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Chapter 5

Stiffness Matrices for Special Elements

1. Stiffness Matrix by Castigliano's Theorems

2

2. Principle of Minimum Total Potential Energy

3

3. Inclusion of Shear Deformations

4

3.1 Strain Energy due to Shear

4

3.2 Flexibility and Stiffness Matrices Including Shear Deformations

6

4. Nonprismatic Members

7

5. Arch Structures

13

6. Stiffness Matrix for Cables Over Pulley

21

7. Stiffness Matrix for Space Truss members

22

8. Stiffness Matrix for Plane Grid Members

24

9. Stiffness Matrix for Space Frame Members

25

10. Rigid Bodies in Framed Systems

28

PROBLEMS

33

1. Stiffness Matrix by Castigliano's Theorems

Stiffness and flexibility matrices of an element

Q = kq

q = fQ

(1.1)

where Q and q represent the characterising set of forces and deformations/displacements

The strain energy in the element is

U

=

1

2

q T Q =

1

2

q T kq =

1

2

Q T f Q

Castigliano's first theorem:

Q =

dU

d q

= kq

(1.2)

(1.3)

i.e. To find the stiffness matrix k, form the strain energy in terms of q and differentiate it with respect to q.

Castigliano's second theorem:

q =

dU

d Q

= fQ

(1.4)

i.e. To find the flexibility matrix f, form the strain energy in terms of Q and differentiate it with respect to Q.

2

U

2 U

Solution: Using Castigliano’s first theorem:

Hence

U

q

i

(a)

Example 1. Shows that the stiffness and flexibility coefficients of a member are given by, respectively:

k ij

=

q i

q j

;

f ij

=

Q i Q j

Q i =

= k i 1 q 1 + … + k ij q j

+ …

Q i

2 U

q j

=

q i q j

= k ij

(b)

By interchanging the indexes i and j, the above relation shows that k is symmetric. The flexibility coefficient is derived in a similar fashion.

2. Principle of Minimum Total Potential Energy

Define V as the potential energy of external forces 1

 

V

= − R T r

 

(2.1)

and

U

as

the

total

strain

energy

in

the

system

expressed

in

terms

of

displacements/deformations:

U

=

1

2

q

T Q

=

1

2

q T kq

(2.2)

where Q and q are the vectors of forces and displacements/deformations for all elements in the system.

The function Π = U+V is called the total potential energy of the system.

Principle of minimum total potential energy: Among the infinite set of displacements r and compatible deformations q, the one set that minimizes the total potential energy will also satisfy both the equilibrium and material requirements.

Solution: The infinite set of compatible displacements and deformations is defined by

q = ar

The total potential energy:

Π = U

+ V

=

2 1 q T Q R T r =

2 1 q T kq R T r

(a)

Example 2. Formulate the matrix displacement method by using the principle of total potential energy.

1 This function exists only if the external forces are conservative; i.e. their work done is independent of the path.

Using Eq.(a)

Π =

2 1 r T a T ka r R T r

Minimizing (b) with respect to r:

Π

r

= a T ka r R = 0

(b)

This leads to the equilibrium equation: R = a T ka r

3. Inclusion of Shear Deformations

We have so far neglected deformations and deflections in beams due to shear stresses, and this is justified as long as the beam is slender 2 . In this section we will incorporate the effect of shear deformations into the beam’s stiffness and flexibility matrices for the analysis of general beam and frame systems.

3.1 Strain Energy due to Shear

Shear stress in beam is (see Eq.7.2.1)

τ

= VQ

It

(3.1)

Its distribution across a beam section is non-uniform even for a rectangular section as shown in Fig.3.1(a). Considering a differential element which is subjected to shear stress τ (see Fig.3.1b), its deformation is as shown in Fig.3.1(c). Such deformation will cause the cross- section to warp into a curved surface.

τ y d t
τ
y
d
t

(a)

τ

τ dy dx τ
τ
dy
dx
τ

(b)

τ

Fig.3.1 Shear stresses in beam

γ (c)
γ
(c)

γdy

2 When the beam’s depth is less than 10% of beam’s length, the error is less than 3% in most situations.

The strain energy in a differential cube dV is

dU =

1

2 τγdV

=

τ

2

2G dV

(3.2)

where G is the shear modulus of the material. Substituting the shear stress and integrating Eq.8.26 over the volume give the strain energy due to shear as

U

=

L

V

2

2GI 2

[

A

Q 2

t 2

dA ] dx

(3.3)

The above expression can be put in the usual form

U

=

L

V 2

2GA r

dx

by defining the effective shear area A r as

A r

=

A

β

with

β =

A

I 2

A

Q 2

t 2

dA

(3.4)

(3.5)

The effective shear area is equal to the cross-sectional area reduced by the form factor β which is a constant dependent on the geometry of the cross-section. The form factor β is equal to 1.2 for rectangular section (see Example 3), 10/9 for circular section, and 2 for a thin tube. In the case of I-section, the effective shear area is close to that of the web.

2 t Q = − y 2 ) 2 ( d 4 Substituting A /I
2
t
Q
=
− y 2 )
2 ( d
4
Substituting A /I 2 = 144 /td 5 into Eq.8.29 gives
/ 2
2
β = 144
1
6
∫ d
( d
− y 2 ) 2 tdy
=
4
4
5
td 5
− d / 2

Example 3. Determine the form factor β for the rectangular section shown in Fig.3.1. Solution: The shear stress at level y is given by Eq.8.25 where Q is the first moment of the shaded area of Fig.3.1(a):

3.2 Flexibility and Stiffness Matrices Including Shear Deformations

We now use Castigliano’s second theorem to derive the flexibility matrix of a beam member taking into account the effects of shear deformations. Referring to Fig.3.2, the shear V and moment M at a section x measured from the end i are, respectively

V

M

=

M i

+ M j L

= Vx

M i

+ M j M i = x − M i L M i i j
+ M j
M i
=
x
− M i
L
M i
i
j
V
V
x
M i
M
V
V

Fig.3.2 Beam element

M j

(3.6)

(3.7)

The chord rotations can be found using Castigliano’s second theorem. For example,

The total strain energy due to both bending and shear deformations is

U

=

Hence

θ i =

L

M

2

2EI

U

M i

=

dx

+

L

V 2

2GA r

L

M

M

EI

M i

dx

dx

+

L

V

V

GA r

M i

dx

which gives

θ i = (

L

1

3EI

+

LGA r )M i

+ (

L

1

6EI

+

LGA r )M j

(3.8)

(3.9)

(3.10)

The chord rotation at j is similarly obtained. Thus, the flexibility matrix is found as

f =

L

12EI

4 + κ 2

κ

2 4 + κ

κ

(3.11)

where

κ

=

12EI

L 2 GA r

The basic stiffness matrix is

k = f 1 =

EI L (1 + κ )

4

2

+ κ

κ

2 κ 4 + κ

(3.12)

(3.13)

The basic stiffness matrix k can be further transformed in the usual manner for use in the direct stiffness method. In addition, the fixed-end forces may also need to be computed taking into account shear deformations. When shear deformations are neglected, the coefficient κ is set to zero, and the above matrices revert to their standard forms.

4. Nonprismatic Members

Nonprismatic members (see Fig.4.1) are often used in continuous beam and frame systems for both architectural and structural reasons. For analysis purpose, it is necessary to derive the stiffness or flexibility matrix as well as the fixed-end forces taking into account the varying stiffness of such members.

(a) Tapered member (b) Stepped member (c) Straight haunch
(a) Tapered member
(b) Stepped member
(c) Straight haunch
(a) Tapered member (b) Stepped member (c) Straight haunch (d) Parabolic haunch Fig.4.1 Nonprismatic Members Let
(a) Tapered member (b) Stepped member (c) Straight haunch (d) Parabolic haunch Fig.4.1 Nonprismatic Members Let

(d) Parabolic haunch

Fig.4.1 Nonprismatic Members

Let the cross-sectional area and moment of inertia of the frame member shown in Fig.4.2(a) be specified by the functions A(x) and I(x) where x is the distance measured from the left end. We now use Castigliano’s second theorem to derive general expressions for the end displacements q 3x1 due to Q 3x1 and the uniform load w.

w Q 1 Q 3 Q 2
w
Q 1
Q 3
Q 2
L (a)
L
(a)
w Q 1 M η(x) N Q 3 x V Q 2
w
Q 1
M
η(x)
N
Q 3
x
V
Q 2

(b)

Q 1 Q 3 Q 2 Q 5
Q 1
Q 3
Q 2
Q 5

(c)

Q 6

Q 4
Q 4

η (L )

Fig.4.2 Element's coordinates

The result will be expressed in the form

q = fQ + q o

(4.1)

where f is the flexibility matrix, and q o is the vector of displacements due to member loading. Once f and q o have been established, the fixed-end forces and the conventional stiffness matrix for the coordinates in Fig.4.2(c) can be found by contragradient transformation as will be shown later.

