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In biochemistry, dialysis is the process of separating molecules in solution by the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane,

such as dialysis tubing. Dialysis is a common laboratory technique that operates on the same principle as medicaldialysis. Typically a solution of several types of molecules is placed into a semipermeabledialysis bag, such as a cellulose membrane with pores, and the bag is sealed. The sealed dialysis bag is placed in a container of a different solution, or pure water. Molecules small enough to pass through the tubing (often water, salts and other small molecules) tend to move into or out of the dialysis bag, in the direction of decreasing concentration. Larger molecules (often proteins, DNA, or polysaccharides) that have dimensions significantly greater than the pore diameter are retained inside the dialysis bag. One common reason for using this technique would be to remove the salt from a protein solution. The technique will not distinguish between proteins effectively.

Dialysis In dialysis a semipermeable membrane is used to separate small molecules and protein based upon their size. A dialysis bag made of a semipermeable membrane is filled with a concentrated solution containing proteins. Molecules that are small enough to pass through the pores of the membrane diffuse out of the bag into the buffer solution, or dialysate. Dialysis is sometimes used to change buffers. The molecules go from an area of high concentration to low concentration. When the level of concentration is equal between the bag and the buffer, there is no more net movement of molecules. The bag is taken out and inserted into another buffer, causing the concentration to be higher in the bag relative to the buffer. This causes more diffusion of molecules. This process is repeated several times to ensure that all or most of the unwanted small molecules are removed. In general, dialysis is not a means of separating proteins, but is a method used to remove small molecules such as salts. At equilibrium, larger molecules that are unable to pass through the membrane remain inside the dialysis bag while much of the small molecules have diffused out.

[edit]Daily Application The technique of dialysis is used in everyday life for hospital usages. Dialysis mimics one of the functions of a bodily organ, the kidneys. It is used in procedures to filter out the blood's toxins and waste products during kidney failure. During kidney failure, there is a build up of nitrogen-containing waste products (such as urea or creatine) in the body called azotemia, which can be detected from the blood. Patients result to a dialysis when the waste product accumulates on the blood causes metabolic acidosis leading to illness. Two tests are executed through a blood sample and a full day's worth of urine sample. There are two chemicals in the blood that are measured, the blood urea nitrogen level and the creatinine level. If these two chemicals are found to be high in the blood, then it is an indication that the kidneys are not cleansing bodily waste products efficiently. Certain solutes such as potassium and calcium are carefully calibrated at a concentration similar to the concentration of healthy blood. Another solute is Sodium Bicarbonate which is used as a pH buffer introduced by elevating the solute concentration within the dialysis to neutralize some of the matabolic acidosis occuring within the blood.


urea Isotonic solution: A solution that has the same salt concentration as cells and blood. Isotonic solutions are commonly used as intravenously infused fluids in hospitalized patients. A solution that has no effect on the volume of tissues and cells. Thus, a cell, when placed in an isotonic solution tends neither to gain or lose water. Isotonic sports drinks have the same concentration as the

body fluids.

isotonic solution - a solution having the same osmotic pressure as blood isosmotic solution

Hypertonic solution: A solution that contains more dissolved particles (such as salt and other electrolytes) than is found in normal cells and blood. For example, hypertonic solutions are used for soaking wounds. any solution with a higher salt concentrationthan normal body cells so that the water isdrawn out of the ce lls by osmosis; any solutionwith a higher osmotic pressure than anothersolution A mixture containing a concentration of solute in excess of the concentration of the same solute in another mixture to which it is compared. When the two solutions are placed on opposite sides of a permeable membrane (either artificial or natural, as with cell membranes), the hypertonic solution attracts the solvent from the hypotonic solution, equalizing the concentration of the solute in both. See also solution, hypotonic; solution, isotonic and osmosis. Hypotonic solution: A solution that contains fewer dissolved particles (such as salt and other electrolytes) than is found in normal cells and blood. Hypotonic solutions are commonly used to give fluids intravenously to hospitalized patients in order to treat or avoid dehydration. any solution with a lower salt concentrationthan normal body cells so that water flows intothe cells by osm osis; any solution with a lowerosmotic pressure than another solution A mixture containing a concentration of solute that is lower than the concentration of the same solute in another mixture to which it is compared. When two such solutions are separated by a permeable membrane, the solvent of the hypotonic solution flows through the membrane to the hypertonic solution, equalizing the concentration of the solute in both. See also solution, hypertonic; solution, isotonic and osmosis. Read more: