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Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Published by: Working Group for Water Supply

and Sanitation Advisor: Director General for Urban and Rural Development, Department of Public Works Board of Trustee: Director of Human Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health Director of Water Supply Development, Department of Public Works Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Community Empowerment, Department of Home Affairs Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Department of Home Affairs Chief Editor: Oswar Mungkasa Board of Editor: Ismail, Johan Susmono, Indar Parawansa, Poedjastanto Editor: Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Rheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, Mujiyanto, Andre Kuncoroyekti Design/Illustrator: Rudi Kosasih Production: Machrudin Distribution: Agus Syuhada Address: Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 e-mail: Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address or e-mail. Don't forget to be brief and accompanied by identity. This magazine can be accessed at Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Website at

From the Editor Your Voice Main Report Potret of WSS Sector 2005, Awareness is Still Lacking National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development One Year Waiting for Validation Portrait of WSS Working Group 2005 WASPOLA, From Principle to Action 1,66 Villages Obtain Access to Clean Water Service Through WSLIC-2 SANIMAS: Towards a National Programme Interview Ir. Basah Hernowo, Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas Dr. I Nyoman Kandun MPH, Director General for Disease Control and Environmental Sanitation Opinion Faithfully in Service for Eight Years World Water Monitoring Day Success Story WSLIC-2 of Jambearjo, Malang Rural Connection, Urban Management Kaleidoscope Behaviour Change without Subsidy Adat Rule Does Not Work Builds Flying Toilets Only to Dig Excremetn Pit IATPI Clinic Wastewater from Wash- and Bathroom Around WASPOLA Around WSS Website Info Innovation Rahmat (Blessed) Water Converting Clean to Drinkable Water Ceramic Water Filter Agenda WSS Bibliography Glossary
Percik magazine can be accessed through WSS website

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ime seems to slip away so fast. Without we knowing it, we are about to pass 2005. In a moment the new year of 2006 greets us. As usual we use the moment like this as moment of contemplation, an evaluation. What have done during the outgoing year. What is the balance between the positive and the negative? And for the government bureaucrat the question is how far have they served the nation and the people? Let's us hope they were not enjoyong their handsome income for doing nothing to the people who pay them. Of course we hope the bureaucrates at all levels have worked the best they could do to serve the country in accordance with the oath of office. Dear Readers, at the year end like this, Percik won't miss to present to you the portrait of WSS development management in Indonesia during the year. In broad line of course. The intention is, to provide us with learning materials. We can learn from both successes and failures. Successes can be replicated to a wider scale in 2006. While failures we will learn to avoid it and make success in the future. If we look into the progress in 2005 and compare it with has been done in 2004 we see no significant changes have been made. WSS development seems to make a stationary movement. Cases that happened in 2004 (see Percik December 2004) seem to repaeat in 2005. From flood, contagious diseases, final garbage disposal, pollution, WSS related horizontal conflict etc. did happen again. However, within the gloomy face one cannot deny that there is still a splinter of hope. The projects that were put into test in 2005 indicated an excellent result. Take a look at SANIMAS, WSLIC-2 and CLTS. Implementation of national policy for community based development also indi-

Happy New Year 2006

cated a hopeful signs. Yet the coverage of these projects is still quite limited, let alone reaching the far corners of Indonesia. In this edition we present to you several successes in the project implementation. The expectation is this could be imitated by other regions. We don't miss to say that in the midst of these successes we also include the dark side and contraints as they happened in the field. These all are valuable lessons learned that we must bear in mind. Isn't the wise used to say: failure is the beginning of a success? These lessons are concocted in several articles. One appears in kaleidoscope, in success story, and others on the main feature. Dear readers, it might be worthwhile for us to know what the WSS related policy makers think about WSS development progress during this year. For this purpose we interviewed the Director of Human Settlement and Housing, (National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas), the Director General for Disease Control and Environmental Sanitation, Department of Health, and CPMU Chairman of WSLIC-2 project. In essence, there are many things that must be done regarding WSS management in Indonesia. Especially in connection with Indonesia's willingness to being 'burdened' with MDGs target. Lastly, we hope the present Percik serves as an impulse to improvement. And we are also expecting feedback from the readers, fro the betterment of this magazine in particular and Indonesian WSS development in general. Let us greet 2006 with optimism and care to the pepole's condition. Let's avoid happiness at the expense of someone else's misery. May God Bless us all.


December 2005

Request for Bibliography
Dear Editor, I am a graduate of Environmental Engineering from ITB class of 1995 and Masters of Science from Technische Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany. Presently I am working for my PhD from the same university. Presently I am working on a study in the area of susstainability assessments of sanitation especially for low income urban communities in Indonesia. The place presently under study is Rungkut, Suarabaya. The aim of the study is to propose an alternative solution to water pollution problems from human waste for low income community in the urban areas of Indonesia. One of the alternatives is ecosan (ecological sanitation), in which domestic wastewater is divided into three categories, excrement (blackwater), urine (yellow water), and other liquid waste (grey water). This system has long been developed in Europe (Germany, Austria, Sweden). My professor happens to be one of the pioneers. To implement it together with a friend who atennd the same school cosntructed an Ecosan pilot plant at Pusdakota Ubaya, an NGO concntrating on community empowerment. A collague in Pusdakota who attended a WSS Working Group seminar some time ago lent me the seminar proceeding and Percik ed. June 2004. I am quite interested with the information bacuse of relevance with my ongoing study. I have managed to get most of the data in Percik of said edition from various internet sources, yet some other are still lacking. For that purpose I would inquire how I could obtain several refereances from Percik bibliography? Beside the data presented there are also several VCDs (such as NAP for

advise us how to get them.

Rahayu Sri Pujiati, SKM, M.Kes Community Health Study Programme University of Jember Jl. Kalimantan I/93 Kampus Tegal Boto, Jember 68121 Phone. (O331) 322995 Fax. (0331) 337878

Request for subscription

Several times I read Percik magazine my instructor lent me. It contains many insteresting materials and relevant to the subject I am studying. How could I subscribe the magazine regularly?
Nurul Ichsan Jln. Banjarsari, Gg. Iwenisari No. 8 Tembalang, Semarang 50275

Wastewater, Methodology for Participatory Aproach assesment, Proceeding of SANIMAS National Seminar in Bali 2004), proceeding of National Seminar on World Water Day 2004, Data Inventory and Evaluation of Urban Infrastructure Developemtn Implementation 1992-2002, and Wastewater management handbook) and others I wish to have the photocopy. What is the best way for me to have them?
Almy Malisie Surabaya

Bulletin and CD
Herewith I would request for free bulletins and CD related to WSS development for additional collection of our library of the Faculty of Administration Sciences, University of Brawijaya.
Andy Fefta Wiajya Fac. Administration Science Univ. of Brawijaya Jl. MT Haryono No 163 Malang - Jawa Timur, Indonesia

In need for books

I am an instructor of Community Health Study Programme of the University of Jember. Our Study Programme is in need for books on environment, and we have received the journal you sent us. We wish to have the books in your website. I would be thankful if you could

Thank you for all the attention paid by the faithful Percik readers. For your attention, Percik magazine is distributed free of charge. We will send it to you who have attached a complete address. While for the bibliography, they are available in very limited copies. Therefore, we will help you as long as they are available at sufficient copies. Otherwise, you will need to duplicate them yourselves. Thank you again. (Editor) (Redaksi)


December 2005



Water supply and environmental sanitation is still being considered as less important sector. This is evidenced from the level of attention to this sector and the impact produced within one year. The hope for a change still remains a dream.

Potret of WSS Sector in 2005

ear 2005 is coming to an end. WSS development seems to pass just like that. No significant improvement has been made. We should realize, however, that other sectors are performing more or less the same, alias running idle. There are perhaps many reasons for it, such as the government has only been newly formed, delay in budget flow, official or positional transfer in bureaucracy, and so on. Admittedly or not, this sector has not been given the proper attention. The central government budget for housing and settlement is less than 10 percent. We could then deduce how much is from this percentage WSS -as part of settlement development gets; very small naturally. Whereas, it is estimated that WSS development through 2015 requires Rp 50 trillion budget if the MDGs target is to be achieved. The regional attention is even worse. Based

on survey in 6 districts, local government budget allocation for this sector is below 10 percent, some even close to zero.
LUMAJANG TAKALAR KUNINGAN SUBANG SIKKA SUMBA TIMUR 2003 0.56 1.15 1.33 3.06 7.91 2004 5.56 0.01 0.97 1.37 0.85 0.1 2005


It is no wonder therefore that WSS service coverage does not move further from the record of the previous years. Urban piped water service is 52 percent and in villages 5 percent. The overall urban wastewater service, on site and off site combined is 25,5 percent (taken from the population of 399 urban centers). Solid waste management serves 32,1 of the population of 384 cities. At

the national average 54,56 percent of families have a relatively acceptable drainage system, and 31,98 percent having no drainage system at all. Community access to WSS system is rated low, especially for those living in villages. WSS service is not evenly distributed among regions and territories, and in many areas the distribution is inequitable between the rich and the poor. Efficiency in use of the existing facility is only at 76 percent of the total capacity. This means 24 percent of the capacity is idle or lost, and boils down to inefficient investment. This was because of the top down approach of development in the past that made the investment bigger than the actual demand. The proportion of urban families with septic tank and pit well systems combined is relatively high, i.e at 80,5 percent (regardless of quality) (BPS, 2004). Up to 73,13 percent of urban families that have toilets, and 16,9 percent use communal or public toilet. While in villages the figure indicates 50 percent. In such a condition, the environment suffers from severe degradation. This is because of rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization. Deterioration threatens many water catchment areas. Water sources are polluted. This brings serious pro-


Desember 2005

blems to water supply. Water quality in several river basins is decreasing continuously due to domestic and industrial wastes, also from other human activities such as mining and residual effect from extensive use of pesticides. Pollution to water bodies caused by several reasons such dumping of wastewater has reached an apprehensive stage. Approximately 76 percent of 52 rivers of Java, Sumatra, Bali and Sulawesi are highly polluted with organic pollutants, and 11 main rivers are critically contaminated with ammonium compound. These all are the the consequences of man's failure to exploit nature in a wise manner. Illegal logging goes freely unrestricted. No wonder if floods and landslides are repeating the same places as the previous years. Death tolls, wounded people and loss in properties are unavoidable. Groundwater exploitation and irresponsible dumping of industrial waste, especially in the urban areas, are common practices without the least regard to environmental conservation and natural carrying capacity. In Jakarta for example, groundwater extraction has exceeded 60 percent above the safe treshold. As a consequence, in many places groundwater table has dropped as far as 5 meters. As a consequence of pollution from industrial wastes in the northern part of the city, the economic value of river, i.e Ciliwung Dalam River in Rorotan Marunda has been decreasing continuously. In terms of money the value in 2003 was Rp 1,094 billion, several years after it will become Rp337 million. The decrease in water value from 2003-2010 will adversely affect the life of shrimps, crabs, and cockleshells will become endangered with mercury poisoning from the river. In 2010 when the cadmium content in groundwater of the area exceeds the safe treshold, underground water of the area is not drinkable any more. Then in 2028, water cannot be used for agriculture any more because mercury content

is well above the safe treshold (Suara Pembaharuan 18/11/2005). The nature is also suffering more because the burden of increasing piles of solid waste. The garbage production growth rate is estimated at 1,49 percent per annum. For regions with sufficient land space, it does not pose a problem at least for the time being. In big cities, solid waste is a real headache. Take a look at Jakarta, the regional government now is deeply perplexed, especially with TPST Bojong continuously being denied by the local population, while TPA Bantar Gebang cannot be used any more. Bandung is also suffering from the same headache after the Lewigajah TPA disaster. The regional autonomy apparently gives birth to regional egoism, paying no respect to the interest of the larger communities. On one side, the community's awareness to 3R (reuse, reduce, recycle) principle is lacking. They still don't care to this dirty material. The community attitude towards hygienic life needs improve-

ment. Lack community access is also the side effect of institutional and law enforcement related problems. The institution responsible for WSS management is not performing sufficiently and is under capacity. Management, financing, human resources and institutional issues are all in a mess, God knows when to get unruffled. While law enforcement is going meekly, if not stationary at all. Laws and regulations are simple written documents. Environmental degradation is proceeding freely unabashed. This poor condition brings with it its consequences. Action equals reaction, so the the law of relativity says. If there is no significant reaction in WSS development, the expected reaction will never come up, in other words stagnancy. And that is better still, the real fact is that community health condition -as it relates to WSS service provision- is getting worse. This is evidenced from the incidence of several diseases such as