The strain energy expressed in terms of normal force N, shear V and bending moment M is

U

=

L

N 2

2AE

dx

+

L

M 2

2EI

dx

+

L

V 2

2GA r

dx

(4.2)

where the internal forces are found by considering equilibrium of the free-body in Fig.4.2(b)

N

M

V

⎬ =

100

1

0

1

η

0

x

or

Ψ = H Q + Ψ o

where

H =

100

1

0

1

η

0

x

Q

Q

Q

1

2

3

+ w

0

x 2

2

x

(4.3)

(4.4)

(4.5)

Note that the term η arises from the eccentricity between Q 1 and N, both of which act at the centroids of the respective sections (η is positive if Q 1 is above N ). When this term is neglected, the axial and bending actions become uncoupled. For a different type of member loading, matrix H remains the same, whereas the vector Ψ o needs to be changed accordingly.

Castigliano’s theorem gives the displacement q i as

q i

= U

Q i

=

L

In matrix form:

q

q

q

1

2

3

(4.7)

⎬ =

L

0

N

N

A(x )E

Q i

N

Q 1

N

Q 2

N

Q 3

M

Q 1

M

Q 2

M

Q 3

dx

+

V

Q 1

V

Q 2

V

Q 3

L

M

M

EI (x )

Q i

dx

+

L

⎢ ⎢ ⎣

1

EA (x )

0

0

0

1

EI (x )

0

V

V

GA r (x )

Q i

dx

(4.6)

0

0

1

GA r (x )

⎥ ⎨


N

M

V

dx

where the integral operator (applied to a matrix expression) is meant to apply on the individual elements of the resulting matrix. Noting that the first square matrix of the preceding expression is just the transpose of H, and denoting the second matrix as P, we get

q =

L

0

H T P Ψ dx

=

L

0

H T P(HQ + Ψ o ) dx

Thus, comparison with Eq.8.37 yields

f =

L

0

H

T P H dx ;

In explicit form:

and

f =

L

0

1

EA

+

η 2

EI

ηx

EI

η

EI

and

q o =

L

0

H T PΨ o dx

ηx

η

EI

+

x

EI

x

x

2

1

EI

GA r

EI

1

EI

EI

dx

(4.8)

(4.9)

(4.10)

q o =

L

0

Ψ o

1

ηΨ o

2

AE

EI

+

xΨ o

Ψ o

2

o

2

3

EI

GA r

Ψ

EI

dx

(4.11)

If A, A r , I and η are simple functions of x, the integration in Eq.8.44 can be performed analytically; otherwise it can be done numerically.

The stiffness matrix corresponding to the coordinates of Fig.4.2(a) is the inverse of f:

k = f -1

(4.12)

The fixed-end forces Q o are those that prevent the end displacements caused by member loading; thus, they are found by setting q of Eq.8.37 to zero

Q o = - f -1 q o = -k q o

(4.13)

For use in the direct stiffness method, matrices k and Q o should correspond to the 6 coordinates shown in Fig.4.2(c). In the following, we will differentiate the two coordinate systems by attaching the number of coordinates, either 3 or 6, to the symbols. The force transformation matrix is simply, by equilibrium

or

Q 6x 1 =




1

0

0

1

0

η

x

= L

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

L 1

Q 6x 1 = T Q 3x 1 + Q ψ

⎤ ⎧

⎥ ⎪

⎥ ⎪

⎥ ⎪

⎥ ⎪

⎦ ⎪

Q 3 x 1

+

0

0

0

Ψ o 1 (L )

o 3 (L )

Ψ o 2 (L)

Ψ



(4.14)

(4.15)

This equation is used to obtain the vector of fixed end forces Q o 6x1 by transforming the vector Q o 3x1 of Eq.8.46. And the 6x6 stiffness matrix in local axis is found using the contragradient law of transformation (see section 3.7)

k

6x

6 =

T

k 3 x 3 T T

(4.16)

