
=
N
i=1
_
y
i
P
P
o
_
i
, (5.263)
K
P
=
N
i=1
_
y
i
P
P
o
_
i
, (5.264)
K
P
=
_
P
P
o
_
P
N
i=1
i
n
i=1
y
i
i
. (5.265)
So
K
P
=
N
i=1
_
P
i
P
o
_
i
, at equilibrium. (5.266)
Here K
P
is what is known as the pressurebased equilibrium constant. It is dimensionless.
Despite its name, it is not a constant. It is dened in terms of thermodynamic properties,
and for the ideal gas is a function of T only:
K
P
exp
_
G
o
RT
_
, generally valid. (5.267)
Only at equilibrium does the property K
P
also equal the product of the partial pressures
as in Eq. (5.266). The subscript P for pressure comes about because it is also related to
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
174 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
the product of the ratio of the partial pressure to the reference pressure raised to the net
stoichiometric coecients. Also, the net change in Gibbs free energy of the reaction at the
reference pressure, G
o
, which is a function of T only, has been dened as
G
o
i=1
g
o
T,i
i
. (5.268)
The term G
o
has units of kJ/kmole; it traditionally does not get an overbar. If G
o
> 0,
one has 0 < K
P
< 1, and reactants are favored over products. If G
o
< 0, one gets K
P
> 1,
and products are favored over reactants. One can also deduce that higher pressures P push
the equilibrium in such a fashion that fewer moles are present, all else being equal. One can
also dene G
o
in terms of the chemical anity, referred to the reference pressure, as
G
o
=
o
. (5.269)
One can also dene another convenient thermodynamic property, which for an ideal gas
is a function of T alone, the equilibrium constant K
c
:
K
c
_
P
o
RT
_
P
N
i=1
i
exp
_
G
o
RT
_
, generally valid. (5.270)
This property is dimensional, and the units depend on the stoichiometry of the reaction.
The units of K
c
will be (kmole/m
3
)
P
N
i=1
i
.
The equilibrium condition, Eq. (5.266), is often written in terms of molar concentrations
and K
c
. This can be achieved by the operations, valid only at an equilibrium state:
K
P
=
N
i=1
_
i
RT
P
o
_
i
, (5.271)
exp
_
G
o
RT
_
=
_
RT
P
o
_
P
N
i=1
i N
i=1
i
i
, (5.272)
_
P
o
RT
_
P
N
i=1
i
exp
_
G
o
RT
_
. .
Kc
=
N
i=1
i
i
. (5.273)
So
K
c
=
N
i=1
i
i
, at equilibrium. (5.274)
One must be careful to distinguish between the general denition of K
c
as given in Eq. (5.270),
and the fact that at equilibrium it is driven to also have the value of product of molar species
concentrations, raised to the appropriate stoichiometric power, as given in Eq. (5.274).
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.5. CHEMICAL KINETICS OF A SINGLE ISOTHERMAL REACTION 175
5.5 Chemical kinetics of a single isothermal reaction
In the same fashion in ordinary mechanics that an understanding of statics enables an under
standing of dynamics, an understanding of chemical equilibrium is necessary to understand
to more challenging topic of chemical kinetics. Chemical kinetics describes the timeevolution
of systems which may have an initial state far from equilibrium; it typically describes the
path of such systems to an equilibrium state. Here gas phase kinetics of ideal gas mixtures
that obey Daltons law will be studied. Important topics such as catalysis and solid or liquid
reactions will not be considered.
Further, this section will be restricted to strictly isothermal systems. This simplies the
analysis greatly. It is straightforward to extend the analysis of this system to nonisothermal
systems. One must then make further appeal to the energy equation to get an equation for
temperature evolution.
The general form for evolution of species is taken to be
d
dt
_
_
=
i
. (5.275)
Multiplying both sides of Eq. (5.275) by molecular mass M
i
and using the denition of mass
fraction c
i
then gives the alternate form
dc
i
dt
=
i
M
i
. (5.276)
5.5.1 Isochoric systems
Consider the evolution of species concentration in a system which is isothermal, isochoric
and spatially homogeneous. The system is undergoing a single chemical reaction involving
N species of the familiar form
N
i=1
i
= 0. (5.277)
Because the density is constant for the isochoric system, Eq. (5.275) reduces to
d
i
dt
=
i
. (5.278)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
176 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
Then, experiment, as well as a more fundamental molecular collision theory, shows that the
evolution of species concentration i is given by
d
i
dt
=
i
..
i
aT
exp
_
E
RT
_
. .
k(T)
_
N
k=1
k
k
_
. .
forward reaction
_
_
_
_
_
1
1
K
c
N
k=1
k
k
. .
reverse reaction
_
_
_
_
_
. .
r
, isochoric system. (5.279)
This relation actually holds for isochoric, nonisothermal systems as well, which will not be
considered in any detail here. Here some new variables are dened as follows:
a: a kinetic rate constant called the collision frequency factor. Its units will depend
on the actual reaction and could involve various combinations of length, time, and
temperature. It is constructed so that d
i
/dt has units of kmole/m
3
/s; this requires it
to have units of (kmole/m
3
)
(1
P
N
k=1
k
)
/s/K
.
: a dimensionless parameter whose value is set by experiments, sometimes combined
with guiding theory, to account for weak temperature dependency of reaction rates.
E: the activation energy. It has units of kJ/kmole, though others are often used, and is
t by both experiment and fundamental theory to account for the strong temperature
dependency of reaction.
Note that in Eq. (5.279) that molar concentrations are raised to the
k
and
k
powers. As
it does not make sense to raise a physical quantity to a power with units, one traditionally
interprets the values of
k
,
k
, as well as
k
to be dimensionless pure numbers. They are
also interpreted in a standard fashion: the smallest integer values that actually correspond
to the underlying molecular collision which has been modeled. While stoichiometric balance
can be achieved by a variety of
k
values, the kinetic rates are linked to one particular set
which is dened by the community.
Equation (5.279) is written in such a way that the species concentration production rate
increases when
The net number of moles generated in the reaction, measured by
i
increases,
The temperature increases; here, the sensitivity may be very high, as one observes in
nature,
The species concentrations of species involved in the forward reaction increase; this
embodies the principle that the collisionbased reaction rates are enhanced when there
are more molecules to collide,
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.5. CHEMICAL KINETICS OF A SINGLE ISOTHERMAL REACTION 177
The species concentrations of species involved in the reverse reaction decrease.
Here, three intermediate variables which are in common usage have been dened. First one
takes the reaction rate to be
r aT
exp
_
E
RT
_
. .
k(T)
_
N
k=1
k
k
_
. .
forward reaction
_
_
_
_
_
1
1
K
c
N
k=1
k
k
. .
reverse reaction
_
_
_
_
_
, (5.280)
or
r = aT
exp
_
E
RT
_
. .
k(T), Arrhenius rate
_
_
_
_
_
N
k=1
k
k
. .
forward reaction
1
K
c
N
k=1
k
k
. .
reverse reaction
_
_
_
_
_
. .
law of mass action
. (5.281)
The reaction rate r has units of kmole/m
3
/s.
The temperaturedependency of the reaction rate is embodied in k(T) is dened by what
is known as an Arrhenius rate law:
k(T) aT
exp
_
E
RT
_
. (5.282)
This equation was advocated by vant Ho in 1884; in 1889 Arrhenius gave a physical justi
cation. The units of k(T) actually depend on the reaction. This is a weakness of the theory,
and precludes a clean nondimensionalization. The units must be (kmole/m
3
)
(1
P
N
k=1
k
)
/s.
In terms of reaction progress, one can also take
r =
1
V
d
dt
. (5.283)
The factor of 1/V is necessary because r has units of molar concentration per time and
has units of kmoles. The overriding importance of the temperature sensitivity is illustrated
as part of the next example. The remainder of the expression involving the products of the
species concentrations is the dening characteristic of systems which obey the law of mass
action. Though the history is complex, most attribute the law of mass action to Waage and
Guldberg in 1864.
1
Last, the overall molar production rate of species i, is often written as
i
, dened as
i
i
r. (5.284)
1
P. Waage and C. M. Guldberg, 1864, Studies Concerning Anity, Forhandlinger: VidenskabsSelskabet
i Christiania, 35. English translation: Journal of Chemical Education, 63(12): 10441047.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
178 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
As
i
is considered to be dimensionless, the units of
i
must be kmole/m
3
/s.
Example 5.13
Study the nitrogen dissociation problem considered in an earlier example, see p. 140, in which at
t = 0 s, 1 kmole of N
2
exists at P = 100 kPa and T = 6000 K. Take as before the reaction to be
isothermal and isochoric. Consider again the elementary nitrogen dissociation reaction
N
2
+N
2
2N +N
2
, (5.285)
which has kinetic rate parameters of
a = 7.0 10
21
cm
3
K
1.6
mole s
, (5.286)
= 1.6, (5.287)
E = 224928.4
cal
mole
. (5.288)
In SI units, this becomes
a =
_
7.0 10
21
cm
3
K
1.6
mole s
__
1 m
100 cm
_
3
_
1000 mole
kmole
_
= 7.0 10
18
m
3
K
1.6
kmole s
, (5.289)
E =
_
224928.4
cal
mole
__
4.186
J
cal
__
kJ
1000 J
__
1000 mole
kmole
_
= 941550
kJ
kmole
. (5.290)
At the initial state, the material is all N
2
, so P
N2
= P = 100 kPa. The ideal gas law then gives at
t = 0
P
t=0
= P
N2

t=0
=
N2
t=0
RT, (5.291)
N2
t=0
=
P
t=0
RT
, (5.292)
=
100 kPa
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
_
(6000 K)
, (5.293)
= 2.00465 10
3
kmole
m
3
. (5.294)
Thus, the volume, constant for all time in the isochoric process, is
V =
n
N2

t=0
N2
t=0
=
1 kmole
2.00465 10
3
kmole
m
3
= 4.9884 10
2
m
3
. (5.295)
Now the stoichiometry of the reaction is such that
dn
N2
=
1
2
dn
N
, (5.296)
(n
N2
n
N2

t=0
. .
=1 kmole
) =
1
2
(n
N
n
N

t=0
. .
=0
), (5.297)
n
N
= 2(1 kmole n
N2
), (5.298)
n
N
V
= 2
_
1 kmole
V
n
N2
V
_
, (5.299)
N
= 2
_
1 kmole
4.9884 10
2
m
3
N2
_
, (5.300)
= 2
_
2.00465 10
3
kmole
m
3
N2
_
. (5.301)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.5. CHEMICAL KINETICS OF A SINGLE ISOTHERMAL REACTION 179
1000 1500 2000 3000 5000 7000 10000
T (K) 1. x 10
36
1. x 10
28
1. x 10
20
1. x 10
12
0.0001
10000
k(T) ( m /kmole/s)
3
Figure 5.1: k(T) for Nitrogen dissociation example.
Now the general equation for kinetics of a single reaction, Eq. (5.279), reduces for N
2
molar con
centration to
d
N2
dt
=
N2
aT
exp
_
E
RT
_
(
N2
)
N
2
(
N
)
N
_
1
1
K
c
(
N2
)
N
2
(
N
)
N
_
. (5.302)
Realizing that
N2
= 2,
N
= 0,
N2
= 1, and
N
= 2, one gets
d
N2
dt
= aT
exp
_
E
RT
_
. .
=k(T)
2
N2
_
1
1
K
c
2
N
N2
_
. (5.303)
Examine the primary temperature dependency of the reaction
k(T) = aT
exp
_
E
RT
_
, (5.304)
=
_
7.0 10
18
m
3
K
1.6
kmole s
_
T
1.6
exp
_
941550
kJ
kmole
8.314
kJ
kmole K
T
_
, (5.305)
=
7.0 10
18
T
1.6
exp
_
1.1325 10
5
T
_
. (5.306)
Figure 5.1 gives a plot of k(T) which shows its very strong dependency on temperature. For this
problem, T = 6000 K, so
k(6000) =
7.0 10
18
6000
1.6
exp
_
1.1325 10
5
6000
_
, (5.307)
= 40071.6
m
3
kmole s
. (5.308)
Now, the equilibrium constant K
c
is needed. Recall
K
c
=
_
P
o
RT
_
P
N
i=1
i
exp
_
G
o
RT
_
. (5.309)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
180 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025
2
1
1
(kmole/m )
N
2
3
N
2
f ( ) (kmole/m /s)
3
stable,
physical
equilibrium
unstable
equilibrium
unstable
equilibrium
Figure 5.2: Forcing function, f(
N
2
), which drives changes of
N
2
as a function of
N
2
in
isothermal, isochoric problem.
For this system, since
N
i=1
i
= 1, this reduces to
K
c
=
_
P
o
RT
_
exp
_
(2g
o
N
g
o
N2
)
RT
_
, (5.310)
=
_
P
o
RT
_
exp
_
(2(h
o
N
Ts
o
T,N
) (h
o
N2
Ts
o
T,N2
))
RT
_
, (5.311)
=
_
100
(8.314)(6000)
_
exp
_
(2(597270 (6000)216.926) (205848 (6000)292.984))
(8.314)(6000)
_
,(5.312)
= 0.000112112
kmole
m
3
. (5.313)
The dierential equation for N
2
evolution is then given by
d
N2
dt
=
_
40071.6
m
3
kmole
_
2
N2
_
1
1
0.000112112
kmole
m
3
_
2
_
2.00465 10
3 kmole
m
3
N2
__
2
N2
_
. .
f(
N
2
)
,
(5.314)
= f(
N2
). (5.315)
The system is at equilibrium when f(
N2
) = 0. This is an algebraic function of
N2
only, and can be
plotted. Figure 5.2 gives a plot of f(
N2
) and shows that it has three potential equilibrium points. It
is seen there are three roots. Solving for the equilibria requires solving
0 =
_
40071.6
m
3
kmole
_
2
N2
_
1
1
0.000112112
kmole
m
3
_
2
_
2.00465 10
3 kmole
m
3
_
N2
_
2
N2
_
.
(5.316)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.5. CHEMICAL KINETICS OF A SINGLE ISOTHERMAL REACTION 181
The three roots are
N2
= 0
kmole
m
3
. .
unstable
, 0.00178121
kmole
m
3
. .
stable
, 0.00225611
kmole
m
3
. .
unstable
. (5.317)
By inspection of the topology of Fig. 5.2, the only stable root is 0.00178121
kmole
m
3
. This root agrees with
the equilibrium value found in an earlier example for the same problem conditions. Small perturbations
from this equilibrium induce the forcing function to supply dynamics which restore the system to its orig
inal equilibrium state. Small perturbations from the unstable equilibria induce nonrestoring dynamics.
For this root, one can then determine that the stable equilibrium value of
N
= 0.000446882
kmole
m
3
.
One can examine this stability more formally. Dene an equilibrium concentration
eq
N2
such that
f(
eq
N2
) = 0. (5.318)
Now perform a Taylor series of f(
N2
) about
N2
=
eq
N2
:
f(
N2
) f(
eq
N2
)
. .
=0
+
df
d
N2
N
2
=
eq
N
2
(
N2
eq
N2
) +
1
2
d
2
f
d
2
N2
(
N2
eq
N2
)
2
+. . . (5.319)
Now the rst term of the Taylor series is zero by construction. Next neglect all higher order terms as
small so that the approximation becomes
f(
N2
)
df
d
N2
N
2
=
eq
N
2
(
N2
eq
N2
). (5.320)
Thus, near equilibrium, one can write
d
N2
dt
df
d
N2
N
2
=
eq
N
2
(
N2
eq
N2
). (5.321)
Since the derivative of a constant is zero, one can also write the equation as
d
dt
(
N2
eq
N2
)
df
d
N2
N
2
=
eq
N
2
(
N2
eq
N2
). (5.322)
This has a solution, valid near the equilibrium point, of
(
N2
eq
N2
) = C exp
_
_
df
d
N2
N
2
=
eq
N
2
t
_
_
, (5.323)
N2
=
eq
N2
+C exp
_
_
df
d
N2
N
2
=
eq
N
2
t
_
_
. (5.324)
Here C is some constant whose value is not important for this discussion. If the slope of f is positive,
that is,
df
d
N2
N
2
=
eq
N
2
> 0, unstable, (5.325)
the equilibrium will be unstable. That is a perturbation will grow without bound as t . If the
slope is zero,
df
d
N2
N
2
=
eq
N
2
= 0, neutrally stable, (5.326)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
182 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005
t (s)
0.0005
0.001
0.0015
0.002
N
2
c
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
k
m
o
l
e
/
m
)
3
N
Figure 5.3:
N
2
(t) and
N
(t) in isothermal, isochoric nitrogen dissociation problem.
the solution is stable in that there is no unbounded growth, and moreover is known as neutrally stable.
If the slope is negative,
df
d
N2
N
2
=
eq
N
2
< 0, asymptotically stable, (5.327)
the solution is stable in that there is no unbounded growth, and moreover is known as asymptotically
stable.
A numerical solution via an explicit technique such as a RungeKutta integration is found for
Eq. (5.314). The solution for
N2
, along with
N
is plotted in Fig. 5.3.
Linearization of Eq. (5.314) about the equilibrium state gives rise to the locally linearly valid
d
dt
_
N2
0.00178121
_
= 1209.39(
N2
0.00178121) +. . . (5.328)
This has local asymptotically stable solution
N2
= 0.00178121 +C exp(1209.39t) . (5.329)
Here C is some integration constant whose value is irrelevant for this analysis. The time scale of
relaxation is the time when the argument of the exponential is 1, which is
=
1
1209.39 s
1
= 8.27 10
4
s. (5.330)
One usually nds this time scale to have high sensitivity to temperature, with high temperatures giving
fast time constants and thus fast reactions.
The equilibrium values agree exactly with those found in the earlier example; see Eq. (4.469). Here
the kinetics provide the details of how much time it takes to achieve equilibrium. This is one of the key
questions of nonequilibrium thermodynamics.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.5. CHEMICAL KINETICS OF A SINGLE ISOTHERMAL REACTION 183
5.5.2 Isobaric systems
The form of the previous section is the most important as it is easily extended to a Cartesian
grid with xed volume elements in uid ow problems. However, there is another important
spatially homogeneous problem in which the formulation needs slight modication: isobaric
reaction, with P equal to a constant. Again, in this section only isothermal conditions will
be considered.
In an isobaric problem, there can be volume change. Consider rst the problem of isobaric
expansion of an inert mixture. In such a mixture, the total number of moles of each species
must be constant, so one gets
dn
i
dt
= 0, inert, isobaric mixture. (5.331)
Now carry out the sequence of operations, realizing the the total mass m is also constant:
1
m
d
dt
(n
i
) = 0, (5.332)
d
dt
_
n
i
m
_
= 0, (5.333)
d
dt
_
n
i
V
V
m
_
= 0, (5.334)
d
dt
_
_
= 0, (5.335)
1
d
i
dt
i
2
d
dt
= 0, (5.336)
d
i
dt
=
i
d
dt
. (5.337)
So a global density decrease of the inert material due to volume increase of a xed mass
system induces a concentration decrease of each species. Extended to a material with a
single reaction rate r, one could say either
d
i
dt
=
i
r +
i
d
dt
, or (5.338)
d
dt
_
_
=
1
i
r, generally valid, (5.339)
=
i
. (5.340)
Equation (5.339) is consistent with Eq. (5.275) and is actually valid for general systems with
variable density, temperature, and pressure.
However, in this section, it is required that pressure and temperature be constant. Now
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
184 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
dierentiate the isobaric, isothermal, ideal gas law to get the density derivative.
P =
N
i=1
i
RT, (5.341)
0 =
N
i=1
RT
d
i
dt
, (5.342)
0 =
N
i=1
d
i
dt
, (5.343)
0 =
N
i=1
_
i
r +
i
d
dt
_
, (5.344)
0 = r
N
i=1
i
+
1
d
dt
N
i=1
i
, (5.345)
d
dt
=
r
N
i=1
N
i=1
. (5.346)
=
r
N
i=1
N
i=1
i
, (5.347)
=
r
N
i=1
i
P
RT
, (5.348)
=
RTr
N
i=1
i
P
, (5.349)
=
RTr
N
k=1
k
P
. (5.350)
Note that if there is no net number change in the reaction,
N
k=1
k
= 0, the isobaric,
isothermal reaction also guarantees there would be no density or volume change. It is
convenient to dene the net number change in the elementary reaction as n:
n
N
k=1
k
. (5.351)
Here n is taken to be a dimensionless pure number. It is associated with the number
change in the elementary reaction and not the actual mole change in a physical system; it
is, however, proportional to the actual mole change.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.5. CHEMICAL KINETICS OF A SINGLE ISOTHERMAL REACTION 185
Now use Eq. (5.350) to eliminate the density derivative in Eq. (5.338) to get
d
i
dt
=
i
r
i
RTr
N
k=1
k
P
, (5.352)
= r
_
_
_
_
_
_
i
..
reaction eect
i
RT
P
N
k=1
k
. .
expansion eect
_
_
_
_
_
_
, (5.353)
or
d
i
dt
= r
_
_
i
..
reaction eect
y
i
n
. .
expansion eect
_
_
. (5.354)
There are two terms dictating the rate change of species molar concentration. The rst, a
reaction eect, is precisely the same term that drove the isochoric reaction. The second is
due to the fact that the volume can change if the number of moles change, and this induces
an intrinsic change in concentration. Note that the term
i
RT/P = y
i
, the mole fraction.
Example 5.14
Study a variant of the nitrogen dissociation problem considered in an earlier example, see p. 145,
in which at t = 0 s, 1 kmole of N
2
exists at P = 100 kPa and T = 6000 K. In this case, take the
reaction to be isothermal and isobaric. Consider again the elementary nitrogen dissociation reaction
N
2
+N
2
2N +N
2
, (5.355)
which has kinetic rate parameters of
a = 7.0 10
21
cm
3
K
1.6
mole s
, (5.356)
= 1.6, (5.357)
E = 224928.4
cal
mole
. (5.358)
In SI units, this becomes
a =
_
7.0 10
21
cm
3
K
1.6
mole s
__
1 m
100 cm
_
3
_
1000 mole
kmole
_
= 7.0 10
18
m
3
K
1.6
kmole s
, (5.359)
E =
_
224928.4
cal
mole
__
4.186
J
cal
__
kJ
1000 J
__
1000 mole
kmole
_
= 941550
kJ
kmole
. (5.360)
At the initial state, the material is all N
2
, so P
N2
= P = 100 kPa. The ideal gas law then gives at
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
186 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
t = 0
P = P
N2
=
N2
RT, (5.361)
N2
t=0
=
P
RT
, (5.362)
=
100 kPa
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
_
(6000 K)
, (5.363)
= 2.00465 10
3
kmole
m
3
. (5.364)
Thus, the initial volume is
V 
t=0
=
n
N2

t=0
N2
t=0
=
1 kmole
2.00465 10
3
kmole
m
3
= 4.9884 10
2
m
3
. (5.365)
In this isobaric process, one always has P = 100 kPa. Now, in general
P = RT(
N2
+
N
); (5.366)
therefore, one can write
N
in terms of
N2
:
N
=
P
RT
N2
, (5.367)
=
100 kPa
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
_
(6000 K)
N2
, (5.368)
=
_
2.00465 10
3
kmole
m
3
_
N2
. (5.369)
Then the equations for kinetics of a single isobaric isothermal reaction, Eq. (5.353) in conjunction
with Eq. (5.280), reduce for N
2
molar concentration to
d
N2
dt
=
_
aT
exp
_
E
RT
_
(
N2
)
N
2
(
N
)
N
_
1
1
K
c
(
N2
)
N
2
(
N
)
N
__
. .
=r
_
N2
N2
RT
P
(
N2
+
N
)
_
.
(5.370)
Realizing that
N2
= 2,
N
= 0,
N2
= 1, and
N
= 2, one gets
d
N2
dt
= aT
exp
_
E
RT
_
. .
