Chapter 5
Stiffness Matrices for Special Elements
1. Stiffness Matrix by Castigliano's Theorems 
2 
2. Principle of Minimum Total Potential Energy 
3 
3. Inclusion of Shear Deformations 
4 
3.1 Strain Energy due to Shear 
4 
3.2 Flexibility and Stiffness Matrices Including Shear Deformations 
6 
4. Nonprismatic Members 
7 
5. Arch Structures 
13 
6. Stiffness Matrix for Cables Over Pulley 
21 
7. Stiffness Matrix for Space Truss members 
22 
8. Stiffness Matrix for Plane Grid Members 
24 
9. Stiffness Matrix for Space Frame Members 
25 
10. Rigid Bodies in Framed Systems 
28 
PROBLEMS 
33 
Matrix Structural Analysis v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.1
1. Stiffness Matrix by Castigliano's Theorems
Stiffness and flexibility matrices of an element
Q = kq
q = fQ
(1.1)
where Q and q represent the characterising set of forces and deformations/displacements
The strain energy in the element is
U
=
1
_{2}
q ^{T} Q =
1
_{2}
q ^{T} kq =
1
_{2}
^{Q} ^{T} ^{f} ^{Q}
Castigliano's first theorem:
Q =
^{d}^{U}
d ^{q}
^{=} ^{k}^{q}
(1.2)
(1.3)
i.e. To find the stiffness matrix k, form the strain energy in terms of q and differentiate it with respect to q.
Castigliano's second theorem:
q =
^{d}^{U}
d ^{Q}
^{=} ^{f}^{Q}
(1.4)
i.e. To find the flexibility matrix f, form the strain energy in terms of Q and differentiate it with respect to Q.
∂ 2
U
^{∂} 2 ^{U}
Solution: Using Castigliano’s first theorem:
Hence
^{∂}^{U}
∂q
i
(a)
Example 1. Shows that the stiffness and flexibility coefficients of a member are given by, respectively:
^{k} ij
^{=}
∂q _{i}
_{∂}_{q} j
;
f _{i}_{j}
=
∂Q _{i} ∂Q _{j}
Q _{i} =
= k _{i} _{1} q _{1} + … + k _{i}_{j} q _{j}
+ …
Matrix Structural Analysis v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.2
∂Q _{i}
^{2} U
∂
∂q _{j}
=
∂q ^{i} ^{∂}^{q} ^{j}
= k ^{i}^{j}
(b)
By interchanging the indexes i and j, the above relation shows that k is symmetric. The flexibility coefficient is derived in a similar fashion.
2. Principle of Minimum Total Potential Energy
Define V as the potential energy of external forces ^{1}
V 
= − R ^{T} r 
(2.1) 

