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TOPIC Investigate the structure of flower, Angiospermatophyta PURPOSE To investigate the morphology of the alamanda flower and the

orchid flower and the relation to its function. INTRODUCTION A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to mediate the union of male sperm with female ovum in order to produce seeds. The process begins with pollination, is followed by fertilization, leading to the formation and dispersal of the seeds. For the higher plants, seeds are the next generation, and serve as the primary means by which individuals of a species are dispersed across the landscape. The grouping of flowers on a plant is called the inflorescence.In addition to serving as the reproductive organs of flowering plants, flowers have long been admired and used by humans, mainly to beautify their environment but also as a source of food. The two types of flower that we used for experiment was Hibiscus and orchid flower. Hibiscus was a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae. It is quite large, containing about 200220 species that are native to warm-temperate, subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world. Member species are often noted for their showy flowers and are commonly known as hibiscus or sorrel. The genus includes both annual and perennial herbaceous plants, as well as woody shrubs and small trees. The leaves are alternate, simple, and ovate to lancelet, often with a toothed or lobed margin. The flowers are large, conspicuous, trumpet-shaped, with five or more petals, ranging from white to pink, red, orange, purple or yellow, and from 418 cm broad. Flower color in certain species, such as H. mutabilis and H. tiliaceus, changes with age. The fruit is a dry five-lobed capsule, containing several seeds in each lobe, which are released when the capsule dehisces (splits open) at maturity.

Allamanda is a common shrub with glossy green leaves found in the lowland gardens of Peninsular Malaysia. Its all-year long flowers are bisexual, large, yellow and in cymes. It has a short calyx-tube, 5 lobes and is often glandular inside. Its corolla-tube is long and salver-shaped with contorted 5 lobes. It has 5 stamens, epipetalous, linear anthers. Gynoecium 2-carpellate with 2 ovaries. One variety known as A. grandiflora has particularly large funnel-shaped flowers up to 10 cm in diameter, while another, A. violacea, has pale mauve blossoms. Propagates easily with cuttings. Fertilize liberally during growing season. Prune to encourage more branches. Prefers regular to generous weathering during hot, dry months Orchids are easily distinguished from other plants, as they share some very evident apomorphies. Among these: bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic), many resupinate, one petal (labellum) is always highly modified, stamens and carpels are fused, and the seeds are extremely small. Orchid flowers primitively had three stamens, but this situation is now limited to the genus Neuwiedia. Apostasia and the Cypripedioideae have two stamens, the central one being sterile and reduced to a staminode. All of the other orchids, the clade called Monandria, retain only the central stamen, the others being reduced to staminodes . The filaments of the stamens are always adnate (fused) to the style to form cylindrical structure called the gynostemium or column . In the primitive Apostasioideae this fusion is only partial, in the Vanilloideae it is more deep, while in Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae it is total. The stigma is very asymmetrical as all of its lobes are bent towards the centre of the flower and lay on the bottom of the column. Pollen is released as single grains, like in most other plants, in the Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae and Vanilloideae. In the other subfamilies, that comprise the great majority of orchids, the anther, carries and two pollinia. A pollinium is a waxy mass of pollen grains held together by the glue-like alkaloid viscin, containing both cellulosic stands and mucopolysaccharides. Each pollinium is connected to a filament which can take the form of a caudicle, like in Dactylorhiza or Habenaria or a stipe, like in Vanda. Caudicles or stipes hold the pollinia to the viscidium, a sticky pad which sticks the pollinia to the body of pollinators. At the upper edge of the stigma of single-anthered orchids, in front of the anther cap, there is the rostellum, a slender extension involved in the complex pollination mechanism.