=k(T)
2
N2
_
1
1
K
c
2
N
N2
_
_
1
N2
RT
P
_
. (5.371)
The temperature dependency of the reaction is unchanged from the previous reaction:
k(T) = aT
exp
_
E
RT
_
, (5.372)
=
_
7.0 10
18
m
3
K
1.6
kmole s
_
T
1.6
exp
_
941550
kJ
kmole
8.314
kJ
kmole K
T
_
, (5.373)
=
7.0 10
18
T
1.6
exp
_
1.1325 10
5
T
_
. (5.374)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.5. CHEMICAL KINETICS OF A SINGLE ISOTHERMAL REACTION 187
For this problem, T = 6000 K, so
k(6000) =
7.0 10
18
6000
1.6
exp
_
1.1325 10
5
6000
_
, (5.375)
= 40130.2
m
3
kmole s
. (5.376)
The equilibrium constant K
c
is also unchanged from the previous example. Recall
K
c
=
_
P
o
RT
_
P
N
i=1
i
exp
_
G
o
RT
_
. (5.377)
For this system, since
N
i=1
i
= n = 1, this reduces to
K
c
=
_
P
o
RT
_
exp
_
(2g
o
N
g
o
N2
)
RT
_
, (5.378)
=
_
P
o
RT
_
exp
_
(2g
o
N
g
o
N2
)
RT
_
, (5.379)
=
_
P
o
RT
_
exp
_
(2(h
o
N
Ts
o
T,N
) (h
o
N2
Ts
o
T,N2
))
RT
_
, (5.380)
=
_
100
(8.314)(6000)
_
exp
_
(2(597270 (6000)216.926) (205848 (6000)292.984))
(8.314)(6000)
_
,(5.381)
= 0.000112112
kmole
m
3
. (5.382)
The dierential equation for N
2
evolution is then given by
d
N2
dt
=
_
40130.2
m
3
kmole
_
2
N2
_
1
1
0.000112112
kmole
m
3
__
2.00465 10
3 kmole
m
3
_
N2
_
2
N2
_
_
1
N2
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
_
(6000 K)
100 kPa
_
,
(5.383)
f(
N2
). (5.384)
The system is at equilibrium when f(
N2
) = 0. This is an algebraic function of
N2
only, and can be
plotted. Figure 5.4 gives a plot of f(
N2
) and shows that it has four potential equilibrium points. It is
seen there are four roots. Solving for the equilibria requires solving
0 =
_
40130.2
m
3
kmole
_
2
N2
_
1
1
0.000112112
kmole
m
3
__
2.00465 10
3 kmole
m
3
_
N2
_
2
N2
_
_
1
N2
_
8.314
kJ
kmole K
_
(6000 K)
100 kPa
_
.
(5.385)
The four roots are
N2
= 0.002005
kmole
m
3
. .
stable,nonphysical
, 0
kmole
m
3
. .
unstable
, 0.001583
kmole
m
3
. .
stable,physical
, 0.00254
kmole
m
3
. .
unstable
. (5.386)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
188 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
0.002 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.003
1
1
2
3
4
N
2
(kmole/m )
3
N
2
f (kmole/m /s)
3
( )
unstable
equilibrium
stable,
physical
equilibrium
unstable
equilibrium
stable,
nonphysical
equilibrium
Figure 5.4: Forcing function, f(
N
2
), which drives changes of
N
2
as a function of
N
2
in
isothermal, isobaric problem.
By inspection of the topology of Fig. 5.2, the only stable, physical root is 0.001583
kmole
m
3
. Small
perturbations from this equilibrium induce the forcing function to supply dynamics which restore the
system to its original equilibrium state. Small perturbations from the unstable equilibria induce non
restoring dynamics. For this root, one can then determine that the stable equilibrium value of
N
=
0.000421
kmole
m
3
.
A numerical solution via an explicit technique such as a RungeKutta integration is found for
Eq. (5.385). The solution for
N2
, along with
N
is plotted in Fig. 5.5.
Linearization of Eq. (5.385) about the equilibrium state gives rise to the locally linearly valid
d
dt
_
N2
0.001583
_
= 967.073(
N2
0.001583) +. . . (5.387)
This has local solution
N2
= 0.001583 +C exp (967.073t) . (5.388)
Again, C is an irrelevant integration constant. The time scale of relaxation is the time when the
argument of the exponential is 1, which is
=
1
967.073 s
1
= 1.03 10
3
s. (5.389)
Note that the time constant for the isobaric combustion is about a factor 1.25 greater than for isochoric
combustion under the otherwise identical conditions.
The equilibrium values agree exactly with those found in the earlier example; see Eq. (4.514).
Again, the kinetics provide the details of how much time it takes to achieve equilibrium.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.6. SOME CONSERVATION AND EVOLUTION EQUATIONS 189
0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005
t (s)
0.0005
0.001
0.0015
0.002
N
2
N
c
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
k
m
o
l
e
/
m
)
3
Figure 5.5:
N
2
(t) and
N
(t) in isobaric, isothermal nitrogen dissociation problem.
5.6 Some conservation and evolution equations
Here a few useful global conservation and evolution equations are presented for some key
properties. Only some cases are considered, and one could develop more relations for other
scenarios.
5.6.1 Total mass conservation: isochoric reaction
One can easily show that the isochoric reaction rate model, Eq. (5.279), satises the principle
of mixture mass conservation. Begin with Eq. (5.279) in a compact form, using the denition
of the reaction rate r, Eq. (5.281) and perform the following operations:
d
i
dt
=
i
r, (5.390)
d
dt
_
c
i
M
i
_
=
i
r, (5.391)
d
dt
(c
i
) =
i
M
i
r, (5.392)
d
dt
(c
i
) =
i
L
l=1
M
l
li
. .
=M
i
r, (5.393)
d
dt
(c
i
) =
L
l=1
M
l
li
i
r, (5.394)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
190 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
N
i=1
d
dt
(c
i
) =
N
i=1
L
l=1
M
l
li
i
r, (5.395)
d
dt
_
_
_
_
_
i=1
c
i
. .
=1
_
_
_
_
_
=
L
l=1
N
i=1
M
l
li
i
r, (5.396)
d
dt
= r
L
l=1
M
l
N
i=1
li
i
. .
=0
. (5.397)
Therefore, we get
d
dt
= 0. (5.398)
Note the term
N
i=1
li
i
= 0 because of stoichiometry, Eq. (5.24).
5.6.2 Element mass conservation: isochoric reaction
Through a similar series of operations, one can show that the mass of each element, l =
1, . . . , L, in conserved in this reaction, which is chemical, not nuclear. Once again, begin
with Eq. (5.281) and perform a set of operations,
d
i
dt
=
i
r, (5.399)
li
d
i
dt
=
li
i
r, l = 1, . . . , L, (5.400)
d
dt
(
li
i
) = r
li
i
, l = 1, . . . , L, (5.401)
N
i=1
d
dt
(
li
i
) =
N
i=1
r
li
i
, l = 1, . . . , L, (5.402)
d
dt
_
N
i=1
li
i
_
= r
N
i=1
li
i
. .
=0
, l = 1, . . . , L, (5.403)
d
dt
_
N
i=1
li
i
_
= 0, l = 1, . . . , L. (5.404)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.6. SOME CONSERVATION AND EVOLUTION EQUATIONS 191
The term
N
i=1
li
i
represents the number of moles of element l per unit volume, by the
following analysis
N
i=1
li
i
=
N
i=1
moles element l
moles species i
moles species i
volume
=
moles element l
volume
e
l
. (5.405)
Here the elemental mole density,
e
l
, for element l has been dened. So the element concen
tration for each element remains constant in a constant volume reaction process:
d
e
l
dt
= 0, l = 1, . . . , L. (5.406)
One can also multiply by the elemental mass, M
l
to get the elemental mass density,
e
l
:
e
l
M
l
e
l
, l = 1, . . . , L. (5.407)
Since M
l
is a constant, one can incorporate this denition into Eq. (5.406) to get
d
e
l
dt
= 0, l = 1, . . . , L. (5.408)
The element mass density remains constant in the constant volume reaction. One could also
simply say since the elements density is constant, and the mixture is simply a sum of the
elements, that the mixture density is conserved as well.
5.6.3 Energy conservation: adiabatic, isochoric reaction
Consider a simple application of the rst law of thermodynamics to reaction kinetics: that
of a closed, adiabatic, isochoric combustion process in a mixture of ideal gases. One may
be interested in the rate of temperature change. First, because the system is closed, there
can be no mass change, and because the system is isochoric, the total volume is a nonzero
constant; hence,
dm
dt
= 0, (5.409)
d
dt
(V ) = 0, (5.410)
V
d
dt
= 0, (5.411)
d
dt
= 0. (5.412)
For such a process, the rst law of thermodynamics is
dU
dt
=
Q
W. (5.413)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
192 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
But there is no heat transfer or work in the adiabatic isochoric process, so one gets
dU
dt
= 0, (5.414)
d
dt
(mu) = 0, (5.415)
m
du
dt
+ u
dm
dt
..
=0
= 0, (5.416)
du
dt
= 0. (5.417)
Thus for the mixture of ideal gases, u(T,
1
, . . . ,
N
) = u
o
. One can see how reaction rates
aect temperature changes by expanding the derivative in Eq. (5.417)
d
dt
_
N
i=1
c
i
u
i
_
= 0, (5.418)
N
i=1
d
dt
(c
i
u
i
) = 0, (5.419)
N
i=1
_
c
i
du
i
dt
+ u
i
dc
i
dt
_
= 0, (5.420)
N
i=1
_
c
i
du
i
dT
dT
dt
+ u
i
dc
i
dt
_
= 0, (5.421)
N
i=1
_
c
i
c
vi
dT
dt
+ u
i
dc
i
dt
_
= 0, (5.422)
dT
dt
N
i=1
c
i
c
vi
. .
=cv
=
N
i=1
u
i
dc
i
dt
, (5.423)
c
v
dT
dt
=
N
i=1
u
i
d
dt
_
M
i
_
, (5.424)
c
v
dT
dt
=
N
i=1
u
i
M
i
d
i
dt
, (5.425)
c
v
dT
dt
=
N
i=1
u
i
M
i
i
r, (5.426)
dT
dt
=
r
N
i=1
i
u
i
c
v
. (5.427)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.6. SOME CONSERVATION AND EVOLUTION EQUATIONS 193
If one denes the net energy change of the reaction as
U
N
i=1
i
u
i
, (5.428)
one then gets
dT
dt
=
rU
c
v
. (5.429)
The rate of temperature change is dependent on the absolute energies, not the energy dif
ferences. If the reaction is going forward, so r > 0, and that is a direction in which the net
molar energy change is negative, then the temperature will rise.
5.6.4 Energy conservation: adiabatic, isobaric reaction
Solving for the reaction dynamics in an adiabatic isobaric system requires some nonobvious
manipulations. First, the rst law of thermodynamics says dU = dQdW. Since the process
is adiabatic, one has dQ = 0, so dU +PdV = 0. Since it is isobaric, one gets d(U +PV ) = 0,
or dH = 0. So the total enthalpy is constant. Then
d
dt
H = 0, (5.430)
d
dt
(mh) = 0, (5.431)
dh
dt
= 0, (5.432)
d
dt
_
N
i=1
c
i
h
i
_
= 0, (5.433)
N
i=1
d
dt
(c
i
h
i
) = 0, (5.434)
N
i=1
c
i
dh
i
dt
+ h
i
dc
i
dt
= 0, (5.435)
N
i=1
c
i
dh
i
dT
dT
dt
+ h
i
dc
i
dt
= 0, (5.436)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
194 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
N
i=1
c
i
c
Pi
dT
dt
+
N
i=1
h
i
dc
i
dt
= 0, (5.437)
dT
dt
N
i=1
c
i
c
Pi
. .
=c
P
+
N
i=1
h
i
dc
i
dt
= 0, (5.438)
c
P
dT
dt
+
N
i=1
h
i
d
dt
_
i
M
i
_
= 0, (5.439)
c
P
dT
dt
+
N
i=1
h
i
M
i
d
dt
_
_
= 0. (5.440)
Now use Eq (5.339) to eliminate the term in Eq. (5.440) involving molar concentration
derivatives to get
c
P
dT
dt
+
N
i=1
h
i
i
r
= 0, (5.441)
dT
dt
=
r
N
i=1
h
i
i
c
P
. (5.442)
So the temperature derivative is known as an algebraic function. If one denes the net
enthalpy change as
H
N
i=1
h
i
i
, (5.443)
one gets
dT
dt
=
rH
c
P
. (5.444)
Now dierentiate the isobaric ideal gas law to get the density derivative.
P =
N
i=1
i
RT, (5.445)
0 =
N
i=1
i
R
dT
dt
+
N
i=1
RT
d
i
dt
, (5.446)
0 =
dT
dt
N
i=1
i
+
N
i=1
T
_
i
r +
i
d
dt
_
, (5.447)
0 =
1
T
dT
dt
N
i=1
i
+ r
N
i=1
i
+
1
d
dt
N
i=1
i
. (5.448)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.6. SOME CONSERVATION AND EVOLUTION EQUATIONS 195
Solving, we get
d
dt
=
1
T
dT
dt
N
i=1
i
r
N
i=1
N
i=1
. (5.449)
One takes dT/dt from Eq. (5.442) to get
d
dt
=
1
T
r
P
N
i=1
h
i
i
c
P
N
i=1
i
r
N
i=1
N
i=1
. (5.450)
Now recall that = /M and c
P
= c
P
M, so c
P
= c
P
. Then Equation (5.450) can be
reduced slightly:
d
dt
= r
P
N
i=1
h
i
i
c
P
T
=1
..
N
i=1
N
i=1
N
i=1
i
, (5.451)
= r
N
i=1
h
i
i
c
P
T
N
i=1
N
i=1
i
, (5.452)
= r
N
i=1
i
_
h
i
c
P
T
1
_
P
RT
, (5.453)
= r
RT
P
N
i=1
i
_
h
i
c
P
T
1
_
, (5.454)
= rM
N
i=1
i
_
h
i
c
P
T
1
_
, (5.455)
where M is the mean molecular mass. Note for exothermic reaction
N
i=1
i
h
i
< 0, so
exothermic reaction induces a density decrease as the increased temperature at constant
pressure causes the volume to increase.
Then using Eq. (5.455) to eliminate the density derivative in Eq. (5.338), and changing
the dummy index from i to k, one gets an explicit expression for concentration evolution:
d
i
dt
=
i
r +
i
rM
N
k=1
k
_
h
k
c
P
T
1
_
, (5.456)
= r
_
_
_
_
i
+
i
M
..
=y
i
N
k=1
k
_
h
k
c
P
T
1
_
_
_
_
_
, (5.457)
= r
_
i
+ y
i
N
k=1
k
_
h
k
c
P
T
1
_
_
. (5.458)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
196 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
Dening the change of enthalpy of the reaction as H
N
k=1
k
h
k
, and the change of
number of the reaction as n
N
k=1
k
, one can also say
d
i
dt
= r
_
i
+ y
i
_
H
c
P
T
n
__
. (5.459)
Exothermic reaction, H < 0, and net number increases, n > 0, both tend to decrease the
molar concentrations of the species in the isobaric reaction.
Lastly, the evolution of the adiabatic, isobaric system, can be described by the simul
taneous, coupled ordinary dierential equations: Eqs. (5.442, 5.450, 5.458). These require
numerical solution in general. Note also that one could also employ a more fundamental
treatment as a dierential algebraic system involving H = H
1
, P = P
1
= RT
N
i=1
i
and
Eq. (5.338).
5.6.5 Entropy evolution: ClausiusDuhem relation
Now consider whether the kinetics law that has been posed actually satises the second law
of thermodynamics. Consider again Eq. (4.387). There is an algebraic relation on the right
side. If it can be shown that this algebraic relation is positive semidenite, then the second
law is satised, and the algebraic relation is known as a ClausiusDuhem relation.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.6. SOME CONSERVATION AND EVOLUTION EQUATIONS 197
Now take Eq. (4.387) and perform some straightforward operations on it:
dS
U,V
=
1
T
N
i=1
i
dn
i
. .
irreversible entropy production
0, (5.460)
dS
dt
U,V
=
V
T
N
i=1
i
dn
i
dt
1
V
0, (5.461)
=
V
T
N
i=1
i
d
i
dt
0, (5.462)
=
V
T
N
i=1
i
aT
exp
_
E
RT
_
. .
k(T)
_
N
k=1
k
k
_
. .
forward reaction
_
_
_
_
_
1
1
K
c
N
k=1
k
k
. .
reverse reaction
_
_
_
_
_
. .
r
0,(5.463)
=
V
T
N
i=1
i
k(T)
_
N
k=1
k
k
__
1
1
K
c
N
k=1
k
k
_
0, (5.464)
=
V
T
k(T)
_
N
k=1
k
k
__
1
1
K
c
N
k=1
k
k
__
N
i=1
i
_
. .
=
0, (5.465)
Change the dummy index from k back to i,
=
V
T
k(T)
_
N
i=1
i
i
__
1
1
K
c
N
i=1
i
i
_
0, (5.466)
=
V
T
r, (5.467)
=
T
d
dt
. (5.468)
Consider now the anity term in Eq. (5.466) and expand it so that it has a more useful
form:
=
N
i=1
i
=
N
i=1
g
i
i
, (5.469)
=
N
i=1
_
g
o
T,i
+ RT ln
_
P
i
P
o
__
i
, (5.470)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
198 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
=
N
i=1
g
o
T,i
i
. .
=G
o
RT
N
i=1
ln
_
P
i
P
o
_
i
, (5.471)
= RT
_
_
_
_
G
o
RT
. .
=lnK
P
i=1
ln
_
P
i
P
o
_
i
_
_
_
_
, (5.472)
= RT
_
lnK
P
ln
N
i=1
_
P
i
P
o
_
i
_
, (5.473)
= RT
_
ln
1
K
P
+ ln
N
i=1
_
P
i
P
o
_
i
_
, (5.474)
= RT ln
_
1
K
P
N
i=1
_
P
i
P
o
_
i
_
, (5.475)
= RT ln
_
_
_
Po
RT
_
P
N
i=1
i
K
c
N
i=1
_
i
RT
P
o
_
i
_
_
, (5.476)
= RT ln
_
1
K
c
N
i=1
i
i
_
. (5.477)
Equation (5.477) is the common denition of anity. Another form can be found by em
ploying the denition of K
c
from Eq. (5.270) to get
= RT ln
_
_
P
o
RT
_
P
N
i=1
i
exp
_
G
o
RT
_
N
i=1
i
i
_
, (5.478)
= RT
_
G
o
RT
+ ln
_
_
P
o
RT
_
P
N
i=1
i
N
i=1
i
i
__
, (5.479)
= G
o
RT ln
_
_
P
o
RT
_
P
N
i=1
i
N
i=1
i
i
_
. (5.480)
To see clearly that the entropy production rate is positive semidenite, substitute
Eq. (5.477) into Eq. (5.466) to get
dS
dt
U,V
=
V
T
k(T)
_
N
i=1
i
i
__
1
1
K
c
N
i=1
i
i
__
RT ln
_
1
K
c
N
i=1
i
i
__
0,
(5.481)
= RV k(T)
_
N
i=1
i
i
__
1
1
K
c
N
i=1
i
i
_
ln
_
1
K
c
N
i=1
i
i
_
0. (5.482)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.7. SIMPLE ONESTEP KINETICS 199
Dene forward and reverse reaction coecients, R
, and R
, respectively, as
R
k(T)
N
i=1
i
, (5.483)
R
k(T)
K
c
N
i=1
i
. (5.484)
Both R
and R
. (5.485)
Note that since k(T) > 0, K
c
> 0, and
i
0, that both R
0 and R
0. Since
i
=
i
, one nds that
1
K
c
N
i=1
i
i
=
1
K
c
k(T)
k(T)
N
i=1
i
i
=
R
. (5.486)
Then Eq. (5.482) reduces to
dS
dt
U,V
= RV R
_
1
R
_
ln
_
R
_
0. (5.487)
Finally, we get
dS
dt
U,V
= RV (R
) ln
_
R
_
0. (5.488)
Obviously, if the forward rate is greater than the reverse rate R
> 0, ln(R
/R
) > 0,
and the entropy production is positive. If the forward rate is less than the reverse rate,
R
< 0, ln(R
/R
= R
.
Note that the anity can be written as
= RT ln
_
R
_
. (5.489)
And so when the forward reaction rate exceeds the reverse, the anity is positive. It is zero
at equilibrium, when the forward reaction rate equals the reverse.
5.7 Simple onestep kinetics
A common model in theoretical combustion is that of socalled simple onestep kinetics. Such
a model, in which the molecular mass does not change, is quantitatively appropriate only
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
200 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
for isomerization reactions. However, as a pedagogical tool as well as a qualitative model for
real chemistry, it can be valuable.
Consider the reversible reaction
A B. (5.490)
where chemical species A and B have identical molecular masses M
A
= M
B
= M. Consider
further the case in which at the initial state, n
o
moles of A only are present. Also take the
reaction to be isochoric and isothermal. These assumptions can easily be relaxed for more
general cases. Specializing then Eq. (5.240) for this case, one has
n
A
=
A
..
=1
+ n
Ao
..
=no
, (5.491)
n
B
=
B
..
=1
+ n
Bo
..
=0
. (5.492)
Thus
n
A
= + n
o
, (5.493)
n
B
= . (5.494)
Now n
o
is constant throughout the reaction. Scale by this and dene the dimensionless
reaction progress as
/n
o
to get
n
A
n
o
..
=y
A
=
+ 1, (5.495)
n
B
n
o
..
=y
B
=
. (5.496)
In terms of the mole fractions then, one has
y
A
= 1
, (5.497)
y
B
=
. (5.498)
The reaction kinetics for each species reduce to
d
A
dt
= r,
A
(0) =
n
o
V
o
, (5.499)
d
B
dt
= r,
B
(0) = 0. (5.500)
Addition of Eqs. (5.499) and (5.500) gives
d
dt
(
A
+
B
) = 0, (5.501)
A
+
B
=
o
, (5.502)
o
..
=y
A
+
B
o
..
=y
B
= 1. (5.503)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
5.7. SIMPLE ONESTEP KINETICS 201
In terms of the mole fractions y
i
, one then has
y
A
+ y
B
= 1. (5.504)
The reaction rate r is then
r = k
A
_
1
1
K
c
A
_
, (5.505)
= k
o
o
_
1
1
K
c
B
/
o
A
/
o
_
, (5.506)
= k
o
y
A
_
1
1
K
c
y
B
y
A
_
, (5.507)
= k
o
(1
)
_
1
1
K
c
_
. (5.508)
Now r = (1/V )d/dt = (1/V )d(n
o
)/dt = (n
o
/V )d(
)/dt =
o
d
o
d
dt
= k
o
(1
)
_
1
1
K
c
_
, (5.509)
d
dt
= k(1
)
_
1
1
K
c
_
. (5.510)
Equation (5.510) is in equilibrium when
=
1
1 +
1
Kc
1
1
K
c
+ . . . (5.511)
As K
c
, the equilibrium value of
1. In this limit, the reaction is irreversible. That
is, the species B is preferred over A. Equation (5.510) has exact solution
=
1 exp
_
k
_
1 +
1
Kc
_
t
_
1 +
1
Kc
. (5.512)
For k > 0, K
c
> 0, the equilibrium is stable. The time constant of relaxation is
=
1
k
_
1 +
1
Kc
_. (5.513)
For the isothermal, isochoric system, one should consider the second law in terms of the
Helmholtz free energy. Combine then Eq. (4.394), dA
T,V
0, with Eq. (4.311), dA =
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
202 CHAPTER 5. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF A SINGLE REACTION
SdT PdV +
N
i=1
i
dn
i
and taking time derivatives, one nds
dA
T,V
=
_
SdT PdV +
N
i=1
i
dn
i
_
T,V
0, (5.514)
dA
dt
T,V
=
N
i=1
i
dn
i
dt
0, (5.515)
1
T
dA
dt
=
V
T
N
i=1
i
d
i
dt
0. (5.516)
This is exactly the same form as Eq. (5.482), which can be directly substituted into Eq. (5.516)
to give
1
T
dA
dt
T,V
= RV k(T)
_
N
i=1
i
i
__
1
1
K
c
N
i=1
i
i
_
ln
_
1
K
c
N
i=1
i
i
_
0,
(5.517)
dA
dt
T,V
= RV Tk(T)
_
N
i=1
i
i
__
1
1
K
c
N
i=1
i
i
_
ln
_
1
K
c
N
i=1
i
i
_
0.
(5.518)
For the assumptions of this section, Eq. (5.518) reduces to
dA
dt
T,V
= RTk
o
V (1
)
_
1
1
K
c
_
ln
_
1
K
c
_
0, (5.519)
= kn
o
RT(1
)
_
1
1
K
c
_
ln
_
1
K
c
_
0. (5.520)
Since the present analysis is nothing more than a special case of the previous section,
Eq. (5.520) certainly holds. One questions however the behavior in the irreversible limit,
1/K
c
0. Evaluating this limit, one nds
lim
1/Kc0
dA
dt
T,V
= kn
o
RT
_
_
_
_
(1
)
. .
>0
ln
_
1
K
c
_
. .
+(1
) ln
(1
) ln(1
) + . . .
_
_
_
_
0.