and 
U 
as 
the 
total 
strain 
energy 
in 
the 
system 
expressed 
in 
terms 
of 
displacements/deformations:
U
=
1
_{2}
q
^{T} Q
=
1
_{2}
^{q} ^{T} ^{k}^{q}
(2.2)
where Q and q are the vectors of forces and displacements/deformations for all elements in the system.
The function Π = U+V is called the total potential energy of the system.
Principle of minimum total potential energy: Among the infinite set of displacements r and compatible deformations q, the one set that minimizes the total potential energy will also satisfy both the equilibrium and material requirements.
Solution: The infinite set of compatible displacements and deformations is defined by
q = ar
The total potential energy:
Π = U
+ V
=
_{2} 1 q ^{T} Q − R ^{T} r =
_{2} 1 q ^{T} kq − R ^{T} r
(a)
Example 2. Formulate the matrix displacement method by using the principle of total potential energy.
^{1} This function exists only if the external forces are conservative; i.e. their work done is independent of the path.
Matrix Structural Analysis v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.3
Using Eq.(a)
Π =
_{2} 1 r ^{T} a ^{T} ka r − R ^{T} r
Minimizing (b) with respect to r:
∂ Π
∂ r
= a ^{T} ka r − R = 0
_{(}_{b}_{)}
This leads to the equilibrium equation: R = a ^{T} ka r
3. Inclusion of Shear Deformations
We have so far neglected deformations and deflections in beams due to shear stresses, and this is justified as long as the beam is slender 2 . In this section we will incorporate the effect of shear deformations into the beam’s stiffness and flexibility matrices for the analysis of general beam and frame systems.
3.1 Strain Energy due to Shear
Shear stress in beam is (see Eq.7.2.1)
τ
= ^{V}^{Q}
It
(3.1)
Its distribution across a beam section is nonuniform even for a rectangular section as shown in Fig.3.1(a). Considering a differential element which is subjected to shear stress τ (see Fig.3.1b), its deformation is as shown in Fig.3.1(c). Such deformation will cause the cross section to warp into a curved surface.
(a)
τ
(b)
τ
Fig.3.1 Shear stresses in beam
γdy
^{2} When the beam’s depth is less than 10% of beam’s length, the error is less than 3% in most situations.
Matrix Structural Analysis v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.4
The strain energy in a differential cube dV is
dU =
1
_{2} τγdV
=
τ
2
2G ^{d}^{V}
(3.2)
where G is the shear modulus of the material. Substituting the shear stress and integrating Eq.8.26 over the volume give the strain energy due to shear as
U
=
∫
L
V
2
2GI ^{2}
^{[}
∫
A
Q ^{2}
t ^{2}
dA ] dx
(3.3)
The above expression can be put in the usual form
U
=
∫
L
V ^{2}
2GA _{r}
dx
by defining the effective shear area A _{r} as
A _{r}
=
^{A}
_{β}
with
β =
A
I ^{2}
∫
A
Q ^{2}
t ^{2}
^{d}^{A}
(3.4)
(3.5)
The effective shear area is equal to the crosssectional area reduced by the form factor _{β} which is a constant dependent on the geometry of the crosssection. The form factor _{β} is equal to 1.2 for rectangular section (see Example 3), 10/9 for circular section, and 2 for a thin tube. In the case of Isection, the effective shear area is close to that of the web.
Example 3. Determine the form factor β for the rectangular section shown in Fig.3.1. Solution: The shear stress at level y is given by Eq.8.25 where Q is the first moment of the shaded area of Fig.3.1(a):
Matrix Structural Analysis v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.5
3.2 Flexibility and Stiffness Matrices Including Shear Deformations
We now use Castigliano’s second theorem to derive the flexibility matrix of a beam member taking into account the effects of shear deformations. Referring to Fig.3.2, the shear V and moment M at a section x measured from the end i are, respectively