Flange plate 500 x 30

800 Web plate 25 1600 mm Flange plate 500 x 30 5000 mm 1000 1000
800
Web plate 25
1600 mm
Flange plate 500 x 30
5000 mm
1000
1000
1000
800
860
1180

function integ(x, x1,x2,f(x)) which evaluates the definite integral

// Program NSTIFF.CMP main()

x 2

x

1

f

(x )dx

{

// Stiffness and fixed-end forces for nonprismatic members

defmat(xi[N=5],0,5,6,7,L=8);

// Distances from left end to five stations

defmat(di[N],0.8,0.8,0.86,1.18,1.6);

// Beam’s depths at five stations

tp = 0.03;

Ap = 0.5*tp;

// Flange plate thickness and area

tw=0.025; E=200e6; G=79e6;

// Web plate thickness

w=1;

// Load intensity in kN/m

Stiff();

// Invoke function Stiff() for computation

}

Stiff()

 

{ // Compute flexibility matrix, stiffness matrix, and fixed end forces by numerical // integration. This function need not be changed for different problem

defsym(f[3],integ(x,0,L,1/EA(x)+Eta(x)^2/EI(x)),

integ(x,0,L,Eta(x)*x/EI(x)),

integ(x,0,L,-Eta(x)/EI(x)),

integ(x,0,L,x^2/EI(x)+1/GAr(x)),

integ(x,0,L,-x/EI(x)),

integ(x,0,L,1/EI(x)));

!qo=defmat(qo[3],

// Vector {qo}

integ(x,0,L,-psi1(x)/EA(x)+Eta(x)*psi2(x)/EI(x)),

Example 4. The built-up member shown has a varying I-section and is made of steel (E = 200 GPa, G = 79 GPa) . Compute the fixed-end forces for a uniform loading of 1 kN/m and the 6x6 stiffness matrix for use in the direct stiffness method. All dimensions shown are in millimeters.

Solution: (i) The integration will be done numerically by using the CMAP built-in

to a

specified accuracy. To define the various integrands, the depth of the beam at a given section x is computed by linear interpolation from the five given stations shown in the figure. The program listed below closely follows the analytical formulation given previously.

integ(x,0,L,x*psi2(x)/EI(x)-psi3(x)/GAr(x)),

integ(x,0,L,-psi2(x)/EI(x)));

}

!k3=f^-1;

// Basic stiffness matrix [k] 3x3

defmat(T[6,3],1,3:0,1,3:0,1,-1,3:0, -1,0,Eta(L),L,-1);

// Matrix [T]

!k6=T*k3*T~;

!Qo=-T*k3*qo+defmat(Qo[6],3:0,psi1(L),psi3(L),psi2(L)); // Fixed end forces

// 6 x 6 Stiffness matrix

print(f,k3,k6,Qo);

// Supporting functions to be changed for different geometry or member load depth(float x) { return lint(xi,di,x); } // Beam depth by linear interpolation EA(float x) { return E*(Ap*2 + tw * depth(x)); } // Cross-sectional area EI(float x) { return E*(Ap*((d=depth(x))+tp)^2/2+tw*d^3/12);} // Moment of inertia

GAr(float x) { return G*(tw * depth(x));} Eta(float x) { return (di[1]-depth(x))/2; }

psi1(float x) { return 0; } psi2(float x) { return -w*x^2/2; } psi3(float x) { return w*x; }

OUTPUT: (Dimensions are in kN and m)

// Effective shear area // Eccentricity

// Vector Ψo for uniform load

Matrix

f

1

2

3

1

7.931e-07

-9.153e-07

1.305e-07

2

-9.153e-07 9.455e-05 -1.91e-05

 