(5.521)
Now, performing the distinguished limit as
1; that is the reaction goes to completion,
one notes that all terms are driven to zero for small 1/K
c
. Recall that 1
goes to zero
faster than ln(1
l=1
M
l
li
, i = 1, . . . , N. (6.1)
However, each reaction has a stoichiometric coecient. The j
th
reaction can be summarized
in the following ways:
N
i=1
ij
N
i=1
ij
, j = 1, . . . , J, (6.2)
N
i=1
ij
= 0, j = 1, . . . , J. (6.3)
203
204 CHAPTER 6. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF MULTIPLE REACTIONS
Stoichiometry for the j
th
reaction and l
th
element is given by the extension of Eq. (5.24):
N
i=1
li
ij
= 0, l = 1, . . . , L, j = 1, . . . , J. (6.4)
The net change in Gibbs free energy and equilibrium constants of the j
th
reaction are dened
by the extensions of Eqs. (5.268, 5.267, 5.270):
G
o
j
N
i=1
g
o
T,i
ij
, j = 1, . . . , J, (6.5)
K
P,j
exp
_
G
o
j
RT
_
, j = 1, . . . , J, (6.6)
K
c,j
_
P
o
RT
_
P
N
i=1
ij
exp
_
G
o
j
RT
_
, j = 1, . . . , J. (6.7)
The equilibrium of the j
th
reaction is given by the extension of Eq. (5.253):
N
i=1
ij
= 0, j = 1, . . . , J, (6.8)
or the extension of Eq. (5.255):
N
i=1
g
i
ij
= 0, j = 1, . . . , J. (6.9)
The multireaction extension of Eq. (4.521) for anity is
j
=
N
i=1
ij
, j = 1, . . . , J. (6.10)
In terms of the chemical anity of each reaction, the equilibrium condition is simply the
extension of Eq. (5.254):
j
= 0, j = 1, . . . , J. (6.11)
At equilibrium, then the equilibrium constraints can be shown to reduce to the extension
of Eq. (5.266):
K
P,j
=
N
i=1
_
P
i
P
o
_
ij
, j = 1, . . . , J, (6.12)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
6.1. SUMMARY OF MULTIPLE REACTION EXTENSIONS 205
or the extension of Eq. (5.274):
K
c,j
=
N
i=1
ij
i
, j = 1, . . . , J. (6.13)
For isochoric reaction, the evolution of species concentration i due to the combined eect
of J reactions is given by the extension of Eq. (5.279):
d
i
dt
=
i
..
J
j=1
ij
a
j
T
j
exp
_
E
j
RT
_
. .
k
j
(T)
_
N
k=1
kj
k
_
. .
forward reaction
_
_
_
_
_
1
1
K
c,j
N
k=1
kj
k
. .
reverse reaction
_
_
_
_
_
. .
r
j
=(1/V )d
j
/dt
, i = 1, . . . , N.
(6.14)
The extension to isobaric reactions is straightforward, and follows the same analysis as for
a single reaction. Again, three intermediate variables which are in common usage have been
dened. First one takes the reaction rate of the j
th
reaction to be the extension of Eq. (5.280)
r
j
a
j
T
j
exp
_
E
j
RT
_
. .
k
j
(T)
_
N
k=1
kj
k
_
. .
forward reaction
_
_
_
_
_
1
1
K
c,j
N
k=1
kj
k
. .
reverse reaction
_
_
_
_
_
, j = 1, . . . , J, (6.15)
or the extension of Eq. (5.281)
r
j
= a
j
T
j
exp
_
E
j
RT
_
. .
k
j
(T), Arrhenius rate
_
_
_
_
_
N
k=1
kj
k
. .
forward reaction
1
K
c,j
N
k=1
kj
k
. .
reverse reaction
_
_
_
_
_
. .
law of mass action
, j = 1, . . . , J, (6.16)
r
j
=
1
V
d
j
dt
. (6.17)
Here
j
is the reaction progress variable for the j
th
reaction.
Each reaction has a temperaturedependent rate function k
j
(T), which is an extension of
Eq. (5.282):
k
j
(T) a
j
T
j
exp
_
E
j
RT
_
, j = 1, . . . , J. (6.18)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
206 CHAPTER 6. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF MULTIPLE REACTIONS
The evolution rate of each species is given by
i
, dened now as an extension of Eq. (5.284):
i
J
j=1
ij
r
j
, i = 1, . . . , N. (6.19)
The multireaction extension of Eq. (5.239) for mole change in terms of progress variables
is
dn
i
=
J
j=1
ij
d
j
, i = 1, . . . , N. (6.20)
One also has Eq. (5.243):
dG
T,P
=
N
i=1
i
dn
i
, (6.21)
=
N
i=1
i
J
k=1
ik
d
k
, (6.22)
G
p
=
N
i=1
i
J
k=1
ik
j
, (6.23)
=
N
i=1
i
J
j=1
ik
kj
, (6.24)
=
N
i=1
ij
, (6.25)
=
j
, j = 1, . . . , J. (6.26)
For a set of adiabatic, isochoric reactions, one can show the extension of Eq. (5.429) is
dT
dt
=
J
j=1
r
j
U
j
c
v
, (6.27)
where the energy change for a reaction U
j
is dened as the extension of Eq. (5.428):
U
j
=
N
i=1
u
i
ij
, j = 1, . . . , J. (6.28)
Similarly for a set of adiabatic, isobaric reactions, one can show the extension of Eq. (5.444):
dT
dt
=
J
j=1
r
j
H
j
c
P
, (6.29)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
6.1. SUMMARY OF MULTIPLE REACTION EXTENSIONS 207
where the enthalpy change for a reaction H
j
is dened as the extension of Eq. (5.443):
H
j
=
N
i=1
h
i
ij
, j = 1, . . . , J. (6.30)
Moreover, the density and species concentration derivatives for an adiabatic, isobaric set can
be shown to be extensions of Eqs. (5.455, 5.459):
d
dt
= M
J
j=1
r
j
N
i=1
ij
_
h
i
c
P
T
1
_
, (6.31)
d
i
dt
=
J
j=1
r
j
_
ij
+ y
i
_
H
j
c
P
T
n
j
__
, (6.32)
where
n
j
=
N
k=1
kj
. (6.33)
In a similar fashion to that shown for a single reaction, one can further sum over all
reactions and prove that mixture mass is conserved, element mass and number are conserved.
Example 6.1
Show that element mass and number are conserved for the multireaction formulation.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
208 CHAPTER 6. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF MULTIPLE REACTIONS
Start with Eq. (6.14) and expand as follows:
d
i
dt
=
J
j=1
ij
r
j
, (6.34)
li
d
i
dt
=
li
J
j=1
ij
r
j
, (6.35)
d
dt
(
li
i
) =
J
j=1
li
ij
r
j
, (6.36)
N
i=1
d
dt
(
li
i
) =
N
i=1
J
j=1
li
ij
r
j
, (6.37)
d
dt
_
N
i=1
li
i
_
. .
=
e
l
=
J
j=1
N
i=1
li
ij
r
j
, (6.38)
d
e
l
dt
=
J
j=1
r
j
N
i=1
li
ij
. .
=0
, (6.39)
d
e
l
dt
= 0, l = 1, . . . , L, (6.40)
d
dt
(M
l
e
l
) = 0, l = 1, . . . , L, (6.41)
d
e
l
dt
= 0, l = 1, . . . , L. (6.42)
It is also straightforward to show that the mixture density is conserved for the multireaction, multi
component mixture:
d
dt
= 0. (6.43)
The proof of the ClausiusDuhem relationship for the second law is an extension of the
single reaction result. Start with Eq. (5.460) and operate much as for a single reaction model.
dS
U,V
=
1
T
N
i=1
i
dn
i
. .
irreversible entropy production
0, (6.44)
dS
dt
U,V
=
V
T
N
i=1
i
dn
i
dt
1
V
0, (6.45)
=
V
T
N
i=1
i
d
i
dt
0, (6.46)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
6.1. SUMMARY OF MULTIPLE REACTION EXTENSIONS 209
=
V
T
N
i=1
i
J
j=1
ij
r
j
0, (6.47)
=
V
T
N
i=1
J
j=1
ij
r
j
0, (6.48)
=
V
T
J
j=1
r
j
N
i=1
ij
0, (6.49)
=
V
T
J
j=1
k
j
N
i=1
ij
i
_
1
1
K
c,j
N
i=1
ij
i
_
N
i=1
ij
0, (6.50)
=
V
T
J
j=1
k
j
N
i=1
ij
i
_
1
1
K
c,j
N
i=1
ij
i
__
RT ln
_
1
K
c,j
N
i=1
ij
i
__
0,
(6.51)
= RV
J
j=1
k
j
N
i=1
ij
i
_
1
1
K
c,j
N
i=1
ij
i
_
ln
_
1
K
c,j
N
i=1
ij
i
_
0. (6.52)
Note that Eq. (6.49) can also be written in terms of the anities (see Eq. (6.10)) and reaction
progress variables (see Eq. (6.17) as
dS
dt
U,V
=
1
T
J
j=1
j
d
j
dt
0. (6.53)
Similar to the argument for a single reaction, if one denes extensions of Eqs. (5.483,
5.484) as
R
j
= k
j
N
i=1
ij
i
, (6.54)
R
j
=
k
j
K
c,j
N
i=1
ij
i
, (6.55)
then it is easy to show that
r
j
= R
j
R
j
, (6.56)
and we get the equivalent of Eq. (5.488):
dS
dt
U,V
= RV
J
j=1
_
R
j
R
j
_
ln
_
R
j
R
j
_
0. (6.57)
Since k
j
(T) > 0, R > 0, and V 0, and each term in the summation combines to be positive
semidenite, one sees that the ClausiusDuhem inequality is guaranteed to be satised for
multicomponent reactions.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
210 CHAPTER 6. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF MULTIPLE REACTIONS
6.2 Equilibrium conditions
For multicomponent mixtures undergoing multiple reactions, determining the equilibrium
condition is more dicult. There are two primary approaches, both of which are essentially
equivalent. The most straightforward method requires formal minimization of the Gibbs free
energy of the mixture. It can be shown that this actually nds the equilibrium associated
with all possible reactions.
6.2.1 Minimization of G via Lagrange multipliers
Recall Eq. (4.395), dG
T,P
0. Recall also Eq. (4.397), G =
N
i=1
g
i
n
i
. Since
i
= g
i
=
G
n
i
P,T,n
j
, one also has G =
N
i=1
i
n
i
. From Eq. (4.398), dG
T,P
=
N
i=1
i
dn
i
. Now
one must also demand for a system coming to equilibrium that the element numbers are
conserved. This can be achieved by requiring
N
i=1
li
(n
io
n
i
) = 0, l = 1, . . . , L. (6.58)
Here recall n
io
is the initial number of moles of species i in the mixture, and
li
is the number
of moles of element l in species i. If one interprets n
io
n
i
as
ij
, the negative of the net
mole change, Eq. (6.58) becomes
N
i=1
li
ij
= 0, equivalent to Eq. (6.4).
One can now use the method of constrained optimization given by the method of Lagrange
multipliers to extremize G subject to the constraints of element conservation. The extremum
will be a minimum; this will not be proved, but it will be demonstrated. Dene a set of L
Lagrange multipliers
l
. Next dene an augmented Gibbs free energy function G
, which is
simply G plus the product of the Lagrange multipliers and the constraints:
G
= G+
L
l=1
l
N
k=1
lk
(n
ko
n
k
). (6.59)
Now when the constraints are satised, one has G
. To extremize G
n
i
T,P,n
j
=
G
n
i
T,P,n
j
. .
=
i
+
n
i
T,P,n
j
_
L
l=1
l
N
k=1
lk
(n
ko
n
k
)
_
= 0, i = 1, . . . , N,
(6.60)
=
i
l=1
l
N
k=1
lk
n
k
n
i
T,P,n
j
. .
ki
= 0, i = 1, . . . , N, (6.61)
=
i
l=1
l
N
k=1
lk
ki
= 0, i = 1, . . . , N, (6.62)
=
i
l=1
li
= 0, i = 1, . . . , N. (6.63)
Next, for an ideal gas, one can expand the chemical potential so as to get
o
T,i
+ RT ln
_
P
i
P
o
_
. .
=
i
l=1
li
= 0, i = 1, . . . , N, (6.64)
o
T,i
+ RT ln
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
n
i
P
N
k=1
n
k
_
. .
=P
i
1
P
o
_
_
_
_
_
_
l=1
li
= 0, i = 1, . . . , N. (6.65)
Recalling that
N
k=1
n
k
= n, in summary then, one has N + L equations
o
T,i
+ RT ln
_
n
i
n
P
P
o
_
l=1
li
= 0, i = 1, . . . , N, (6.66)
N
i=1
li
(n
io
n
i
) = 0, l = 1, . . . , L. (6.67)
in N + L unknowns: n
i
, i = 1, . . . , N,
l
, l = 1, . . . , L.
Example 6.2
Consider a previous example problem, see p. 145, in which
N
2
+N
2
2N +N
2
. (6.68)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
212 CHAPTER 6. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF MULTIPLE REACTIONS
Take the reaction to be isothermal and isobaric with T = 6000 K and P = 100 kPa. Initially one has
1 kmole of N
2
and 0 kmole of N. Use the extremization of Gibbs free energy to nd the equilibrium
composition.
First nd the chemical potentials at the reference pressure of each of the possible constituents.
o
T,i
= g
o
i
= h
o
i
Ts
o
i
= h
o
298,i
+ h
o
i
Ts
o
i
. (6.69)
For each species, one then nds
o
N2
= 0 + 205848 (6000)(292.984) = 1552056
kJ
kmole
, (6.70)
o
N
= 472680 + 124590 (6000)(216.926) = 704286
kJ
kmole
. (6.71)
To each of these one must add
RT ln
_
n
i
P
nP
o
_
,
to get the full chemical potential. Now P = P
o
= 100 kPa for this problem, so one only must consider
RT = 8.314(6000) = 49884 kJ/kmole. So, the chemical potentials are
N2
= 1552056 + 49884 ln
_
n
N2
n
N
+n
N2
_
, (6.72)
N
= 704286 + 49884 ln
_
n
N
n
N
+n
N2
_
. (6.73)
Then one adds on the Lagrange multiplier and then considers element conservation to get the
following coupled set of nonlinear algebraic equations:
1552056 + 49884 ln
_
n
N2
n
N
+n
N2
_
2
N
= 0, (6.74)
704286 + 49884 ln
_
n
N
n
N
+n
N2
_
N
= 0, (6.75)
n
N
+ 2n
N2
= 2. (6.76)
These nonlinear equations are solved numerically to get
n
N2
= 0.88214 kmole, (6.77)
n
N
= 0.2357 kmole, (6.78)
N
= 781934
kJ
kmole
. (6.79)
These agree with results found in the earlier example problem, see p. 145.
Example 6.3
Consider a mixture of 2 kmole of H
2
and 1 kmole of O
2
at T = 3000 K and P = 100 kPa.
Assuming an isobaric and isothermal equilibration process with the products consisting of H
2
, O
2
,
H
2
O, OH, H, and O, nd the equilibrium concentrations. Consider the same mixture at T = 298 K
and T = 1000 K.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
6.2. EQUILIBRIUM CONDITIONS 213
The rst task is to nd the chemical potentials of each species at the reference pressure and
T = 3000 K. Here one can use the standard tables along with the general equation
o
T,i
= g
o
i
= h
o
i
Ts
o
i
= h
o
298,i
+ h
o
i
Ts
o
i
. (6.80)
For each species, one then nds
o
H2
= 0 + 88724 3000(202.989) = 520242
kJ
kmole
, (6.81)
o
O2
= 0 + 98013 3000(284.466) = 755385
kJ
kmole
, (6.82)
o
H2O
= 241826 + 126548 3000(286.504) = 974790
kJ
kmole
, (6.83)
o
OH
= 38987 + 89585 3000(256.825) = 641903
kJ
kmole
, (6.84)
o
H
= 217999 + 56161 3000(162.707) = 213961
kJ
kmole
, (6.85)
o
O
= 249170 + 56574 3000(209.705) = 323371
kJ
kmole
. (6.86)
To each of these one must add
RT ln
_
n
i
P
nP
o
_
,
to get the full chemical potential. Now P = P
o
= 100 kPa for this problem, so one must only consider
RT = 8.314(3000) = 24942 kJ/kmole. So, the chemical potentials are
H2
= 520243 + 24942 ln
_
n
H2
n
H2
+n
O2
+n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
H
+n
O
_
, (6.87)
O2
= 755385 + 24942 ln
_
n
O2
n
H2
+n
O2
+n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
H
+n
O
_
, (6.88)
H2O
= 974790 + 24942 ln
_
n
H2O
n
H2
+n
O2
+n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
H
+n
O
_
, (6.89)
OH
= 641903 + 24942 ln
_
n
OH
n
H2
+n
O2
+n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
H
+n
O
_
, (6.90)
H
= 213961 + 24942 ln
_
n
H
n
H2
+n
O2
+n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
H
+n
O
_
, (6.91)
O
= 323371 + 24942 ln
_
n
O
n
H2
+n
O2
+n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
H
+n
O
_
. (6.92)
Then one adds on the Lagrange multipliers and then considers element conservation to get the following
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
214 CHAPTER 6. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF MULTIPLE REACTIONS
coupled set of nonlinear equations:
520243 + 24942 ln
_
n
H2
n
H2
+n
O2
+n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
H
+n
O
_
2
H
= 0, (6.93)
755385 + 24942 ln
_
n
O2
n
H2
+n
O2
+n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
H
+n
O
_
2
O
= 0, (6.94)
974790 + 24942 ln
_
n
H2O
n
H2
+n
O2
+n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
H
+n
O
_
2
H
O
= 0, (6.95)
641903 + 24942 ln
_
n
OH
n
H2
+n
O2
+n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
H
+n
O
_
H
O
= 0, (6.96)
213961 + 24942 ln
_
n
H
n
H2
+n
O2
+n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
H
+n
O
_
H
= 0, (6.97)
323371 + 24942 ln
_
n
O
n
H2
+n
O2
+n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
H
+n
O
_
O
= 0, (6.98)
2n
H2
+ 2n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
H
= 4, (6.99)
2n
O2
+n
H2O
+n
OH
+ n
O
= 2. (6.100)
These nonlinear algebraic equations can be solved numerically via a NewtonRaphson technique.
The equations are sensitive to the initial guess, and one can use ones intuition to help guide the
selection. For example, one might expect to have n
H2O
somewhere near 2 kmole. Application of the
NewtonRaphson iteration yields
n
H2
= 3.19 10
1
kmole, (6.101)
n
O2
= 1.10 10
1
kmole, (6.102)
n
H2O
= 1.50 10
0
kmole, (6.103)
n
OH
= 2.20 10
1
kmole, (6.104)
n
H
= 1.36 10
1
kmole, (6.105)
n
O
= 5.74 10
2
kmole, (6.106)
H
= 2.85 10
5
kJ
kmole
, (6.107)
O
= 4.16 10
5
kJ
kmole
. (6.108)
At this relatively high value of temperature, all species considered have a relatively major presence.
That is, there are no truly minor species.
Unless a very good guess is provided, it may be dicult to nd a solution for this set of non
linear equations. Straightforward algebra allows the equations to be recast in a form which sometimes
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
6.2. EQUILIBRIUM CONDITIONS 215
converges more rapidly:
n
H2
n
H2
+n
O2
+n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
H
+n
O
= exp
_
520243
24942
__
exp
_
H
24942
__
2
, (6.109)
n
O2
n
H2
+n
O2
+n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
H
+n
O
= exp
_
755385
24942
__
exp
_
O
24942
__
2
, (6.110)
n
H2O
n
H2
+n
O2
+n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
H
+n
O
= exp
_
974790
24942
_
exp
_
O
24942
__
exp
_
H
24942
__
2
, (6.111)
n
OH
n
H2
+n
O2
+n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
H
+n
O
= exp
_
641903
24942
_
exp
_
O
24942
_
exp
_
H
24942
_
, (6.112)
n
H
n
H2
+n
O2
+n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
H
+n
O
= exp
_
213961
24942
_
exp
_
H
24942
_
, (6.113)
n
O
n
H2
+n
O2
+n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
H
+n
O
= exp
_
323371
24942
_
exp
_
O
24942
_
, (6.114)
2n
H2
+ 2n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
H
= 4, (6.115)
2n
O2
+n
H2O
+n
OH
+n
O
= 2. (6.116)
Then solve these considering n
i
, exp (
O
/24942), and exp(
H
/24942) as unknowns. The same result
is recovered, but a broader range of initial guesses converge to the correct solution.
One can verify that this choice extremizes G by direct computation; moreover, this will show
that the extremum is actually a minimum. In so doing, one must exercise care to see that element
conservation is retained. As an example, perturb the equilibrium solution above for n
H2
and n
H
such
that
n
H2
= 3.19 10
1
+, (6.117)
n
H
= 1.36 10
1
2. (6.118)
Leave all other species mole numbers the same. In this way, when = 0, one has the original equilibrium
solution. For = 0, the solution moves o the equilibrium value in such a way that elements are
conserved. Then one has G =
N
i=1
i
n
i
= G().
The dierence G() G(0) is plotted in Fig. 6.1. When = 0, there is no deviation from the value
predicted by the NewtonRaphson iteration. Clearly when = 0, G() G(0), takes on a minimum
value, and so then does G(). So the procedure works.
At the lower temperature, T = 298 K, application of the same procedure yields very dierent
results:
n
H2
= 4.88 10
27
kmole, (6.119)
n
O2
= 2.44 10
27
kmole, (6.120)
n
H2O
= 2.00 10
0
kmole, (6.121)
n
OH
= 2.22 10
29
kmole, (6.122)
n
H
= 2.29 10
49
kmole, (6.123)
n
O
= 1.67 10
54
kmole, (6.124)
H
= 9.54 10
4
kJ
kmole
, (6.125)
O
= 1.07 10
5
kJ
kmole
. (6.126)
At the intermediate temperature, T = 1000 K, application of the same procedure shows the minor
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
216 CHAPTER 6. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF MULTIPLE REACTIONS
0.01 0.005 0.005 0.01
10
20
30
40
(kmole)
G()  G(0) (kJ)
Figure 6.1: Gibbs free energy variation as mixture composition is varied maintaining element
conservation for mixture of H
2
, O
2
, H
2
O, OH, H, and O at T = 3000 K, P = 100 kPa.
species become slightly more prominent:
n
H2
= 4.99 10
7
kmole, (6.127)
n
O2
= 2.44 10
7
kmole, (6.128)
n
H2O
= 2.00 10
0
kmole, (6.129)
n
OH
= 2.09 10
8
kmole, (6.130)
n
H
= 2.26 10
12
kmole, (6.131)
n
O
= 1.10 10
13
kmole, (6.132)
H
= 1.36 10
5
kJ
kmole
, (6.133)
O
= 1.77 10
5
kJ
kmole
. (6.134)
6.2.2 Equilibration of all reactions
In another equivalent method, if one commences with a multireaction model, one can require
each reaction to be in equilibrium. This leads to a set of algebraic equations for r
j
= 0, which
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
6.2. EQUILIBRIUM CONDITIONS 217
from Eq. (6.16) leads to
K
c,j
=
_
P
o
RT
_
P
N
i=1
ij
exp
_
G
o
j
RT
_
=
N
k=1
kj
k
, j = 1, . . . , J. (6.135)
With some eort it can be shown that not all of the J equations are linearly independent.
Moreover, they do not possess a unique solution. However, for closed systems, only one of
the solutions is physical, as will be shown in the following section. The others typically
involve nonphysical, negative concentrations.
Nevertheless, Eqs. (6.135) are entirely consistent with the predictions of the N +L equa
tions which arise from extremization of Gibbs free energy while enforcing element number
constraints. This can be shown by beginning with Eq. (6.65), rewritten in terms of molar
concentrations, and performing the following sequence of operations:
o
T,i
+ RT ln
_
n
i
/V
N
k=1
n
k
/V
P
P
o
_
l=1
li
= 0, i = 1, . . . , N, (6.136)
o
T,i
+ RT ln
_
i
N
k=1
k
P
P
o
_
l=1
li
= 0, i = 1, . . . , N, (6.137)
o
T,i
+ RT ln
_
P
P
o
_
l=1
li
= 0, i = 1, . . . , N, (6.138)
o
T,i
+ RT ln
_
i
RT
P
o
_
l=1
li
= 0, i = 1, . . . , N, (6.139)
ij
o
T,i
+
ij
RT ln
_
i
RT
P
o
_
ij
L
l=1
li
= 0, i = 1, . . . , N,
j = 1, . . . , J, (6.140)
N
i=1
ij
o
T,i
. .
=G
o
j
+
N
i=1
ij
RT ln
_
i
RT
P
o
_
i=1
ij
L
l=1
li
= 0, j = 1, . . . , J, (6.141)
G
o
j
+ RT
N
i=1
ij
ln
_
i
RT
P
o
_
l=1
l
N
i=1
li
ij
. .