V
M
=
M _{i}
+ M _{j} L
= Vx
− M _{i}
Fig.3.2 Beam element
^{M} j
(3.6)
(3.7)
The chord rotations can be found using Castigliano’s second theorem. For example,
The total strain energy due to both bending and shear deformations is
U
=
Hence
θ _{i} =
∫
L
M
2
2EI
^{∂}^{U}
∂M _{i}
=
^{d}^{x}
^{+}
∫
L
V ^{2}
2GA _{r}
∫
L
M
∂M
EI
∂M _{i}
dx
dx
+
∫
L
V
∂V
GA _{r}
∂M _{i}
dx
which gives
θ _{i} = (
L
1
3EI
^{+}
_{L}_{G}_{A} r )M _{i}
+ ( −
L
1
6EI
^{+}
^{L}^{G}^{A} _{r} ^{)}^{M} ^{j}
(3.8)
(3.9)
(3.10)
The chord rotation at j is similarly obtained. Thus, the flexibility matrix is found as
f =
^{L}
12EI
⎡
⎢
⎣
4 + κ − 2
κ
− 2 4 + κ
κ
⎤
⎥
⎦
(3.11)
Matrix Structural Analysis v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.6
where
_{κ}
_{=}
12EI
^{L} ^{2} ^{G}^{A} r
The basic stiffness matrix is
k = f ^{−}^{1} =
^{E}^{I} L (1 + _{κ} )
⎡
⎢
⎣
4
2
+ κ
− κ
2 − κ 4 + κ
⎤
⎥
⎦
(3.12)
(3.13)
The basic stiffness matrix k can be further transformed in the usual manner for use in the direct stiffness method. In addition, the fixedend forces may also need to be computed taking into account shear deformations. When shear deformations are neglected, the coefficient κ is set to zero, and the above matrices revert to their standard forms.
4. Nonprismatic Members
Nonprismatic members (see Fig.4.1) are often used in continuous beam and frame systems for both architectural and structural reasons. For analysis purpose, it is necessary to derive the stiffness or flexibility matrix as well as the fixedend forces taking into account the varying stiffness of such members.
(d) Parabolic haunch
Fig.4.1 Nonprismatic Members
Let the crosssectional area and moment of inertia of the frame member shown in Fig.4.2(a) be specified by the functions A(x) and I(x) where x is the distance measured from the left end. We now use Castigliano’s second theorem to derive general expressions for the end displacements q _{3}_{x}_{1} due to Q _{3}_{x}_{1} and the uniform load w.
Matrix Structural Analysis v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.7
(b)
(c)
^{Q} 6
η (L )
Fig.4.2 Element's coordinates
The result will be expressed in the form
q = fQ + q ^{o}
(4.1)
where f is the flexibility matrix, and q o is the vector of displacements due to member loading. Once f and q o have been established, the fixedend forces and the conventional stiffness matrix for the coordinates in Fig.4.2(c) can be found by contragradient transformation as will be shown later.
The strain energy expressed in terms of normal force N, shear V and bending moment M is
U
=
∫
L
N ^{2}
2AE
dx
+
∫
L
M ^{2}
2EI
dx
+
∫
L
V ^{2}
2GA _{r}
^{d}^{x}
(4.2)
where the internal forces are found by considering equilibrium of the freebody in Fig.4.2(b)
⎧
⎪
⎨
N
M
⎪
⎩ V
⎫
⎭
⎪
⎬ =
⎪
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎣
− 100
− 1
0
− 1
η
0
x
or
Ψ = H Q + Ψ o
where
H =
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎣
− 100
− 1
0
− 1
η
0
x
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎦
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎦
⎧
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎩
^{Q}
^{Q}
^{Q}
1
2
3
⎫
⎪
⎬
⎪
⎭
+ w
⎧
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎩
0
− x ^{2}
2
x
⎫
⎪
⎬
⎪
⎭
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
Matrix Structural Analysis v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.8
Note that the term η arises from the eccentricity between Q _{1} and N, both of which act at the centroids of the respective sections (η is positive if Q _{1} is above N ). When this term is neglected, the axial and bending actions become uncoupled. For a different type of member loading, matrix H remains the same, whereas the vector Ψ o needs to be changed accordingly.