3

1.305e-07

-1.91e-05

5.49e-06

Matrix

k3

1

2

3

1

1.278e+06

2.094e+04

4.243e+04

2

2.094e+04

3.587e+04

1.243e+05

3

4.243e+04

1.243e+05

6.135e+05

Matrix

k6

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

1.278e+06 2.094e+04 4.243e+04 1.278e+06 -2.094e+04 -3.861e+05

2

2.094e+04 3.587e+04 1.243e+05 -2.094e+04 -3.587e+04 1.543e+05

3

4.243e+04 1.243e+05 6.135e+05 -4.243e+04 -1.243e+05 3.638e+05

4

-1.278e+06 -2.094e+04 -4.243e+04 1.278e+06 2.094e+04 3.861e+05

5

-2.094e+04 -3.587e+04 -1.243e+05 2.094e+04 3.587e+04 -1.543e+05

6

-3.861e+05 1.543e+05 3.638e+05 3.861e+05 -1.543e+05 1.025e+06

Matrix

Qo

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

-0.6144 3.63

4.451

0.6144

4.37

-7.164

5. Arch Structures

Arch structures can span over a much greater distance than beams of comparable cross- section. This is because bending moments in arches are much smaller than in beams. The horizontal trust at the arch supports tends to cancel the moment produced by the vertical reaction as shown in Fig.5.1(a). Thus, it is important that the supports can sustain such resistance, otherwise a tie must be provided as shown in Fig.5.1(b). Three-hinged arches are statically determinate, whereas two-hinged and clamped arches are indeterminate, respectively, to the first and third degree. Many arches can be joined together to form continuous arch structures. Their analysis by matrix methods is no more difficult than with frame structures once the arches’ stiffness matrices are established. The ties in tied-arches will be modeled simply as a truss member joining the two nodes.

P H V (a) Two-hinged arch
P
H
V
(a) Two-hinged arch
member joining the two nodes. P H V (a) Two-hinged arch (c) Three-hinged arch (b) Tied

(c) Three-hinged arch

nodes. P H V (a) Two-hinged arch (c) Three-hinged arch (b) Tied arch (d) Clamped arch

(b) Tied arch

V (a) Two-hinged arch (c) Three-hinged arch (b) Tied arch (d) Clamped arch Fig.5.1 Arch structures

(d) Clamped arch

Fig.5.1 Arch structures

Stiffness matrix for arch members can be established by the same procedure that was used for nonprismatic members (provided that the arch thickness is small compared to its radius of curvature so that straight beam theory is applicable).

Referring to Fig.5.2, the end displacements q 3x1 caused by Q 3x1 and P may be expressed as

q

= fQ + q o

(5.1)

where f is the flexibility matrix, and q o is the vector of end-displacements due to member loading. Once f and q o have been established, the fixed-end forces and the conventional stiffness matrix for the standard 6 coordinates can be found by the contragradient transformation.

Let the cross-sectional area and moment of inertia of the arch member in Fig.5.2(a) be

specified by A(s) and I(s)

is the distance measured from the left end along the

where s

curved arch. The strain energy expressed in terms of normal force N, shear V and bending moment M is

U

N 2 = ∫ L 2AE

ds

M 2 + ∫ L 2EI

ds

+

L

V 2

2GA r

ds

(5.2)

where the internal forces are found by considering equilibrium of the free-body in Fig.5.2(a).

or

N

M

V

⎬ =

cos φ

y

sin φ

Ψ = H Q + Ψ o

sin φ

x

cos φ

0

1

0

Q

Q

Q

1

2

3

+

Ψ

Ψ

Ψ

o

1

o

2

o

3

(5.3)

(5.4)

where φ is the angle between the x-axis and the tangent to the arch center line.

y a P crown h i x j Q 1 Q 3 L Q 2
y
a P
crown
h
i
x
j
Q 1
Q 3
L
Q 2

(a)

y (L )

a P M N φ V y(x) Q 1 i Q 3 Q 2 x
a P M
N
φ
V y(x)
Q 1
i
Q 3
Q 2
x

(b)

Fig.5.2 Typical arch member

H =

cos φ y sin φ

sin φ x cos φ

0

1

0

(5.5)

The forces in vector Ψ o are caused by member loading. For example, for the force P applied as shown, these forces are

Ψ o

1

Ψ o

2

Ψ o

3

=

=

=

{

{

{

0

P sin φ

for

x

< a

for x

a

0

P (x

for x

for

x

cos φ

< a a )

< a

0

P

for

for

x

x

a

a

(5.6)

Castigliano’s theorem gives the displacement q k as

q k

= U

Q k

=

j ds

N

N

i A (s )E

Q k

In matrix form:


N

Q 1 ⎧ ⎪ ⎫

q

q

q

1

2

3

= ∫

i

j

N

Q 2

N

Q 3

M

Q 1

M

Q 2

M

Q 3

V

Q 1

V

Q 2

V

Q 3

+

⎥ ⎥


i

j

M

M

EI (s )

Q k

ds

+

1

EA (s )

0

0

0

1

EI (s )

0

j ds

i (s )

GA r

V

V

Q k

0

0

1

GA r (s )


⎥ ⎨

⎥ ⎦

N

M

V

(5.7)

ds

(5.8)

