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The Bologna Accord

Rebecca Loades, GMAC Bologna Project

2004 Graduate Management Admission Council

Agenda
1. Discussion of the pre-Bologna environment:
What is the Bologna Accord Why was change needed

2. The post-Bologna higher education environment:


New qualification structures Supply and demand shifts Student behaviours Predicted student numbers Uncertainties Threats and opportunities for institutions

3. GMAC opportunities and threats


New programmes Test takers

2004 Graduate Management Admission Council

1: Higher education pre-Bologna


What was it like and why did it need to change?

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Brief recap: What is the Bologna Accord?


Voluntary agreement signed by 40 countries to date Creates a more uniform HE system in the signatory countries with
Three cycles:

Undergraduate, leading to a Bachelor degree Graduate, leading to the Master degree Postgraduate, leading to the award of the Doctorate

In two formats:
3 year Bachelor + 2 year Master + 3 year Doctorate 4 year Bachelor + 1 year Master + 3 year Doctorate Study loads based on a credit system, 1 year = 60 credits

Implementation to be complete by 2010 Presents significant challenges, including:


Infrastructural change Administrative change Financing change

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A confusing mix of curricula and awards helped drive forward change


Germany Spain France Italy
18

Staats-/Diplom/Magister -prfung
UNIVERSITTEN/HOCHSCHULEN

Licenciado
UNIVERSIDAD

Diplme
LYCES/CPGE GRANDES COLES

DEUG
UNIVERSITS

Licence Matrise Diploma di Laurea

UNIVERSITA/POLITECNICI

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

student age (years)

ALL

3 Bachelor 4

2 Master 1

Doctor 3+2+3 3

4+1+3

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Differences between HE systems also resulted in a number of problems requiring resolution


differences: secondary school duration and impact on future study paths access and selection mechanisms existence, or not, of nonuniversity higher education providers range of study fees and student support mechanisms calendar differences structure, duration and type of final award issues: age at graduation programme length participation rates completion rates comparability and compatibility (regionally and globally) cost (national, institutional, personal) labour market relevance labour market understanding

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2: The post-Bologna environment


What is happening in the market and how does this impact on student behaviour?

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Traditional long-cycle degrees are being replaced by the Bachelor-Master qualifications

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The supply of, and demand for, European higher education is changing
supply: more players in the market:

blurring of the binary divide competition coming from


national regional (Europe) international

demand: growth in applicant pool: increasingly mobile changed behaviours different expectations:
size heterogeneity

changing delivery channels (ft, pt, emba, distancelearning, computer-based) delivery forms (partnerships, alliances, joint ventures) branding education

private providers

student as customer course content employability

market debates: the role of the Master education is a public good higher education funding
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The Bologna reforms will introduce new options to student decision-making


What students do will be heavily dependent on labour market behaviour

levers of (post-Bachelor) student behaviours: student support mechanisms higher education funding economic conditions marketplace demand cultural norms governmental control
civil servants/public employees

labour market behaviour

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Over 2.2m Bachelor students will graduate per annum - how many will study for business Master degrees?
45% continue studying 45% enter employment: 10% attrition

0.99m 0.99m

20% business: 80% non-business: 1.5% MBA:

198,000
792,000
1.5% MBA: 11,880

14,850

= 26,730 MBAs = 198,000

business Masters

2.2m
Bachelor graduates per annum

72% continue studying 18% enter employment: 10% attrition

1.58m 0.40m

20% business: 80% non-business: 1.5% MBA:

316,800
1,267,200
1.5% MBA: 19,008

5,940

= 24,948 MBAs = 316,800

business Masters

18% continue studying 72% enter employment: 10% attrition

0.40m 1.58m

20% business: 80% non-business: 1.5% MBA:

79,200
316,800
1.5% MBA:

4,752

23,760

= 28,512 MBAs = 79,200

business Masters

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Uncertainties exist for all stakeholders


new break point

to Students: how many will graduate with bachelors? how many will continue to masters level? will they change subject/school/country? will this make European education more attractive? for Programmes: what will happen at the masters level? will there be clarity between positioning and funding? how will schools behave? will conversion/bridging courses be required?

to Institutions: what admissions criteria will be applied? will students want to stay at the same institution? are institutions ready to market to students, do they know how? will all programs and institutions survive? to Employers: are bachelors graduates attractive? are master sought? how do employers view life long learning?

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Institutions will face a number of opportunities and threats


+
Larger potential student body Leverage experience:
Curriculum design Employer relations Qualification recognition and track record Quality Selection procedures Marketing know-how

Proliferation of pre-experience Masters More players in MBA market MBA brand dilution Quality issues Positioning of Master vs MBA Harder to attract EU and nonEU students

Build strong brand and reputation higher Deliver along multiple channels

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Rebecca Loades Graduate Management Admission Council


piazza s agostino 20 20123 Milan, Italy p/f: +39 02 8969 5230 e: loades@gmacbolognaproject.com w: http://www.gmacbolognaproject.com

2004 Graduate Management Admission Council