Castigliano’s theorem gives the displacement q _{i} as
q _{i}
= ^{∂}^{U}
∂Q _{i}
=
∫
L
In matrix form:
⎧
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎩
^{q}
^{q}
^{q}
1
2
3
(4.7)
⎫
⎭
⎪
⎬ =
⎪
∫
L
0
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
N
∂N
A(x )E
∂Q _{i}
∂N
∂Q _{1}
∂N
∂Q _{2}
∂N
∂Q _{3}
∂M
∂Q _{1}
∂M
∂Q _{2}
∂M
∂Q _{3}
dx
+
∂V
∂Q _{1}
∂V
∂Q _{2}
∂V
∂Q _{3}
∫
L
M
∂M
EI (x )
∂Q _{i}
dx
+
∫
L
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢ ⎢ ⎣
1
EA (x )
0
0
^{0}
1
EI (x )
0
V
∂V
GA _{r} (x )
∂Q _{i}
^{d}^{x}
(4.6)
^{0}
^{0}
1
GA _{r} (x )
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥ ⎨
⎪
⎪
⎧
⎥
⎥
⎦
⎥
⎩
N ⎫
M
⎪
⎬
⎪
V ⎭
dx
where the integral operator (applied to a matrix expression) is meant to apply on the individual elements of the resulting matrix. Noting that the first square matrix of the preceding expression is just the transpose of H, and denoting the second matrix as P, we get
q =
L
∫
0
H ^{T} P Ψ dx
=
L
∫
0
H ^{T} P(HQ + Ψ ^{o} ) dx
Thus, comparison with Eq.8.37 yields
f =
∫ L
0
H
^{T} P H dx ;
In explicit form:
and
f =
∫ L
0
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
1
EA
^{+}
η ^{2}
EI
ηx
EI
− η
EI
and
q ^{o} =
∫ L
0
H ^{T} PΨ ^{o} dx
ηx
− η
EI
^{+}
− x
EI
− x
x
2
1
EI
GA _{r}
EI
1
EI
EI
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥ dx
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
Matrix Structural Analysis v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.9
q ^{o} =
∫ L
0
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎩
−
Ψ ^{o}
1
ηΨ ^{o}
2
AE
EI
^{+}
xΨ ^{o}
Ψ ^{o}
2
^{o}
2
3
^{−}
EI
GA _{r}
Ψ
−
EI
⎫
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎬
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎭
dx
(4.11)
If A, A _{r} , I and η are simple functions of x, the integration in Eq.8.44 can be performed analytically; otherwise it can be done numerically.
The stiffness matrix corresponding to the coordinates of Fig.4.2(a) is the inverse of f:
k = f ^{}^{1}
(4.12)
The fixedend forces Q o are those that prevent the end displacements caused by member loading; thus, they are found by setting q of Eq.8.37 to zero
Q ^{o} =  f ^{}^{1} q ^{o} = k q ^{o}
(4.13)
For use in the direct stiffness method, matrices k and Q o should correspond to the 6 coordinates shown in Fig.4.2(c). In the following, we will differentiate the two coordinate systems by attaching the number of coordinates, either 3 or 6, to the symbols. The force transformation matrix is simply, by equilibrium
or
^{Q} 6x 1 ^{=}
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
1
0
0
− 1
0
η
x
= L
0
1
0
0
− 1
0
0
1
0
0
L − 1
^{Q} 6x 1 ^{=} ^{T} ^{Q} 3x 1 ^{+} ^{Q} ψ
⎤ ⎧
⎥ ⎪
⎥ ⎪
⎪
⎨
⎥ ⎪
⎥ ⎪
⎦ ⎪
⎥
⎥
^{Q} 3 x 1
^{+}
⎩
0
0
0
Ψ ^{o} _{1} (L )
^{o} _{3} (L )
Ψ ^{o} _{2} (L)
Ψ
⎫
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎬
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎭
(4.14)
(4.15)
This equation is used to obtain the vector of fixed end forces Q o _{6}_{x}_{1} by transforming the vector Q o _{3}_{x}_{1} of Eq.8.46. And the 6x6 stiffness matrix in local axis is found using the contragradient law of transformation (see section 3.7)
^{k}
6x
6 ^{=}
^{T}
^{k} 3 x 3 ^{T} T
(4.16)
Matrix Structural Analysis v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.10
Flange plate 500 x 30
function integ(x, x1,x2,f(x)) which evaluates the definite integral
// Program NSTIFF.CMP main()
^{x} 2
∫ ^{x}
1
f
(x )dx
{ 
// Stiffness and fixedend forces for nonprismatic members 