A floral formula is a way to represent the structure of a flower using specific letters, numbers, and symbols. Typically, a general formula will be used to represent the flower structure of a plant family rather than a particular species. The following representations are used:

Ca = calyx (sepal whorl; e. g. Ca5 = 5 sepals) Co = corolla (petal whorl; e. g., Co3(x) = petals some multiple of three ) Z = add if zygomorphic (e. g., CoZ6 = zygomorphic with 6 petals) A = androecium (whorl of stamens; e. g., A = many stamens) G = gynoecium (carpel or carpels; e. g., G1 = monocarpous) x: to represent a "variable number" : to represent "many" A floral formula would appear something like this: Ca5Co5A10 - G1

APPARATUS AND MATERIALS


1. 1 unit of Allamanda flower 2. 1 unit of Orchid flower 3. A cover slip 4. A light microscope 5. A white tile 6. A forceps 7. A hand lens

8. 1 unit of a sharp scalpel / razor blade


9. A ruler

10. A bottle of distilled water 11. A slide 12. A slide cover

PROCEDURE 1. For the first of the experiment, the materials and the apparatus must be set up.
2. Then, the flower must be cut into two equal halves by using a equal sharp

scalpels. After that, the large labeled drawing of the was made of the dissected flower as shown in diagram 1 as well as the floral diagram 3. The symmetry of Allamanda flower was determined and it was cut carefully into two equal halves by using a sharp scalpel.
4. By using a magnifying glass the structure of Allamanda flower was examined. 5. A large labeled drawing of the dissected Allamanda flower was made and the

scale of the drawing was stated. All this have in diagram 2.


6. Carefully take out the Carpel carefully. And then carefully determine the ovary. 7. Remove the stamen and it was examined under magnifying glass. Pollen grain

was determined.
8. A drop of water was put on a glass slide. Then, pollen grain was put on the water

by using a pair of forceps. 9. Cover slip was put over it. The pollen grain was examine under the microscope of power of 4 x 10 and 40 x 10 lens. Then, it was foll9owed by ovary.
10. The structure of pollen grain and ovary of Allamanda flower was observed under

the microscope and was recorded as shown in figure 3.


11. Step 1 until step 10 was repeated by using Orchid flower.

OBSERVATION Flower Number of petal Number of sepal Colour of petal Colour of sepal Number of stamen Number of carpel Floral formula Floral symmetry Ovary position Type of flower Allamanda 5 5 Yellow Yellow 5 1
Ca
5

Co

Actinomprphic Superior Perfect flower

Orchid 3 3 Purple Purple 2 3 Ca 3 Co 3 A Zygomorphic Superior Perfect flower

Firstly, the flower that was examine was Allamanda and Orchid. From the observation we can see the colour of the petal of Allamanda flower was yellow but the colour of the petal of Orchid flower was purple. Both of them has sepals, petals and stamens attached to the male parts(anther and filament) and female parts(stigma, style, ovary, ovule) of flower. From the obseravation also we can know that Allamanda flower was actinomorphic flower that is radially symmetrical because has 5 petal on its side while orchid flower was zygomorphic flower that is bilaterally symmetrical because it just has 3 petal. Allamanda has yellow, trumpet-shaped flower. It has 5 petals that joined into a tube at the base and 5 sepals. The stamens are inserted on the inside of the petal tube. There is sticky green stigma is in the center of anther. One carpel of allamanda made up many ovules. A stamen and stigma for orchid flower were combine into a column. It has long style that be comfort for stigma. . The anther is made up of the anther cap and 2 pollinia. The petals and the sepals attach to the base of the column where it joins with the ovary.

DISCUSSION The floral formula of Allamanda is Ca 5 Co 5 A 5 G 1 . It has 5 petals that joined at the base and 5 sepals. The stamen was inserted in the petal tube. Stamen is located at narrow part of petals and has hairy on it. We also can see the shape of the anther is triangle and has the hairy structure on the top of the anther. The sticky green stigma is in the center of anther which will help the pollen grain stick to the pollinator. The carpels consists of many ovules. The insects can be attracted to ensure the fertilization by using the colourful colour of the bright yellow colour of the flower. The pollen grain of Allamanda cannot be observed clearly because it is too small and hard to see it by using the only light microscope. The floral formula of orchid fower is Ca 3 Co
3

A1-2 G 3 . It has 3 petals and 3

sepals with one of the 3 petals modified in various ways to form a labellum. This means that every orchid flower can be divided into a vertical plane to produce two identical halves that were mirror images of each other because it was bilaterally symmetrical. It also have the similarities of the petals and the stamens. The number of stamen is 1 and the number of carpel is 3. At the anther has anther cap that is function to protects the pollinia. The pollinia consists of pollen grain that gump into the compact structure. This type of flower can attract the insect by using their advantage of their colour or visualisation. When the insect enters into the heart of the flower for nectar and pollen, pollen grains will stick to it and the pollination occurs. Both Allamanda and Orchid are prefect flowers. They have has both female part that is pistil that consists of stigma, style, ovary, ovule and male part which consist of anther and filament. The ovary of Allamanda and Orchid flower are located above the sepals, petals and stamens are attached. They also have sepal to atttact the insects for pollination that contain many attraction.

While doing this experiment, I seriously doing many mistake. This experiment was repeated 3 times because of the simple mistake of that. Firstly,the mistake is when try to cut stigma, I was cut along the ovary and the ovules. This make I hard to find it although the small waste of it still has in it. I admit that I cut the flower not follow the right technique to cut it. The true technique to cut it was safety cut it by ising the razor blade and must cut at the centre of the stigma. At the first time I also forgot to measuyre the length of the flower and it make us as a group keep asking about the length. Due to my friends help and the searching in the internet, I has learn the right steps to the pollen grain to make it easy to see on the light microscope. Firstly safely take out the pollen grain from the flower to the slide. Before see by using the light microscope, I see the pollen grain by using the hand lens. I can see anyting using this materials because it has limitation to see the small object. Then, I transfer it to another slide anf pour a point of distilled water as the wet mount. After that, I put the slide on the light microscope to see it and adjust the power of te lens about 4 x 10 and 40 x 10. Finally, I can see the structure of pollen grains. For the other experiment that wanted to study about the inner structure of the organs, I think we must study first on it and give 100% focus to the lecture that give the talks on how the experiment was held. I also suggest that to see the small sample of object, it must use the suitable medium to see it because every medium has its own limitation.

CONCLUSIONS I was observe two sample of flower that is Allamanda flower and the Orchid flower. I also observe the internal structure of both of the flower. From this experiment, we know the Allamanda and Orchid flowers are prefect flowers which contain male part and female part of flower. They attract the insect by using their bright colour for success fertilization. The Allamanda and orchid flower also contain of the actinomprphic and the zygomorphic shape of the symmetry of the flower. From this experiment, I have learnt the morphology of Allamanda and Orchid flower. I also learn the skills to use the razor blade to cut the flower because before this I only use razor blade only to cut my mustache. From this experiment also I learn that want to be the sciencetist, it must have the patient in ourself because what we have plan, can be damage or must re-do again the experiment.

REFERENCES
1. Orchidaceae Flowers. (n.d.). Retrieved July 23, 2010, from Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orchidaceae#Flowers
2. Allamanda. (n.d.). Retrieved July 23, 2010, from Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allamanda
3. Morphology of the Orchids. (n.d.). Retrieved July 19, 2010, from Orchids.co.in:

http://www.orchids.co.in/plant-facts/morphology-orchid.shtm 4. Dr. Sakinaz Desa & Co. College Matriculation Biology 2007 :page 393-402

5. Allamanda (n.d) Retrieved 1 August 2010, from Nature @ Malaysia http://www.nature.com.my/green/species/allamanda.htm

6. Orchid Retrieved 1August 2010, from Kama Nursery Centre http://www.kamaorchidspecies.com/index.html


7. Watson, L., & Dallwitz, M. J. (2010, May 20). Apocynaceae Juss.

Retrieved 23 July 2010, from The Families of Flowering Plants: http://deltalintkey.com/angio/www/apocynac.htm