Noting that the first square matrix of the preceding expression is just the transpose of H, and denoting the second matrix as P, we get

 

q =

i

j H T P Ψ ds

=

j H T P(HQ + Ψ o ) ds
i

 

Thus

=

i

j

H T P H ds

Q + ∫

i

j

H T PΨ o ds

 

f =

j

H T P H ds ;

 

and

q o =

j

H T P Ψ o ds

 
 

i

i

In explicit form:

 
 

c 2

y 2

 

s 2

cs

 

xy

cs

y

+

 

+

 

f =

EA

EI

sym
i

j

GA r

 

EA

s

EA

2

+

EI

x

2

EI

+

GA r

c 2

GA r

EI

x

EI

1

EI

and

 

j

 

Ψ

o

1

c

Ψ

o

2

y

Ψ

o

3

s

 

AE

EI

 

+

GA r

Ψ

o

Ψ

o

Ψ

o

 

q o =

1

s

2 x

 

3

c

ds

 
 

i

+

 

 

AE

EI

 

GA r

 
 

o

 

Ψ

2

 

EI

 



ds ;


⎥ ⎦

(5.9)

(5.10)

(5.11)

(5.12)

where c = cos φ, and s = sin φ.

The force transformation from the 3-coordinate system of Fig.5.2(a) to the standard 6- coordinate system is

or

Q 6x 1 =

100

0

001

100

1

0

1

0

1

0

y (L)

L

Q 6x 1 = T Q 3x 1 + Q ψ

Q 3x 1

+

0

0

0

[cΨ o 1

[sΨ o 1

+

sΨ o 3 ] x = L

cΨ o 3 ] x =L

[Ψ o 2

] x = L

(5.13)

(5.14)

This equation is used to obtain the vector of fixed end forces Q o 6x1 by transforming the vector Q o 3x1 of Eq.8.?. And the 6x6 stiffness matrix in local axis is found using the contragradient law of transformation:

k

6x

6 =

T

k 3 x 3 T T

(5.15)

For some particular arch geometry and variation of the cross-section’s properties, closed form expressions for the various matrices can be obtained by analytical integration. If numerical integration is used, it can be more conveniently carried out by transforming the integral over the curved length into one over the horizontal projection by the relation

ds

=

dx

c

And the variables c, s can be computed as

1 c = ; s = c dy dx (1 + ( dy ) 2
1
c =
; s
= c dy
dx
(1 + ( dy
) 2
dx

(5.16)

(5.17)

where y(x) is the function describing the geometry of the arch center line.

As an example, for a symmetrical parabolic arch of span L and rise h, the function y(x) is

y

(x ) = 4h ( x L

2

x

L 2 )

(5.18)

The stiffness matrix and fixed-end forces so obtained can also be used to analyse arches with hinges just as done in frame analysis, or alternatively, they can be modified to incorporate the hinges by the static condensation procedure.

crown y 12 m 4 m x 30 m 24.5 m Fig.E5.1 Nn dx Mm
crown
y
12 m
4 m
x
30 m
24.5 m
Fig.E5.1
Nn
dx
Mm dx
Vv
dx
δ
=
∫ L
+
∫ L
+
∫ L
AE
c
EI
c
GA
c
0
0
0
r
(a)
δ
=
L
∫ 0
+ ∫
c
c
c
AE
+ ∫ 0
EI
0
GA r

Example 5. The parabolic arch shown has a varying I-section and is made of steel (E = 200 GPa, G = 79 GPa). The flange plates are 300 mm x 25 mm, and the web plate is 20 mm thick. The depth of the web is 400 mm at the crown and increases towards the supports at the rate of 6 mm per meter of horizontal projection. Compute the reactions for a vertical force of 1 kN applied at the crown for two cases: fixed supports, and hinged supports. Plot the bending moments and the normal stresses at the top and bottom faces of the arch. Find the vertical deflection at the crown due to normal force, bending moment and shear.

Solution: The computation is performed with the CMAP program listed below. The steps closely follow the mathematical development previously described. Deflection at a point is computed by using the unit dummy force method which gives

where N, M, V are the actual forces at section x, and n, m and v are their virtual counterparts at the same section. Since n, m and v need only be in equilibrium with the vertical dummy force applied where the deflection is desired, we can use the vector Ψ o of Eq.8.? for them. i.e.

o

Nψ 1

dx

L

o

Mψ 2

dx

L

o

Vψ 3

dx

The output shown below the program listing is for the hingeless arch. To get the results for two-hinged arch, we need to change the value of variable ‘Hinge’ to 3 and run the program again. The bending moments and normal stresses at both top and bottom faces of the section are plotted in Fig.E5.2. The results show that the maximum stresses in two-hinged arch are only slightly higher than those of the hingeless arch, but the maximum deflection is nearly twice as much. In addition, for this particular geometry

and loading, deflection due to shear and normal forces are negligible compared to deflection due to bending.