defmat(xi[N=5],0,5,6,7,L=8); 
// Distances from left end to five stations 

defmat(di[N],0.8,0.8,0.86,1.18,1.6); 
// Beam’s depths at five stations 

tp = 0.03; 
Ap = 0.5*tp; 
// Flange plate thickness and area 

tw=0.025; E=200e6; G=79e6; 
// Web plate thickness 

w=1; 
// Load intensity in kN/m 

Stiff(); 
// Invoke function Stiff() for computation 

} 

Stiff() 
{ // Compute flexibility matrix, stiffness matrix, and fixed end forces by numerical // integration. This function need not be changed for different problem
defsym(f[3],integ(x,0,L,1/EA(x)+Eta(x)^2/EI(x)),
integ(x,0,L,Eta(x)*x/EI(x)),
integ(x,0,L,Eta(x)/EI(x)),
integ(x,0,L,x^2/EI(x)+1/GAr(x)),
integ(x,0,L,x/EI(x)),
integ(x,0,L,1/EI(x)));
!qo=defmat(qo[3],
// Vector {qo}
integ(x,0,L,psi1(x)/EA(x)+Eta(x)*psi2(x)/EI(x)),
Example 4. The builtup member shown has a varying Isection and is made of steel (E = 200 GPa, G = 79 GPa) . Compute the fixedend forces for a uniform loading of 1 kN/m and the 6x6 stiffness matrix for use in the direct stiffness method. All dimensions shown are in millimeters.
Solution: (i) The integration will be done numerically by using the CMAP builtin
to a
specified accuracy. To define the various integrands, the depth of the beam at a given section x is computed by linear interpolation from the five given stations shown in the figure. The program listed below closely follows the analytical formulation given previously.
Matrix Structural Analysis v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.11
integ(x,0,L,x*psi2(x)/EI(x)psi3(x)/GAr(x)),
integ(x,0,L,psi2(x)/EI(x)));
}
!k3=f^1;
// Basic stiffness matrix [k] 3x3
defmat(T[6,3],1,3:0,1,3:0,1,1,3:0, 1,0,Eta(L),L,1);
// Matrix [T]
!k6=T*k3*T~;
!Qo=T*k3*qo+defmat(Qo[6],3:0,psi1(L),psi3(L),psi2(L)); // Fixed end forces
// 6 x 6 Stiffness matrix
print(f,k3,k6,Qo);
// Supporting functions to be changed for different geometry or member load depth(float x) { return lint(xi,di,x); } // Beam depth by linear interpolation EA(float x) { return E*(Ap*2 + tw * depth(x)); } // Crosssectional area EI(float x) { return E*(Ap*((d=depth(x))+tp)^2/2+tw*d^3/12);} // Moment of inertia
GAr(float x) { return G*(tw * depth(x));} Eta(float x) { return (di[1]depth(x))/2; }
psi1(float x) { return 0; } psi2(float x) { return w*x^2/2; } psi3(float x) { return w*x; }
OUTPUT: (Dimensions are in kN and m)
// Effective shear area // Eccentricity
// Vector Ψo for uniform load
Matrix 
f 