December 2005

polio, dengue fever, avian flu, diarrhoea, and cholera. The last disease was widespread recently silently missed publication. In general, of 175 nations of the world, Indonesia is placed 112 in health condition. Fadillah Supari, the Minister of Health says this is a poor position, though it is slightly better than before. This condition is open wide in front of us. We cannot put the blame singly on anyone for it. Everyone is to share the responsibility. One cannot deny, however, that all this time the community is not sufficiently strengthened in handling WSS development so that a sustainable WSS service system has never been made into living reality. On the other hand, the government personnel are still maintaining their project oriented way of thinking and consider the people are a mere stupid lot. Incompetence also infected the bureaucrates so that in absence of funding, no job could take place and no attention could be paid to the people they are supposed to serve. Incompetence is a chronic disease this nation suffers from. Challenges Indonesia has been caught within MDGs trap. Indonesia, in this case the government, is compelled to implement the agreement made in Johannesburg. In WSS sector, Indonesia has to reduce by half, in 2015, the proportion of population without access to water supply and basic sanitation facility. The assumption is, this achievement will significantly influence the improvement of community well being. From the community point of view the government determination is superior. The problem is, whether that is realistic. There are so many problems this nation faces. In a messy system such it is, the decision makers -including the parliament- prefer more realistic issues where the result is readily visible. This of course is different from the impact of WSS development which is not instant and the impact is visible only after a long time. Financial support for this sector cannot always be expected, even from the private sector considering the amount needed. While the rich nations, that should have been allocatheir limited capacity. Based on UNSFIR study (2003) Indonesia can only reach the reduction by half the population presently is without access to water supply and basic sanitation in 2040. It is estimated that 24 provinces are unable to reach the target in 2015. There is a paradox between target and process. On one side, the government is putting stronger emphasis on WSS development through community empowerment approach, which naturally takes a longer time SOURCE: MUJIYANTO to accomplish. On the other side, MDGs target is brought into the mainstream that must be reached in order that Indonesia won the reputation as a successful nation by the international community. It is therefore not impossible that the project oriented way of thinking in order to reach the target will be reactivated. What is certain, with or without target, the people need access to water supply and sanitation service in order to improve their well being. And this needs the government's management and seriousness as the mandatory to run the management of the state. This needs a clear vision and mission that does not depend on other nation or international organization. Breakthrough and creativity is being awaited by the people. Therefore the government must be strong enough to improve itself to prevent it being steered by outsiders with hidden agenda. The population yearns for drinking water and hygienic environment for quality life. This is not an empty illusion. When can this be made a reality?

ting 0.1 percent of their domestic products, no one can expect they would keep their promise. Again the people have to carry additional burden, in spite of their economic difficulty. A new development strategy came into practice, called empowerment. The community has been considered powerless. Therefore, the community with its limitation is stimulated to become capable to develop itself. The government -paid handsomely from the people's tax- will act as facilitator. The people are facilitated to help the government to achieve MDGs target in spite of


December 2005


National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development

One Year Waiting for Validation

he national policy for community based WSS development has been implemented for two years. Though it hasn't spread to all regions, the field trial so far has indicated a hope for WSS development in the future. However, this policy is not enough to cover the management of WSS development in general. This is because with the policy is limited to small scale demand which may be less economical. The demand for WSS service is considerably large. In this connection we have no choice but to orient the management to the institutionally based. The big demand will naturally call for large scale mobilization of resources, human resources, finance, technology, and others. For that reason, the government is designing a national policy for institutionally based WSS development. As an initial preparation, the formulation process is already completed. At the end of December 2004 the draft was ready for revision. Yet up to the end of 2005 the draft has not been signed. There are many constraints over there. This is quite natural considering this policy links many sectors and many "interests". There are still many issues requiring clarification. What is certain is that this policy is expected to serve as directive for all stakeholders to lead their activity towards achieving WSS management objectives, ie. improved community health and supporting economic growth


towards community welfare. The objectives are i) increase in access, ii) effective use, and iii) guaranteed sustainability. The general policy of WSS sector development includes the following: 1. Priority to the poor families. 2. Maintaining a balance between demand for WSS development and environmental carrying capacity. 3. Involving the participation of all stakeholders. 4. WSS Management that exercises an optimum entrepreneurship and cost recovery principles. 5. Effective law enforcement.

6 Establishment of inter-regional and cross-sectoral coordination in WSS Management. The general policy is then deduced to sectoral policy consisting of four sectors ie. drinking water, wastewater, solid waste, and drainage. Drinking Water Drinking water service is currently in a very limited coverage. This is only in urban areas. But the urban poor, those who live in the slum areas are always in want. They have to spend more money relative to the size of their income.


December 2005

On the other side, the capacity of the environment to provide clean water is decreasing steadily. Though it is renewable, water resources availability for drinking purpose is a problem for most of the service providers. In the meantime, the demand for drinking water is increasing due to population growth and changes in lifestyle. PDAM that is supposed to serve the community is unable to meet the expectation both in terms of water quality and quantity. The public company is suffering from internal problems such as management, tariff, and regulatory aspects. And the role of the private sector so far has not been visible. For all the above conditions the policy for drinking water includes: 1. Gradual increase in service coverage and improvement from clean water into drinking water quality. 2. Increase of access to drinking water service with priority to low income communities and areas that are without access to such a service. 3. Consumenrs' involvement to promote quality of service. 4. Drinking water consumption control through regulation and tariff instruments. 5. Improvement of government, community and business community control in raw water management. 6. Application of sound management and cost recovery principles. 7. Improvement of investment opportunity. Wastewater Article 40 of Water Resouces Law stipulates the requirement for an integral management of drinking water and wastewater. But up to now there is no meeting of mind regarding wastewater management. Drinking water supply is still oriented to raw water treatment to drinking water. But without considering the waste produced from drinking water use that causes pollution to raw water source. If this tendency continues it will cost more and more to produce drinking water and to restrore water resources quality. Besides, there is presently no planning standard applicable to wastewater treatment, either for a single housing area or a municipality scale so that many of the waste treatment falicities are inferior and do not meet the required environmental safety standard. Pollution of water body for various different reasons, especially from wastewater has reached an apprehension level. 76,2 percent of 52 rivers on Java, Sumatra and Sulawesi are heavily polluted with organic pollutants, and 11 major rivers are heavily polluted with ammonium compounds. Major rivers of the urban are generally polluted to an extent that BOD exceeds 34,48 percent and COD 51,72 percent above treshold values. Approximately 32,24 percent of piped water samples and 54,16 percent of non piped samples contain E.coli bacteria. Whether one admits it or not the community as the waste producer does not care to what has been done. This is made even worse with the fact that the community lacks the access to wastewater handling service. Even with one who has the performane of the providing institution is wanting. Government care is lascking. This is evidenced from lack of government budget and lack of law and regulation governing this sector. Overcome the abovementioned problems, the polcy for wastewater treatmen inclues the following: 1. Promote the integration of regulation on drinking water and wastewater management. 2. Wastewater management is oriented to raw water conservation. 3. Improvement of community access to acceptable level of wastewater facility. 4. Priority service is to be given to poor communities. 5. Wastewater management be undertaken by a specically appointed institution.


December 2005


Application of cost recovery principle, step by step. Effective law enforcement. Drainage Up to now there is no clarity whether a drainage system in Indonesia is oriented only to avoid rainwater inundation or it also includes disposing wastewater into a mixed system. It often happens a drainage system is also used for wastewater, especially grey water, drainage though the systyem is not designed for a mixed system. A mixed system without proper palnning tends to cause pollution of water body in the downstream area. Many drainage system development, by the government, proivate, or the community, does not follow the existing master plan, and in several cities such a master plan entirely unknown. Besides, attention to drainage issue is not based on program approach, more ofteen than not it is based on casuistic approach and an area development often does not follow a spatial planning wth regards flow pattern and infiltration capacity. Drainagwe also faces funding, law enforcement, and institutional problems. Government attention arises when in response to a consequence. Considering the above the policy related to dainage sector includes: 1. Determine the authority in drainage handling by the government, private sector and the community depending on the drainage system hierarchy. 2. Establishment of integrated drainage system management to maintain balance in water regime. 3. Priority to the poor community and tickly populated sectors in drainage managemetn and handling. All sectoral policies, drinking water, wastewater, solid waste and drainage system are to be deduced into more detailed implementation strategies. Socialization process has been undertaken through talk show in TV. Now we are waiting for the validation. (MJ)

6. Improvement of the role of government, community and private sector in wastewater treatment. 7. Application of cost recovery principle gradually in wastewater management. 8. Effective law enforcement to prevent pollution of water sources. Solid Waste Indonesian population growth is 1,49 percent a year and logically this brings an increase of garbage production up to 2-4 percent per annum. The increase in volume is also followed with composition and characteristics of solid waste in line with industrial growth and community consumption pattern. The increase in garbage production is not followed with the availability of garbage handling facility so that the remaining untended garbage turns to source of environmental pollution. Another difficulty faced by the regional government is the limited space for final disposal ground (TPA). This sector

faces many problems consisting of institutional, regulatory, and financing. Similar with wastewater, solid waste has not been given sufficient attention it deserves. However, some hope may come from the community because individuals and group have in reality capable of initiating individual and neighbourhood scale waste management system. It is now up to us how to promote the 1. existing potential. The policy related to solid waste sector consists of: 2. Reduce as much as possible waste production right from its initial source. 3. Promote community role and participation as partners in waste material 4. handling. Strengthening Solid waste manage5. ment institution. Development partnership with the 6. private sector. Improvemetn Ste by Step level of 7. service towards a natioan standard.


December 2005


Portrait of WSS Working Group 2005


he WSS Working Group in 2005 has fcosed its activity in public campaign and operationalization of the national policy for community based WSS development in the regions and completion of the national policy for institutionally based WSS development. The public campign is directed to impart a better understanding to all WSS development stakeholders about the basic principles underlying the national WSS development policy and to increase their care and participation in the development of this sector. Some of the public campaign activities are undertaken through publication of Percik magazine, website maintenance, electronic mailing list and WSS newsletter, poster and leaflet printing and distribution, exhibition, and talk show in electronic media. The talkshow has been done through cooperation with two TV stations, TVRI and Metro TV, discussing about National Policy for Instititutionally Based WSS Development. Translation of the national policy for community based WSS development into regional level operation has been undertaken through several activities, such as: 1. Workshop Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in 7 provinces. Workshop on Operationalization of National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in the regions for NGO partners and the involved government agencies. Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in CWSH project sites. Workshop for socialization of the National Policy for Community Based

In 2006 the WSS Working Group has been instrumental in formulating a cooperation agreement between the Government of Indonesia with Plan International, an international non government organization. This cooperation represents one of the efforts for active involvement of all stakeholders in WSS development
WSS Development in WSLIC-2 project sites. Workshop for Operationalization of the National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in the regions. 2. Training WSS Technical Training.