=0
= 0, j = 1, . . . , J, (6.142)
G
o
j
+ RT
N
i=1
ij
ln
_
i
RT
P
o
_
= 0, j = 1, . . . , J. (6.143)
Here, the stoichiometry for each reaction has been employed to remove the Lagrange multi
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
218 CHAPTER 6. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF MULTIPLE REACTIONS
pliers. Continue to nd
N
i=1
ln
_
i
RT
P
o
_
ij
=
G
o
j
RT
, j = 1, . . . , J, (6.144)
exp
_
N
i=1
ln
_
i
RT
P
o
_
ij
_
= exp
_
G
o
j
RT
_
, j = 1, . . . , J, (6.145)
N
i=1
_
i
RT
P
o
_
ij
= exp
_
G
o
j
RT
_
, j = 1, . . . , J, (6.146)
_
RT
P
o
_
P
N
i=1
ij N
i=1
ij
= exp
_
G
o
j
RT
_
, j = 1, . . . , J, (6.147)
N
i=1
ij
=
_
P
o
RT
_
P
N
i=1
ij
exp
_
G
o
j
RT
_
. .
=K
c,j
, j = 1, . . . , J,(6.148)
In summary,
N
i=1
ij
= K
c,j
, j = 1, . . . , J, (6.149)
which is identical to Eq. (6.135), obtained by equilibrating each of the J reactions. Thus,
extremization of Gibbs free energy is consistent with equilibrating each of the J reactions.
6.3 Concise reaction rate law formulations
One can additional analysis to obtain a more ecient representation of the reaction rate law
for multiple reactions. There are two important cases: 1) J (N L); this is most common
for large chemical kinetic systems, and 2) J < (N L); this is common for simple chemistry
models.
The species production rate is given by Eq. (6.14), which reduces to
d
i
dt
=
1
V
J
j=1
ij
d
j
dt
, i = 1, . . . , N. (6.150)
Now recalling Eq. (5.99), one has
dn
i
=
NL
k=1
D
ik
d
k
, i = 1, . . . , N. (6.151)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
6.3. CONCISE REACTION RATE LAW FORMULATIONS 219
Comparing then Eq. (6.151) to Eq. (6.20), one sees that
J
j=1
ij
d
j
=
NL
k=1
D
ik
d
k
, i = 1, . . . , N, (6.152)
1
V
J
j=1
ij
d
j
=
1
V
NL
k=1
D
ik
d
k
, i = 1, . . . , N. (6.153)
6.3.1 Reaction dominant: J (N L)
Consider rst the most common case in which J (N L). One can say the species
production rate is given
d
i
dt
=
1
V
NL
k=1
D
ik
d
k
dt
=
J
j=1
ij
r
j
, i = 1, . . . , N. (6.154)
One would like to invert and solve directly for d
k
/dt. However, D
ik
is nonsquare and has
no inverse. But since
N
i=1
li
D
ip
= 0, and
N
i=1
li
ij
= 0, L of the equations N equations
in Eq. (6.154) are redundant.
At this point, it is more convenient to go to a Gibbs vector notation, where there is an
obvious correspondence between the bold vectors and the indicial counterparts:
d
dt
=
1
V
D
d
dt
= r, (6.155)
D
T
D
d
dt
= V D
T
r, (6.156)
d
dt
= V (D
T
D)
1
D
T
r. (6.157)
Because of the L linear dependencies, there is no loss of information in this matrix projection.
This system of N L equations is the smallest number of dierential equations that can be
solved for a general system in which J > (N L).
Lastly, one recovers the original system when forming
D
d
dt
= V D (D
T
D)
1
D
T
. .
=P
r. (6.158)
Here, the N N projection matrix P is symmetric, has norm of unity, has rank of N L,
has NL eigenvalues of value unity, and L eigenvalues of value zero. And, while application
of a general projection matrix to r lters some of the information in r, because the
N (N L) matrix D spans the same column space as the N J matrix , no information
is lost in Eq. (6.158) relative to the original Eq. (6.155). Mathematically, one can say
P = . (6.159)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
220 CHAPTER 6. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF MULTIPLE REACTIONS
6.3.2 Species dominant: J < (N L)
Next consider the case in which J < (NL). This often arises in models of simple chemistry,
for example one or twostep kinetics.
The fundamental reaction dynamics are most concisely governed by the J equations
which form
1
V
d
dt
= r. (6.160)
However, r is a function of the concentrations; one must therefore recover as a function
of reaction progress . In vector form, Eq. (6.150) is written as
d
dt
=
1
V
d
dt
. (6.161)
Take as an initial condition that the reaction progress is zero at t = 0 and that there are an
appropriate set of initial conditions on the species concentrations :
= 0, t = 0, (6.162)
=
o
, t = 0. (6.163)
Then, since is a constant, Eq. (6.161) is easily integrated. After applying the initial
conditions, Eq. (6.163), one gets
=
o
+
1
V
. (6.164)
Last, if J = (NL), either approach yields the same number of equations, and is equally
concise.
6.4 Adiabatic, isochoric kinetics
Here an example which uses multiple reactions for an adiabatic isochoric system is given.
Example 6.4
Consider the full timedependency of a problem considered in a previous example in which the
equilibrium state was found; see Sec. 5.3.3.4,. A closed, xed, adiabatic volume contains at t = 0 s a
stoichiometric mixture of 2 kmole of H
2
, 1 kmole of O
2
, and 8 kmole of N
2
at 100 kPa and 1000 K.
Find the reaction dynamics as the system proceeds from its initial state to its nal state.
This problem requires a detailed numerical solution. Such a solution was performed by solving
Eq. (6.14) along with the associated calorically imperfect species state equations for a mixture of
eighteen interacting species: H
2
, H, O, O
2
, OH, H
2
O, HO
2
, H
2
O
2
, N, NH
2
, NH
3
, N
2
H, NO, NO
2
,
N
2
O, HNO, and N
2
. The equilibrium values were reported in a previous example.
The dynamics of the reaction process are reected in Fig. 6.2. At early time, t < 4 10
4
s, the
pressure, temperature, and major reactant species concentrations (H
2
, O
2
, N
2
) are nearly constant.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
6.4. ADIABATIC, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 221
10
6
10
4
10
2
10
40
10
30
10
20
10
10
10
0
t (s)
10
6
10
4
10
2
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
t (s)
T
(
K
)
10
6
10
4
10
2
100
150
200
250
t (s)
P
(
k
P
a
)
10
6
10
4
10
2
10
20
10
15
10
10
10
5
t (s)
i
(
k
m
o
l
e
/
m
)
3
i
(
k
m
o
l
e
/
m
)
3
a
b
c
d
induction
time
Hydrogen
OxygenRelated
Species
Evolution
Nitrogen
and Nitrogen
Oxides Species
Evolution
H O
2
H
2
O
2
OH
H
O
HO
2
H O
2 2
H O
2
H
2
O
2
H O
2 2
N
2
N
NO
N O
2
NO
NO
2
Figure 6.2: Plot of a)
H
2
(t),
H
(t),
O
(t),
O
2
(t),
OH
(t),
H
2
O
(t),
HO
2
(t),
H
2
O
2
(t), b)
N
(t),
NO
(t),
NO2
(t),
N
2
O
(t),
N
2
(t), c) T(t), and d) P(t) for adiabatic, isochoric combustion of
a mixture of 2H
2
+ O
2
+ 8N
2
initially at T = 1000 K, P = 100 kPa.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
222 CHAPTER 6. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF MULTIPLE REACTIONS
However, the minor species, e.g. OH, NO, HO
2
and the major product, H
2
O, are undergoing very
rapid growth, albeit concentrations whose value remains small. In this period, the material is in what
is known as the induction period.
After a certain critical mass of minor species has accumulated, exothermic recombination of these
minor species to form the major product H
2
O induces the temperature to rise, which accelerates further
the reaction rates. This is manifested in a thermal explosion. A common denition of the end of the
induction period is the induction time, t = t
ind
, the time when dT/dt goes through a maximum. Here
one nds
t
ind
= 4.53 10
4
s. (6.165)
At the end of the induction zone, there is a nal relaxation to equilibrium.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
Chapter 7
Kinetics in some more detail
Here we give further details of kinetics. These notes are also used to introduce a separate
combustion course and have some overlap with previous chapters.
Let us consider the reaction of N molecular chemical species composed of L elements via
J chemical reactions. Let us assume the gas is an ideal mixture of ideal gases that satises
Daltons law of partial pressures. The reaction will be considered to be driven by molecular
collisions. We will not model individual collisions, but instead attempt to capture their
collective eect.
An example of a model of such a reaction is listed in Table 7.1. There we nd a N = 9
species, J = 37 step irreversible reaction mechanism for an L = 3 hydrogenoxygenargon
mixture from Maas and Warnatz,
1
with corrected f
H
2
from Maas and Pope.
2
The model has
also been utilized by Fedkiw, et al.
3
We need not worry yet about f
H
2
, which is known as
a collision eciency factor. The onesided arrows indicate that each individual reaction is
considered to be irreversible. Note that for nearly each reaction, a separate reverse reaction is
listed; thus, pairs of irreversible reactions can in some sense be considered to model reversible
reactions.
In this model a set of elementary reactions are hypothesized. For the j
th
reaction we have
the collision frequency factor a
j
, the temperaturedependency exponent
j
and the activation
energy E
j
. These will be explained in short order. Other common forms exist. Often
reactions systems are described as being composed of reversible reactions. Such reactions are
usually notated by two sided arrows. One such system is reported by Powers and Paolucci
4
reported here in Table 7.2. Both overall models are complicated.
1
Maas, U., and Warnatz, J., 1988, Ignition Processes in HydrogenOxygen Mixtures, Combustion and
Flame, 74(1): 5369.
2
Maas, U., and Pope, S. B., 1992, Simplifying Chemical Kinetics: Intrinsic LowDimensional Manifolds
in Composition Space, Combustion and Flame, 88(34): 239264.
3
Fedkiw, R. P., Merriman, B., and Osher, S., 1997, High Accuracy Numerical Methods for Thermally
Perfect Gas Flows with Chemistry, Journal of Computational Physics, 132(2): 175190.
4
Powers, J. M., and Paolucci, S., 2005, Accurate Spatial Resolution Estimates for Reactive Supersonic
Flow with Detailed Chemistry, AIAA Journal, 43(5): 10881099.
223
224 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
j Reaction a
j
_
(mol/cm
3
)
(
1
M,j
P
N
i=1
ij
)
s K
j
_
j
E
j
_
kJ
mole
_
1 O
2
+ H OH + O 2.00 10
14
0.00 70.30
2 OH + O O
2
+ H 1.46 10
13
0.00 2.08
3 H
2
+ O OH + H 5.06 10
4
2.67 26.30
4 OH + H H
2
+ O 2.24 10
4
2.67 18.40
5 H
2
+ OH H
2
O + H 1.00 10
8
1.60 13.80
6 H
2
O + H H
2
+ OH 4.45 10
8
1.60 77.13
7 OH + OH H
2
O + O 1.50 10
9
1.14 0.42
8 H
2
O + O OH + OH 1.51 10
10
1.14 71.64
9 H + H + M H
2
+ M 1.80 10
18
1.00 0.00
10 H
2
+ M H + H + M 6.99 10
18
1.00 436.08
11 H + OH + M H
2
O + M 2.20 10
22
2.00 0.00
12 H
2
O + M H + OH + M 3.80 10
23
2.00 499.41
13 O + O + M O
2
+ M 2.90 10
17
1.00 0.00
14 O
2
+ M O + O + M 6.81 10
18
1.00 496.41
15 H + O
2
+ M HO
2
+ M 2.30 10
18
0.80 0.00
16 HO
2
+ M H + O
2
+ M 3.26 10
18
0.80 195.88
17 HO
2
+ H OH + OH 1.50 10
14
0.00 4.20
18 OH + OH HO
2
+ H 1.33 10
13
0.00 168.30
19 HO
2
+ H H
2
+ O
2
2.50 10
13
0.00 2.90
20 H
2
+ O
2
HO
2
+ H 6.84 10
13
0.00 243.10
21 HO
2
+ H H
2
O + O 3.00 10
13
0.00 7.20
22 H
2
O + O HO
2
+ H 2.67 10
13
0.00 242.52
23 HO
2
+ O OH + O
2
1.80 10
13
0.00 1.70
24 OH + O
2
HO
2
+ O 2.18 10
13
0.00 230.61
25 HO
2
+ OH H
2
O + O
2
6.00 10
13
0.00 0.00
26 H
2
O + O
2
HO
2
+ OH 7.31 10
14
0.00 303.53
27 HO
2
+ HO
2
H
2
O
2
+ O
2
2.50 10
11
0.00 5.20
28 OH + OH + M H
2
O
2
+ M 3.25 10
22
2.00 0.00
29 H
2
O
2
+ M OH + OH + M 2.10 10
24
2.00 206.80
30 H
2
O
2
+ H H
2
+ HO
2
1.70 10
12
0.00 15.70
31 H
2
+ HO
2
H
2
O
2
+ H 1.15 10
12
0.00 80.88
32 H
2
O
2
+ H H
2
O + OH 1.00 10
13
0.00 15.00
33 H
2
O + OH H
2
O
2
+ H 2.67 10
12
0.00 307.51
34 H
2
O
2
+ O OH + HO
2
2.80 10
13
0.00 26.80
35 OH + HO
2
H
2
O
2
+ O 8.40 10
12
0.00 84.09
36 H
2
O
2
+ OH H
2
O + HO
2
5.40 10
12
0.00 4.20
37 H
2
O + HO
2
H
2
O
2
+ OH 1.63 10
13
0.00 132.71
Table 7.1: Third body collision eciencies with M are f
H
2
= 1.00, f
O
2
= 0.35, and f
H
2
O
=
6.5.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
225
j Reaction a
j
_
(mol/cm
3
)
(
1
M,j
P
N
i=1
ij
)
s K
j
_
j
E
j
_
cal
mole
_
1 H
2
+ O
2
OH + OH 1.70 10
13
0.00 47780
2 OH + H
2
H
2
O + H 1.17 10
9
1.30 3626
3 H + O
2
OH + O 5.13 10
16
0.82 16507
4 O + H
2
OH + H 1.80 10
10
1.00 8826
5 H + O
2
+ M HO
2
+ M 2.10 10
18
1.00 0
6 H + O
2
+ O
2
HO
2
+ O
2
6.70 10
19
1.42 0
7 H + O
2
+ N
2
HO
2
+ N
2
6.70 10
19
1.42 0
8 OH + HO
2
H
2
O + O
2
5.00 10
13
0.00 1000
9 H + HO
2
OH + OH 2.50 10
14
0.00 1900
10 O + HO
2
O
2
+ OH 4.80 10
13
0.00 1000
11 OH + OH O + H
2
O 6.00 10
8
1.30 0
12 H
2
+ M H + H + M 2.23 10
12
0.50 92600
13 O
2
+ M O + O + M 1.85 10
11
0.50 95560
14 H + OH + M H
2
O + M 7.50 10
23
2.60 0
15 H + HO
2
H
2
+ O
2
2.50 10
13
0.00 700
16 HO
2
+ HO
2
H
2
O
2
+ O
2
2.00 10
12
0.00 0
17 H
2
O
2
+ M OH + OH + M 1.30 10
17
0.00 45500
18 H
2
O
2
+ H HO
2
+ H
2
1.60 10
12
0.00 3800
19 H
2
O
2
+ OH H
2
O + HO
2
1.00 10
13
0.00 1800
Table 7.2: Nine species, nineteen step reversible reaction mechanism for an H
2
/O
2
/N
2
mix
ture. Third body collision eciencies with M are f
5
(H
2
O) = 21, f
5
(H
2
) = 3.3, f
12
(H
2
O) = 6,
f
12
(H) = 2, f
12
(H
2
) = 3, f
14
(H
2
O) = 20.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
226 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
7.1 Isothermal, isochoric kinetics
For simplicity, we will rst focus attention on cases in which the temperature T and vol
ume V are both constant. Such assumptions are known as isothermal and isochoric,
respectively. A nice fundamental treatment of elementary reactions of this type is given by
Vincenti and Kruger in their detailed monograph.
5
7.1.1 O O
2
dissociation
One of the simplest physical examples is provided by the dissociation of O
2
into its atomic
component O.
7.1.1.1 Pair of irreversible reactions
To get started, let us focus for now only on reactions 13 and 14 from Table 7.1 in the limiting
case in which temperature T and volume V are constant.
7.1.1.1.1 Mathematical model The reactions describe oxygen dissociation and recom
bination in a pair of irreversible reactions:
13 : O + O + M O
2
+ M, (7.1)
14 : O
2
+ M O + O + M, (7.2)
with
a
13
= 2.90 10
17
_
mole
cm
3
_
2
K
s
,
13
= 1.00, E
13
= 0
kJ
mole
(7.3)
a
14
= 6.81 10
18
_
mole
cm
3
_
1
K
s
,
14
= 1.00, E
14
= 496.41
kJ
mole
. (7.4)
The irreversibility is indicated by the onesided arrow. Though they participate in the overall
hydrogen oxidation problem, these two reactions are in fact selfcontained as well. So let us
just consider that we have only oxygen in our box with N = 2 species, O
2
and O, J = 2
reactions (those being 13 and 14), and L = 1 element, that being O.
Recall that in the cgs system, common in thermochemistry, that 1 erg = 1 dyne cm =
10
7
J = 10
10
kJ. Recall also that the cgs unit of force is the dyne and that 1 dyne =
1 g cm/s
2
= 10
5
N. So for cgs we have
E
13
= 0
erg
mole
, E
14
= 496.41
kJ
mole
_
10
10
erg
kJ
_
= 4.96 10
12
erg
mole
. (7.5)
5
W. G. Vincenti and C. H. Kruger, 1965, Introduction to Physical Gas Dynamics, Wiley, New York.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.1. ISOTHERMAL, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 227
The standard model for chemical reaction induces the following two ordinary dierential
equations for the evolution of O and O
2
molar concentrations:
d
O
dt
= 2 a
13
T
13
exp
_
E
13
RT
_
. .
=k
13
(T)
M
. .
=r
13
+2 a
14
T
14
exp
_
E
14
RT
_
. .
=k
14
(T)
O
2
M
. .
=r
14
, (7.6)
d
O
2
dt
= a
13
T
13
exp
_
E
13
RT
_
. .
=k
13
(T)
M
. .
=r
13
a
14
T
14
exp
_
E
14
RT
_
. .
=k
14
(T)
O
2
M
. .
=r
14
. (7.7)
Here we use the notation
i
as the molar concentration of species i. Also a common usage for
molar concentration is given by square brackets, e.g.
O
2
= [O
2
]. The symbol M represents
an arbitrary third body and is an inert participant in the reaction. We also use the common
notation of a temperaturedependent portion of the reaction rate for reaction j, k
j
(T), where
k
j
(T) = a
j
T
j
exp
_
E
j
RT
_
. (7.8)
The reaction rates for reactions 13 and 14 are dened as
r
13
= k
13
M
, (7.9)
r
14
= k
14
O
2
M
. (7.10)
We will give details of how to generalize this form later. The system Eq. (7.67.7) can be
written simply as
d
O
dt
= 2r
13
+ 2r
14
, (7.11)
d
O
2
dt
= r
13
r
14
. (7.12)
Even more simply, in vector form, Eqs. (7.117.12) can be written as
d
dt
= r. (7.13)
Here we have taken
=
_
O
2
_
, (7.14)
=
_
2 2
1 1
_
, (7.15)
r =
_
r
13
r
14
_
. (7.16)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
228 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
In general, we will have be a column vector of dimension N 1, will be a rectangular
matrix of dimension N J of rank R, and r will be a column vector of length J 1. So
Eqs. (7.117.12) take the form
d
dt
_
O
2
_
=
_
2 2
1 1
__
r
13
r
14
_
. (7.17)
Note here that the rank R of is R = L = 1. Let us also dene a stoichiometric matrix of
dimension L N. The component of ,
li
represents the number of element l in species i.
Generally will be full rank, which will vary since we can have L < N, L = N, or L > N.
Here we have L < N and is of dimension 1 2:
=
_
1 2
_
. (7.18)
Element conservation is guaranteed by insisting that be constructed such that
= 0. (7.19)
So we can say that each of the column vectors of lies in the right null space of .
For our example, we see that Eq. (7.19) holds:
=
_
1 2
_
_
2 2
1 1
_
=
_
0 0
_
. (7.20)
The symbol R is the universal gas constant, where
R = 8.31441
J
mole K
_
10
7
erg
J
_
= 8.31441 10
7
erg
mole K
. (7.21)
Let us take as initial conditions
O
(t = 0) =
O
,
O
2
(t = 0) =
O
2
. (7.22)
Now M represents an arbitrary third body, so here
M
=
O
2
+
O
. (7.23)
Thus, the ordinary dierential equations of the reaction dynamics reduce to
d
O
dt
= 2a
13
T
13
exp
_
E
13
RT
_
O
_
O
2
+
O
_
+2a
14
T
14
exp
_
E
14
RT
_
O
2
_
O
2
+
O
_
, (7.24)
d
O
2
dt
= a
13
T
13
exp
_
E
13
RT
_
O
_
O
2
+
O
_
a
14
T
14
exp
_
E
14
RT
_
O
2
_
O
2
+
O
_
. (7.25)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.1. ISOTHERMAL, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 229
Equations (7.247.25) with Eqs. (7.22) represent two nonlinear ordinary dierential equa
tions with initial conditions in two unknowns
O
and
O
2
. We seek the behavior of these two
species concentrations as a function of time.
Systems of nonlinear equations are generally dicult to integrate analytically and gen
erally require numerical solution. Before embarking on a numerical solution, we simplify as
much as we can. Note that
d
O
dt
+ 2
d
O
2
dt
= 0, (7.26)
d
dt
_
O
+ 2
O
2
_
= 0. (7.27)
We can integrate and apply the initial conditions (7.22) to get
O
+ 2
O
2
=
O
+ 2
O
2
= constant. (7.28)
The fact that this algebraic constraint exists for all time is a consequence of the conservation
of mass of each O element. It can also be thought of as the conservation of number of
O atoms. Such notions always hold for chemical reactions. They do not hold for nuclear
reactions.
Standard linear algebra provides a robust way to nd the constraint of Eq. (7.28). We
can use elementary row operations to cast Eq. (7.16) into a rowechelon form. Here our goal
is to get a linear combination which on the right side has an upper triangular form. To
achieve this add twice the second equation with the rst to form a new equation to replace
the second equation. This gives
d
dt
_
O
O
+ 2
O
2
_
=
_
2 2
0 0
__
r
13
r
14
_
. (7.29)
Obviously the second equation is one we obtained earlier, d/dt(
O
+ 2
O
2
) = 0, and this
induces our algebraic constraint. We also note the system can be recast as
_
1 0
1 2
_
d
dt
_
O
2
_
=
_
2 2
0 0
__
r
13
r
14
_
. (7.30)
This is of the matrix form
L
1
P
d
dt
= U r. (7.31)
Here L and L
1
are N N lower triangular matrices of full rank N, and thus invertible.
The matrix U is upper triangular of dimension N J and with the same rank as , R L.
The matrix P is a permutation matrix of dimension N N. It is never singular and thus
always invertable. It is used to eect possible row exchanges to achieve the desired form;
often row exchanges are not necessary, in which case P = I, the N N identity matrix.
Equation (7.31) can be manipulated to form the original equation via
d
dt
= P
1
L U
. .
=
r. (7.32)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
230 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
What we have done is the standard linear algebra decomposition of = P
1
L U.
We can also decompose the algebraic constraint, Eq. (7.28), in a nonobvious way that
is more readily useful for larger systems. We can write
O
2
=
O
2
1
2
_
O
_
. (7.33)
Dening now
O
=
O
O
, we can say
_
O
2
_
. .
=
=
_
O
2
_
. .
=
b
+
_
1
1
2
_
. .
=D
_
O
_
..
=
. (7.34)
This gives the dependent variables in terms of a smaller number of transformed dependent
variables in a way which satises the linear constraints. In vector form, the equation becomes
=
+D . (7.35)
Here D is a full rank matrix which spans the same column space as does . Note that
may or may not be full rank. Since D spans the same column space as does , we must also
have in general
D = 0. (7.36)
We see here this is true:
_
1 2
_
_
1
1
2
_
= (0). (7.37)
We also note that the term exp(E
j
/RT) is a modulating factor to the dynamics. Let
us see how this behaves for high and low temperatures. First for low temperature, we have
lim
T0
exp
_
E
j
RT
_
= 0. (7.38)
At high temperature, we have
lim
T
exp
_
E
j
RT
_
= 1. (7.39)
And lastly, at intermediate temperature, we have
exp
_
E
j
RT
_
O(1) when T = O
_
E
j
R
_
. (7.40)
A sketch of this modulating factor is given in Figure 7.1. Note
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.1. ISOTHERMAL, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 231
1
exp( E /(R T))
T
E / R
j
j
Figure 7.1: Plot of exp(E
j
/R/T) versus T; transition occurs at T E
j
/R.
for small T, the modulation is extreme, and the reaction rate is very small,
for T E
j
/R, the reaction rate is extremely sensitive to temperature, and
for T , the modulation is unity, and the reaction rate is limited only by molecular
collision frequency.