1 
2 
3 

1 
7.931e07 
9.153e07 
1.305e07 

2 
9.153e07 9.455e05 1.91e05 

3 
1.305e07 
1.91e05 
5.49e06 

Matrix 
k3 

1 
2 
3 

1 
1.278e+06 
2.094e+04 
4.243e+04 

2 
2.094e+04 
3.587e+04 
1.243e+05 

3 
4.243e+04 
1.243e+05 
6.135e+05 

Matrix 
k6 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

1 
1.278e+06 2.094e+04 4.243e+04 1.278e+06 2.094e+04 3.861e+05 

2 
2.094e+04 3.587e+04 1.243e+05 2.094e+04 3.587e+04 1.543e+05 

3 
4.243e+04 1.243e+05 6.135e+05 4.243e+04 1.243e+05 3.638e+05 

4 
1.278e+06 2.094e+04 4.243e+04 1.278e+06 2.094e+04 3.861e+05 

5 
2.094e+04 3.587e+04 1.243e+05 2.094e+04 3.587e+04 1.543e+05 

6 
3.861e+05 1.543e+05 3.638e+05 3.861e+05 1.543e+05 1.025e+06 

Matrix 
Qo 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

1 
0.6144 3.63 
4.451 
0.6144 
4.37 
7.164 
Matrix Structural Analysis v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.12
5. Arch Structures
Arch structures can span over a much greater distance than beams of comparable cross section. This is because bending moments in arches are much smaller than in beams. The horizontal trust at the arch supports tends to cancel the moment produced by the vertical reaction as shown in Fig.5.1(a). Thus, it is important that the supports can sustain such resistance, otherwise a tie must be provided as shown in Fig.5.1(b). Threehinged arches are statically determinate, whereas twohinged and clamped arches are indeterminate, respectively, to the first and third degree. Many arches can be joined together to form continuous arch structures. Their analysis by matrix methods is no more difficult than with frame structures once the arches’ stiffness matrices are established. The ties in tiedarches will be modeled simply as a truss member joining the two nodes.
(c) Threehinged arch
(b) Tied arch
(d) Clamped arch
Fig.5.1 Arch structures
Stiffness matrix for arch members can be established by the same procedure that was used for nonprismatic members (provided that the arch thickness is small compared to its radius of curvature so that straight beam theory is applicable).
Referring to Fig.5.2, the end displacements q _{3}_{x}_{1} caused by Q _{3}_{x}_{1} and P may be expressed as
q
= fQ + q ^{o}
(5.1)
where f is the flexibility matrix, and q o is the vector of enddisplacements due to member loading. Once f and q o have been established, the fixedend forces and the conventional stiffness matrix for the standard 6 coordinates can be found by the contragradient transformation.
Let the crosssectional area and moment of inertia of the arch member in Fig.5.2(a) be
specified by A(s) and I(s)
is the distance measured from the left end along the
where s
Matrix Structural Analysis
v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.13
curved arch. The strain energy expressed in terms of normal force N, shear V and bending moment M is
U
N ^{2} = ∫ L 2AE
ds
M ^{2} + ∫ L 2EI
ds
+ _{∫}
L
V ^{2}
2GA _{r}
^{d}^{s}
(5.2)
where the internal forces are found by considering equilibrium of the freebody in Fig.5.2(a).
or
⎧
⎪
N
M
⎨
⎪
⎩ V
⎫
⎭
⎪
⎬ =
⎪
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎣
− cos _{φ}
−
y
sin φ
Ψ = H Q + Ψ o
−
−
sin φ
x
cos φ
0
− 1
0
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎦
⎧
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎩
^{Q}
^{Q}
^{Q}
1
2
3
⎫
⎪
⎬
⎪
⎭
+
⎧
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎩
Ψ
Ψ
Ψ
^{o}
1
^{o}
2
^{o}
3
⎫
⎪
⎬
⎪
⎭
(5.3)
(5.4)
where φ is the angle between the xaxis and the tangent to the arch center line.
(a)
y (L )
(b)
Fig.5.2 Typical arch member
H =
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎣
− cos φ − y sin φ
− sin φ x − cos φ
0
− 1
0
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎦
(5.5)
The forces in vector Ψ o are caused by member loading. For example, for the force P applied as shown, these forces are
Ψ ^{o}
1
Ψ ^{o}
2
Ψ ^{o}
3
^{=}
^{=}
^{=}
{
{
{
0
P sin φ
for
x
< a
for x
≥ a
0
− P (x
for x
for
x
cos φ
< a − a )
< a
0
P
for
for
x
x
≥ a
≥ a
(5.6)
Matrix Structural Analysis v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.14
Castigliano’s theorem gives the displacement q _{k} as
q _{k}
= ^{∂}^{U}
∂Q _{k}
=
j ∫ ds
N
∂N
i A (s )E
∂Q _{k}
In matrix form:
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
∂N
∂Q _{1} ⎧ ⎪ ⎫
⎨
⎪
⎩
^{q}
^{q}
^{q}
1
2
3
⎪
⎬
⎪
⎭
= ∫
i
j
∂N
∂Q _{2}
∂N
∂Q _{3}
∂M
∂Q _{1}
∂M
∂Q _{2}
∂M
∂Q _{3}
∂V
∂Q _{1}
∂V
∂Q _{2}
∂V
∂Q _{3}
+
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥ ⎥
⎦
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
⎢
∫ _{i}
j
M
∂M
EI (s )
∂Q _{k}
ds
+
1
EA (s )
0
0
^{0}
1
EI (s )
0
j ds
∫ i (s )
GA _{r}
V
∂V
∂Q _{k}
^{0}
^{0}
^{1}
GA _{r} (s )
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎧
⎪
⎥ ⎨
⎥
⎥
⎪
⎩
⎥ ⎦
N
M
V
(5.7)
⎫
⎪
⎬
⎪
⎭
ds
(5.8)
Noting that the first square matrix of the preceding expression is just the transpose of H, and denoting the second matrix as P, we get
q = 
∫ i j H ^{T} P Ψ ds 
= 
j ∫ H ^{T} P(HQ + Ψ ^{o} ) ds 