ProAir Technical Training. WSLIC-2 Post Construction Technical Training. MPA-PHAST Training and its Application in Planning and Monitoring for Community Based WSS Projects 3. Cordination in the Implementation of Community Based WSS Development with Program Partners 4. Field Trial of Community-Led Total Sanitation Approach The field trial was conducted in cooperation with WASPOLA in 6 locations, namely Lumajang, Muaro Jambi, Sambas, Bogor, Muara Enim and Sumabawa. CLTS approve works excellently in improving community habit trowrds hygiene behaviour. Yet, some of the areas also met with difficulties in the trial. The factors influencing success and failure of the approach lie with


December 2005


the support from the local communityy leaders. In 2006 the WSS Working Group has been instrumental in formulating a cooperation agreement between the Government of Indonesia with Plan International, an international non government organization. This agreement is summarized into a MoU signed by the Deputy for Infrastructure, Bappenas and Country Director of Plan International Indonesia on 19 October 2005. This cooperation represents one of the efforts for active involvement of all stakeholders in WSS development. The activity related to formulation of National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development has finalised draft 3 revision 3. Socialization of the latest draft has been made to echelon 1 officials of Directorate General Bangda, Directorate General PMD, Directorate General Disease Control and Environmental sanitation and Ministry of Environment. Plan for 2006 In 2006 the WSS Working Group workplans include public campaign, operationalization of National Policy for WSS (Community as well as Institutionally Based) WSS Development and formulation of the related guidelines. In 2006 the public campaign will follow almost exactly what has been done in the previous year. This activity consists of publication of Percik magazine, website maintenance, electronic mailing list and WSS newsletter, poster and leaflet printing and distribution, exhibition, and talkshow in electronic media. Hopefully that in 2006 Percik publication volume could be increased. This is in line with the increasing demand to this magazine. Operationalization of National Policy for WSS Development will be conducted through several means such as: Coordination Meeting on National Policy for WSS Development This coordination meeting is intend-

in 2006, will start with communication strategy formulation to be initiated with a workshop to determine the communication model as a base for communication strategy development for National Policy for (Community and Institutionally Based) WSS Development.

ed to build a better understanding, consultation and supervision of policy implementation within the framework of central, provincial and kabupaten level WSS Working Groups. Training In 2006 ttraining agenda will be oriented to capacity improvemen of the actors in operationalisation of National Policy for WSS Development, and vari-

ous skills and knowledge needed for replication of the approaches that have been tried sucessfully in the previous years, such as CLTS and SANIMAS. Workshop of Communication Strategy It has been realized that the success in implementing National Policy for WSS Development is highly influenced by application of an effective policy communication strategy, in 2006, will start with communication strategy formulation to be initiated with a workshop to determine the communication model as a base for communication strategy development for National Policy for (Community and Institutionally Based) WSS Development. Policy formulation activity will be directed to produce various implementation and technical guidelines and CWSH technical modules. Year 2006 will be the first year for realization of cooperation between the government and Plan International. The scope of the cooperation will include field trial of the nationa Policy for WSS development, training, resource centre development and development of communications strategy. (AK)



December 2005


WASPOLA, From Principle to Action

he idea behind WSS sector policy reform was developed under the premise of increasing an improved and well targeted WSS service coverage. The importance of a more efficient, well targeted, poverty oriented, improved community participation, gender sensitive, are a few of the underlying principles upon which the WSS sector policy reform rests. Since its conception in 1998, WASPOLA (Water and Sanitation Policy Formulation and Action Planning) has been promoting acceleration towards that reform. Though in the beginning this sectoral policy reform concept was not familiar with the bureaucrates, especially with lack of nationally developed lessons learned to use as reference, yet the reform process still proceeds and obtains multipartite support. Six government departments involved in its development pleaded commitment for a community based WSS development. In 2005 being the second year of WASPOLA-2 after WASPOLA-1 was completed in 2003, has printed reform tints to WSS development policy that is now proceeding in the path of a dynamic coordination process. Reform and Policy Implementation In 2005 the National Policy for Community Based WSS Development was put into implementation in 21 kabupatens of 7 provinces. (see table 1) Several experiences have been obtained from the implementation in the 21 kabupatens. The experience from WSS development up to now can be used as strong reason for conducting policy reform. Malfunctioning of facilities, inefficient and mistargeted development are among the examples. At least there are two things noted why





commitment. The basic policy principles developed within the framework of equity, and commitment to change, from provider to facilitator, should be honestly and openly translated into the implementation of WSS sector development, by the central and regional governments. Capacity Improvement, Demand for WSS Development From the experience obtained from facilitating policy development in the regions, especially in the context of WSS policy reform, human resources capacity improvement becomes an intrinsic demand within the reform itself. Sustainable development and demand responsive approach are among the important themes that call for strong undertanding and sectoral commitment. In 2005 WASPOLA has facilitated interaction between the government and the community for the purpose of exploring and sharing of information about WSS service development at the field level. The outcome is a growing care and attention from within the government agencies, promoting appreciation of community participation and growth of community self reliance in WSS service management. Sustainable WSS service related issues are often voiced out by WSS development actors in the regions. Regional working group identification of drinking water supply related aspects in some kabupatens, have identified several sustainability determining variables, and their interlinkages. As an example, in a visit to 4 villages ie. Talamelito, Molintogupo, Tangga Jaya, and Illoheluna, all in Kabupaten Bone Bolango, widely different variables were identified. It was found that technology choice was not followed with institu-

policy reform is important, first WSS development is often understood as WSS facility development subsidy, second the budget for WSS developmentis quite limited therefore it is necessary invite support fron non government sector. WASPOLA facilitation support in the policy implementation, in this context is bridging out transfer of knowledge and information in order that the service is not limited to facility construction, but more than that, it is sustainability. Sustainability begins from change in paradigm leading to sustained development covering institutional-, financial-, social-, technological- and environmental aspects. Besides, WASPOLA support is also made available to development of synergy between government and non government so that WSS service development could proceed as common commitment and multipartite involvement. The involvement leads to development of common responsibility for investment and O&M costs. Some of examples of development initiated by demand driven and demand responsiveness approaches have indicated that there is a hidden potential within the community, financial, capacity and


December 2005



tional management, financial management and environmental protection, it was also found that WSS service sustainability was vulnerable to "personal policy", or behaviour of village administration officer. In the village of Lonuo, once appraised for its exemplary WSS service management is now at the brink of failure because of malfunctioning management institution. In this context the regional government should take a closer look at the problem and later provide technical assistance how to improve the situation. Similar case happenes in several kabupatens and WASPOLA keeps on trying to promote an improvement process. In addition to participatory approaches, which was introduced by WASPOLA through MPA-PHAST training to enable the regional working groups analyse the community level problems and issues. Analysis of WSS Service WASPOLA is supporting the stakeholders in conducting evaluation on WSS service provision. At the regional level, this activity can be undertaken through a field observation and data-

base development, while at the central level, this is done a comprehensive study to identify WSS service related problems especially in this era of decentralization. All these activities, undertaken by the regions and the central government, have produced important lessons learned for WSS service provision in the future, through reform in institutional, financial, and regulatory aspects. Steps Leading to WSS Priority The lack of community access to WSS service in infrastructure development is identified as a consequence of lack of support to this sector. Most of the regions, even the central, do not place WSS in any development priority, at least in the amount of budget allocation, clarity of institution, and availability of capable human resources. In several regionas, the regioan strategy plan, WSS is menytioned as a scion of some component, such as housing or health. In this conext, preparation of WSS developemtn strategy plan becomes part of the effort to make WSS a development priority. WASPOLA's

technical assistance in the regional WSS strategy plan formulation gained a warm appreciation from the regional working groups. This strategy plan was developed within the framework of long term and medium term regional strategy plan formulation. The formulation of vision, mission and identification of internal/external factors, formulation on mandate, SWOT analysis, strategiissues, and formulation of strategic programmes are several of the materials that must be well understood in a strategy planning formulation. Direct and extensive involvement of stakeholders is a charcteristics that WASPOLA intends to promote in many of the regions. The regions with a strategy plan will be more advenced in developing a comprehensive WSS development strategy plan as it relates to MDGs target achievement, and opportunity to multipartite strategic partneship. Placement of WSS as priority will save the regions from unnecessary social investment due to negative impact brought by poor drinking water and environmental sanitation service. Institutionally Based Policy, In Response to Market Being part of policy reform, the availability of a policy for WSS service provision by an institution is deemed necessary. PDAM condition, almost all over the country, is not directly correlated with improvement of access to drinking water. Data from PU indicate that water supply of the urban is approximately 39 percent, while PDAM operates in 306 kabupatens (70 percent) of Indonesia. This indicates the PDAM provides very small service coverage, and it does not have the capacity to increase the coverage. This does not include the outstanding payables that are their main trouble for almost all the public companies. According to a record collected by an NGO in Solo, there are presently 23 PDAMs that are ready for a cooperation with private sec-



December 2005

tor. Along with it, and in order to maintain a favourable investment climate and at the same time to guarantee service to low income community it is necessary to build a comprehensive policy and capable of accomodating various different interests. This is the challenge that the government is trying to answer through formulation of a national policy institutionally based WSS development. WASPOLA's effort to facilitate this process has been exerted since 2003 and more intensively during 20042005. The involvement of various segments: government, private sector, NGOs, universities, and professional associations has been obvious. The institutionally based policy has been formulated more comprehensively and is built on a stronger structure and conceptional framework. It is divided into general and sectoral policies: drinking water, sanitation, solid waste and drainage. However, as a procwess this policy needs support and acceptance extensively from every segments of the community, especially the regional governments and the private sector, so that it could be immediately implementable. In connection with MDGs target achievement, the government must as soon as possible invite the cooperation of those that care to WSS service development, especially the private sector and at the same time create a conducive environment required by investors so that partnership could be developed. Sanitation, the Passenger Packed Tail Car Sanitation, for as long as it is treated as a separate scion from water supply development, it will remain to behave like an ancient overcrowded wagon train moving shakily pulled by an underrated engine. It will always fall behind water supply. If the engines are to be combined, sanitation and water supply should be united as an integral part, yet in reality, sanitation is placed in the overcrowded tail car, that can never reach the status of the other cars in front of it. This kind of combination model will produce a sector trailing far behind, yet overburdened with too many a problem. This is clearly evidenced from the meager budget allocation set aside by the regional goverments for sanitation development. In this context, WASPOLA promotes the changing of sanitation development concept. Through CLTS (CommunityLed Total Sanitation) approach sanitation development is oreinted more to change of attitude, so that the government will no longer act as supplier, and the community the beneficiary. This change of insight will lead to change in behaviour and finally stimulates demand and innovation. In SANIMAS (Sanitation by the Community) community involvement and participation stimulates the growth of sense of belongingness and willingness to pay. Two of the many sanitation development principles introduced by WASPOLA intends to improve the situation so that sanitation is no longer placed as the rearmost overcrowded car. Promotion and Partnership, Efforts to Achieve Success Policy as a mental product and a process must be continuously promoted and disseminated in order to gain public acknowledgement. WASPOLA and WSS Working Group are now together in this line of activity. Involvement of many parties, local, national, regional, and international is on-going, to build inquisitiveness, care, commitment and finally partnership. Together with kabupaten and provincial working groups the Policy has been disseminated to local and regional level stakeholders. Partnership with NGOs, universities, private sectors being build to create synergy and capacity support. Some of the activites supported by WASPOLA, have produced impressive results, such as evidenced in 2 exhibitions, the stand was visisted by more than 200 guests discussing a wide variety of WSS related issues.