Now
O
and
O
2
represent molar concentrations which have standard units of mole/cm
3
.
So the reaction rates
d
O
dt
and
d
O
2
dt
have units of mole/cm
3
/s.
Note that after conversion of E
j
from kJ/mole to erg/mole we nd the units of the
argument of the exponential to be unitless. That is
_
E
j
RT
_
=
erg
mole
mole K
erg
1
K
dimensionless. (7.41)
Here the brackets denote the units of a quantity, and not molar concentration. Let us get
units for the collision frequency factor of reaction 13, a
13
. We know the units of the rate
(mole/cm
3
/s). Reaction 13 involves three molar species. Since
13
= 1, it also has an
extra temperature dependency. The exponential of a unitless number is unitless, so we need
not worry about that. For units to match, we must have
_
mole
cm
3
s
_
= [a
13
]
_
mole
cm
3
__
mole
cm
3
__
mole
cm
3
_
K
1
. (7.42)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
232 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
So the units of a
13
are
[a
13
] =
_
mole
cm
3
_
2
K
s
. (7.43)
For a
14
we nd a dierent set of units! Following the same procedure, we get
_
mole
cm
3
s
_
= [a
14
]
_
mole
cm
3
__
mole
cm
3
_
K
1
. (7.44)
So the units of a
14
are
[a
14
] =
_
mole
cm
3
_
1
K
s
. (7.45)
This discrepancy in the units of a
j
the molecular collision frequency factor is a burden of tra
ditional chemical kinetics, and causes many diculties when classical nondimensionalization
is performed. With much eort, a cleaner theory could be formulated; however, this would
require signicant work to recast the nowstandard a
j
values for literally thousands of re
actions which are well established in the literature.
7.1.1.1.2 Example calculation Let us consider an example problem. Let us take T =
5000 K, and initial conditions
O
= 0.001 mole/cm
3
and
O
2
= 0.001 mole/cm
3
. The
initial temperature is very hot, and is near the temperature of the surface of the sun. This
is also realizable in laboratory conditions, but uncommon in most combustion engineering
environments.
We can solve these in a variety of ways. I chose here to solve both Eqs. (7.247.25) without
the reduction provided by Eq. (7.28). However, we can check after numerical solution to see
if Eq. (7.28) is actually satised. Substituting numerical values for all the constants to get
2a
13
T
13
exp
_
E
13
RT
_
= 2
_
2.9 10
7
_
mole
cm
3
_
2
K
s
_
(5000 K)
1
exp(0),
= 1.16 10
14
_
mole
cm
3
_
2
1
s
, (7.46)
2a
14
T
14
exp
_
E
14
RT
_
= 2
_
6.81 10
18
_
mole
cm
3
_
1
K
s
_
(5000 K)
1
exp
_
4.96 10
12 erg
mole
8.31441 10
7
erg
mole K
(5000 K)
_
,
= 1.77548 10
10
_
mole
cm
3
_
1
1
s
, (7.47)
a
13
T
13
exp
_
E
13
RT
_
= 5.80 10
13
_
mole
cm
3
_
2
1
s
, (7.48)
a
14
T
14
exp
_
E
14
RT
_
= 8.8774 10
9
_
mole
cm
3
_
1
1
s
. (7.49)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.1. ISOTHERMAL, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 233
O
2
O
10
11
10
10
10
9
10
8
10
7
10
6
t s
0.00100
0.00050
0.00150
0.00070
(mole/cm
3
)
O
,
O
2
Figure 7.2: Molar concentrations versus time for oxygen dissociation problem.
Then the dierential equation system becomes
d
O
dt
= (1.16 10
14
)
2
O
(
O
+
O
2
) + (1.77548 10
10
)
O
2
(
O
+
O
2
), (7.50)
d
O
2
dt
= (5.80 10
13
)
2
O
(
O
+
O
2
) (8.8774 10
9
)
O
2
(
O
+
O
2
), (7.51)
O
(0) = 0.001
mole
cm
3
, (7.52)
O
2
(0) = 0.001
mole
cm
3
. (7.53)
These nonlinear ordinary dierential equations are in a standard form for a wide variety
of numerical software tools. Solution of such equations are not the topic of these notes.
7.1.1.1.2.1 Species concentration versus time A solution was obtained numeri
cally, and a plot of
O
(t) and
O
2
(t) is given in Figure 7.2. Note that signicant reaction does
not commence until t 10
10
s. This can be shown to be very close to the time between
molecular collisions. For 10
9
s < t < 10
8
s, there is a vigorous reaction. For t > 10
7
s,
the reaction appears to be equilibrated. The calculation gives the equilibrium values
e
O
and
e
O
2
, as
lim
t
O
=
e
O
= 0.0004424
mole
cm
3
, (7.54)
lim
t
O
2
=
e
O
2
= 0.00127
mole
cm
3
, (7.55)
Note that at this high temperature, O
2
is preferred over O, but there are denitely O
molecules present at equilibrium.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
234 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
10
10
10
9
10
8
10
7
10
6
t s
1.010
16
5.010
17
3.010
17
1.510
16
7.010
17
r
Figure 7.3: Dimensionless residual numerical error r in satisfying the element conservation
constraint in the oxygen dissociation example.
We can check how well the numerical solution satised the algebraic constraint of element
conservation by plotting the dimensionless residual error r
r =
O
+ 2
O
2
O
2
O
2
O
+ 2
O
2
, (7.56)
as a function of time. If the constraint is exactly satised, we will have r = 0. Any nonzero
r will be related to the numerical method we have chosen. It may contain roundo error
and have a sporadic nature. A plot of r(t) is given in Figure 7.3. Clearly the error is small,
and has the character of a roundo error. In fact it is possible to drive r to be smaller by
controlling the error tolerance in the numerical method.
7.1.1.1.2.2 Pressure versus time We can use the ideal gas law to calculate the
pressure. Recall that the ideal gas law for molecular species i is
P
i
V = n
i
RT. (7.57)
Here P
i
is the partial pressure of molecular species i, and n
i
is the number of moles of
molecular species i. Note that we also have
P
i
=
n
i
V
RT. (7.58)
Note that by our denition of molecular species concentration that
i
=
n
i
V
. (7.59)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.1. ISOTHERMAL, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 235
So we also have the ideal gas law as
P
i
=
i
RT. (7.60)
Now in the Dalton mixture model, all species share the same T and V . So the mixture
temperature and volume are the same for each species V
i
= V , T
i
= T. But the mixture
pressure is taken to be the sum of the partial pressures:
P =
N
i=1
P
i
. (7.61)
Substituting from Eq. (7.60) into Eq. (7.61), we get
P =
N
i=1
i
RT = RT
N
i=1
i
. (7.62)
For our example, we only have two species, so
P = RT(
O
+
O
2
). (7.63)
The pressure at the initial state t = 0 is
P(t = 0) = RT(
O
+
O
2
), (7.64)
=
_
8.31441 10
7
erg
mole K
_
(5000 K)
_
0.001
mole
cm
3
+ 0.001
mole
cm
3
_
, (7.65)
= 8.31441 10
8
dyne
cm
2
, (7.66)
= 8.31441 10
2
bar. (7.67)
This pressure is over 800 atmospheres. It is actually a little too high for good experimental
correlation with the underlying data, but we will neglect that for this exercise.
At the equilibrium state we have more O
2
and less O. And we have a dierent number
of molecules, so we expect the pressure to be dierent. At equilibrium, the pressure is
P(t ) = lim
t
RT(
O
+
O
2
), (7.68)
=
_
8.31441 10
7
erg
mole K
_
(5000 K)
_
0.0004424
mole
cm
3
+ 0.00127
mole
cm
3
_
,
(7.69)
= 7.15 10
8
dyne
cm
2
, (7.70)
= 7.15 10
2
bar. (7.71)
The pressure has dropped because much of the O has recombined to form O
2
. Thus there
are fewer molecules at equilibrium. The temperature and volume have remained the same.
A plot of P(t) is given in Figure 7.4.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
236 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
10
11
10
10
10
9
10
8
10
7
10
6
t s
7.210
8
7.410
8
7.610
8
7.810
8
8. 10
8
8.210
8
8.410
8
P (dyne/cm
2
)
Figure 7.4: Pressure versus time for oxygen dissociation example.
7.1.1.1.2.3 Dynamical system form Now Eqs. (7.507.51) are of the standard form
for an autonomous dynamical system:
dy
dt
= f(y). (7.72)
Here y is the vector of state variables (
O
,
O
2
)
T
. And f is an algebraic function of the state
variables. For the isothermal system, the algebraic function is in fact a polynomial.
Equilibrium
The dynamical system is in equilibrium when
f(y) = 0. (7.73)
This nonlinear set of algebraic equations can be dicult to solve for large systems. For
common chemical kinetics systems, such as the one we are dealing with, there is a guarantee
of a unique equilibrium for which all state variables are physical. There are certainly other
equilibria for which at least one of the state variables is nonphysical. Such equilibria can
be quite mathematically complicated.
Solving Eq. (7.73) for our oxygen dissociation problem gives us symbolically from Eq. (7.6
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.1. ISOTHERMAL, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 237
7.7)
2a
13
exp
_
E
13
RT
_
e
O
e
O
e
M
T
13
+ 2a
14
exp
_
E
14
RT
_
e
O
2
e
M
T
14
= 0, (7.74)
a
13
T
13
exp
_
E
13
RT
_
e
O
e
O
e
M
a
14
T
14
exp
_
E
14
RT
_
e
O
2
e
M
= 0. (7.75)
We notice that
e
M
cancels. This socalled third body will in fact never aect the equilib
rium state. It will however inuence the dynamics. Removing
e
M
and slightly rearranging
Eqs. (7.747.75) gives
a
13
T
13
exp
_
E
13
RT
_
e
O
e
O
= a
14
T
14
exp
_
E
14
RT
_
e
O
2
, (7.76)
a
13
T
13
exp
_
E
13
RT
_
e
O
e
O
= a
14
T
14
exp
_
E
14
RT
_
e
O
2
. (7.77)
These are the same equations! So we really have two unknowns for the equilibrium state
e
O
and
e
O
2
but seemingly only one equation. Note that rearranging either Eq. (7.76) or (7.77)
gives the result
e
O
e
O
e
O
2
=
a
14
T
14
exp
_
E
14
RT
_
a
13
T
13
exp
_
E
13
RT
_ = K(T). (7.78)
That is, for the net reaction (excluding the inert third body), O
2
O+O, at equilibrium the
product of the concentrations of the products divided by the product of the concentrations
of the reactants is a function of temperature T. And for constant T, this is the socalled
equilibrium constant. This is a famous result from basic chemistry. It is actually not complete
yet, as we have not taken advantage of a connection with thermodynamics. But for now, it
will suce.
We still have a problem: Eq. (7.78) is still one equation for two unknowns. We solve
this be recalling we have not yet taken advantage of our algebraic constraint of element
conservation, Eq. (7.28). Let us use the equation to eliminate
e
O
2
in favor of
e
O
:
e
O
2
=
1
2
_
e
O
_
+
O
2
. (7.79)
So Eq. (7.76) reduces to
a
13
T
13
exp
_
E
13
RT
_
e
O
e
O
= a
14
T
14
exp
_
E
14
RT
__
1
2
_
e
O
_
+
O
2
_
. .
=
e
O
2
. (7.80)
Equation (7.80) is one algebraic equation in one unknown. Its solution gives the equilibrium
value
e
O
. It is a quadratic equation for
e
O
. Of its two roots, one will be physical. We note
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
238 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
0.004 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.001
200000
100000
100000
200000
300000
O
(mole/cm
3
)
f(
O
) (mole/cm
3
/s)
Figure 7.5: Equilibria for oxygen dissociation example.
that the equilibrium state will be a function of the initial conditions. Mathematically this
is because our system is really best posed as a system of dierentialalgebraic equations.
Systems which are purely dierential equations will have equilibria which are independent
of their initial conditions. Most of the literature of mathematical physics focuses on such
systems of those. One of the foundational complications of chemical dynamics is the the
equilibria is a function of the initial conditions, and this renders many common mathematical
notions from traditional dynamic system theory to be invalid Fortunately, after one accounts
for the linear constraints of element conservation, one can return to classical notions from
traditional dynamic systems theory.
Consider the dynamics of Eq. (7.24) for the evolution of
O
. Equilibrating the right hand
side of this equation, gives Eq. (7.74). Eliminating
M
and then
O
2
in Eq. (7.74) then
substituting in numerical parameters gives the cubic algebraic equation
33948.3 (1.78439 10
11
)(
O
)
2
(5.8 10
13
)(
O
)
3
= f(
O
) = 0. (7.81)
This equation is cubic because we did not remove the eect of
M
. This will not aect
the equilibrium, but will aect the dynamics. We can get an idea of where the roots are
by plotting f(
O
) as seen in Figure 7.5. Zero crossings of f(
O
) in Figure 7.5 represent
equilibria of the system,
e
O
, f(
e
O
) = 0. The cubic equation has three roots
e
O
= 0.003
mole
cm
3
, nonphysical, (7.82)
e
O
= 0.000518944
mole
cm
3
, nonphysical, (7.83)
e
O
= 0.000442414
mole
cm
3
, physical. (7.84)
Note the physical root found by our algebraic analysis is identical to that which was identied
by our numerical integration of the ordinary dierential equations of reaction kinetics.
Stability of equilibria
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.1. ISOTHERMAL, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 239
We can get a simple estimate of the stability of the equilibria by considering the slope of
f near f = 0. Our dynamic system is of the form
d
O
dt
= f(
O
). (7.85)
Near the rst nonphysical root at
e
O
= 0.003, a positive perturbation from equi
librium induces f < 0, which induces d
O
/dt < 0, so
O
returns to its equilibrium.
Similarly, a negative perturbation from equilibrium induces d
O
/dt > 0, so the system
returns to equilibrium. This nonphysical equilibrium point is stable. Note stability
does not imply physicality!
Perform the same exercise for the nonphysical root at
e
O
= 0.000518944. We nd
this root is unstable.
Perform the same exercise for the physical root at
e
O
= 0.000442414. We nd this
root is stable.
In general if f crosses zero with a positive slope, the equilibrium is unstable. Otherwise, it
is stable.
Consider a formal Taylor series expansion of Eq. (7.85) in the neighborhood of an equi
librium point
3
O
:
d
dt
(
O
e
O
) = f(
e
O
)
. .
=0
+
df
d
O
O
=
e
O
(
O
e
O
) + . . . (7.86)
We nd df/d
O
by dierentiating Eq. (7.81) to get
df
d
O
= (3.56877 10
11
)
O
(1.74 10
14
)
2
O
. (7.87)
We evaluate df/d
O
near the physical equilibrium point at
O
= 0.0004442414 to get
df
d
O
= (3.56877 10
11
)(0.0004442414) (1.74 10
14
)(0.0004442414)
2
,
= 1.91945 10
8
1
s
. (7.88)
Thus the Taylor series expansion of Eq. (7.24) in the neighborhood of the physical equi
librium gives the local kinetics to be driven by
d
dt
(
O
0.000442414) = (1.91945 10
8
) (
O
0.0004442414) +. . . . (7.89)
So in the neighborhood of the physical equilibrium we have
O
= 0.0004442414 +Aexp
_
1.91945 10
8
t
_
. (7.90)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
240 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
Here A is an arbitrary constant of integration. The local time constant which governs the
times scales of local evolution is where
=
1
1.91945 10
8
= 5.20983 10
9
s. (7.91)
This nanosecond time scale is very fast. It can be shown to be correlated with the mean
time between collisions of molecules.
7.1.1.1.3 Eect of temperature Let us perform four case studies to see the eect of
T on the systems equilibria and it dynamics near equilibrium.
T = 3000 K. Here we have signicantly reduced the temperature, but it is still higher
than typically found in ordinary combustion engineering environments. Here we nd
e
O
= 8.9371 10
6
mole
cm
3
, (7.92)
= 1.92059 10
7
s. (7.93)
The equilibrium concentration of O dropped by two orders of magnitude relative to
T = 5000 K, and the time scale of the dynamics near equilibrium slowed by two orders
of magnitude.
T = 1000 K. Here we reduce the temperature more. This temperature is common in
combustion engineering environments. We nd
e
O
= 2.0356 10
14
mole
cm
3
, (7.94)
= 2.82331 10
1
s. (7.95)
The O concentration at equilibrium is greatly diminished to the point of being dicult
to detect by standard measurement techniques. And the time scale of combustion has
signicantly slowed.
T = 300 K. This is obviously near room temperature. We nd
e
O
= 1.14199 10
44
mole
cm
3
, (7.96)
= 1.50977 10
31
s. (7.97)
The O concentration is eectively zero at room temperature, and the relaxation time
is eectively innite. As the oldest star in our galaxy has an age of 4.4 10
17
s, we see
that at this temperature, our mathematical model cannot be experimentally validated,
so it loses its meaning. At such a low temperature, the theory becomes qualitatively
correct, but not quantitatively predictive.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.1. ISOTHERMAL, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 241
T = 10000 K. Such high temperature could be achieved in an atmospheric reentry
environment.
e
O
= 2.74807 10
3
mole
cm
3
, (7.98)
= 1.69119 10
10
s. (7.99)
At this high temperature, O become preferred over O
2
, and the time scales of reaction
become extremely small, under a nanosecond.
7.1.1.2 Single reversible reaction
The two irreversible reactions studied in the previous section are of a class that is common
in combustion modeling. However, the model suers a defect in that its link to classical
equilibrium thermodynamics is missing. A better way to model essentially the same physics
and guarantee consistency with classical equilibrium thermodynamics is to model the process
as a single reversible reaction, with a suitably modied reaction rate term.
7.1.1.2.1 Mathematical model
7.1.1.2.1.1 Kinetics For the reversible OO
2
reaction, let us only consider reaction
13 from Table 7.2 for which
13 : O
2
+ M O + O + M. (7.100)
For this system, we have N = 2 molecular species in L = 1 elements reacting in J = 1
reaction. Here
a
13
= 1.85 10
11
_
mole
cm
3
_
1
(K)
0.5
,
13
= 0.5, E
13
= 95560
cal
mole
. (7.101)
Units of cal are common in chemistry, but we need to convert to erg, which is achieved via
E
13
=
_
95560
cal
mole
__
4.186 J
cal
__
10
7
erg
J
_
= 4.00014 10
12
erg
mole
. (7.102)
For this reversible reaction, we slightly modify the kinetics equations to
d
O
dt
= 2 a
13
T
13
exp
_
E
13
RT
_
. .
=k
13
(T)
_
O
2
M
1
K
c,13
M
_
. .
=r
13
, (7.103)
d
O
2
dt
= a
13
T
13
exp
_
E
13
RT
_
. .
=k
13
(T)
_
O
2
M
1
K
c,13
M
_
. .
=r
13
. (7.104)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
242 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
Here we have used equivalent denitions for k
13
(T) and r
13
, so that Eqs. (7.1037.104) can
be written compactly as
d
O
dt
= 2r
13
, (7.105)
d
O
2
dt
= r
13
. (7.106)
In matrix form, we can simplify to
d
dt
_
O
2
_
=
_
2
1
_
. .
=
(r
13
). (7.107)
Here the N J or 2 1 matrix is
=
_
2
1
_
. (7.108)
Performing row operations, the matrix form reduces to
d
dt
_
O
O
+ 2
O
2
_
=
_
2
0
_
(r
13
), (7.109)
or
_
1 0
1 2
_
d
dt
_
O
2
_
=
_
2
0
_
(r
13
). (7.110)
So here the N N or 2 2 matrix L
1
is
L
1
=
_
1 0
1 2
_
. (7.111)
The N N or 2 2 permutation matrix P is the identity matrix. And the N J or 2 1
upper triangular matrix U is
U =
_
2
0
_
. (7.112)
Note that = L U or equivalently L
1
= U:
_
1 0
1 2
_
. .
=L
1
_
2
1
_
. .
=
=
_
2
0
_
..
=U
. (7.113)
Once again the stoichiometric matrix is
=
_
1 2
_
. (7.114)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.1. ISOTHERMAL, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 243
And we see that = 0 is satised:
_
1 2
_
_
2
1
_
=
_
0
_
. (7.115)
As for the irreversible reactions, the reversible reaction rates are constructed to conserve
O atoms. We have
d
dt
_
O
+ 2
O
2
_
= 0. (7.116)
Thus, we once again nd
O
+ 2
O
2
=
O
+ 2
O
2
= constant. (7.117)
As before, we can say
_
O
2
_
. .
=
=
_
O
2
_
. .
=
b
+
_
1
1
2
_
. .
=D
_
O
_
..
=
. (7.118)
This gives the dependent variables in terms of a smaller number of transformed dependent
variables in a way which satises the linear constraints. In vector form, the equation becomes
=
+D . (7.119)
Once again D = 0.
7.1.1.2.1.2 Thermodynamics Equations (7.1037.104) are supplemented by an ex
pression for the thermodynamicsbased equilibrium constant K
c,13
which is:
K
c,13
=
P
o
RT
exp
_
G
o
13
RT
_
. (7.120)
Here P
o
= 1.01326 10
6
dyne/cm
2
= 1 atm is the reference pressure. The net change of
Gibbs free energy at the reference pressure for reaction 13, G
o
13
is dened as
G
o
13
= 2g
o
O
g
o
O
2
. (7.121)
We further recall that the Gibbs free energy for species i at the reference pressure is dened
in terms of the enthalpy and entropy as
g
o
i
= h
o
i
Ts
o
i
. (7.122)
It is common to nd h
o
i
and s
o
i
in thermodynamic tables tabulated as functions of T.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
244 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
We further note that both Eqs. (7.103) and (7.104) are in equilibrium when
e
O
2
e
M
=
1
K
c,13
e
O
e
O
e
M
. (7.123)
We rearrange Eq. (7.123) to nd the familiar
K
c,13
=
e
O
e
O
e
O
2
=
[products]
[reactants]
. (7.124)
If K
c,13
> 1, the products are preferred. If K
c,13
< 1, the reactants are preferred.
Now, K
c,13
is a function of T only, so it is known. But Eq. (7.124) once again is one
equation in two unknowns. We can use the element conservation constraint, Eq. (7.117) to
reduce to one equation and one unknown, valid at equilibrium:
K
c,13
=
e
O
e
O
O
2
+
1
2
(
e
O
)
(7.125)
Using the element constraint, Eq. (7.117), we can recast the dynamics of our system by
modifying Eq. (7.103) into one equation in one unknown:
d
O
dt
= 2a
13
T
13
exp
_
E
13
RT
_
_
_
_
_
(
O
2
+
1
2
(
O
))
. .
=
O
2
(
O
2
+
1
2
(
O
) +
O
)
. .
=
M
1
K
c,13
O
(
O
2
+
1
2
(
O
) +
O
)
. .
=
M
_
_
_
_
,
(7.126)
7.1.1.2.2 Example calculation Let us consider the same example as the previous sec
tion with T = 5000 K. We need numbers for all of the parameters of Eq. (7.126). For O,
we nd at T = 5000 K that
h
o
O
= 3.48382 10
12
erg
mole
, (7.127)
s
o
O
= 2.20458 10
9
erg
mole K
. (7.128)
So
g
o
O
=
_
3.48382 10
12
erg
mole
_
(5000 K)
_
2.20458 10
9
erg
mole K
_
,
= 7.53908 10
12
erg
mole
. (7.129)
For O
2
, we nd at T = 5000 K that
h
o
O
2
= 1.80749 10
12
erg
mole
, (7.130)
s
o
O
2
= 3.05406 10
9
erg
mole K
. (7.131)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.1. ISOTHERMAL, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 245
So
g
o
O
2
=
_
1.80749 10
12
erg
mole
_
(5000 K)
_
3.05406 10
9
erg
mole K
_
= 1.34628 10
13
erg
mole
. (7.132)
Thus, by Eq. (7.121), we have
G
o
13
= 2(7.53908 10
12
) (1.34628 10
13
) = 1.61536 10
12
erg
mole
. (7.133)
Thus, by Eq. (7.120) we get for our system
K
c,13
=
1.01326 10
6 dyne
cm
2
_
8.31441 10
7
erg
mole K
_
(5000 K)
exp
_
_
1.61536 10
12 erg
mole
_
8.31441 10
7
erg
mole K
_
(5000 K)
__
, (7.134)
= 1.187 10
4
mole
cm
3
. (7.135)
Substitution of all numerical parameters into Eq. (7.126) and expansion yields the fol
lowing
d
O
dt
= 3899.47 (2.23342 10
10
)
2
O
(7.3003 10
12
)
3
O
= f(
O
),
O
(0) = 0.001.(7.136)
A plot of the timedependent behavior of
O
and
O
2
from solution of Eq. (7.136) is given
in Figure 7.6. The behavior is similar to the predictions given by the pair of irreversible
reactions in Fig. 7.1. Here direct calculation of the equilibrium from time integration reveals
e
O
= 0.000393328
mole
cm
3
. (7.137)
Using Eq. (7.117) we nd this corresponds to
e
O
2
= 0.00130334
mole
cm
3
. (7.138)
We note the system begins signicant reaction for t 10
9
s and is equilibrated for t
10
7
s.
