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The Relation between Psycholinguistic and Other Disciplinary In Term of Language Disorder

Zenith Rachmayanti Lasantu 120912113 Airlangga University Faculty of Humanities English Department English Literature Study Program 2012

The Relation between Psycholinguistic and Other Disciplinary In Term of Language Disorder
Psycholinguistic is a marriage between psychology and linguistic. It is a study which is concerned with discovering the psychological processes by which human acquire and use (Berko-Gleason and Ratner 1998). According to Field in 2003, psycholinguistic explores the relationship between the human mind and language. Harley (1955) states that psycholinguistics should address many practical issues. According to him, we can refer to five key applications: First, what we know about reading can be applied to improving methods of teaching reading. Second, these techniques should also be use in helping children with language disabilities (i.e. dyslexia). Third, psycholinguist helps us to improve the foreign language acquisition in children and adults. Then, psycholinguist helps to understand how language can be disrupted by brain damage and this has consequences for the treatment and rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. Last, there are obvious advantageous if we could develop computers that can understand and produce language. This paper will explain the forth point that Harley explained. Human, which brain function and articulator system normally work, can speak normally. But those who has brain and articulator disorder obviously has a difficulty in use language either productively or receptively. So, they have language disorder (Chaer, 2003). In his book, Chaer divides language disorder into two, language disorder because of medical factors and because of social environmental factors. Sidharta (1984) stated that language disorder in medical categorized into three groups, speech disorder, language disorder, and thinking disorder. In the other hand, Field (2003) stated that language disorder is categorized into developmental disorder and acquired disorder. Developmental disorder is an impairment which manifests itself during the acquisition of first language. It might derive from processing problem for instance Dyslexia and Dysgraphia. Next, acquired disorder is an impairment

which occurs after the first language has been fully established. It may derived from brain damage (especially left hemisphere) caused by illness. Field (2004) also explains kinds of language disorder. They are Aphasia, autism, dyslexia, dysgraphia, dysphasia, dysarthria, yDown syndrome, William syndrome, savant and specific language impairment. Aphasia is a disorder in ability to produce or to understand spoken language as a result from brain damage caused by an accident, a stroke or invasive surgery. Next, autism is a condition characterized by withdrawal from linguistic interaction with others. The autism sufferer is often mute or uses language in non-communicative way. Dyslexia, divided into two: acquired and developmental dyslexia. Acquired dyslexia is a condition of the loss or partial loss of the ability to read as the result of illness. Developmental dyslexia is a condition of delayed acquisition of reading skills and/or the adopting of reading process. Dysphasia is delayed acquisition of speech and/or the manifestation of speech which deviates markedly from generally observed pattern. Next, dysgraphia also divided into two: acquired and developmental dysgraphia. Acquired dysgraphia is the loss or partial loss of the ability to write as the result of illness. Developmental dysgraphia is a delayed acquisition of writing skills. Dysarthria is a type of disorder which affects the articulation of speech. Down syndrome is a syndrome in which the sufferers show limitations of attention, short term memory and perceptual discrimination. William syndrome is a genetic condition in which sufferers show sign of cognitive impairment. Savant is an individual who is severely mentally impaired, but shows exceptional gifts, often in painting or music or language. Specific language impairment is a condition where individuals of normal intelligence fail to achieve full linguistic competence. From the explanations above, we can draw connections between psycholinguistic and other disciplinary in terms of language disorder. As I mention before, Harley (1955) states that psycholinguistics should address many practical issues. Since Chomsky began formulating theories as to how the children acquire language, the field of psycholinguistics has grown to

include elements of neuroscience and biochemistry, creating a view of human language that involves linguistics, psychology, anatomy and biochemistry. Generally, psycholinguistics has relation with other sub disciplinary, for instance Theoretic Psycholinguistic which explains the theories of language that relate to the process of human brain in using language. The other sub disciplinary in psycholinguistics is Developmental Psycholinguistics which relates to the acquisition of language. Next is Social Psycholinguistics that relates to the aspects of social language and many more. In terms of language disorder, psycholinguistics relate to some disciplinary that Ill explain bellow. In a medical disciplinary, psycholinguistic forms an important part important part of research investigating medical issue relating to language. For instance in case of autism, Autism research is one such area that is rapidly evolving and utilizing psycholinguistics along with other methods of inquiry. Autism is a communicative and neurological disorder that is increasingly among the children worldwide. Psycholinguists in the research sector seek to understand the external and internal sources of language impairment in autistic individuals in an effort to find a cure or prevention for the disorder. Psycholinguists are also involved in research concerning brain damage that leads to speech impairment or the loss of memory that result in temporary or permanent communication deficiencies. In this relationship, psycholinguistic also have a great relation with Speech-Language Pathology (speech therapy). Pathology is a scientific discipline which involves the study of diseases, such as infections and cancers, at the genetic, molecular, cellular, and organ levels. Speech Pathology is the study of speech, language, communication, voice, swallowing, and fluency disorders, and the methods of their treatment. Speech language pathologists work in rehabilitation centers, schools and hospitals with children and adults whose speech has been affected by an accident, illness or disorder.

Besides pathology, the other major that related to psycholinguistics is physiotherapy. Physiotherapy is the process by which ill, injured or disabled people are helped to recover their movement and function to full potential. Psycholinguists may work as psychologists to help people who are struggling with communication to overcome and mitigate psychological barriers to communication. Occupational therapy is another field psycholinguistics related to; here psycholinguist helping people with memory problems or brain injuries regain skills or cope with difficulties in communicating. Beside in medical disciplinary, psycholinguistic also related in education disciplinary in term of language disorder. Assist public and private schools in educating children who have difficulty communicating. Because they have an understanding of all aspects of language acquisition, comprehension and usage, psycholinguists make dynamic teachers for such children or valuable assets to the evaluation and design of plans to educate such children. As a conclusion, Psycholinguistic is a marriage between psychology and linguistic. In psycholinguistic which stand independently we would find an explanation about language disorder. From this term, we can draw relationship between psycholinguistic and other disciplinary. For instance in pathology, medical, physiotherapy and education. From this relationship we can know about language disorder and how to recover it. References Chaer, Abdul. 2003. Psikolinguistik Kajian Teoretik. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta Field, John. 2003. Psycholinguistics: A Resource Book for Students. NY: Routledge Field, John. 2004. Psycholinguistics: The Key Concepts. NY: Routledge Syukri, Masitha Achmad. 2012. Psycholinguistics: An Introduction. Surabaya