JANUARY 2005 Preparation of WASPOLA support design in facilitating WSLIC and CWSH projects policy development; Rationalization of WASPOLA Workplan 2005; Preparatory activity for CLTS Field Trial. FEBRUARY 2005 Workshop for consolidation of operationalization of National Policy for Community Based WSS Development, on 15-17 February in Surabaya; Workshop on communications startegy development, on 17 February in Surabaya; Kick off CLTS approach field trial in Indonesia. MARCH 2005 Evaluation of provincial preparedness for the operationalization of the National Policy; Roadshow of National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development at the Ministry of Environment, 29 March; Field activity for analytical study on WSS service in the era of decentralization; Seven participants representing WSS Working Group and WASPOLA attended Water Week Conference in Washington, 28 Feb-3 Mar; Presentation of National Policy for WSS Development in Indowater seminar and exhibition, 30 March. APRIL 2005 n WASPOLA and WSS Working Group participation in WSP retreat meeting at Guilin, China, 4-6 April; WASPOLA and WSS Working Group participation in World Water Day


December 2005


exhibition held at Dept. Publ Works office compound, Jakarta. Visited by more 200 visitors; Participation in the launching of National Partnership for Water Protection, 28 April. MAY 2005 Dissemination of the National WSS Development Policy in Province of Banten; CLTS training for members of WSS Working Group, CWSH and WSLIC Projects in Lumajang, 2-5 May CLTS training for regional WSS Working Group in Sumabawa, 9-12 May; Preparation of CLTS Training workplan in the regions. JUNE 2005 Training on the preparation of WSS strategy planning in two regions of Indonesia, held in Maassar and Puncak, respectively; CLTS Training in Sambas; Final preparation of SANIMAS Outcome Monitoring Study (SOMS) implementation; Discussion meeting on Global PSP Review, as part of enrichment of institutionally based development issues, held in Jakarta; Field activity of analytical study on WSS service in the era of decentralization; Initiation of WSS partnership, through cooperation between the government and Plan International. JULY 2005 Roadshow of Community Based Development Policy to provincial policy makers of Bangka Belitung; Interactive talkshow in radio, Radio Sonora Pangkal Pinang; CLTS Training in Kabupatens Bogor, Muara Enim, and Muaro Jambi; Preparation WASPOLA six monthly report; Preliminary discussion on Donor Harmonization study. AUGUST 2005 Worshop on operationalization of the National Policy, Hotel Permata Alam Puncak; Coordination meeting on policy implementation for WSS Working Groups of Indonesian Eastern region, held in Makassar; Roadshow of Community Based Development Policy to provincial policy makers of NTB, Gorontalo, and Banten; SSWAF seminar and exhibition in Bali. Presentation of analytical study of WSS service delivery in the era of decentralization. OCTOBER 2005 MPA-PHAST Orientation Training for Provincial and Kabupaten level Working Groups in Bandung; Workshop Training on WSLIC sustainability strategy for West and East Indonesia regions, in Padang and Surabaya respectively; Roadshow of Community Based Development Policy to provincial policy makers of Sumatra Barat attended by Deputy Governor, Chairman of Kabupaten/Kota Bappedas, Government Agencies, community leaders, WSS Working Group and WASPOLA; Roadshow of Institutionally Based Policy to DG. PMD of Dept. Home Affairs; WSS Network and Partnership Meeting held at Hotel Kartika Chandra Jakarta; Meeting to discuss implementation of a study on donor harmonization; Meeting with SIDA (Swedish International Development Agency), a donor; Workshop for developing WASPOLA Workplan 2006, held at Intercontinental Hotel. NOVEMBER 2005 WASPOLA Mid term review; Study visit to Australia by WSS Working Group and WASPOLA, for enrichment of institutional policy development; Workshop on WSS Data in Province of Banten. DECEMBER 2005 WASPOLA Mid term review; Workshop on WSS data development by the Provinces and Kabupatens; CLTS training for PCI (an NGO) at Kabupaten Pandeglang; Finalising of WASPOLA Workplan 2006; Facilitation for workshop on Plan International (an NGO) workplan; Facilitation of Workshop on data by WSS Working Group. (dormaringan h. saragih)

Sanitation, for as long as it is treated as a separate sector from water supply development, it will remain to behave like an ancient overcrowded wagon train moving shakily pulled by an underrated engine

SEPTEMBER 2005 WASPOLA coordination team meeting attended by Director of Housing and Settlement Systems, Bappenas, WSS Working Group. AusAID, WSPEAP, and WASPOLA; SSWAF seminar and exhibition in Bali; Workshop on synergy of WSS development activities at regional level; Workshop on operationalization of Policy for project partners and NGOs, at Hotel Satelit Surabaya; Roadshow of Community Based Development Policy to provincial policy makers of Jawa Tengah; Roadshow of Community Based Development Policy to kabupaten level policy makers of Pandeglang, Tangerang and Lombok Barat; Workshop training on CWSH Project Strategy Planning for Kecamatan Facilitator Team; Roadshow of Institutionally Based Policy to Diretorate General for Disease Control and Environmental Sanitation, Dept. Health;



December 2005


1,66 Villages Obtain Access to Clean Water Service Through WSLIC-2

The village community were helping each other in communal activity building clean water supply facility. Not less than 1,66 million of low income village community members have had additional water supply from WSLIC-2

hat would it look like life without water. Life will not continue because water is the origin of life. Unfortunately, in spite of water is abundant in the world, there are still who have difficulty in obtaining it. They spend most of their time to take water. They are poor because they do not have time to do productive activity. Their time is spent for water taking. The village community can now be proud of themselves. They have managed to work hand in hand to overcome their common problem, making water supply facilities close to their homes. They even worked voluntarily day and night to make their dream come true. Their effort was not in vain. Now, approximately 1,66 village inhabitants are enjoying their fruit of hard work in WSLIC-2 project. WSLIC-2 or Water Supply for Low Income Communities Phase 2 is a water supply and environmental sanitation activity designed for low income communities living in rural area. This project represents the manifestation of partnership activity between the community and the government. This activity belongs entirely to the community. The community plans the activity by developing a Community Workplan (CWP), implementing, supervising, and managing the facility after completion of the

Minister of Health, Dr Siti Fadilah Supari opens a public faucet at the hamlet of Montor Lekong, the village of Aikmel Utara, Lombok Timur. Chairman of CPMU WSLIC-2, Zainal I Nampira and Aikmel Utara village headman are watching. The visit was made on 14 July 2005

construction. The activity is entirely implemented by the community accompanied by Community Facilitator Team (CFT), which was elected democratically by the community, from and for the community. The community also contributes 20 percent from the CWP value (approximately 195-250 million per village). The government facilitates this community activity and provides a counter part budget 8 percent from the CWP value, through national and regional budget mechanisms. The remainder, 72 percent, is a subsidy from a non interest soft loan from the World Bank (IDA Credit) and grant fund from the Australian government through AusAID. Project Management Report (PMR) is a quarterly report submitted to the World Bank and cross-sectoral agencies members of the Board of Directors. The PMR up the third quarter (Jul-Sep 2005) indicates an access to 1,66 million population (47 percent of 3,5 population). Other data indicate short list of

1.605 villages (80 percent) and villages that have completed MPA-PHAST 1.450 (73 percent), community implementation team (CIT) established 1.439 (72 percent), and community workplan (CWP) already submitted 1.311 (66 percent) and approved 1.160 (58 percent). There are 681 villages (34 percent) completed with water supply facility construction. The overall implementation has reached 48 percent. From the WSLIC-2 supervision mission VIII (30 May-13 June 2005) the World Bank gives a rating "satisfactory" to WSLIC-2 performance. Water supply is an intermediate objective for WSLIC-2. The project is designed to improve health status, productivity and well being of the low income communities of the villages. Together with the water supply facility several other hygiene behaviour related activites are also introduced in the community and in public schools. Through these activities the principles of hygiene behaviour are introduced to the com-


December 2005


munity. There are at least 1.931 school health units activities were conducted by primary schools within the WSLIC-2 implementation areas. One of the activities is eradication of worm disease. The benefit of additional access to water supply has been enjoyed in 5 provinces, ie. West Sumatra, South Sumatra, Bangka Belitung, East Java and NTB. The provinces of West Java and South Sulawesi joined WSLIC-2 only in 2005, and West Sulawesi will start implementation in 2006. Thus the three provinces haven't had the benefit of additional water supply. WSLIC-2 is implementaion sites are scattered in 8 provinces, 35 districts, and 2.300 villages of the country. Future Plan In 2006 WSLIC-2 plans an implementation in 610 villages. These villages are scattered in 8 provinces and 35 kabupatens. In the future WSLIC-2 will strengthen health and sanitation related activities through hygiene behaviour changes within the community and the schools. This is one of the follow up actions as recommended by WSLIC-2 supervision mission VIII conducted last June. The management also emphasized post construction activities in order to maintain sustaianbility. Local institutions from sub districts to district even the provincial levels are to be promoted to take a more active participation. WSLIC-2 management have taken several policies. The guidebook on CWP formulation has been revised. Sanitation related activities must be clearly reflected in the community developed CWP. There must be integration between saniattion activities at schools and in the community. The CWP developed by the community must include water supply service covering at least 80 percent of the local families. And the community shall have to plan when 100 percent toilet use will be achieved. Now it is already available the Catalogue of Sanitation Option and sanitation flash cards. With this book several choices of toilet technologies are presented. With this communication media the CFT (community facilitator team) can facilitate the community the choose the most suitable toilet technology according to the wishes and financial capacity. The choices covers the simplest, ie. one that is prepared by the community itself till the most sophistiSOURCE:EXCLUSIVE

cated ones that are sold in the store. Puskesmas (Community Health Centre) and its sanitarian will be provided for with budget allocation for promotional and facilitation activities. A capacity improvement programme for the sanitarians will be made covering the subjects on MPA-PHAST, Sanitation Clinic, CLTS and PKA. Specifically for Puskesman chief physician an orientation training on sanitation clinic approach. In WSLIC-2 implementation sites an integration of water supply and sanitation will be tried through the sanitation Clinic. In CFT training and refresher course, the focus on sanitation will be more emphasized. To increase the intensity of health and hygiene development related activities in school as well in the community a national level workshop on Exit Strategy for School Health Activity Unit and Community Hygiene behaviour will be conducted. This activity will be followed up at the kabupaten level for dissemination and teacher orientation. Kecamatan level personnel shall be improved to support hygiene behaviour programme in schools (as post construction package). Support to the activity will also be developed through promotion media development, from the national, provincial and district levels. CLTS (Community-Led Total Sanitation) field trials have been undertaken in several WSLIC-2 and non WSLIC-2 districts and have proven satisfactory. CLTS approach will be taken into WSLIC-2 implementation. For this purpose a series of CLTS training workshops will be conducted for provincial and district level facilitators and an orientation for sub district level facilitators. In villages, the implementation will be oriented to CLTS facilitation. Through CLTS approach, hopefully, a significant change to the habit of defecating in the open will take place. Hopefully. (Hartono Karyatin,
Media & Communictions Specialist WSLIC-2)



December 2005


Ir. Zainal L. Nampira, Chairman of CPMU WSLIC-2

Changes Cannot Be Identified From Physical Aspect Only

hen WSLIC was first introduced a negative reaction was instantly displayed by the local governments. They strongly doubted the WSLIC concept and questioned the validity of community empowerment concept involving the poor families to contribute. How in the world could the poor to contribute. And besides, the local governments were also in doubt if the community capable of managing the subsidy. They were worried the fund would leak without trace. Those were two aspects the local governments worried about. Once the local government offered a solution by transfering the fund through district mechanism. This means the fund is not channeled directly to the community, rather it goes to the local government. The local government does the management on behalf of the community. While we want this money directly funneled down to the hands of the community and the community will then manages everything from planning, implementation up to preparation of the accounting report. After it had been running for approximately two years since 2002-2003 the project was able to impart a new understanding to the governments and other stakeholders. Bupatis (Mayor) started willing to inaugurate a project and handed it over to the community. Process of change cannot be seen from physical aspect only. Even internally within the Dept. Health it was rather difficult in the beginning. Now in 2005, the program responsibility for implementation is relinquished from the central to kabupaten level. The process starts from the bottom. We want to combine both top down and bottom up approaches in order to build the local government's sense of belonging.