The equilibrium is veried by solving the algebraic equation
f(
O
) = 3899.47 (2.23342 10
10
)
2
O
(7.3003 10
12
)
3
O
= 0. (7.139)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
246 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
O
2
O
10
11
10
9
10
7
10
5
0.001
t s
0.00100
0.00050
0.00030
0.00150
0.00070
O
,
O
2
(mole/cm
3
)
Figure 7.6: Plot of
O
(t) and
O
2
(t) for oxygen dissociation with reversible reaction.
This yields three roots:
e
O
= 0.003
mole
cm
3
, nonphysical, (7.140)
e
O
= 0.000452678
mole
cm
3
, nonphysical, (7.141)
e
O
= 0.000393328
mole
cm
3
, physical, (7.142)
(7.143)
is given in Figure 7.6.
Linearizing Eq. (7.136) in the neighborhood of the physical equilibrium yields the equa
tion
d
dt
(
O
0.000393328) = (2.09575 10
7
) (
O
0.000393328) +. . . (7.144)
This has solution
O
= 0.000393328 +Aexp
_
2.09575 10
7
t
_
. (7.145)
Again, A is an arbitrary constant. Obviously the equilibrium is stable. Moreover the time
constant of relaxation to equilibrium is
=
1
2.09575 10
7
= 4.77156 10
8
s. (7.146)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.1. ISOTHERMAL, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 247
0.004 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.001
20000
10000
10000
20000
30000
40000
f(
O
) (mole/cm
3
/s)
O
(mole/cm
3
)
Figure 7.7: Plot of f(
O
) versus
O
for oxygen dissociation with reversible reaction.
This is consistent with the time scale to equilibrium which comes from integrating the full
equation.
7.1.2 Zeldovich mechanism of NO production
Let us consider next a more complicated reaction system: that of NO production known
as the Zeldovich
6
mechanism. This is an important model for the production of a major
pollutant from combustion processes. It is most important for high temperature applications.
7.1.2.1 Mathematical model
The model has several versions. One is
1 : N + NO N
2
+ O, (7.147)
2 : N + O
2
NO + O. (7.148)
similar to our results for O
2
dissociation, N
2
and O
2
are preferred at low temperature. As
the temperature rises N and O begin to appear, and it is possible when they are mixed for
NO to appear as a product.
6
Yakov Borisovich Zeldovich, 19151987, prolic Soviet physicist and father of thermonuclear weapons.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
248 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
7.1.2.1.1 Standard model form Here we have the reaction of N = 5 molecular species
with
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
NO
N
2
O
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (7.149)
We have L = 2 with N and O as the 2 elements. The stoichiometric matrix of dimension
L N = 2 5 is
=
_
1 1 2 0 0
1 0 0 1 2
_
. (7.150)
The rst row of is for the N atom; the second row is for the O atom.
And we have J = 2 reactions. The reaction vector of length J = 2 is
r =
_
r
1
r
2
_
=
_
_
a
1
T
1
exp
_
T
a,1
T
__
NO
1
K
c,1
N
2
O
_
a
2
T
2
exp
_
T
a,2
T
__
O
2
1
K
c,2
NO
O
_
_
_
, (7.151)
=
_
_
k
1
_
NO
1
K
c,1
N
2
O
_
k
2
_
O
2
1
K
c,2
NO
O
_
_
_
. (7.152)
Here, we have
k
1
= a
1
T
1
exp
_
T
a,1
T
_
, (7.153)
k
2
= a
2
T
2
exp
_
T
a,2
T
_
. (7.154)
In matrix form, the model can be written as
d
dt
_
_
_
_
_
_
NO
N
2
O
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 1
1 1
1 0
1 1
0 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
. .
=
_
r
1
r
2
_
. (7.155)
Here the matrix has dimension N J which is 5 2. The model is of our general form
d
dt
= r. (7.156)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.1. ISOTHERMAL, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 249
Note that our stoichiometric constraint on element conservation for each reaction = 0
holds here:
=
_
1 1 2 0 0
1 0 0 1 2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 1
1 1
1 0
1 1
0 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
0 0
0 0
_
. (7.157)
We get 4 zeros because there are 2 reactions each with 2 element constraints.
7.1.2.1.2 Reduced form Here we describe nontraditional, but useful reductions, using
standard techniques from linear algebra to bring the model equations into a reduced form in
which all of the linear constraints have been explicitly removed.
Let us perform a series of row operations to nd all of the linear dependencies. Our aim
is to convert the matrix into an upper triangular form. The lower left corner of already
has a zero, so there is no need to worry about it. Let us add the rst and fourth equations
to eliminate the 1 in the 4, 1 slot. This gives
d
dt
_
_
_
_
_
_
NO
N
2
NO
+
O
O
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 1
1 1
1 0
0 2
0 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
r
1
r
2
_
. (7.158)
Next, add the rst and third equations to get
d
dt
_
_
_
_
_
_
NO
NO
+
N
2
NO
+
O
O
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 1
1 1
0 1
0 2
0 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
r
1
r
2
_
. (7.159)
Now multiply the rst equation by 1 and add it to the second to get
d
dt
_
_
_
_
_
_
NO
NO
+
N
NO
+
N
2
NO
+
O
O
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 1
0 2
0 1
0 2
0 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
r
1
r
2
_
. (7.160)
Next multiply the fth equation by 2 and add it to the second to get
d
dt
_
_
_
_
_
_
NO
NO
+
N
NO
+
N
2
NO
+
O
NO
+
N
2
O
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 1
0 2
0 1
0 2
0 0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
r
1
r
2
_
. (7.161)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
250 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
Next add the second and fourth equations to get
d
dt
_
_
_
_
_
_
NO
NO
+
N
NO
+
N
2
N
+
O
NO
+
N
2
O
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 1
0 2
0 1
0 0
0 0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
r
1
r
2
_
. (7.162)
Next multiply the third equation by 2 and add it to the second to get
d
dt
_
_
_
_
_
_
NO
NO
+
N
NO
+
N
+ 2
N
2
N
+
O
NO
+
N
2
O
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 1
0 2
0 0
0 0
0 0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
r
1
r
2
_
. (7.163)
Rewritten, this becomes
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 0 0 0 0
1 1 0 0 0
1 1 2 0 0
0 1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0 2
_
_
_
_
_
_
. .
=L
1
d
dt
_
_
_
_
_
_
NO
N
2
O
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 1
0 2
0 0
0 0
0 0
_
_
_
_
_
_
. .
=U
_
r
1
r
2
_
. (7.164)
A way to think of this type of row echelon form is that it denes two free variables, those
associated with the nonzero pivots of U:
NO
and
N
. The remain three variables
N
2
,
O
and
O
2
are bound variables which can be expressed in terms of the free variables.
The last three of the ordinary dierential equations are homogeneous and can be inte
grated to form
NO
+
N
+ 2
N
2
= C
1
, (7.165)
N
+
O
= C
2
, (7.166)
NO
+
N
2
O
2
= C
3
. (7.167)
The constants C
1
, C
2
and C
3
are determined from the initial conditions on all ve state
variables. In matrix form, we can say
_
_
1 1 2 0 0
0 1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0 2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
NO
N
2
O
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
C
1
C
2
C
3
_
_
. (7.168)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.1. ISOTHERMAL, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 251
Considering the free variables,
NO
and
N
, to be known, we move them to the right side
to get
_
_
2 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 2
_
_
_
_
N
2
O
2
_
_
=
_
_
C
1
NO
N
C
2
N
C
3
+
NO
N
_
_
. (7.169)
Solving, for the bound variables, we nd
_
_
N
2
O
2
_
_
=
_
_
1
2
C
1
1
2
NO
1
2
N
C
2
1
2
C
3
1
2
NO
+
1
2
N
_
_
. (7.170)
We can rewrite this as
_
_
N
2
O
2
_
_
=
_
_
1
2
C
1
C
2
1
2
C
3
_
_
+
_
_
1
2
1
2
0 1
1
2
1
2
_
_
_
NO
N
_
. (7.171)
We can get a more elegant form by dening
NO
=
NO
and
N
=
N
. Thus we can say our
state variables have the form
_
_
_
_
_
_
NO
N
2
O
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
1
2
C
1
C
2
1
2
C
3
_
_
_
_
_
_
+
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 0
0 1
1
2
1
2
0 1
1
2
1
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
NO
N
_
. (7.172)
By translating via
NO
=
NO
+
NO
and
N
=
N
+
N
and choosing the constants C
1
, C
2
and C
3
appropriately, we can arrive at
_
_
_
_
_
_
NO
N
2
O
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
. .
=
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
NO
N
2
O
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. .
=
b
+
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 0
0 1
1
2
1
2
0 1
1
2
1
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
. .
=D
_
NO
N
_
. .
=
. (7.173)
This takes the form of
=
+D . (7.174)
Here the matrix D is of dimension N R, which here is 5 2. It spans the same column
space as does the N J matrix which is of rank R. Here in fact R = J = 2, so D has the
same dimension as . In general it will not. If c
1
and c
2
are the column vectors of D, we
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
252 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
see that c
1
c
2
forms the rst column vector of and c
1
c
2
forms the second column
vector of . Note that D = 0:
D =
_
1 1 2 0 0
1 0 0 1 2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 0
0 1
1
2
1
2
0 1
1
2
1
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
0 0
0 0
_
. (7.175)
Equations (7.1657.167) can also be linearly combined in a way which has strong phys
ical relevance. We rewrite the system as three equations in which the rst is identical to
Eq. (7.165); the second is the dierence of Eqs. (7.166) and (7.167); and the third is half of
Eq. (7.165) minus half of Eq. (7.167) plus Eq. (7.166):
NO
+
N
+ 2
N
2
= C
1
, (7.176)
O
+
NO
+ 2
O
2
= C
2
C
3
, (7.177)
NO
+
N
+
N
2
+
O
+
O
2
=
1
2
(C
1
C
3
) + C
2
. (7.178)
Equation (7.176) insists that the number of nitrogen elements be constant; Eq. (7.177)
demands the number of oxygen elements be constant; and Eq. (7.178) requires the number
of moles of molecular species be constant. For general reactions, including the earlier studied
oxygen dissociation problem, the number of moles of molecular species will not be constant.
Here because each reaction considered has two molecules reacting to form two molecules,
we are guaranteed the number of moles will be constant. Hence, we get an additional
linear constraint beyond the two for element conservation. Note that since our reaction is
isothermal, isochoric and molepreserving, it will also be isobaric.
7.1.2.1.3 Example calculation Let us consider an isothermal reaction at
T = 6000 K. (7.179)
The high temperature is useful in generating results which are easily visualized. It insures
that there will be signicant concentrations of all molecular species. Let us also take as an
initial condition
NO
=
N
=
N
2
=
O
=
O
2
= 1 10
6
mole
cm
3
. (7.180)
For this temperature and concentrations, the pressure, which will remain constant through
the reaction, is P = 2.4942 10
6
dyne/cm
2
. This is a little greater than atmospheric.
Kinetic data for this reaction is adopted from Baulch, et al.
7
The data for reaction 1 is
a
1
= 2.107 10
13
_
mole
cm
3
_
1
1
s
,
1
= 0, T
a1
= 0 K. (7.181)
7
Baulch, et al., 2005, Evaluated Kinetic Data for Combustion Modeling: Supplement II, Journal of
Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 34(3): 7571397.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.1. ISOTHERMAL, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 253
For reaction 2, we have
a
2
= 5.8394 10
9
_
mole
cm
3
_
1
1
K
1.01
s
,
2
= 1.01, T
a2
= 3120 K. (7.182)
Here the socalled activation temperature T
a,j
for reaction j is really the activation energy
scaled by the universal gas constant:
T
a,j
=
E
j
R
. (7.183)
Substituting numbers we obtain for the reaction rates
k
1
= (2.107 10
13
)(6000)
0
exp
_
0
6000
_
= 2.107 10
13
_
mole
cm
3
_
1
1
s
, (7.184)
k
2
= (5.8394 10
9
)(6000)
1.01
exp
_
3120
6000
_
= 2.27231 10
13
_
mole
cm
3
_
1
1
s
.
(7.185)
We will also need thermodynamic data. The data here will be taken from the Chemkin
database.
8
Thermodynamic data for common materials is also found in most thermodynamic
texts. For our system at 6000 K, we nd
g
o
NO
= 1.58757 10
13
erg
mole
, (7.186)
g
o
N
= 7.04286 10
12
erg
mole
, (7.187)
g
o
N
2
= 1.55206 10
13
erg
mole
, (7.188)
g
o
O
= 9.77148 10
12
erg
mole
, (7.189)
g
o
O
2
= 1.65653 10
13
erg
mole
. (7.190)
Thus for each reaction, we nd G
o
j
:
G
o
1
= g
o
N
2
+ g
o
O
g
o
N
g
o
NO
, (7.191)
= 1.55206 10
13
9.77148 10
12
+ 7.04286 10
12
+ 1.58757 10
13
,(7.192)
= 2.37351 10
12
erg
mole
, (7.193)
G
o
2
= g
o
NO
+ g
o
O
g
o
N
g
o
O
2
, (7.194)
= 1.58757 10
13
9.77148 10
12
+ 7.04286 10
12
+ 1.65653 10
13
,(7.195)
= 2.03897 10
12
erg
mole
. (7.196)
8
R. J. Kee, et al., 2000, The Chemkin Thermodynamic Data Base, part of the Chemkin Collection
Release 3.6, Reaction Design, San Diego, CA.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
254 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
At 6000 K, we nd the equilibrium constants for the J = 2 reactions are
K
c,1
= exp
_
G
o
1
RT
_
, (7.197)
= exp
_
2.37351 10
12
(8.314 10
7
)(6000)
_
, (7.198)
= 116.52, (7.199)
K
c,2
= exp
_
G
o
2
RT
_
, (7.200)
= exp
_
2.03897 10
12
(8.314 10
7
)(6000)
_
, (7.201)
= 59.5861. (7.202)
Again, omitting details, we nd the two dierential equations governing the evolution of
the free variables are
d
NO
dt
= 0.723 + 2.22 10
7
N
+ 1.15 10
13
2
N
9.44 10
5
NO
3.20 10
13
NO
,
(7.203)
d
N
dt
= 0.723 2.33 10
7
N
1.13 10
13
2
N
+ 5.82 10
5
NO
1.00 10
13
NO
.
(7.204)
Solving numerically, we obtain a solution shown in Fig. 7.8. The numerics show a relaxation
to nal concentrations of
lim
t
NO
= 7.336 10
7
mole
cm
3
, (7.205)
lim
t
N
= 3.708 10
8
mole
cm
3
. (7.206)
Equations (7.2037.204) are of the form
d
NO
dt
= f
NO
(
NO
,
N
), (7.207)
d
N
dt
= f
N
(
NO
,
N
). (7.208)
At equilibrium, we must have
f
NO
(
NO
,
N
) = 0, (7.209)
f
N
(
NO
,
N
) = 0. (7.210)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.1. ISOTHERMAL, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 255
NO
N
10
10
10
9
10
8
10
7
10
6
10
5
t s
510
8
110
7
510
7
110
6
510
6
110
5
N
,
NO
(mole/cm
3
)
Figure 7.8: NO and N concentrations versus time for T = 6000 K, P = 2.4942
10
6
dyne/cm
2
Zeldovich mechanism.
We nd three nite roots to this problem:
1 : (
NO
,
N
) = (1.605 10
6
, 3.060 10
8
)
mole
cm
3
, nonphysical, (7.211)
2 : (
NO
,
N
) = (5.173 10
8
, 2.048 10
6
)
mole
cm
3
, nonphysical, (7.212)
3 : (
NO
,
N
) = (7.336 10
7
, 3.708 10
8
)
mole
cm
3
, physical. (7.213)
Obviously, because of negative concentrations, roots 1 and 2 are nonphysical. Root 3
however is physical; moreover, it agrees with the equilibrium we found by direct numerical
integration of the full nonlinear equations.
We can use local linear analysis in the neighborhood of each equilibria to rigorously
ascertain the stability of each root. Taylor series expansion of Eqs. (7.2077.208) in the
neighborhood of an equilibrium point yields
d
dt
(
NO
e
NO
) = f
NO

e
. .
=0
+
f
NO
NO
e
(
NO
e
NO
) +
f
NO
e
(
N
e
N
) + . . . ,
(7.214)
d
dt
(
N
e
N
) = f
N

e
..
=0
+
f
N
NO
e
(
NO
e
NO
) +
f
N
e
(
N
e
N
) + . . . . (7.215)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
256 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
Evaluation of Eqs. (7.2147.215) near the physical root, root 3, yields the system
d
dt
_
NO
7.336 10
7
N
3.708 10
8
_
=
_
2.129 10
6
4.155 10
5
2.111 10
5
3.144 10
7
_
. .
=J=
f

e
_
NO
7.336 10
7
N
3.708 10
8
_
.
(7.216)
This is of the form
d
dt
(
e
) =
f
e
(
e
) = J (
e
) . (7.217)
It is the eigenvalues of the Jacobian
9
matrix J that give the time scales of evolution of the
concentrations as well as determine the stability of the local equilibrium point. Recall that
we can usually decompose square matrices via the diagonalization
J = S S
1
. (7.218)
Here, S is the matrix whose columns are composed of the right eigenvectors of J, and is
the diagonal matrix whose diagonal is populated by the eigenvalues of J. For some matrices
(typically not those encountered after our removal of linear dependencies), diagonalization
is not possible, and one must resort to the socalled neardiagonal Jordan form. This will
not be relevant to our discussion, but could be easily handled if necessary. We also recall the
eigenvector matrix and eigenvalue matrix are dened by the standard eigenvalue problem
J S = S . (7.219)
We also recall that the components of are found by solving the characteristic polynomial
which arises from the equation
det (J I) = 0, (7.220)
where I is the identity matrix. Dening z such that
S z
e
, (7.221)
and using the decomposition Eq. (7.218), Eq. (7.217) can be rewritten to form
d
dt
(S z) = S S
1
. .
J
(S z)
. .
e
, (7.222)
S
dz
dt
= S z, (7.223)
S
1
S
dz
dt
= S
1
S z, (7.224)
dz
dt
= z. (7.225)
9
after Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi, 18041851, German mathematician.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.1. ISOTHERMAL, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 257
Eq. (7.225) reduces to the diagonal form
dz
dt
= z. (7.226)
This has solution for each component of z of
z
1
= C
1
exp(
1
t), (7.227)
z
2
= C
2
exp(
2
t), (7.228)
.
.
. (7.229)
Here, our matrix J, see Eq. (7.216), has two real, negative eigenvalues in the neighborhood
of the physical root 3:
1
= 3.143 10
7
1
s
, (7.230)
2
= 2.132 10
6
1
s
. (7.231)
Thus we can conclude that the physical equilibrium is linearly stable. The local time con
stants near equilibrium are given by the reciprocal of the magnitude of the eigenvalues.
These are
1
= 1/
1
 = 3.181 10
8
s, (7.232)
2
= 1/
2
 = 4.691 10
7
s. (7.233)
Evolution on these two time scales is predicted in Fig. 7.8. This in fact a multiscale problem.
One of the major diculties in the numerical simulation of combustion problems comes in
the eort to capture the eects at all relevant scales. The problem is made more dicult as
the breadth of the scales expands. In this problem, the breadth of scales is not particularly
challenging. Near equilibrium the ratio of the slowest to the fastest time scale, the stiness
ratio , is
=
2
1
=
4.691 10
7
s
3.181 10
8
s
= 14.75. (7.234)
Many combustion problems can have stiness ratios over 10
6
. This is more prevalent at
lower temperatures.
We can do a similar linearization near the initial state, nd the local eigenvalues, and
the the local time scales. At the initial state here, we nd those local time scales are
1
= 2.403 10
8
s, (7.235)
2
= 2.123 10
8
s. (7.236)
So initially the stiness, = (2.403 10
8
s)/(2.123 10
8
s) = 1.13 is much less, but the
time scale itself is small. It is seen from Fig. 7.8 that this initial time scale of 10
8
s well
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
258 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
predicts where signicant evolution of species concentrations commences. For t < 10
8
s, the
model predicts essentially no activity. This can be correlated with the mean time between
molecular collisionsthe theory on which estimates of the collision frequency factors a
j
are
obtained.
We briey consider the nonphysical roots, 1 and 2. A similar eigenvalue analysis of root
1 reveals that the eigenvalues of its local Jacobian matrix are
1
= 1.193 10
7
1
s
, (7.237)
2
= 5.434 10
6
1
s
. (7.238)
Thus root 1 is a saddle and is unstable.
For root 2, we nd
1
= 4.397 10
7
+ i7.997 10
6
1
s
, (7.239)
2
= 4.397 10
7
i7.997 10
6
1
s
. (7.240)
The eigenvalues are complex with a positive real part. This indicates the root is an unstable
spiral source.
A detailed phase portrait is shown in Fig. 7.9. Here we see all three roots. Their local
character of sink, saddle, or spiral source is clearly displayed. We see that trajectories are
attracted to a curve labeled SIM for Slow Invariant Manifold. A part of the SIM is
constructed by the trajectory which originates at root 1 and travels to root 3. The other
part is constructed by connecting an equilibrium point at innity into root 3. Details are
omitted here.
7.1.2.2 Stiness, time scales, and numerics
One of the key challenges in computational chemistry is accurately predicting species concen
tration evolution with time. The problem is made dicult because of the common presence
of physical phenomena which evolve on a widely disparate set of time scales. Systems which
evolve on a wide range of scales are known as sti, recognizing a motivating example in
massspringdamper systems with sti springs. Here we will examine the eect of tempera
ture and pressure on time scales and stiness. We shall also look simplistically how dierent
numerical approximation methods respond to stiness.
7.1.2.2.1 Eect of temperature Let us see how the same Zeldovich mechanism be
haves at lower temperature, T = 1500 K; all other parameters, including the initial species
concentrations are the same as the previous high temperature example. The pressure how
ever, lowers, and here is P = 6.2355010
5
dyne/cm
2
, which is close to atmospheric pressure.
For this case, a plot of species concentrations versus time is given in Figure 7.10.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.1. ISOTHERMAL, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 259
4 3 2 1 0 1 2
x 10
6
20
15
10
5
0
5
x 10
7
NO
(mole/cm
3
)
N
(
m
o
l
e
/
c
m
3
)
1
2
3
SIM
SIM
sadd
sink
le
l spira
source
Figure 7.9: NO and N phase portraits for T = 6000 K, P = 2.4942 10
6
dyne/cm
2
Zeldovich mechanism.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
260 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
NO
N
10
11
10
9
10
7
10
5
0.001 0.1 10
t s
10
12
10
10
10
8
10
6
N
,
NO
(mole/cm
3
)
Figure 7.10:
NO
and
N
versus time for Zeldovich mechanism at T = 1500 K, P =
6.23550 10
5
dyne/cm
2
.
At T = 1500 K, we notice some dramatic dierences relative to the earlier studied
T = 6000 K. First, we see the reaction commences in around the same time, t 10
8
s. For
t 10
6
s, there is a temporary cessation of signicant reaction. We notice a long plateau
in which species concentrations do not change over several decades of time. This is actually
a pseudoequilibrium. Signicant reaction recommences for t 0.1 s. Only around t 1 s
does the system approach nal equilibrium. We can perform an eigenvalue analysis both
at the initial state and at the equilibrium state to estimate the time scales of reaction. For
this dynamical system which is two ordinary dierential equations in two unknowns, we will
always nd two eigenvalues, and thus two time scales. Let us call them
1
and
2
. Both
these scales will evolve with t.
At the initial state, we nd
1
= 2.37 10
8
s, (7.241)
2
= 4.25 10
7
s. (7.242)
The onset of signicant reaction is consistent with the prediction given by
1
at the initial
state. Moreover, initially, the reaction is not very sti; the stiness ratio is = 17.9.
At equilibrium, we nd
lim
t
NO
= 4.6 10
9
mole
cm
3
, (7.243)
lim
t
N
= 4.2 10
14
mole
cm
3
, (7.244)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.1. ISOTHERMAL, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 261
and
1
= 7.86 10
7
s, (7.245)
2
= 3.02 10
1
s. (7.246)
The slowest time scale near equilibrium is an excellent indicator of how long the system
takes to relax to its nal state. Note also that near equilibrium, the stiness ratio is large,
=
2
/
1
3.8 10
5
. This is known as the stiness ratio. When it is large, the scales in
the problem are widely disparate and accurate numerical solution becomes challenging.