Thus 
= 
⎛ ⎝ ∫ i j 
H ^{T} P H ds 
⎞ _{⎠} Q + ∫ i 
j 
^{H} ^{T} ^{P}^{Ψ} ^{o} ^{d}^{s} 

f = 
∫ j H ^{T} P H ds ; 
and 
q ^{o} = ∫ 
j 
H ^{T} P Ψ ^{o} ds 

i 
i 

In explicit form: 

⎡ 
c ^{2} 
y ^{2} 
s ^{2} 
cs 
xy 
cs 
y 

⎢ 
^{+} 
^{+} 
^{−} 
^{−} 

f = 
EA EI ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∫ sym j 
GA _{r} 
EA s EA 2 
^{+} 
EI x 2 EI 
^{+} 
GA _{r} c ^{2} GA _{r} 
EI − x EI 1 EI 

and 

j ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 
Ψ 
^{o} 1 
^{c} 
Ψ 
^{o} 2 
y 
Ψ 
^{o} 3 
^{s} ⎫ 
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 

− 
AE 
^{−} 
EI 
^{+} 
GA _{r} 

Ψ 
^{o} 
Ψ 
^{o} 
Ψ 
^{o} 

q ^{o} = ∫ ⎨ 
1 
^{s} 
2 ^{x} 
3 
^{c} 
⎬ ds 

i ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 
− 
^{+} 
^{−} 

AE 
EI 
GA _{r} 
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 

^{o} 

Ψ 
2 

− 
⎭ 

EI 
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥ ds ;
⎥
⎥
⎥ ⎦
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
Matrix Structural Analysis v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.15
where c = cos φ, and s = sin φ.
The force transformation from the 3coordinate system of Fig.5.2(a) to the standard 6 coordinate system is
or
^{Q} 6x 1 ^{=}
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
100
0
001
− 100
− 1
0
− 1
0
1
0
− y (L)
L
^{Q} 6x 1 ^{=} ^{T} ^{Q} 3x 1 ^{+} ^{Q} ψ
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
^{Q} 3x 1
^{+}
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎩
0
0
0
[cΨ ^{o} 1
[sΨ ^{o} _{1}
−
+
sΨ ^{o} 3 ] _{x} _{=} _{L}
cΨ ^{o} _{3} ] _{x} _{=}_{L}
^{[}^{Ψ} o _{2}
^{]} x = L
⎫
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎬
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎭
(5.13)
(5.14)
This equation is used to obtain the vector of fixed end forces Q o _{6}_{x}_{1} by transforming the vector Q o _{3}_{x}_{1} of Eq.8.?. And the 6x6 stiffness matrix in local axis is found using the contragradient law of transformation:
^{k}
6x
6 ^{=}
^{T}
^{k} 3 x 3 ^{T} T
(5.15)
For some particular arch geometry and variation of the crosssection’s properties, closed form expressions for the various matrices can be obtained by analytical integration. If numerical integration is used, it can be more conveniently carried out by transforming the integral over the curved length into one over the horizontal projection by the relation
ds
=
^{d}^{x}
c
And the variables c, s can be computed as
(5.16)
(5.17)
where y(x) is the function describing the geometry of the arch center line.
As an example, for a symmetrical parabolic arch of span L and rise h, the function y(x) is
y
(x ) = 4h ( ^{x} L
^{−}
2
x
L ^{2} ^{)}
(5.18)
Matrix Structural Analysis v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.16
The stiffness matrix and fixedend forces so obtained can also be used to analyse arches with hinges just as done in frame analysis, or alternatively, they can be modified to incorporate the hinges by the static condensation procedure.
Example 5. The parabolic arch shown has a varying Isection and is made of steel (E = 200 GPa, G = 79 GPa). The flange plates are 300 mm x 25 mm, and the web plate is 20 mm thick. The depth of the web is 400 mm at the crown and increases towards the supports at the rate of 6 mm per meter of horizontal projection. Compute the reactions for a vertical force of 1 kN applied at the crown for two cases: fixed supports, and hinged supports. Plot the bending moments and the normal stresses at the top and bottom faces of the arch. Find the vertical deflection at the crown due to normal force, bending moment and shear.
Solution: The computation is performed with the CMAP program listed below. The steps closely follow the mathematical development previously described. Deflection at a point is computed by using the unit dummy force method which gives
where N, M, V are the actual forces at section x, and n, m and v are their virtual counterparts at the same section. Since n, m and v need only be in equilibrium with the vertical dummy force applied where the deflection is desired, we can use the vector Ψ o of Eq.8.? for them. i.e.
o
Nψ _{1}
dx
L
o
Mψ _{2}
dx
L
o
Vψ _{3}
dx
The output shown below the program listing is for the hingeless arch. To get the results for twohinged arch, we need to change the value of variable ‘Hinge’ to 3 and run the program again. The bending moments and normal stresses at both top and bottom faces of the section are plotted in Fig.E5.2. The results show that the maximum stresses in twohinged arch are only slightly higher than those of the hingeless arch, but the maximum deflection is nearly twice as much. In addition, for this particular geometry
Matrix Structural Analysis v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.17
and loading, deflection due to shear and normal forces are negligible compared to deflection due to bending.
x, m
: Normal stress in top face
: Normal stress in bottom face
Fig.E5.2: Plot of moments and normal stresses
main() { // Stiffness and fixedend forces for arch members. Program ARCH.CMP
E=200e6; G=79e6; // Support condition. Hinge = 0,1 or 2 : respectively for hingeless, left support
Hinge=0;
hinged, right support hinged or both supports hinged. L=54.5; h=12; l=60;
tp = 0.025; Ap = 0.3*tp; 
// Flange plate thickness and area 