After it had been running for approximately two years since 2002-2003 the project was able to impart a new understanding to the governments and other stakeholders. Bupatis started willing to inaugurate a project and handed it over to the community
WSLIC exercises accountability principle. The Community Facilitator Team that operates without any salary but is required to be transparent and is audited by an independent auditor. This is the first project that audits the community. From our experience contruction of physical facility is relatively easy. The capacity of each of the line agencies is prominent and immeasurable. WSLIC has learned four main lessons, they are institutio-

nal and community capacity building, improvement of hygiene behaviour, provision of water supply and environmental sanitation, and project management. Based on evaluation conducted by the World Bank mission, Midterm Review Team, Technical Audit Team, Output Monitoring Study Team and economic impact study, there is nothing unusual has happened. From the health aspect this project has produced a significant improvement to community health, and from the technical aspect the construction has met the standard. What should also be taken into consideration for the future implementation are more attention be paid on improvement of monitoring quality, tendering process and more definite property ownership. In East Java and West Java, the regional governments have planned WSLIC programme expansion to several districts that have never had this project. We are not going to implement the project, replicate it and stop there, but more than that, we want to sustain it. What would it mean a development without sustainability? (MJ)


December 2005



SANIMAS (Sanitation by Community)

Towards a National Programme

n 2005 the SANIMAS (Sanitation by Community) has been in its third year implementation. The programme that was designed to provide an alternative solution to sanitation problem the thickly populated, poverty stricken slums of the urban has indicated a successful result. This is identifiable at least in the kabupaten/kotas that have implemented the programme, such as Denpasar city (Bali), the cities of Mojokerto, Pasuruan, Kediri, Blitar, Sidoarjo, and Pamekasan in Jawa Timur. It is even being replicated in four cities of Jawa Tengah and two districts of Yogyakarta. The success of this programme has motivated the government to replicate it in 2006 in 100 locations. This plan is stimulated in order to achieve MDGs 2015. Up to now no decision has been made what districts will be selected to benefit from the program. What is certain is 17 districts in Jawa Timur have submitted their proposal. SANIMAS is designed to fill in the gap in technolohy, service, and funding. The inhabitants of the thickly populated and poor slum usually choose simple and low cost toilet. To construcy such a facility will need at least Rp 500.000. The problem is, land is not always available. On the other hand, to build a centralized sanitation system involves a very high cost. Based on experience, each family is required to contribute Rp 7-7,5 million. SANIMAS intends to offer a simple technology and reasonable cost for an improved service. The burden requested to each family is approximately 2,5-3 million. SANIMAS is developed under the principles of demand responsiveness approach (DRA), community [participation, technology choice, self selec-

tion process, and capacity building. SANIMAS offers technology choices consisting of communal septic tank, Waste Water Treatmant Installation, communal with piping network, and MCK Plus. Its components consist of toilet/WC, piping system, processing, disposal and reuse, and opraion and maintenance. Each of the components contains funding, effciency, and contruction levels from the simple and cheapest till the most costly and sophisticated. SANIMAS is funded by 4 stakeholders, namely central government, districts government, donor/private sector, and the community. Based on the on going project, the composition is as the following: central government 27 percent, regional government 55 percent, BORDA 16 percent, and the community 2 percent. With the availability of counterpart budget from the regional government,

SANIMAS starts with the selection process. Only those regional governments that are most interested and capable of providing an amount of budget required to be included to the project will be considered. The beneficiary communiy is also selected. Priority will be given to poor and having no sanitation facility. After selection, the next stage is selection of the location and finally the community is asked to work out an action plan. Then comes construction and finally operation. On average the time required from the preliminary process up to operationn is approximately one year. Lessons learned from SANIMAS SANIMAS implementation up to 2005 has produced several lessons learned for the favour of the stakeholders to continue with the project. Frank Fladerer, BORDA Representative InSOURCE:ANDRE K



December 2005

treatment facility in anticipation of a donesia, quoted at least eight lessons 7.of community empowerment activity to desludging activity. pay for community facilitation activity, learned, they are: It is still necessary to have a Comtraining for CSG, facilitator, technician, Information for the stakeholders munity Selfhelp Group (CSG) supand operator, and technical design deInformation derived from multicity port to run the O&M in order the velopment component. On average the 1. seminar should be submitted to the facility could run at optimum capacost for capacity building component is kabupaten/kota level decision makers, city. approximately 20-25 percent of the whilst facilitation, presentation and It is necessary to establish a media or physical component. roadshow shall only be provided for to forum for CSG and operator and is Operation and maintenance individual kabupaten/kota upon subfacilitated by stakeholders or NGO to Laboratory analysis of effluent must mission of a written request. It is adviseenable them solve problem(s) that able to develop a city sanitation map to 8. be conducted regularly in a referenced may arise in the future. laboratory in order to see if everything enable the said government develop a is within the tolerable limit. long list for slum development inviting The kabupaten/kota government is the community that potentially in need required to make available a sludge for service. Community identification The community invited to attend the 2. explanation must have had enough information about the project before Indonesian population is 213,6 million (2002). Appox. 53 percent (120 million people) they attend a presentation. live on Java. Mostly dwell in the villages, and only 35 percent live in towns and cities. It is estimated that in 2025 the population living in urban areas will reach 60 percent. Selection criteria Every day 400 thousand cu.m domestic waste is dumped directly into rivers and land Willingness to pay must clarified without pretreatment. 61 percent of it is on Java. 3. early from the very beginning, including Centralized sewerage system exists only in 7 cities, providing service to 973 thousand the status of land where the facility will population (1,31 percent of urban population or 0,5 percent of the total population be constructed. in Indonesia). Choice of sanitation technology Final human waste disposal system in the cities: 63,07 percent septic tank, 16,70 Information about community bapercent to rivers/lakes, 14,44 percent to the ground, 5,79 percent to pond/beach/ 4. sed sanitation models must be distribuothers (BPS 2002). ted prior to explanation about commuSeptic tanks generally come in infiltration pit or directly into river/drainage ditch. nity choice. Preliminary information Consequentlyriver and groundwater of the urban are generally contaminated by E. including community based sanitation coli bacteria. It is estimated that 70-75 percent of water pollutant comes from domestic wastes. management pattern. Community workplan SOURCE:MUJIYANTO The community is only willing to 5. develop a CSG and ready to contribute if all the stakeholders are committed to implement the project. Management CSG always has a hard time in follo6. wing financila administration as required by the government. Therefore, in the future the executor/consultant must assume the responsibility to assist in financial management by the CSG. To improve fund disbursement efficiency, it is suggested to allow the use of excess money develop small infrastructure in the community upon the stakeholders' approval. Funding Funding should consider inclusion

Sanitation Challenge


December 2005


I N T E RV I E W Ir. Basah Hernowo, MA, Director Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas

Preventive is more important than Curative

ow do you see the progress in water supply and environmental sanitation management in 2005? This year our water supply and environmental sanitation condition is getting better. In the government department, especially Public Works, this has been restored to a sector. Thus there is a directorate of drinking water, Directorate of Environmental Sanitation Development, and consequently a more con-centrated attention. We hope this will turn out fine. Now the central level coordination is also getting better and inter-departmental coordination is more becoming better and better. We are also beginning to introduce new approaches such as CLTS, SANIMAS. We plan to have a more widespread replication activity. Hopefully next year we are becoming more capable, not only in policy formulation, but also implementation of the policy. What about about the implementation of the national policy for community based WSS development? It looks excellent since the World Bank is getting more interested. We are scaling it up to nationwide. The approach towards this will surely take time. But I am optimistic because the community seems to like this approach. They are directly involved. The government's responsibility is getting lighter because they do not have to do it all by themselves. We could work together with the central, provincial, districts,

and the community. And more importantly, through the togetherness we could remind each other if something unruly does happen. Anyhow, a stronger and better supervision and control is indispensable. Some local governments do implement this. What step should be taken to accelerate the replication? In the future we hope it is not only dissemination but also followed by pilot project. Thus the region can see this is the policy, and this is the implementation. This will become some sort of demontration plot for them to see by themselves, in accordance with the regional specific character, of course. In so doing it will be easier to them to replicate it in other areas. From the implementation process, what has come up or corrective measure should be made to the existing policy? There are some, naturally. The national policy does seem to find its foothold yet. Admittedly, it is difficult to create a policy that contains all the details because we limit ourselves up to setup policy. It won't be possible for us to say that the implementation is in such and such a way, the fund is from here, and so on. We limit the national level up to policy. The implementation is expected to come from the regons. That is the reason why we disseminate it to the regions so that ech of them could develop a regional policy and implementation procedure as they see fit. That is the most

positive critic. This is a challenge to us to make what we write word by word meaningful. And not too far hanging in the cloud. What progress has been made in the formulation of institutionally based WSS development policy? Hopefully it will be completed at the end of this year. Compared to the community based policy this is obviously not easy exercise. For example, for drinking water component we have to know first what the credit restructurization SOP from the Ministry of Finance look like. We cannot put the policy into operation until the SOP is available. This takes time. This policy is important because it will serve as an umbrella. If we talk the details of PDAM credit for instance, the main problem is not limited tto money alone. There is management problem, incomplete engineering system, tariff problem, the capacity of community to contribute. All these make a complex problem. How important is the national policy for institutionally based WSS development in comparison to the community based? Both are equally important. We can formulate the policy framework, we know there are two systems that are complementary with each other, the community and the institutionally based institutions. The problems involved are obviously differeent. In case of community based it is easier because the community could serve as the subject. In the institutionally based the community is the user. The subjects are the institutions such as PDAMs, dinas kebersihan, and so on. The climate is obviously different. Therfore the intro-