3 1000 2 500 H3 H0 1 0 0 -500 -1 -2 -1000 0 10
3
1000
2
500
H3
H0
1
0
0
-500
-1
-2
-1000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
x, m
σ
Notes:
H3
t
H0
: Two-hinged arch
: Hingeless arch
σ
b
Moments, kN.m
Stresses, kPa
H3-σ t H0- σ t H0- σ b H3- σ b 0 10 20 30
H3-σ
t
H0- σ
t
H0-
σ
b
H3-
σ b
0
10
20
30
40
50
60

x, m

: Normal stress in top face

: Normal stress in bottom face

Fig.E5.2: Plot of moments and normal stresses

main() { // Stiffness and fixed-end forces for arch members. Program ARCH.CMP

E=200e6; G=79e6; // Support condition. Hinge = 0,1 or 2 : respectively for hingeless, left support

Hinge=0;

hinged, right support hinged or both supports hinged. L=54.5; h=12; l=60;

tp = 0.025;

Ap = 0.3*tp;

// Flange plate thickness and area

tw=0.020;

// Web plate thickness

P=1;

a = 30;

// Load and location

Stiff();

// Invoke function Stiff() for computation

}

//

Compute flexibility matrix, stiffness matrix, and fixed end forces by numerical

//

integration. These functions are applicable to any data set

Stiff()

{

defsym(f[3],

// Flexibility matrix [f]

integ(x,0,L,c(x)/EA(x)+y(x)^2/(c(x)*EI(x))+s(x)^2/(c(x)*GAr(x))),

integ(x,0,L,s(x)/EA(x)-x*y(x)/(c(x)*EI(x))-s(x)/GAr(x)),

integ(x,0,L,y(x)/(c(x)*EI(x))),

integ(x,0,L,(s(x)^2/EA(x)+x^2/EI(x))/c(x)+c(x)/GAr(x)),

integ(x,0,L,-x/(c(x)*EI(x))),

integ(x,0,L,1/(c(x)*EI(x))));

!qo=defmat(qo[3],

// Vector {qo}

integ(x,0,L,-psi1(x)/EA(x)-(psi2(x)*y(x)/EI(x)-psi3(x)*s(x)/GAr(x))/c(x)),

integ(x,0,L,-psi1(x)*s(x)/(c(x)*EA(x))+psi2(x)*x/(c(x)*EI(x))-psi3(x)/GAr(x)),

integ(x,0,L,-psi2(x)/(c(x)*EI(x))));

!k3=f^-1;

// Basic stiffness matrix [k] 3x3

defmat(T[6,3],1,3:0,1,3:0,1,-1,3:0, -1,0,-y(L),L,-1); // Matrix [T]

}

!k6=T*k3*T~;

!Qo=-T*k3*qo+defmat(Qo[6],3:0,c(L)*psi1(L)-s(L)*psi3(L),

// 6 x 6 Stiffness matrix

s(L)*psi1(L)+c(L)*psi3(L),psi2(L));// Fixed end forces

if(Hinge) { Modify(); }

print(f,k3,k6,Qo);

print(^^"

clearplot();

plot(x,0,L,M(x));

setpictposition(0, 0.5, 0.8, 0.5);

setrange(4:0);

// Plot of normal stress in top face

plot(x,0,L,E*(N(x)/EA(x)-M(x)*(0.5*depth(x)+tp)/EI(x)));

// Plot of normal stress in bottom face

plot(x,0,L,E*(N(x)/EA(x)+M(x)*(0.5*depth(x)+tp)/EI(x)));

// Deflections at the crown

Plot of bending moment in arch");

DN=integ(x,0,L,N(x)*psi1(x)/(c(x)*EA(x))),^

DM=integ(x,0,L,M(x)*psi2(x)/(c(x)*EI(x))));