tw=0.020; 
// Web plate thickness 

P=1; 
a = 30; 
// Load and location 
Stiff(); 
// Invoke function Stiff() for computation 
} 

// 
Compute flexibility matrix, stiffness matrix, and fixed end forces by numerical 
// 
integration. These functions are applicable to any data set 
Stiff() 

{ 
defsym(f[3],
// Flexibility matrix [f]
integ(x,0,L,c(x)/EA(x)+y(x)^2/(c(x)*EI(x))+s(x)^2/(c(x)*GAr(x))),
integ(x,0,L,s(x)/EA(x)x*y(x)/(c(x)*EI(x))s(x)/GAr(x)),
Matrix Structural Analysis v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.18
integ(x,0,L,y(x)/(c(x)*EI(x))),
integ(x,0,L,(s(x)^2/EA(x)+x^2/EI(x))/c(x)+c(x)/GAr(x)),
integ(x,0,L,x/(c(x)*EI(x))),
integ(x,0,L,1/(c(x)*EI(x))));
!qo=defmat(qo[3],
// Vector {qo}
integ(x,0,L,psi1(x)/EA(x)(psi2(x)*y(x)/EI(x)psi3(x)*s(x)/GAr(x))/c(x)),
integ(x,0,L,psi1(x)*s(x)/(c(x)*EA(x))+psi2(x)*x/(c(x)*EI(x))psi3(x)/GAr(x)),
integ(x,0,L,psi2(x)/(c(x)*EI(x))));
!k3=f^1;
// Basic stiffness matrix [k] 3x3
defmat(T[6,3],1,3:0,1,3:0,1,1,3:0, 1,0,y(L),L,1); // Matrix [T]
}
!k6=T*k3*T~;
!Qo=T*k3*qo+defmat(Qo[6],3:0,c(L)*psi1(L)s(L)*psi3(L),
// 6 x 6 Stiffness matrix
s(L)*psi1(L)+c(L)*psi3(L),psi2(L));// Fixed end forces
if(Hinge) { Modify(); }
print(f,k3,k6,Qo);
print(^^"
clearplot();
plot(x,0,L,M(x));
setpictposition(0, 0.5, 0.8, 0.5);
setrange(4:0);
// Plot of normal stress in top face
plot(x,0,L,E*(N(x)/EA(x)M(x)*(0.5*depth(x)+tp)/EI(x)));
// Plot of normal stress in bottom face
plot(x,0,L,E*(N(x)/EA(x)+M(x)*(0.5*depth(x)+tp)/EI(x)));
// Deflections at the crown
Plot of bending moment in arch");
DN=integ(x,0,L,N(x)*psi1(x)/(c(x)*EA(x))),^
DM=integ(x,0,L,M(x)*psi2(x)/(c(x)*EI(x))));
// ,^DV=integ(x,0,L,V(x)*psi3(x)/(c(x)*GAr(x)))); // due shears
// due axial trust // due bending moments
// Internal resultant forces N(float x) { return c(x)*Qo[1]  s(x)*Qo[2] + psi1(x); } M(float x) { return y(x)*Qo[1] + x*Qo[2]  Qo[3] + psi2(x); } V(float x) { return s(x)*Qo[1]  c(x)*Qo[2] + psi3(x); }
Modify() { // Eliminate moments at hinged supports switch (1) {
case Hinge==1:
// Left end hinged
zero(K[6,6]); subop(k6>K[1,2,6,3,4,5;1,2,6,3,4,5]); zero(Po[6]); subop(Qo>Po[1;1,2,6,3,4,5]);
gauss(C,K,Po,5);
zero(k6[6,6]); subop(K>k6[1,2,4,5,6,0;1,2,4,5,6,0]); zero(Qo[6]); subop(Po>Qo[1;1,2,4,5,6,0]); break;
case Hinge==2:
gauss(C,k6,Qo,5);
// Right end hinged
Matrix Structural Analysis v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.19
series(i,1,6,1,k6[i,6]=k6[6,i]=0); Qo[6]=0; break;
case Hinge==3:
// Both ends hinged
zero(K[6,6]); subop(k6>K[1,2,5,3,4,6;1,2,5,3,4,6]); zero(Po[6]); subop(Qo>Po[1;1,2,5,3,4,6]);
gauss(C,K,Po,4);
zero(k6[6,6]); subop(K>k6[1,2,4,5,0,0;1,2,4,5,0,0]); zero(Qo[6]); subop(Po>Qo[1;1,2,4,5,0,0]); break;
default: print(^"Invalid value for Hinge !"); end;
}
}
// Supporting functions to be changed for different geometry or member load y(float x) { float r = x/l; return 4*h*(rr^2); } c(float x){ float dydx = 4*h*(12*x/l)/l; return 1/sqrt(1+dydx^2); } s(float x){ float dydx = 4*h*(12*x/l)/l; return c(x)*dydx;} depth(float x) { return 0.4+abs(x30)*0.006;} // Depth of beam’s web EA(float x) { return E*(Ap*2 + tw * depth(x)); } // Crosssectional area EI(float x) { return E*(Ap*((d=depth(x))+tp)^2/2+tw*d^3/12);} // Moment of inertia
GAr(float x) { return G*(tw * depth(x));} psi1(float x) { return gez(xa,0)*P*s(x); } psi2(float x) { return  gez(xa,1)*P; } psi3(float x) { return gez(xa,0)*P*c(x);}
OUTPUT:
Matrix
f
1 2
3
1 0.02363 0.06932 0.00235
2 0.06932 0.2583 0.007241
3 0.00235 0.007241 0.0002607
Matrix 
k3 

1 
2 
3 

1 461.8 
32.79 
3251 

2 32.79 
19.82 
254.9 
3 254.9 4.022e+004
3251
// Effective shear area // Vector Ψo for point load
Matrix Structural Analysis v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.20
Matrix 
k6 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

1 
461.8 
32.79 
3251 
461.8 
32.79 
3192 

2 
32.79 
19.82 
254.9 
32.79 
19.82 
694 

3 
3251 
254.9 4.022e+004 
3251 
254.91.333e+004 

4 
461.8 
32.79 
3251 
461.8 
32.79 
3192 

5 
32.79 
19.82 
254.9 
32.79 
19.82 
694 

6 
3192 
6941.333e+004 
3192 
694 3.84e+004 

Matrix 
Qo 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

1 
1.296 
0.5173 
2.496 
1.296 
0.4827 
1.01 
2.19698e006
0.000320306
6. Stiffness Matrix for Cables Over Pulley
• Three nodes: i, j, k .
• Application: Construction, cable stayed bridges
• Remark: The same tension F
prevails throughout the cable. This condition cannot be
modeled by using two truss members. The cable may be connected to other structural members at the nodal points i, j, k where nodal equilibrium and compatibility must be observed.
• Basic stiffness: ^{k} ^{=} AE
L
• L = Total length of cable ijk
• Objective: Derive k for use in the direct stiffness matrix.
• Degrees of freedom: 6. Displacement indexes: ^{(}^{2} ^{i} ^{−} ^{1}^{,} ^{2} ^{i} ^{,} ^{2} ^{j}
^{−}
^{1}^{,} ^{2} ^{j} ^{,} ^{2} ^{k}
F
i
F
^{−} ^{1}^{,} ^{2} ^{k} ^{)}
Matrix Structural Analysis v.4.0 Aug. 05
5.21
Fig.6.1 3node cable
• Force transformation:
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎩
^{Q}
^{Q}
^{Q}
^{Q}
^{Q}
^{Q}
1
2
3
4
5
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