In summary, we nd the eect of lowering temperature while leaving initial concentrations
constant
lowers the pressure somewhat, slightly slowing down the collision time, and slightly
slowing the fastest time scales, and
slows the slowest time scales many orders of magnitude, stiening the system signi
cantly, since collisions may not induce reaction with their lower collision speed.
7.1.2.2.2 Eect of initial pressure Let us maintain the initial temperature at T =
1500 K, but drop the initial concentration of each species to
NO
=
N
=
N
2
=
O
2
=
O
= 10
8
mole
cm
3
. (7.247)
With this decrease in number of moles, the pressure now is
P = 6.23550 10
3
dyne
cm
2
. (7.248)
This pressure is two orders of magnitude lower than atmospheric. We solve for the species
concentration proles and show the results of numerical prediction in Figure 7.11 Relative to
the high pressure P = 6.2355 10
5
dyne/cm
2
, T = 1500 K case, we notice some similarities
and dramatic dierences. The overall shape of the timeproles of concentration variation
is similar. But, we see the reaction commences at a much later time, t 10
6
s. For
t 10
4
s, there is a temporary cessation of signicant reaction. We notice a long plateau
in which species concentrations do not change over several decades of time. This is again
actually a pseudoequilibrium. Signicant reaction recommences for t 10 s. Only around
t 100 s does the system approach nal equilibrium. We can perform an eigenvalue analysis
both at the initial state and at the equilibrium state to estimate the time scales of reaction.
At the initial state, we nd
1
= 2.37 10
6
s, (7.249)
2
= 4.25 10
5
s. (7.250)
The onset of signicant reaction is consistent with the prediction given by
1
at the initial
state. Moreover, initially, the reaction is not very sti; the stiness ratio is = 17.9.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
262 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
NO
N
10
8
10
6
10
4
0.01 1 100
t s
10
16
10
14
10
12
10
10
10
8
N
,
NO
(mole/cm
3
)
Figure 7.11:
NO
and
N
versus time for Zeldovich mechanism at T = 1500 K, P =
6.2355 10
3
dyne/cm
2
.
Interestingly, by decreasing the initial pressure by a factor of 10
2
, we increased the initial
time scales by a complementary factor of 10
2
; moreover, we did not alter the stiness.
At equilibrium, we nd
lim
t
NO
= 4.6 10
11
mole
cm
3
, (7.251)
lim
t
N
= 4.2 10
16
mole
cm
3
, (7.252)
(7.253)
and
1
= 7.86 10
5
s, (7.254)
2
= 3.02 10
1
s. (7.255)
By decreasing the initial pressure by a factor of 10
2
, we decreased the equilibrium concentra
tions by a factor of 10
2
and increased the time scales by a factor of 10
2
, leaving the stiness
ratio unchanged.
In summary, we nd the eect of lowering the initial concentrations signicantly while
leaving temperature constant
lowers the pressure signicantly, proportionally slowing down the collision time, as well
as the fastest and slowest time scales, and
does not aect the stiness of the system.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.1. ISOTHERMAL, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 263
7.1.2.2.3 Stiness and numerics The issue of how to simulate sti systems of ordinary
dierential equations, such as presented by our Zeldovich mechanism, is challenging. Here a
brief summary of some of the issues will be presented. The interested reader should consult
the numerical literature for a full discussion. See for example the excellent text of Iserles.
10
We have seen throughout this section that there are two time scales at work, and they are
often disparate. The species evolution is generally characterized by an initial fast transient,
followed by a long plateau, then a nal relaxation to equilibrium. We noted from the phase
plane of Fig. 7.9 that the nal relaxation to equilibrium (shown along the green line labeled
SIM) is an attracting manifold for a wide variety of initial conditions. The relaxation onto
the SIM is fast, and the motion on the SIM to equilibrium is relatively slow.
Use of common numerical techniques can often mask or obscure the actual dynamics.
Numerical methods to solve systems of ordinary dierential equations can be broadly cat
egorized as explicit or implicit. We give a brief synopsis of each class of method. We cast
each as a method to solve a system of the form
d
dt
= f(). (7.256)
Explicit: The simplest of these, the forward Euler method, discretizes Eq. (7.256) as
follows:
n+1
n
t
= f(
n
), (7.257)
so that
n+1
=
n
+ t f(
n
). (7.258)
Explicit methods are summarized as
easy to program, since Eq. (7.258) can be solved explicitly to predict the new
value
n+1
in terms of the old values at step n.
need to have t <
fastest
in order to remain numerically stable,
able to capture all physics and all time scales at great computational expense for
sti problems,
requiring much computational eort for little payo in the SIM region of the phase
plane, and thus
inecient for some portions of sti calculations.
Implicit: The simplest of these methods, the backward Euler method, discretizes
Eq. (7.256) as follows:
n+1
n
t
= f(
n+1
), (7.259)
10
A. Iserles, 2008, A First Course in the Numerical Analysis of Dierential Equations, Cambridge Uni
versity Press, Cambridge, UK.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
264 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
so that
n+1
=
n
+ t f(
n+1
). (7.260)
Implicit methods are summarized as
more dicult to program since a nonlinear set of algebraic equations, Eq. (7.260),
must be solved at every time step with no guarantee of solution,
requiring potentially signicant computational time to advance each time step,
capable of using very large time steps and remaining numerically stable,
suspect to missing physics that occur on small time scales < t,
in general better performers than explicit methods.
A wide variety of software tools exist to solve systems of ordinary dierential equations.
Most of them use more sophisticated techniques than simple forward and backward Euler
methods. One of the most powerful techniques is the use of error control. Here the user
species how far in time to advance and the error that is able to be tolerated. The algorithm,
which is complicated, selects then internal time steps, for either explicit or implicit methods,
to achieve a solution within the error tolerance at the specied output time. A well known
public domain algorithm with error control is provided by lsode.f, which can be found in
the netlib repository.
11
Let us exercise the Zeldovich mechanism under the conditions simulated in Fig. 7.11,
T = 1500 K, P = 6.2355 10
3
dyne/cm
2
. Recall in this case the fastest time scale near
equilibrium is
1
= 7.86 10
5
s 10
4
s at the initial state, and the slowest time scale is
= 3.02 10
1
s at the nal state. Let us solve for these conditions using dlsode.f, which
uses internal time stepping for error control, in both an explicit and implicit mode. We
specify a variety of values of t and report typical values of number of internal time steps
selected by dlsode.f, and the corresponding eective time step t
eff
used for the problem,
for both explicit and implicit methods, as reported in Table 7.3.
Obviously if output is requested using t > 10
4
s, the early time dynamics near t
10
4
s will be missed. For physically stable systems, codes such as dlsode.f will still provide
a correct solution at the later times. For physically unstable systems, such as might occur in
turbulent ames, it is not clear that one can use large time steps and expect to have delity
to the underlying equations. The reason is the physical instabilities may evolve on the same
time scale as the ne scales which are overlooked by large t.
7.2 Adiabatic, isochoric kinetics
It is more practical to allow for temperature variation within a combustor. The best model
for this is adiabatic kinetics. Here we will restrict our attention to isochoric problems.
11
Hindmarsh, A. C., 1983,ODEPACK, a Systematized Collection of ODE Solvers, Scientic Com
puting, edited by R. S. Stepleman, et al., NorthHolland, Amsterdam, pp. 5564. Source code at
http://www.netlib.org/alliant/ode/prog/lsode.f
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.2. ADIABATIC, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 265
Explicit Explicit Implicit Implicit
t (s) N
internal
t
eff
(s) N
internal
t
eff
(s)
10
2
10
6
10
4
10
0
10
2
10
1
10
5
10
4
10
0
10
1
10
0
10
4
10
4
10
0
10
0
10
1
10
3
10
4
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
2
10
4
10
0
10
2
10
3
10
1
10
4
10
0
10
3
10
4
10
0
10
4
10
0
10
4
10
5
10
0
10
5
10
0
10
5
10
6
10
0
10
6
10
0
10
6
Table 7.3: Results from computing Zeldovich NO production using implicit and explicit
methods with error control in dlsode.f.
7.2.1 Thermal explosion theory
There is a simple description known as thermal explosion theory which provides a good
explanation for how initially slow exothermic reaction induces a sudden temperature rise
accompanied by a nal relaxation to equilibrium.
Let us consider a simple isomerization reaction in a closed volume
A B. (7.261)
Let us take A and B to both be calorically perfect ideal gases with identical molecular masses
M
A
= M
B
= M and identical specic heats, c
vA
= c
vB
= c
v
; c
PA
= c
PB
= c
P
. We can
consider A and B to be isomers of an identical molecular species. So we have N = 2 species
reacting in J = 1 reactions. The number of elements L here is irrelevant.
7.2.1.1 Onestep reversible kinetics
Let us insist our reaction process be isochoric and adiabatic, and commence with only A
present. The reaction kinetics with = 0 are
d
A
dt
= a exp
_
E
RT
_
. .
=k
_
1
K
c
B
_
. .
=r
, (7.262)
d
B
dt
= a exp
_
E
RT
_
. .
=k
_
1
K
c
B
_
. .
=r
, (7.263)
A
(0) =
A
, (7.264)
B
(0) = 0. (7.265)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
266 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
For our alternate compact linear algebra based form, we note that
r = a exp
_
E
RT
__
1
K
c
B
_
, (7.266)
and that
d
dt
_
B
_
=
_
1
1
_
(r). (7.267)
Performing the decomposition yields
d
dt
_
A
A
+
B
_
=
_
1
0
_
(r). (7.268)
Expanded, this is
_
1 0
1 1
_
d
dt
_
B
_
=
_
1
0
_
(r). (7.269)
Combining Eqs. (7.2627.263) and integrating yields
d
dt
(
A
+
B
) = 0, (7.270)
A
+
B
=
A
, (7.271)
B
=
A
. (7.272)
Thus, Eq. (7.262) reduces to
d
A
dt
= a exp
_
E
RT
__
1
K
c
_
A
_
_
. (7.273)
Scaling, Eq. (7.273) can be rewritten as
d
d(at)
_
A
_
= exp
_
E
RT
o
1
T/T
o
__
1
K
c
_
1
A
A
__
. (7.274)
7.2.1.2 First law of thermodynamics
Recall the rst law of thermodynamics and neglecting potential and kinetic energy changes:
dU
dt
=
Q
W. (7.275)
Here U is the total internal energy. Because we insist the problem is adiabatic
Q = 0.
Because we insist the problem is isochoric, there is no work done, so
W = 0. Thus we have
dU
dt
= 0. (7.276)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.2. ADIABATIC, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 267
Thus, we nd
U = U
o
. (7.277)
Recall the total internal energy for a mixture of two calorically perfect ideal gases is
U = n
A
u
A
+ n
B
u
B
, (7.278)
= V
_
n
A
V
u
A
+
n
B
V
u
B
_
, (7.279)
= V (
A
u
A
+
B
u
B
) , (7.280)
= V
_
A
_
h
A
P
A
A
_
+
B
_
h
B
P
B
B
__
, (7.281)
= V
_
A
_
h
A
RT
_
+
B
_
h
B
RT
__
, (7.282)
= V
_
A
_
c
P
(T T
o
) + h
o
To,A
RT
_
+
B
_
c
P
(T T
o
) + h
o
To,B
RT
__
,(7.283)
= V
_
(
A
+
B
)(c
P
(T T
o
) RT) +
A
h
o
To,A
+
B
h
o
To,B
_
, (7.284)
= V
_
(
A
+
B
)((c
P
R)T c
P
T
o
) +
A
h
o
To,A
+
B
h
o
To,B
_
, (7.285)
= V
_
(
A
+
B
)((c
P
R)T (c
P
R + R)T
o
) +
A
h
o
To,A
+
B
h
o
To,B
_
, (7.286)
= V
_
(
A
+
B
)(c
v
T (c
v
+ R)T
o
) +
A
h
o
To,A
+
B
h
o
To,B
_
, (7.287)
= V
_
(
A
+
B
)c
v
(T T
o
) +
A
(h
o
To,A
RT
o
) +
B
(h
o
To,B
RT
o
)
_
, (7.288)
= V
_
(
A
+
B
)c
v
(T T
o
) +
A
u
o
To,A
+
B
u
o
To,B
_
. (7.289)
Now at the initial state, we have T = T
o
, so
U
o
= V
_
A
u
o
To,A
+
B
u
o
To,B
_
. (7.290)
So, we can say our caloric equation of state is
U U
o
= V
_
(
A
+
B
)c
v
(T T
o
) + (
A
A
)u
o
To,A
+ (
B
B
)u
o
To,B
_
, (7.291)
= V
_
(
A
+
B
)c
v
(T T
o
) + (
A
A
)u
o
To,A
+ (
B
B
)u
o
To,B
_
. (7.292)
As an aside, on a molar basis, we scale Eq. (7.292) to get
u u
o
= c
v
(T T
o
) + (y
A
y
Ao
)u
o
To,A
+ (y
B
y
Bo
)u
o
To,B
. (7.293)
And because we have assumed the molecular masses are the same, M
A
= M
B
, the mole
fractions are the mass fractions, and we can write on a mass basis
u u
o
= c
v
(T T
o
) + (c
A
c
Ao
)u
o
To,A
+ (c
B
c
Bo
)u
o
To,B
. (7.294)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
268 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
Returning to Eq. (7.292), our energy conservation relation, Eq. (7.277), becomes
0 = V
_
(
A
+
B
)c
v
(T T
o
) + (
A
A
)u
o
To,A
+ (
B
B
)u
o
To,B
_
. (7.295)
Now we solve for T
0 = (
A
+
B
)c
v
(T T
o
) + (
A
A
)u
o
To,A
+ (
B
B
)u
o
To,B
, (7.296)
0 = c
v
(T T
o
) +
A
A
+
B
u
o
To,A
+
B
A
+
B
u
o
To,B
, (7.297)
T = T
o
+
A
+
B
u
o
To,A
c
v
+
A
+
B
u
o
To,B
c
v
. (7.298)
Now we impose our assumption that
B
= 0, giving also
B
=
A
,
T = T
o
+
A
u
o
To,A
c
v
A
u
o
To,B
c
v
, (7.299)
= T
o
+
A
u
o
To,A
u
o
To,B
c
v
. (7.300)
In summary, realizing that h
o
To,A
h
o
To,B
= u
o
To,A
u
o
To,B
we can write T as a function of
A
:
T = T
o
+
(
A
)
A
c
v
(h
o
To,A
h
o
To,B
). (7.301)
We see then that if h
o
To,A
> h
o
To,B
, that as
A
decreases from its initial value of
A
that T
will increase. We can scale Eq. (7.301) to form
_
T
T
o
_
= 1 +
_
1
A
A
_
_
h
o
To,A
h
o
To,B
c
v
T
o
_
. (7.302)
We also note that our caloric state equation, Eq. (7.293) can, for y
Ao
= 1, y
Bo
= 0 as
u u
o
= c
v
(T T
o
) + (y
A
1)u
o
To,A
+ y
B
u
o
To,B
, (7.303)
= c
v
(T T
o
) + ((1 y
B
) 1)u
o
To,A
+ y
B
u
o
To,B
, (7.304)
= c
v
(T T
o
) y
B
(u
o
To,A
u
o
To,B
). (7.305)
Similarly, on a mass basis, we can say,
u u
o
= c
v
(T T
o
) c
B
(u
o
To,A
u
o
To,B
). (7.306)
For this problem, we also have
K
c
= exp
_
G
o
RT
_
, (7.307)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.2. ADIABATIC, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 269
with
G
o
= g
o
B
g
o
A
, (7.308)
= h
o
B
Ts
o
B
(h
o
A
Ts
o
A
), (7.309)
= (h
o
B
h
o
A
) T(s
o
B
s
o
A
), (7.310)
= (h
o
To,B
h
o
To,A
) T(s
o
To,B
s
o
To,A
). (7.311)
So
K
c
= exp
_
h
o
To,A
h
o
To,B
T(s
o
To,A
s
o
To,B
)
RT
_
, (7.312)
= exp
_
c
v
T
o
RT
_
h
o
To,A
h
o
To,B
T(s
o
To,A
s
o
To,B
)
c
v
T
o
__
, (7.313)
= exp
_
1
k 1
1
T
To
_
h
o
To,A
h
o
To,B
c
v
T
o
T
T
o
(s
o
To,A
s
o
To,B
)
c
v
__
. (7.314)
Here we have used the denition of the ratio of specic heats, k = c
P
/c
v
along with R =
c
P
c
v
. So we can solve Eq. (7.273) by rst using Eq. (7.314) to eliminate K
c
and then
Eq. (7.301) to eliminate T.
7.2.1.3 Dimensionless form
Let us try writing dimensionless variables so that our system can be written in a compact
dimensionless form. First lets take dimensionless time to be
= at. (7.315)
Let us take dimensionless species concentration to be z with
z =
A
A
. (7.316)
Let us take dimensionless temperature to be with
=
T
T
o
. (7.317)
Let us take dimensionless heat release to be q with
q =
h
o
To,A
h
o
To,B
c
v
T
o
. (7.318)
Let us take dimensionless activation energy to be with
=
E
RT
o
. (7.319)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
270 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
And let us take the dimensionless entropy change to be with
=
(s
o
To,A
s
o
To,B
)
c
v
. (7.320)
So our equations become
dz
d
= exp
_
__
z
1
K
c
(1 z)
_
, (7.321)
= 1 + (1 z)q, (7.322)
K
c
= exp
_
1
k 1
1
(q )
_
. (7.323)
It is more common to consider the products. Let us dene for general problems
=
B
A
+
B
=
B
A
+
B
. (7.324)
Thus is the mass fraction of product. For our problem,
B
= 0 so
=
B
A
=
A
. (7.325)
Thus,
= 1 z. (7.326)
We can think of as a reaction progress variable as well. When = 0, we have = 0, and
the reaction has not begun. Thus, we get
d
d
= exp
_
__
(1 )
1
K
c
_
, (7.327)
= 1 +q, (7.328)
K
c
= exp
_
1
k 1
1
(q )
_
. (7.329)
7.2.1.4 Example calculation
Let us choose some values for the dimensionless parameters:
= 20, = 0, q = 10, k =
7
5
. (7.330)
With these choices, our kinetics equations reduce to
d
d
= exp
_
20
1 + 10
__
(1 ) exp
_
25
1 + 10
__
, (0) = 0. (7.331)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.2. ADIABATIC, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 271
0
1. 10
6
2. 10
6
3. 10
6
4. 10
6
5. 10
6
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Figure 7.12: Dimensionless plot of reaction product concentration versus time for adia
batic isochoric combustion with simple reversible kinetics.
The right side of Eq. (7.331) is at equilibrium for values of which drive it to zero.
Numerical root nding methods show this to occur at 0.920539. Near this root, Taylor
series expansion shows the dynamics are approximated by
d
d
( 0.920539) = 0.17993( 0.920539) +. . . (7.332)
Thus the local behavior near equilibrium is given by
= 0.920539 +C exp (0.17993 ) . (7.333)
Here C is some arbitrary constant. Clearly the equilibrium is stable, with a time constant
of 1/0.17993 = 5.55773.
Numerical solution shows the full behavior of the dimensionless species concentration
(); see Figure 7.12. Clearly the product concentration is small for some long period of
time. At a critical time near = 2.7 10
6
, there is a socalled thermal explosion with a
rapid increase in . Note that the estimate of the time constant near equilibrium is orders
of magnitude less than the explosion time, 5.55773 << 2.7 10
6
. Thus, linear analysis
here is a poor tool to estimate an important physical quantity, the ignition time. Once the
ignition period is over, there is a rapid equilibration to the nal state. The dimensionless
temperature plot is shown in Figure 7.13. The temperature plot is similar in behavior to
the species concentration plot. At early time, the temperature is cool. At a critical time,
the thermal explosion time, the temperature rapidly rises. This rapid rise, coupled with the
exponential sensitivity of reaction rate to temperature, accelerates the formation of product.
This process continues until the reverse reaction is activated to the extent it prevents further
creation of product.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
272 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
1. 10
6
2. 10
6
3. 10
6
4. 10
6
5. 10
6
2
4
6
8
10
Figure 7.13: Dimensionless plot of temperature versus time for adiabatic, isochoric
combustion with simple reversible kinetics.
7.2.1.5 High activation energy asymptotics
Let us see if we can get an analytic prediction of the thermal explosion time, 2.7 10
6
.
Such a prediction would be valuable to see how long a slowing reacting material might take
to ignite. Our analysis is similar to that given by Buckmaster and Ludford in their Chapter
1.
12
For convenience let us restrict ourselves to = 0. In this limit, Eqs. (7.3277.329) reduce
to
d
d
= exp
_
1 +q
__
(1 ) exp
_
q
(k 1)(1 +q)
__
, (7.334)
with (0) = 0. The key trouble in getting an analytic solution to Eq. (7.334) is the presence
of in the denominator of an exponential term. We need to nd a way to move it to the
numerator. Asymptotic methods provide one such way.
Now we recall for early time << 1. Let us assume takes the form
=
1
+
2
2
+
3
3
+ . . . (7.335)
Here we will assume 0 < << 1 and that
1
() O(1),
2
() O(1), . . . , and will dene
in terms of physical parameters shortly. Now with this assumption, we have
1
1 +q
=
1
1 +q
1
+
2
q
2
+
3
q
3
+ . . .
. (7.336)
12
J. D. Buckmaster and G. S. S. Ludford, 1983, Lectures on Mathematical Combustion, SIAM, Philadelphia.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.2. ADIABATIC, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 273
Long division of the term on the right side yields the approximation
1
1 +q
= = 1 q
1
+
2
(q
2
2
1
q
2
) + . . . , (7.337)
= 1 q
1
+O(
2
). (7.338)
So
exp
_
1 +q
_
exp
_
(1 q
1
+O(
2
))
_
, (7.339)
e
exp
_
q
1
+O(
2
)
_
, (7.340)
We have moved from the denominator to the numerator of the most important exponential
term.
Now, let us take the limit of high activation energy by dening to be
1
. (7.341)
Let us let the assume the remaining parameters, q and k are both O(1) constants. When
is large, will be small. With this denition, Eq. (7.340) becomes
exp
_
1 +q
_
e
1/
exp
_
q
1
+O(
2
)
_
. (7.342)
With these assumptions and approximations, Eq. (7.334) can be written as
d
d
(
1
+ . . . ) = e
1/
exp
_
q
1
+O(
2
)
_
_
(1
1
. . . ) (
1
+ . . . ) exp
_
q
(k 1)(1 +q
1
+ . . . )
__
.
(7.343)
Now let us rescale time via
=
1
e
1/
. (7.344)
With this transformation, the chain rule shows how derivatives transform:
d
d
=
d
d
d
d
=
1
e
1/
d
d
. (7.345)
With this transformation, Eq. (7.343) becomes
1
e
1/
d
d
(
1
+ . . . ) =
1
e
1/
exp
_
q
1
+O(
2
)
_
_
(1
1
. . . ) (
1
+ . . . ) exp
_
q
(k 1)(1 +q
1
+ . . . )
__
.
(7.346)
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
274 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
This simplies to
d
d
(
1
+ . . . ) = exp
_
q
1
+O(
2
)
_
_
(1
1
. . . ) (
1
+ . . . ) exp
_
q
(k 1)(1 +q
1
+ . . . )
__
.
(7.347)
Retaining only O(1) terms in Eq. (7.347), we get
d
1
d
= exp (q
1
) . (7.348)
This is supplemented by the initial condition
1
(0) = 0. Separating variables and solving,
we get
exp(q
1
)d
1
= d
, (7.349)
1
q
exp(q
1
) =
+ C. (7.350)
Applying the initial condition gives
1
q
exp(q(0)) = C, (7.351)
1
q
= C. (7.352)
So
1
q
exp(q
1
) =
1
q
, (7.353)
exp(q
1
) = q
+ 1, (7.354)
exp(q
1
) = q
_
1
q
_
, (7.355)
q
1
= ln
_
q
_
1
q
__
, (7.356)
1
=
1
q
ln
_
q
_
1
q
__
. (7.357)
For q = 10, a plot of
1
(
that
1
begins to
exhibit unbounded growth. In fact, it is obvious from Eq. (7.348) that as
1
q
,
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.2. ADIABATIC, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 275
0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1
Figure 7.14:
1
versus
1
.