// ,^DV=integ(x,0,L,V(x)*psi3(x)/(c(x)*GAr(x)))); // due shears

// due axial trust // due bending moments

// Internal resultant forces N(float x) { return -c(x)*Qo[1] - s(x)*Qo[2] + psi1(x); } M(float x) { return -y(x)*Qo[1] + x*Qo[2] - Qo[3] + psi2(x); } V(float x) { return s(x)*Qo[1] - c(x)*Qo[2] + psi3(x); }

Modify() { // Eliminate moments at hinged supports switch (1) {

case Hinge==1:

// Left end hinged

zero(K[6,6]); subop(k6>K[1,2,6,3,4,5;1,2,6,3,4,5]); zero(Po[6]); subop(Qo>Po[1;1,2,6,3,4,5]);

gauss(C,K,Po,5);

zero(k6[6,6]); subop(K>k6[1,2,4,5,6,0;1,2,4,5,6,0]); zero(Qo[6]); subop(Po>Qo[1;1,2,4,5,6,0]); break;

case Hinge==2:

gauss(C,k6,Qo,5);

// Right end hinged

series(i,1,6,1,k6[i,6]=k6[6,i]=0); Qo[6]=0; break;

case Hinge==3:

// Both ends hinged

zero(K[6,6]); subop(k6>K[1,2,5,3,4,6;1,2,5,3,4,6]); zero(Po[6]); subop(Qo>Po[1;1,2,5,3,4,6]);

gauss(C,K,Po,4);

zero(k6[6,6]); subop(K>k6[1,2,4,5,0,0;1,2,4,5,0,0]); zero(Qo[6]); subop(Po>Qo[1;1,2,4,5,0,0]); break;

default: print(^"Invalid value for Hinge !"); end;

}

}

// Supporting functions to be changed for different geometry or member load y(float x) { float r = x/l; return 4*h*(r-r^2); } c(float x){ float dydx = 4*h*(1-2*x/l)/l; return 1/sqrt(1+dydx^2); } s(float x){ float dydx = 4*h*(1-2*x/l)/l; return c(x)*dydx;} depth(float x) { return 0.4+abs(x-30)*0.006;} // Depth of beam’s web EA(float x) { return E*(Ap*2 + tw * depth(x)); } // Cross-sectional area EI(float x) { return E*(Ap*((d=depth(x))+tp)^2/2+tw*d^3/12);} // Moment of inertia

GAr(float x) { return G*(tw * depth(x));} psi1(float x) { return gez(x-a,0)*P*s(x); } psi2(float x) { return - gez(x-a,1)*P; } psi3(float x) { return gez(x-a,0)*P*c(x);}

OUTPUT:

Matrix

f

1 2

3

1 0.02363 -0.06932 0.00235

2 -0.06932 0.2583 -0.007241

3 0.00235 -0.007241 0.0002607

Matrix

k3

 

1

2

3

1 461.8

32.79

-3251

2 32.79

19.82

254.9

3 254.9 4.022e+004

-3251

// Effective shear area // Vector Ψo for point load

Matrix

k6

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

461.8

32.79

-3251

-461.8

-32.79

3192

2

32.79

19.82

254.9

-32.79

-19.82

694

3

-3251

254.9 4.022e+004

3251

-254.9-1.333e+004

4

-461.8

-32.79

3251

461.8

32.79

-3192

5

-32.79

-19.82

-254.9

32.79

19.82

-694

6

3192

694-1.333e+004

-3192

-694 3.84e+004

Matrix

Qo

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

1.296

0.5173

-2.496

-1.296

0.4827

1.01

2.19698e-006

0.000320306

6. Stiffness Matrix for Cables Over Pulley

• Three nodes: i, j, k .

• Application: Construction, cable stayed bridges

• Remark: The same tension F

prevails throughout the cable. This condition cannot be

modeled by using two truss members. The cable may be connected to other structural members at the nodal points i, j, k where nodal equilibrium and compatibility must be observed.

• Basic stiffness: k = AE

L

L = Total length of cable ijk

• Objective: Derive k for use in the direct stiffness matrix.

• Degrees of freedom: 6. Displacement indexes: (2 i 1, 2 i , 2 j

1, 2 j , 2 k

F

i

j Q 3 Q 4 α 2 k Q 5 α 1 Q 6 Q
j
Q 3
Q 4
α 2
k Q 5
α 1
Q 6
Q 1
Q 2

F

1, 2 k )

Fig.6.1 3-node cable

• Force transformation:

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

1

2

3

4

5