December 2005


duction to the community will take a different method. With the community based we work together with them, while in the institutionally based we talk vis--vis with them. Therefore the strategy to apply in solving this matter will be the formation of some sort of user forum, be it water supply, garbage cleaning, or other waste handling. For the institutionally based will there be a pilot project such as one for community based? Maybe we will do it, but a slightly different manner because here we are ging to talk to business companies. What opportunity and prospect could we take within the following year to improve the water supply and environmental sanitation sector? We hope the nationwide cooperation with the World Bank would bear fruit. We will try to get soft loan funding. I hope if this is doable we can immediately set things into motion. With a nationwide program we can expand our coverage. Unfortunately this is a loan, we want it a grant. More importantly for us is to try to improve other aspect of water supply issue, i.e. asset management. We will introduce this this as the main task of all water supply and environmental sanitation management institutions. It looks that our weakness lies in this area. PDAMs for instance, some may not have a proper record of their assets. If a record on assets is lacking, how could one institution work? We will make an improvement step by step. We hope the government would make it compulsory for a public company to perform asset management. New Zealand has had a Law on Asset Management, the same with Australia. We haven't. Next year's implementation of the national policy for community

based WSS development, what will it look like? We are going to have SANIMAS replication and the next generation of WSLIC, say WSLIC-3 perhaps with a slightly different scope, implementation ADB loan funded project such as CWSH, and ProAir from Germany, sanitation from Sweden and Netherlands. The involved institutions, such as PDAM, whill they be involved in the policy formulation? Not all of them were involved. We selected randomly for the formulation process. I believe that the random sampling has represented all the PDAMs. If we look at PDAMs in Indonesia, they vary widely, some with less than 5000 sbuscribers, some with more than 100 thousand. Their problems also vary. Speaking PDAMs of Surabaya, Medan, Jakarta, they are samples that are highly indebted. If we try to sove the problem we don't have enough time. We have to star from the smaller and medium ones where problems are easier to handle. Cirebon for instance. Between the city and kabupaten why not cooperate with Kuningan and the neighbouring areas so that Cirebon population could have water service better. What is the region's care to the implementation of the national policy for WSS development? In the beginning they took wait and see attitude. After they realized the scope and details of the policy, they become so enthusiastic. See the examples in Banten, NTT, NTB. The community, including NGOs, do you think they care about this policy implementation? This is interesting. Speaking about care, I am convinced that the community's attentionand care to environmental issues is increasing. The problem is, lack of government responsiveness, especial-

ly from the DPR (parliament). The DPR should have seen that several diseases atre now spreading all of them boil down to poor environmental condition, the polio, avian influenza, cholera, diarrhoea, dengue fever. I am of the opinion that budget allocation for health should not be limited to curative treatment, but rather more to preventive measures. It is of no use to have a big house and smart doctors if the number of patients are increaing from year to year. Why don't we emphasize more to preventive measures. Australia for instance, they just built sewerage system after the outbrake of diarrhoea in 1970s, though it cost a lot of money. But after that the prevalence of the disease drastically decreasing. England when I she was infected by pest disease, they immediately improved their sewerage system. Indonesia should start from there. We should not limit the issue on how to cure, but we have to look deeper into its basic causes. Of course not only the birds are infected by avian flu virus, there must be more causes than that. Perharps bad environmental condition. What effort could be taken to make the people's representative care to this matter? This is not an easy thing to do. If I have the time I would be happy to talk with them. We don't have to look too far, just take a glance at Tangerang, there is a cholera epidemy over there. And see what causes it. Probably the people's repesentatives need evidence. Why don't they look for it in the field? It is a challenge in itself to convince the legislatives. What about the private sector? Do they care? Many of them do care about this matter. It is now up to us how to build a network with them. We want to collaborate with them, they have the money and they apply our approach so that they could succeed. (MJ)


December 2005


I N T E RV I E W Dr. I Nyoman Kandun MPH, Director General for Disease Control and Environmental Sanitation

Primary Health Care is the Key

hat would you say about the present condition of water supply and sanitation condition in Indonesia? Let me start by saying that health is the anal of the system. Forgive me if this is a rude way of saying it, health is the end part of the system. This is intended to say that if the intial end is good, such as a human body is a super system consisting of numerous systems, then the end system is the anus, i.e health. The waste is in here. If what is administered is good the waste discharge process will be smooth, no constipation, no diarrhoea. So if the upstream development systems are in disorder the community health status is also in low condition, such the prevalence of dengue fever, diarrhoea, etc. These diseases are caused by faecal contamination from the upstream activities. If we take a look at water supply and environmental sanitation condition, Indonesia as a big country with more than 200 million people and the government has implemented avarious water supply and environmental sanitation projects without a result that is below expectation. In 1974 the year when I graduated from medical faculty there was Presidential Instruction No. 5/1974 called Samijaga (Drinking Water and Household Toilet) Project. I was instructed to Jambi for the project implementation. At that time the government has realized that the upstrem is drinking water and household sanitation facility. Based on Indonesia MDGs report the community access to drinking water is only 50 percent and that of environmental sanitation is 63,5 percent. When we speak of Bhlum theory, health status is determined by hereditory and health service,

behaviour and environmental factors. Behaviour and environment greatly influence community health. Therefore in Sulawesi Selatan there is a saying "moving mountain is difficult but changing human behaviour is much more difficult". Environment is the most influential factor to health and almost all diseases are tranfered through inferior environmental condition. That is the concern of our directorate general. It can be illustrated like several diseases that occur recently for instance dengue fever, cholera, avian influeanza, etc. the causes are boiled down to bad environmental condition and using inferior water quality and non hygienic community behaviour. What are the constraints to improving this sector? I think the government has tried well enough, and not only the community for that matter. Whewn we speak of public health, or healthy public policy, the public is an organized government response. This means the government is crosssectoral. Must meet with organized community. Both must meet with each other, because what we apply is an appropriate technology in health programme. At present a large portion of the community is without access to

drinking water. Indonesia is actually made up of land and watwer, and if their water shortage that means that something has gone wrong in her management so that there is a tendency to use non hygienic water, and poor environmental condition especially with bad basic sanitation condition, and non hygienic community behaviour. If we speak of Healthy Indonesia 2010 that does not mean there is no sick person in 2010, but what is intended that our community lives in hygienen behaviour, in a healthy living environment, and have access to health service as they need. If the three demand is fulfilled the community health status will improve step by step and is evidenced from a longer life expetancy, less incidence of diseases. Today, our infant mortality rate is 35 per childbirth and mortality rate of children below 5 years age is 46 per 1000 childbirths. Mostly because of accute upper respiratory tract and diarrhoea. If we speak of diarrhoea the key is 5 Fs, they are feces, fingers, flies, fluid, field and food. The feces disposed in the open contaminate fingers, swarmed by flies, polluting the field, fluid and food; everything ends up in sickness. Water is an important factor. Man is told to wash his hands: wash your hands with soap after defecating and before touching food. But the problem: water is difficult to find. For this we have a concept, conceptual framework, and legal framework. What do the regional government care about this sector? Pursuant to Law No. 32/2004 on Regional Government is reponsible for the provision of water supply and environmental sanitation. This means the



December 2005


regional government is authorized to take care of its own household. The central government is to provide them with policy, provide training, etc. For example providing them with information what is meant by healthy, hyginenic water meets such and such requirements, healthy environment lokks like this, and so on. If the regional governmetn decides to make houses from concrete wall, or plaited bamboo, it is up to them. Provided they meet hygienic standard. If the requirement is not met, there will be consequences, in the short, medium or long run Thus with the promulgation of Law No. 32 and Law No. 33 (Budget Balance), the regional government has sufficient money to run its own household. The question is how far is the regional government willing to put health development a priority over physical development, it all depends on the conceptual and perception of the regional authorities. The best investment is, of course, in education and health sectors. If the human resources are healthy and sufficiently trained, the rest will be easy. That is the upstream, then human development index, and finally economic growth. It the trio works simultaneously, the region will becopme prosperous. The government, including the legislatives, of the province, kabupaten and municipal (kota) levels are in general indifferent to water supply and environmental sanitation development. They prefer to build roads, bridges, and othe physical facilities. As What efforts have been designed to overcome the situation? As a constitutional state we have made available all the necessary legal instruments. There a number of Laws, such as Law No. 23/1992 on Health; Law No. 7/2004 on Water Resources; Law No. 32/2004 on Regional Government; stipulating the relinquishment of responsibility for water supply and environmental sanitation provision

to the regional governmnet; Law No. 33/2004 on Financial balance between the Central and Regional Government. There is also Government Regulation (GR) No. 10/2005 on Drinking Water; GR No. 27/1999 on Analysis of Environmental Impact; GR No. 82/2001 on Water Quality Management and Water Pollution Control; Presidential Regulation No. 7/2005 on Medium Range National Development Plan, 2005-2009 which includes Healthy Environment. The government also issues Decision of Health Ministry No. 907 of 2002 on the Requirements of and Control over Drinking Water Quality; Decision of Health Ministry No. 1274 of 2005 on Department of Health Strategy Plan, 2005-2009, which also includes clean water and sanitation uses. Besides, a national policy for both community based and institutionally based WSS development have also be developed; including optimum use of fund from foreign, domestic and community sources for water supply and environmental sanitation development purposes. And not the least important is the government is also promoting com-

munity participationin water supply and environmental sanitation development. Do you think we are capable of achieving MDGs target 2015? God has created the earth in perfect condition. It is up to us with our wisdom to manage it. There should be no one in short of water. The creatures are created with its food and drink. But there those who are greedy, those who disregard the environment that make some do not get their share. Some bathe with 100 l of water, whereas in Buaya island the population are in short of water. We are continuously trying our best to reach the MDGs target in order to come close to the agreement already made through mobilization of all potential, from domestic as well as foreign sources, to improve water service and environmental sanitation coverage. The first goal is actiually poverty alleviation. Indonesia needs international cooperation, especially with the industrialized nations. Foreign loans must be used effientlty and effectively and be allocated to activities with high leverage power. The


December 2005



regional government and the community must be committed in the supporting the foreign loans. Because of lack of domestic capital, bigger foreign capital must be invited to come in than the flow of domestic capital out. To make this happen, we have to create a favourable investment climate for the existing foreign investors and for those who are expected to come. Therefore we have to create the so-called supportive environment. What do you think the role of the community in WSS development? Speaking about community, community must be strengthened. Otherwise they will become a bunch of beggars, and we (the government, Ed.) are the Sinterklas, distributing their necessities. This is quite uneducational. I am strictly against that idea because actually our community has a high self-esteem. If the community is sufficiently empowered, they are quite capable. Empowered community has three characteristics. First, sense of belongingness. With this they manage the community based development project. And the third is self-financing of community based project. Therefore in the WSLIC-1 and WSLIC-2 the philosophy is village action plan. These characteristics do not strictly apply for community but also for NGO. Non government organization must begave properly and prevent from talking without sufficient knowledge of what is being talked about. We hope NGO is sincere in helping the community into motion. Thus the community can be empowered, there are two keys to do it. First, no one should be telling lies among us, tell everything the truth. Second, community empowerment must be an open effort, do it through building concience. Do not tell anyone what to do. But, because we are quite used to project approach, we become impatient. We want to get an instant result. Whereas, with

the instant process the visible result is just a superficial image that is without depth, and lack of sense of belongingness because the community is not involved. The community as user must be made to understand that imppoper treatment to water and environmental is detrimental to health and will be harmfull to the community itself. There there is need for active participation of the community in the developemnt of the facility, Therefore the philosophy of 20 percent contribution, 16 percent in kind and 4 percent in cash, is quite correct. And more importantly is to plnat within everyone's mind that the responsibiliy for environmental protection is not solely imposed on the government shoulders. The mistake is perhaps, we used to act as Sinterklaas, we are being welcome each each time we come, presented with gifts, and so, forth without invoving the community. Afterwarsds when the facility brokedown and turned to rubbles, the community does not care. That is the project we may call a night fair project. There are three important factors

influencing community participation, first is decision making, second implementation and management of the project. Third, financial contribution. These all represent empowerment, the willingness to open his wallet. For this matter, several community empowerment approaches have been developed such as demand responsiveness approach (DRA), Methodology for Parcipatory Assessments-Parcipatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (MPA/PHAST), Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), revolving fund, et cetera. Community habit towards health norm must be improved. This is important because of its relationship with community life in general. As an example, quoting the result of concducted by WSP recently, that with a good drinking water supply diarrhoea prevalence will be reduced by 15-20 percent, using a relatively acceptable sanitation facility reduces 30-50 percent, and wshing hands woith soap reduces 42-47 percent. If we sum up all the measures it is possible that 99 percent of diacchoea could be prevented. The remainder of the diarrhoea case