That is there exists a nite time for which
1
violates the assumptions of our asymptotic
theory which assumes
1
= O(1). We associate this time with the ignition time,
i
:
i
=
1
q
. (7.358)
Let us return this to more primitive variables:
1
exp
_
1
i
=
1
q
, (7.359)
i
=
exp
_
1
_
q
, (7.360)
i
=
exp
q
. (7.361)
For our system with = 20 and q = 10, we estimate the dimensionless ignition time as
i
=
exp 20
(20)(10)
= 2.42583 10
6
. (7.362)
This is a surprisingly good estimate, given the complexity of the problem. Recall the nu
merical solution showed ignition for 2.7 10
6
.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
276 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
In terms of dimensional time, ignition time prediction becomes
t
i
=
exp
aq
, (7.363)
=
1
a
_
RT
o
E
_
_
c
v
T
o
h
o
To,A
h
o
To,B
_
exp
_
E
RT
o
_
. (7.364)
Note the ignition is suppressed if the ignition time is lengthened, which happens when
he activation energy E is increased, since the exponential sensitivity is stronger than
the algebraic sensitivity,
the energy of combustion (h
o
To,A
h
o
To,B
) is decreased because it takes longer to react
to drive the temperature to a critical value to induce ignition, and
the collision frequency factor a is decreased, which suppresses reaction.
7.2.2 Detailed H
2
O
2
N
2
kinetics
Here is an example which uses multiple reactions for an adiabatic isothermal system is given.
Consider the full timedependency of a problem similar to the thermal explosion problem
just considered.
A closed, xed, adiabatic volume, V = 0.3061251 cm
3
, contains at t = 0 s a stoichiometric
hydrogenair mixture of 2 10
5
mole of H
2
, 1 10
5
mole of O
2
, and 3.76 10
5
mole of
N
2
at P
o
= 2.83230 10
6
Pa and T
o
= 1542.7 K.
13
Thus the initial molar concentrations
are
H
2
= 6.533 10
5
mole/cm
3
,
O
2
= 3.267 10
5
mole/cm
3
,
H
2
= 1.228 10
4
mole/cm
3
.
The initial mass fractions are calculated via c
i
= M
i
i
/. They are
c
H
2
= 0.0285,
c
O
2
= 0.226,
c
N
2
= 0.745.
To avoid issues associated with numerical roundo errors at very early time for species
with very small compositions, the minor species were initialized at a small nonzero value
near machine precision; each was assigned a value of 10
15
mole. The minor species all have
i
= 1.803 10
16
mole/cm
3
. They have correspondingly small initial mass fractions.
13
This temperature and pressure correspond to that of the same ambient mixture of H
2
, O
2
and N
2
which
was shocked from 1.01325 10
5
Pa, 298 K, to a value associated with a freely propagating detonation.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.2. ADIABATIC, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 277
10
10
10
5
10
0
10
15
10
10
10
5
10
0
t (s)
H
O
H
2
O
2
OH
H
2
O
H
2
O
2
HO
2
N
2
c
i
Figure 7.15: Plot of c
H
2
(t), c
H
(t), c
O
(t), c
O
2
(t), c
OH
(t), c
H
2
O
(t), c
HO
2
(t), c
H
2
O
2
(t), c
N
2
(t), for
adiabatic, isochoric combustion of a mixture of 2H
2
+O
2
+3.76N
2
initially at T
o
= 1542.7 K,
P
o
= 2.8323 10
6
Pa.
We seek the reaction dynamics as the system proceeds from its initial state to its nal
state. We use the reversible detailed kinetics mechanism of Table 7.2. This problem requires
a detailed numerical solution. Such a solution was performed by solving the appropriate
equations for a mixture of nine interacting species: H
2
, H, O, O
2
, OH, H
2
O, HO
2
, H
2
O
2
,
and N
2
. The dynamics of the reaction process are reected in Figs. 7.157.17.
At early time, t < 10
7
s, the pressure, temperature, and major reactant species con
centrations (H
2
, O
2
, N
2
) are nearly constant. However, the minor species, e.g. OH, HO
2
,
and the major product, H
2
O, are undergoing very rapid growth, albeit with math fractions
whose value remains small. In this period, the material is in what is known as the induction
period.
After a certain critical mass of minor species has accumulated, exothermic recombination
of these minor species to form the major product H
2
O induces the temperature to rise, which
accelerates further the reaction rates. This is manifested in a thermal explosion. A common
denition of the end of the induction period is the induction time, t = t
ind
, the time when
dT/dt goes through a maximum. Here one nds
t
ind
= 6.6 10
7
s. (7.365)
A closeup view of the species concentration proles is given in Fig. 7.18.
At the end of the induction zone, there is a nal relaxation to equilibrium. The equilib
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
278 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
10
10
10
5
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
t (s)
T
(
K
)
Figure 7.16: Plot of T(t), for adiabatic, isochoric combustion of a mixture of 2H
2
+O
2
+3.76N
2
initially at T
o
= 1542.7 K, P
o
= 2.8323 10
6
Pa.
10
10
10
5
10
6
10
7
t (s)
P
(
P
a
)
Figure 7.17: Plot of P(t), for adiabatic, isochoric combustion of a mixture of 2H
2
+ O
2
+
3.76N
2
initially at T
o
= 1542.7 K, P
o
= 2.8323 10
6
Pa.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
7.2. ADIABATIC, ISOCHORIC KINETICS 279
2 4 6 8 10
x 10
7
10
10
10
5
10
0
t (s)
H
O
H
2
O
2
OH
H
2
O
H
2
O
2
HO
2
N
2
c
i
Figure 7.18: Plot near thermal explosion time of c
H
2
(t), c
H
(t), c
O
(t), c
O
2
(t), c
OH
(t), c
H
2
O
(t),
c
HO
2
(t), c
H
2
O
2
(t), c
N
2
(t), for adiabatic, isochoric combustion of a mixture of 2H
2
+O
2
+3.76N
2
initially at at T
o
= 1542.7 K, P
o
= 2.8323 10
6
Pa.
rium mass fractions of each species are
c
O
2
= 1.85 10
2
, (7.366)
c
H
= 5.41 10
4
, (7.367)
c
OH
= 2.45 10
2
, (7.368)
c
O
= 3.88 10
3
, (7.369)
c
H
2
= 3.75 10
3
, (7.370)
c
H
2
O
= 2.04 10
1
, (7.371)
c
HO
2
= 6.84 10
5
, (7.372)
c
H
2
O
2
= 1.04 10
5
, (7.373)
c
N
2
= 7.45 10
1
. (7.374)
We note that because our model takes N
2
to be inert that its value remains unchanged.
Other than N
2
, the nal products are dominated by H
2
O. The equilibrium temperature is
3382.3 K and 5.53 10
6
Pa.
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
280 CHAPTER 7. KINETICS IN SOME MORE DETAIL
CC BYNCND. 02 May 2012, J. M. Powers.
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This is a detailed monograph by the founding father of statistical thermodynamics. This edition is a
translation of the original German version, Gastheorie, from 18961898.
C. Borgnakke and R. E. Sonntag, 2009, Fundamentals of Thermodynamics, Seventh Edition,
John Wiley, New York.
This classic and popular undergraduate mechanical engineering text, which in earlier editions was
authored by J. G. van Wylen and Sonntag, has stood the test of time and has a full treatment of
most classical problems. Its rst edition appeared in 1965.
M. Born, 1949, Natural Philosophy of Cause and Chance, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
This monograph is a summary of the Waynete Lectures delivered at Oxford University in 1948 by
the author, the winner of the 1954 Nobel Prize in physics. The lectures consider various topics, and
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include an important chapter on thermodynamics with the authors earlier defense of the approach of
Carath`eodory playing a prominent role.
R. Boyle, 2003, The Sceptical Chymist, Dover, New York.
This is a reprint of the original 1661 work of the famous early gure of the scientic revolution.
P. W. Bridgman, 1943, The Nature of Thermodynamics, Harvard, Cambridge.
This short monograph by the winner of the 1946 Nobel Prize in physics gives a prosaic introduction
to thermodynamics which is directed at a scientically literate audience who are not interested in
detailed mathematical exposition.
H. B. Callen, 1985, Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics, Second Edi
tion, John Wiley, New York.
This advanced undergraduate text, an update of the 1960 original, has an emphasis on classical physics
applied to thermodynamics, with a few chapters devoted to quantum and statistical foundations.
S. Carnot, 2005, Reections on the Motive Power of Fire, Dover, New York.
This is a translation of the authors foundational 1824 work on the heat engines, Reexions sur la
Puissance Motrice du Feu et sur les Machines propres ` a developper cette Puissance (Reections on
the Motive Power of Fire and on Machines Fitted to Develop that Power). Also included is a paper
of Clausius.
Y. A. C engel and M. A. Boles, 2010, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, Seventh
Edition, McGrawHill, Boston.
This popular undergraduate mechanical engineering text which rst appeared in 1989 has most of the
features expected in a modern book intended for a large and varied audience.
S. Chandrasekhar, 2010, An Introduction to the Study of Stellar Structure, Dover, New
York.
This monograph, rst published in 1939, on astrophysics is by the winner of the 1983 Nobel Prize
in physics. It has large sections devoted to rigorous axiomatic classical thermodynamics in the style
of Carath`eodory, highly accessible to engineering students, which show how thermodynamics plays a
critical role in understanding the physics of the heavens.
R. J. E. Clausius, 2008, The Mechanical Theory of Heat, Kessinger, Whitesh, Montana.
This is a reprint of the 1879 translation of the 1850 German publication of the great German scientist
who in many ways founded classical thermodynamics.
S. R. de Groot and P. Mazur, 1984, NonEquilibrium Thermodynamics, Dover, New York.
This is an inuential monograph, rst published in 1962, which summarizes much of the work of the
famous Belgian school of thermodynamics. It is written at a graduate level and has a strong link to
uid mechanics and chemical reactions.
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E. Fermi, 1936, Thermodynamics, Dover, New York.
This short 160 page classic clearly and eciently summarizes the fundamentals of thermodynamics.
It is based on a series of lectures given by this winner of the 1938 Nobel Prize in physics. The book
is highly recommended, and the reader can benet from multiple readings.
R. P. Feynman, R. B. Leighton, and M. Sands, 1963, The Feynman Lectures on Physics,
Volume 1, AddisonWesley, Reading, Massachusetts.
This famous series documents the introductory undergraduate physics lectures given at the California
Institute of Technology by the lead author, the 1965 Nobel laureate in physics. Famous for their clarity,
depth, and notable forays into challenging material, they treat a wide range of topics from classical
to modern physics. Volume 1 contains chapters relevant to classical and modern thermodynamics.
J. B. J. Fourier, 2009, The Analytical Theory of Heat, Cambridge, Cambridge.
This reprint of the 1878 English translation of the 1822 French original, Theorie Analytique de la
Chaleur is a tour de force of science, engineering, and mathematics. It predates Carnot and the
development of the rst and second laws of thermodynamics, but nevertheless successfully develops
a theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics fully consistent with the rst and second laws. In so
doing, the author makes key advances in the formulation of partial dierential equations and their
solution by what are now known as Fourier series.
J. W. Gibbs, 1957, The Collected Works of J. Willard Gibbs, Yale U. Press, New Haven.
This compendium gives a complete reproduction of the published work of the monumental American
engineer and scientist of the nineteenth century, including his seminal work on classical and statistical
thermodynamics.
E. A. Guggenheim, 1933, Modern Thermodynamics by the Methods of Willard Gibbs, Methuen,
London.
This graduatelevel monograph was important in bringing the work of Gibbs to a wider audience.
E. P. Gyftopoulos and G. P. Beretta, 1991, Thermodynamics: Foundations and Applica
tions, Macmillan, New York.
This beginning graduate text has a rigorous development of classical thermodynamics.
C. S. Helrich, 2009, Modern Thermodynamics with Statistical Mechanics, Springer, Berlin.
This is an advanced undergraduate text aimed mainly at the physics community. The author includes a
full treatment of classical thermodynamics and moves easily into statistical mechanics. The authors
undergraduate training in engineering is evident in some of the style of the text which should be
readable by most undergraduate engineers after a rst class in thermodynamics.
J. O. Hirschfelder, C. F. Curtis, and R. B. Bird, 1954, Molecular Theory of Gases and
Liquids, Wiley, New York.
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This comprehensive tome is a valuable addition to any library of thermal science. Its wide ranging
text covers equations of state, molecular collision theory, reactive hydrodynamics, reaction kinetics,
and many other topics all from the point of view of careful physical chemistry. Much of the work
remains original.
J. R. Howell and R. O. Buckius, 1992, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics,
Second Edition, McGrawHill, New York.
This is a good undergraduate text for mechanical engineers; it rst appeared in 1987.
W. F. Hughes and J. A. Brighton, 1999, Fluid Dynamics, Third Edition, Schaums Outline
Series, McGrawHill, New York.
Written in the standard studentfriendly style of the Schaums series, this discussion of uid mechanics
includes two chapters on compressible ow which bring together uid mechanics and thermodynamics.
It rst appeared in 1967.
F. P. Incropera, D. P. DeWitt, T. L. Bergman, and A. S. Lavine, 2006, Fundamentals of
Heat and Mass Transfer, Sixth Edition, John Wiley, New York.
This has evolved since its introduction in 1981 into the standard undergraduate text in heat transfer.
The interested thermodynamics student will nd the subject of heat transfer builds in many ways
on a classical thermodynamics foundation. Especially relevant to thermodynamics are chapters on
boiling and condensation, heat exchangers, as well as extensive tables of thermal properties of real
materials.
J. H. Keenan, F. G. Keyes, P. G. Hill, and J. G. Moore, 1985, Steam Tables: Thermodynamic
Properties of Water Including Vapor, Liquid, and Solid Phases, John Wiley, New York.
This is a version of the original 1936 data set which is the standard for waters thermodynamic
properties.
J. Kestin, 1966, A Course in Thermodynamics, Blaisdell, Waltham, Massachusetts.
This is a foundational textbook that can be read on many levels. All rst principles are reported in a
readable fashion. In addition the author makes a great eort to expose the underlying mathematical
foundations of thermodynamics.
R. J. Kee, M. E. Coltrin, and P. Glarborg, 2003, Chemically Reacting Flow: Theory and
Practice, John Wiley, New York.
This comprehensive text gives an introductory graduate level discussion of uid mechanics, thermo
chemistry, and nite rate chemical kinetics. The focus is on low Mach number reacting ows, and
there is signicant discussion of how to achieve computational solutions.
C. Kittel and H. Kroemer, 1980, Thermal Physics, Second Edition, Freeman, San Francisco.
This is a classic undergraduate text, rst introduced in 1970; it is mainly aimed at physics students.
It has a good introduction to statistical thermodynamics and a short eective chapter on classical
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thermodynamics. Engineers seeking to broaden their skill set for new technologies relying on micro
scale thermal phenomena can use this text as a starting point.
D. Kondepudi and I. Prigogine, 1998, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to
Dissipative Structures, John Wiley, New York.
This is a detailed modern exposition which exploits the authors unique vision of thermodynamics with
both a science and engineering avor. The authors, the second of whom is one of the few engineers
who was awarded the Nobel Prize (chemistry 1977, for the work summarized in this text), often
challenge the standard approach to teaching thermodynamics, and make the case that the approach
they advocate, with an emphasis on nonequilibrium thermodynamics, is better suited to describe
natural phenomena and practical devices than the present approach, which is generally restricted to
equilibrium states.
K. K. Kuo, 2005, Principles of Combustion, Second Edition, John Wiley, New York.
This is a readable graduate level engineering text for combustion fundamentals. First published in
1986, it includes a full treatment of reacting thermodynamics as well as discussion of links to uid
mechanics.
K. J. Laidler, 1987, Chemical Kinetics, Third Edition, PrenticeHall, Upper Saddle River,
NJ.
This is a standard advanced undergraduate chemistry text on the dynamics of chemical reactions. It
rst appeared in 1965.
L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, 2000, Statistical Physics, Part 1, Volume 5 of the Course
of Theoretical Physics, Third Edition, ButterworthHeinemann, Oxford.
This book, part of the monumental series of graduate level Russian physics texts, rst published in
English in 1951 from Statisticheskaya zika, gives a ne introduction to classical thermodynamics as
a prelude to its main topic, statistical thermodynamics in the spirit of Gibbs.
B. H. Lavenda, 1978, Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes, John Wiley, New York.
This is a lively and opinionated monograph describing and commenting on irreversible thermodynam
ics. The author is especially critical of the Prigogine school of thought on entropy production rate
minimization.
A. Lavoisier, 1984, Elements of Chemistry, Dover, New York.
This is the classic treatise by the man known as the father of modern chemistry, translated from the
1789 Traite
Elementaire de Chimie, which gives the rst explicit statement of mass conservation in
chemical reactions.
G. N. Lewis and M. Randall, 1961, Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical
Substances, Second Edition, McGrawHill, New York.
This book, rst published in 1923, was for many years a standard reference text of physical chemistry.
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H. W. Liepmann and A. Roshko, 2002, Elements of Gasdynamics, Dover, New York.
This is an inuential text in compressible aerodynamics that is appropriate for seniors or beginning
graduate students. First published in 1957, it has a strong treatment of the physics and thermody
namics of compressible ow along with elegant and ecient text. Its treatment of both experiment
and the underlying theory is outstanding, and in many ways is representative of the approach to
engineering sciences fostered at the California Institute of Technology, the authors home institution.
J. C. Maxwell, 2001, Theory of Heat, Dover, New York.
This is a short readable book by the nineteenth century master, rst published in 1871. Here the
mathematics is minimized in favor of more words of explanation.
M. J. Moran and H. N. Shapiro, 2007, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics,
Sixth Edition, John Wiley, New York.
This is a standard undergraduate engineering thermodynamics text, and one of the more popular.
First published in 1988, it has much to recommend it including good example problems, attention to
detail, good graphics, and a level of rigor appropriate for good undergraduate students.
P. M. Morse, 1969, Thermal Physics, Second Edition, Benjamin, New York.
This is a good undergraduate book on thermodynamics from a physics perspective. It covers classical
theory well in its rst sections, then goes on to treat kinetic theory and statistical mechanics. It rst
appeared in 1964.
I. M uller and T. Ruggeri, 1998, Rational Extended Thermodynamics, SpringerVerlag, New
York.
This modern, erudite monograph gives a rigorous treatment of some of the key issues at the frontier
of modern continuum thermodynamics.
I. M uller and W. Weiss, 2005, Entropy and Energy, SpringerVerlag, New York.
This is a unique treatise on fundamental concepts in thermodynamics. The author provide mathe
matical rigor, historical perspective, and examples from a diverse set of scientic elds.
I. M uller, 2007, A History of Thermodynamics: the Doctrine of Energy and Entropy,
SpringerVerlag, Berlin.
The author gives a readable text at an advanced undergraduate level which highlights some of the
many controversies of thermodynamics, both ancient and modern.
I. M uller and W. H. M uller, 2009, Fundamentals of Thermodynamics and Applications:
with Historical Annotations and Many Citations from Avogadro to Zermelo, Springer,
Berlin.
The author presents an eclectic view of classical thermodynamics with much discussion of its history.
The text is aimed at a curious undergraduate who is unsatised with industrialstrength yet narrow
and intellectually vapid textbooks.
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W. Nernst, 1969, The New Heat Theorem: Its Foundation in Theory and Experiment,
Dover, New York.
This monograph gives the authors exposition of the development of the third law of thermodynamics.
It rst appeared in English translation in 1917 and was originally published in German.
W. Pauli, 2000, Thermodynamics and the Kinetic Theory of Gases, Dover, New York.
This is a monograph on statistical thermodynamics by the winner of the 1945 Nobel Prize in physics.
It is actually derived from his lecture course notes given at ETH Zurich, as compiled by a student in
his class, E. Jucker, published in 1952.
M. Planck, 1990, Treatise on Thermodynamics, Dover, New York.
This brief book, which originally appeared in German in 1897, gives many unique insights from the
great scientist who was the winner of the 1918 Nobel Prize in physics. It is rigorous, but readable by
an interested undergraduate student.
H. Poincare, 1892, Thermodynamique: Lecons Profess`ees Pendant le Premier Semestre
188889, Georges Carre, Paris.
This text of classical undergraduate thermodynamics has been prepared by one of the premier math
ematicians of the nineteenth century.
I. Prigogine, 1967, Introduction to Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes, Third Edition,
Interscience, New York.
This is a famous book that summarizes the essence of the work of the Belgian school for which the
author was awarded the 1977 Nobel Prize in chemistry. This book rst appeared in 1955.
W. J. M. Rankine, 1908, A Manual of the Steam Engine and Other Prime Movers, Seven
teenth Edition, Grin, London.
This in an accessible undergraduate text for mechanical engineers of the nineteenth century. It rst
appeared in 1859. It contains much practical information on a variety of devices, including steam
engines.
L. E. Reichl, 1998, A Modern Course in Statistical Physics, John Wiley, New York.
This full service graduate text has a good summary of key concepts of classical thermodynamics and
a strong development of modern statistical thermodynamics.
O. Reynolds, 1903, Papers on Mechanical and Physical Subjects, Volume III, The Sub
Mechanics of the Universe, Cambridge, Cambridge.
This volume compiles various otherwise unpublished notes of Reynolds and includes his detailed deriva
tions of general equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy employing his transport
theorem.
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W. C. Reynolds, 1968, Thermodynamics, Second Edition, McGrawHill, New York.
This is an unusually good undergraduate text written for mechanical engineers. The author has
wonderful qualitative problems in addition to the usual topics in such texts. A good introduction
to statistical mechanics is included as well. This particular edition is highly recommended; the rst
edition appeared in 1965.
S. I. Sandler, 1998, Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics, Third Edition, John Wiley,
New York.
This is an advanced undergraduate text in thermodynamics from a chemical engineering perspective
with a good mathematical treatment. It rst appeared in 1977.
E. Schrodinger, 1989, Statistical Thermodynamics, Dover, New York.
This is a short monograph written by the one of the pioneers of quantum physics, the cowinner of
the 1933 Nobel Prize in Physics. It is based on a set of lectures delivered to the Dublin Institute for
Advanced Studies in 1944, and was rst published in 1946.
A. H. Shapiro, 1953, The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow,
Vols. I and II, John Wiley, New York.
This classic two volume set has a comprehensive treatment of the subject of its title. It has numerous
worked example problems, and is written from a careful engineers perspective.
J. M. Smith, H. C. van Ness, and M. Abbott, 2004, Introduction to Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics, Seventh Edition, McGrawHill, New York.
This is probably the most common undergraduate text in thermodynamics in chemical engineering.
It rst appeared in 1959. It is rigorous and has went through many revisions.
A. Sommerfeld, 1956, Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics, Lectures on Theoretical
Physics, Vol. V, Academic Press, New York.
This is a compilation of the authors lecture notes on this subject. The book reects the authors
stature of a leader of theoretical physics of the twentieth century who trained a generation of students
(e.g. Nobel laureates Heisenberg, Pauli, Debye and Bethe). The book gives a ne description of
classical thermodynamics with a seamless transition into quantum and statistical mechanics.
J. W. Tester and M. Modell, 1997, Thermodynamics and Its Applications, Third Edition,
Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
First appearing in 1974, this entry level graduate text in thermodynamics is written from a chemical
engineers perspective. It has a strong mathematical development for both classical and statistical
thermodynamics.
C. A. Truesdell, 1980, The Tragicomic History of Thermodynamics, 18221854, Springer
Verlag, New York.
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This idiosyncratic monograph has a lucid description of the history of nineteenth century thermal
science. It is written in an erudite fashion, and the reader who is willing to dive into a dicult subject
will be rewarded for diligence by gain of many new insights.
C. A. Truesdell, 1984, Rational Thermodynamics, Second Edition, SpringerVerlag, New
York.
This is an update on the evolution of classical thermodynamics in the twentieth century. The book
itself rst appeared in 1969. The second edition includes additional contributions by some contempo
raneous leaders of the eld.
S. R. Turns, 2000, An Introduction to Combustion, Second Edition, McGrawHill, Boston.
This is a seniorlevel undergraduate text on combustion which uses many notions from thermodynam
ics of mixtures. It rst appeared in 1996.
H. C. van Ness, 1983, Understanding Thermodynamics, Dover, New York.
This is a short readable monograph from a chemical engineering perspective. It rst appeared in 1969.
W. G. Vincenti and C. H. Kruger, 1976, Introduction to Physical Gas Dynamics, Krieger,
Malabar, Florida.
This graduate text on high speed nonequilibrium ows contains a good description of the interplay
of classical and statistical mechanics. There is an emphasis on aerospace science and fundamental
engineering applications. It rst appeared in 1965.
F. M. White, 2010, Fluid Mechanics, Seventh Edition, McGrawHill, Boston.
This standard undergraduate uid text draws on thermodynamics in its presentation of the rst law
and in its treatment of compressible ows. It rst appeared in 1979.
B. Woodcraft, 1851, The Pneumatics of Hero of Alexandria, London, Taylor Walton and
Maberly.
This is a translation and compilation from the ancient Greek of the work of Hero (10 A.D.70 A.D.).
The discussion contains descriptions of the engineering of a variety of technological devices including
a primitive steam engine. Other devices which convert heat into work are described as well.
L. C. Woods, 1975, The Thermodynamics of Fluid Systems, Clarendon, Oxford.
This graduate text gives a good, detailed survey of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes,
especially related to uid systems in which convection and diusion play important roles.
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