December 2005


may occur through food intolerance such as lactose, and not from microbial contamination. What could we expect the private sector to do? The private must not stay cool and get active only when profit is there. Actually the profit the get is manufactured from the community buying power, the community health. The community can work and be productive. Therefore, part of the profit must be channeled back to the community through community development. Private sector is a component that must be involved in the development process through investment in public service facility and setting aside part of the profit to be invested for improvement of social service improvement. Community development fund that is generally budgeted especially by big coorporation to be invested for social service facility for the surrounding community. When the community is welathier, moere productive and healthier, the company will sustain. At leasdt there are four benefits that can be obtained for a coorporation when investing part of profit for social service facility, first, improving the community appreciation on cooprate fuction and corporate community development programmes; second, creation of social harmony with the community esecially the one surrounding the community; third, lessening harmful effect to the surrounding community such as environmental pollution. Socal excesses, and so on, and finally, helps in social economic empowerment of the surrounding community and the company fuction as well. Private companies should be committed and assume the responsibility to develop the community. Provision of fund for community development not only to be conducted by big companies only but also by all private and public companies operating in Indonesia. For

this case a policy containing role and responsibilty should be formulated. The philosophy is equity, widespread service to all. The key is cross sectoral coordination, putting the priority to preventive promotive measure, application of appropriate technolgy and involving the community

agents of change. The key is mothers' education. Besides, health education should be actually be part of children's education since the early age. The School Health Unit become the key. And many informal institution thatt can be used as community health educaton forum. The community health education should be based on primary health care. Thus we start from household level, then moves wider to the community level. Then the Puskesmas starts as the reference centre. The next stage is kabupaten level hospital. If this stategy is strengthened our community health is better. No need to overly sophisticated, starts with primary health care. The philosophy is equity, widespread service to all. The key is cross sectoral coordination, putting the priority to preventive promotive measure, application of appropriate technolgy and involving the community. Some regional governments do not care about health and hygiene development, how could this have happened? I can't put the blame on them. Perharps our advocacy isn't good enough for them especially in matters concerning health development programme. Perhaps we have to speak in health economic, you invest 1 dollar later you will harvest 10 dollars. If you have endemic malaria in your territory, you will lose so much money, productivity decreases. If some people get diarrhoea, unable to work and cannot go to school, you will lose some billions a year. So if you allocate a certain amount of a budget, you will harvest such and such amount. We have to be able to do advocacy in that manner. Up to now, our colleagues in the Dept of Health are quite comfortable of using health technical terms which are understandable only among themselves. Thus our own people in the Dept of Helath that first need improvement. (MJ)

You said earlier that the community still lacks awareness. What are the influencing factors? I don't want to get trapped into blaming the community. The blame is on all of us. The task of the government is to educate the people, and that is the mandate stipulated in the Constitution 1945 Preamble. Therefore education, formal or infoermal, is deemed necessary. I have worked out what the so-called composit index of Human Development Index (HDI). Hosewives who at least junior high school graduates have their families in relatively good health condition. If they are of senior high school of higher they can absorb information and change of behaviou can take place easier because they are


December 2005



A Story from Lonuo, Gorontalo

Faithfully In Service for Eight Years

he village of Lonuo has a monumental story about community based WSS development comparable to Dembe I which the Governor of Gorontalo, Ir. Fadel Muhammad, announced as the community based WSS development model for the whole province. The gravitational water supply system of Lonuo was developed in 1996/7 through the Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Project. In 1998 Lonuo village won a national first prize in water supply service management from the Department of Home Affairs and the presentation was made in Yogyakarta. The following year when the World Bank conducted an assessment using Participatory Learning and Action Plan (PLA) methodology in 4 villages of Gorontalo: Lamu, Talumelito, Longalo, and Lonuo, again Lonuo was won a honourbale mention. The villages of Lonuo and Longalo were made as model and documented electronically and distributed n CD format to various developing nations by Water and Sanitation for East Asia and the Pacific (WSP-EAP, a division of the World Bank). This electronic document describes the importance of community involvement regardless of rich or poor, old or young, male or female in decision making of development implementation in order to have a sustainable and effective facility. At the time when the World Bank made the, all the WSS systems in 4 villages were in their prime condition physically, institutionally, financial administration, technical personnel, regularity of service, and so on. On can say that that was the model of WSS development that was in compliance

By: Isman Uge* and Alma Arif**

with the National Policy. As it progresses though the facility is functioning well up to now, there is a momen of low tide that worths contemplating. This report will try to reveal the facts. History of the past In the past the population of Lonuo, as is the case with villages in recurrent water shortage, was always busy with water taking routines. Time allocated to water taking was so much that put aside the more productive activity. They used to take water from shallow wells dug along riverbanks. Since the wells are far away from their dwellings the water taking routine took a lot of time and energy. As a result, the Lonuo population were shackled by poverty.

The situation was worsened with the fact that they could not improve themselves into hygienic life. Defecating in the open with all of its consequences is a common phenomenon. They used to practise defecating in a system they called "rotating closet". As one is defecating and someone else is seen to pass nearby, he would rotate his position to conceal his embarassment, or he would rotate around a tree to conceal himself. This practise was common in the past, producing human excrement scattering all over the place, and naturally cases water borne diseases were also quite common with the population. Diseases such as infammation of the upper respiratory tract, skin disease, eye irritation, cholera, etc develop in close connection with poor water quality used for maintaining life and hygienic condition. It was not unusual if Lonuo population periodically would be contamiSOURCE:ALMA ARIEF



December 2005


nated with "come and go" disease, ie. if it comes to someone he would certainly die (go to the eternity). Improved Welfare The community has made an impressive increase in welfare condition after the construction of the water system. There is a systemic linkage between the water service satisfaction level with community welfare improvement. Since the community has had an easy access to water supply their health condition gradually improves. The disease they nicknamed "comes departs" disappeared by itself. This is of course related to the hygiene behaviour. Because water is easily obtainable, they could buil toilets, and could clean it better and regularly after bathing or defecating. Besides, along with better health and more time allocated for productive activities the economic condition also improves. The people, especially women could have new activities such weaving mats to earn additionl income for their family. And men could spend more time tending their gardens. And schoolchildren are never late to school any more because they are no longer burdened with water taking job before goin to school. There are many other changes brought in by the water supply facility. Management and Its Constraint When an assessment was made in 1999 the Lonuo water supply system was in its prime condition. The management unit was undoubtedly functioning well. The Unit was chaired by a woman named Satria Kyai. A Management Group (MG) is a team consisting of The assessment revealed that user contribution was collected by the MG chairman was running smoothly and was recorded accordingly. Technical control was conducted regularly, in case of breakdown the LPMD trained technical team would readily take care it. It can be said that the management unit has made some improvement. When in the beginning there were 14


The situation was worsened with the fact that they could not improve themselves into hygienic life. Defecating in the open with all of its consequences is a common phenomenon. They used to practise defecating in a system they called "rotating closet". As one is defecating and someone else is seen to pass nearby, he would rotate his position to conceal his embarassment, or he would rotate around a tree to conceal himself.
public taps and 6 hydrants serving the Lonuo population, later all the public taps and hydrints were not functioning any more (this was the basic information that came to the authors that the Lonuo water facility was in disarray). The disfunctioning was was true but not because they were damaged, but because the service has developed into home connections. Except for three hamlets located too far uphill, now all households of Lonuo had access to water supply service. 184 households of Lonuo village and 8 families from Tamboo (neighbouring village) had the service. Only during the height of dry season, as is generally the case for similar service elsewhere, water supply is grossly reduced. At such time the families had to open their taps during the night and collect water into a reservoir or pails for use during the day. The smooth system was disrupted in year 2000, when election of village headman was to take place. One thing that was not anticipated came as a negative feedback. This was because of of the candidates, in his effort to gain support from the community, promised them to abolish water contribution, which in reality was not much, only Rp1.000/month/household. This became a bad precedent, because the community turn agaionst the regulation and refuse to pay the contribution. Since 200 up to now the management unit has beeen inactive. Worse still, one of the active members of the unit is now deceased. Satri Kyai explained further that a meeting was to be held soon, to elect new officers. Since the turning away of the popu-


December 2005


lation from the regulation there were frequent harmful incidences happening. In 2002 some members of the neighbouring village bored holes to the conveyance without the consent of the management. When they were reminded of their misconduct they reported to the police. In defense, the management reported them back to the police for water theft. Finally they were datined and had to deal with the police for their misconduct. Besides, realizing that there have been too many violations

against regulations, there are families who even dare to build a pond! Because the contibution system does not work anymore, in case of breakdown such as broken pipe, worn out taps, and so on, the village headman tells the community to contribute and work together to repair the damage. So far, however, this has been effective to deal with minor damages, never a major one. This condition will become more and more uncontrollable, unless a functioning management unit is reninstated.

During the last year, with government involvement the Lonuo management unit has been made to take part in water supply discussions, a new spirit is beginning to develop to reactivate the management unit through reelection of officers and reinstating all the existing system and regulation. Lastly, there is even an idea to copy the system from Dembe I village by collecting contribution commensurate with the amount of water use measured by water meter. This idea, however, does not have the consent from the regional government. According to Satria Kyai, the government argues: "collection of contribution must be done pursuant to a Government Regulation". Lessons learned There are several lessons learned from the Lonuo experience, they are: 1. There are unforeseeable factors (sociocultural aspect) that play influential role in the sustainability of the service. 2. Water service management institution plays a very important role in the sustainability of a water service. 3. A strong water service management would be capable of overcoming the factors that may adversely affect sustainability. 4. At the time when management is getting weaker the sustainability is being threatened. 5. Management unit and some of Lonuo community members still believe in the importance of management unit and a good management system for the sustainability of the service. 6. There is still willingness to reactivate the contribution system commensurate with the amount of consumption using water meter. 7. The government is in a crossroad between upholding of a regulation and sustainability and community self-reliance. 8. Several of Lonuo problems can be resolved through a meeting among all the community members to find solution through common agreement.


Desember 2005


Local Wisdom in Water Source Conservation

Learning from Indegeneous Community and Krama Subak in Bali
very year a certain area size of land in Bali is converted to non agricultural purposes such as villa, restaurant, mall, hotel, golf course, residential houses, and other tourism service centre. Within ten year (1990-2000) the rate of conversion was 1000 ha per annum for the whole island of Bali. Today what is left is 86.082 ha of wat rice field, and 476.450 ha of non rice field (including housing areas), and other types of land such as marshland and fishpond at 886 hectares. The diminishing of agricultural land in Bali is not a simple matter and many of farmers have no land and are jobless as the case in many places on Java. The missing agricultural lands will lead to burying of a large portion of Balinese life. This is indeed frightening, because agricultural land, for Balinese, carries a cultural symbol of water spring (tirtha amertha). There is a legal relationship among man, land and water in the Balinese traditional law based on the basic concept of everything comes in pairs. Based on this concept, a Balinese is inseparable from land for reasons: (i) land is where his family and the community live; (ii) it serves as life sustaining resource, especially in producing water which is the main symbol in the process of creation (brahman); the place where man dies and be buried; (iv) believed as the residing place of the world guardian gods and the place where the souls of the ancestors reside (Ter Haar, 1991). The complexity of magical religious

By: I Gede Arya Sunantara

thinking has given birth to traditional law comprising of right and responsibility relationship and is always prevailing within the Balinese community. However, along with the modernization and wrapped in deceitfull term "development" made popular for the first time by Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana, the conscience about the relationship

Similarly with the concience about the living link between man and water is being left behind after the changing of community habit into more consumptive and put more value to easy way of earning money.
between the community and land is decreasing. Similarly with the concience about the living link between man and water is being left behind after the changing of community habit into more consumptive and put more value to easy way of earning money. The changes has made land owner converts his land to housing lot or other building, and they work in restaurant or hotel on the very land used to be their own. The cermony in honour of land and water is becoming a mere rite and symbol and no more as a manifestation of devotion to the land.

Conversion of Subak to Tourism Subak is one of social institution and represent a farmers' organization that serves to regulate irrigation water in wetland farming -- its autonomus character in water regulation is one that makes it different from water users' association in Java. More unique that is, inspite of its freedom from routine coordination with the Public Works especially with the Irrigation Section, Subak maintains a continuing relationship with extra Subak institution, namely sedahan and agricultural extension service. Sedahan is closely linked with tax office, and also serves as coordinator in tax collection of several subaks (sedahan agung), agricultural exension workers who act as source of agricutural information. This is like a subak with two hands, one hand is making connection with sedahan and the other hand with agricultural exension worker. But in connection with water, subaks are entirely independent, they seem to inherit water management expertise from their ancestors. Similarly is with subak existence as religious social organization with unique values, thus it attracts tourists and researchers visit and conduct research in Bali. Therefore one can say that subak serves as one of tourism asset of Bali. Beside managing water use into three functions of adat community, namely (i) religious function; (ii) socal function; (iii) economic function, subak also serves maintains the so-called the sacred functions of the rice field, they are (i) there is scenic beauty in ri-


December 2005


ce field filed (rice terrace); there is ritual activity in the rice field; and there is a culturral attraction in the rice filed. The three functions of water ie. religious, social and economic when combined with the three sacred functions of rice field, ie. scenic beauty, religious activity and cultural attraction, makes all of it a unique attraction to the tourists. If the attraction deteriorates then unconciously the exquisite Bali tourism will fade away. Therefore, it is deemed important to maintain subak and maintain its developemtn. Subak activity can be divided into two categories, the first is religious and non-religious acivity. Religious related activity consists of preparation of gifts and offerings, praying at subak temple or other water related temple, and repair of praying facility in subak. Praying ceremony in subaks isi conducted on specific days. Besides, there are several other days for preparation of offerings that are closely related to activities in the rice field, such as mapag toya ceremony (a ceremony to welcome water arrival). Other activities consist of ngewiwit bulih (preparation of rice seedlings), nandur (rice planting) ceremony, a ceremony when rice plants reach 12 days old up to thanksgiving when harvesting the crop. Sometimes a ceremony is conducted communally in a subak temple, sometimes individually in one own's field. The praying facility may be made of simple materals or of permanent concrete, at which time every subak krama (member) comes in long line to one's own rice field on the day decided during the subak meeting (pauman). Non religious related activity consist of repair of irrigation and drainage canals, diversion structure (temuku), improvement of subak roads, insect control measures, and others that are elated to productivity improvement. Water division is also contrpolled re-

gularly. Subak member takes turn in doing the water supervision from water source down to temuku, the diversion where each of the members gets his water. In case of minor breakdown es[ecially if disrupt water flow, repairwork will be done immediately. Attention to subak becomes so important especially as it relates to maintaining the physical (ecological) aspect of the subak which according Tri Hita Karana is called as land element (land/rice field and water) so that it could spread into and effort to maintain subak members' social sub-system and spiritual parhyangan aspect. Since subak membership is open to religious follower, there members who are Hindus, Muslims or Christians. However, subak activities are based on Hindu religion because the majority of Balinese are Hindus. Muslim and Christian members of Subak have to pay all the contribution for subak activities. But they have to pray in accordance to their own religion, the Muslims in a mosque and the Chrintians in a church. Religious difference does not make any problem in subak membership. Therefore if subak institution is dispersed the

next stake will be Bedugul and Ulun Suwi, the temples of subak members as life guiding symbol of Balinese will also deteriorate. Subak Dereligiousity Equals Water Desacralization With the growing awareness of the importance of religion, in this case Hinduism, in environmental protection especially that of water resources, through the continuity of subak, the Balinese community and regional government are not entirely free from "institutional way of thinking". Whereas according to Hindu rationalism when looking into and evaluating of subak religiousity and water sacralism is not limited to rites in narrow senjse of the meaning, in actuality it includes integration of moral valuation and religious constructive symbols, in other words it includes ritual forms in wide sense of the meaning so that diacronically summarized and identified from the periphery down to the essential details or related to tattwa. In terms of relationship with moral valuation when looking into subak religiousity and water sacralism, Bali Hin-


December 2005


du community is faced with sacred structure (luanan), thus it must be kept away from profanities (tebenan). The continuum of luan - teben relationship must be definitely separated, though philosophically both must be considered as pairs, especially to create power source or bayu. Thus the using of moral valuation sysmbols in assessing rubal religiousity and water sacralism the entire Balinese community -- whether he is a Hidu follower (krama adat) or the non Hindu migrants (krama tamiu) -must understand the position of subak and water in order to to prevent from possible violation that may lead to impurification (leteh), so the rwa bhineda concept which contradits purity or sacred concept and polluted or leteh concept could be maintained accordingly. While in terms of its connection with constructive symbols as it relates to subak religiousity and water sacralism valuation, in Hiduism we have difference is position, colour and staged relious structure, which will delegates differences in authority, power, priethood and structured religious when defining su-

The element of water in Hiduism is considered as a means for purification, welfare bringing, and life current that one must wade into the true happiness (Titib, 2001).
bak religiousity and water sacralism. In principle, water from a spring is in Hindu religion considered as one of the prerequisites (tirtha for paratirthan) in the Panca Yadna ritual, routine (nityakala) or incidental (naimitikakala). The element of water in Hiduism is considered as a means for purification, welfare bringing, and life current that one must wade into the true happiness (Titib, 2001). Therefore in observing the shifting pattern in the abovemetioned subak demand and water availability within the growing irrationality and hypermoralistic on deistic, humanity, and development values, eventally whether one wants it or not - conscious-

ly or not, will result in an ever growing environmental fluctuation. In short, an elimination of subak and the growing water scarcity issues all over the island Bali lately, is not simply a by-product of a horizontal process, this case must be looked upon as a built-in element of a vertical relationship disharmony. Towards Tradition Transformation Though not all of the local community tarditions contain environmentally sensitive values, subak existence is unquestionable, at least for the Balinese. Therefore the effort to engineer the community tradition in the pretext of modernization is never a wise choice. What is needed is actually is a more concise and simpler effort, that is understanding each tradition and adat of each locality, empowerment of each of them, and make cultural transformation internally. The cultural transformation is intended to instill a process for the creation of a profoundly new and better structural relationship. The local community cultural and traditional transformation makes it possible for us to maintain and more importantly remain owning the cultural and traditional plurality itself, and provides us room to create their own history. In essence, traditional and cultural transformation within an adat community should always consider empowerment, guarantee and respecting self identication and prevention of monocultural development. These are the real challenges for the adat community as well as for all of us, to look at the religiousity of subak and sacrality of water in the Balinese community. The world always says that Bali and its tradition and culture will remain the morning of the world as Nehru says, or as the paradise island as the novelist Hickman Powell says.
*Master Degree of AN-Fisipol UGM and MPRK UGM. Water security problem observer. Live in Yogyakarta.


December 2005



World Water Monitoring Day

Building Awareness since Early Age


endi and Gunadi are seriously observing water sample they just took from Lake Cibubur. Several indicators were added to the water container. "30 degrees Celcius," said Rendi. "Try once again," said Gunadi who wanted to confirm the reading. Not far from the two of crouched their classmates from SMP (Junior High School) 233 Jakarta, 40 pupils in total, were doing the same thing. They were measuring the quality of water from the lake. The indicators are water temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and pH. "This is a new experience for us, we can learn form here about water biotic, content, temperature, and so on," said Rendi who ranks second best in his class. "Yes, new experience. At school it is mostly theoretical, practice is lacking," added Gunadi. And besides, the two said that they got a new lesson about how to economize and protect water source. "It is not wise to wash a bicycle by drenching with pails of water. When taking a bath, better use a douche. Do not dispose garbage, excrement, used oil unscropulously all over the place," said Rendi who added that water is not merely for the present generation but also for the generations to come. New idea was also revealed by Marshanda, TV star, who was present as a guest star. "How I am so happy. My knowledge has increased. I heartily support this kind of programme specially dedicated to children. The more frequent the stronger care implanted within the children's mind," she said. She admitted that she didn't know much

about water quality. Before this I never had any idea what a water quality measurement is all about. It is simpler than I thought, isn't it," she said. The water quality mesuring event lasted for almost half a day. The event was held as part of World Water Monitoring Day commemoration. The commemoration day itself was on 12 October. "This is part of a series of the commemoration events," said Job Supangkat from FORKAMI (Indonesia Drinking Water Communication Forum). The activities consisted of water quality measurement in several locations, drawing competition by 30 pupils of 20 primary schools in Jakarta, and visit to water treatment plant. This event was organized by FORKAMI in cooperation

with Thames Pam Jaya (TPJ), and PASM Lyionnaise Jaya (Palyja). Job explained that the theme of the commemoration is "Safe Our Water". There are two targets to be reached from this commemoration, namely behavioural change manifested in economizing water use and stop pollution. "The essence is, treat water in a responsible manner," He said firmly. For this effort the children and youth were targeted as agent of development. The assumption is children are more sensitive to changesw and are able to influence their parents. "Therefore since early on, primary school, junior high they are invited to the event to make them realized the importance of resources protection, said Abdullah Mutha-



December 2005


lib, FORKAMI Chairman. According to Abdullah, although water is a renewable resource, but because of the big investment involved to recover its availability and quality, has made water as a resource in limted quantity. For this purpose, he said further, water resources protection must be done by all including children, the community, water related proffesionals, private sector, NGO, and the government. "Through this World Water Monitoring Day commemoration we wish to sprinkle common awareness to the importance of water source protection and to work together to improve the availability and quality of our water source for our life of today and the forthcoming generations," he said. Devy A Yheane, Public Relations Manager of TPJ, says that her company has endeavoured to conduct schoolchildren education and groundwater protection campaign. "We have issued a CD Rom containing educational module. The content is neutral and can be used by anyone," said Devy. Januar, SMP 233 teacher, said that this kind of programme is quite useful for his pupils. According to him, at school the children receive more theories and less practice. "The subject on water resources is actually included in discussion about ecosystem. But how to measure water quality, this has never been done in our lab," he said. In similar tone, Yanti, a teacher of Budi Wanita Primary School of Jakarta Selatan hailed enthusastically the learning programme provided in the World Water Monitoring Day commemoration. According to her, beside to the pupils the result is also positively influenced the accompanying teachers. "It is an excellent programme. Personally, here I learned that chlorine kills E. coli bacteria. What has been explained when we visited the water treatment palnt is quite educative to the children'" she said enthusiastically. However, Yanti was wondering why this kind of programme does not seem to involve the govern-

ment elements, especially tose related to education. Why is it that only NGO and the private sector that care? Therefore she calls that in the future the encouragement of water resources care related activity should involve every segments of the population. "This kind of activity must continue. Wherever possible this is to involve a bigger number of schoolchildren. And not only limited to competition, but real education to the young people," she said. Job is agree with the educators. According to him, this event is just the beginning. In Indonesia the commemoration of World Water Monitoring Day has only been conducted in the last two years. "We are not going to stop up to here. What we have done will be sustained but at larger scope. Of course it will be done phase by phase," he explained.

He added further that beside schoolchildren, campaign to build care to water resources has also been directed to the community. Together with Palyja and TPJ Forkami has worked out an awareness education to water supply suscribers of Jakarta. Also the organization is conducting a radio talk show every third week every month. The response is quite positive. It turns out they care and are eager to know better about water resources related issues, drinking water in particular," Job concluded. One this certain, that qwater quality education is absolutely necessary for every one. And for that prupose, all stakeholders are compelled to care about it. The wayto do it is by taking part in every activity that leads to water rsources protection. Do not wait until a disaster to happen. Such as Rendi said, "Without water our life will be in danger." mujiyanto

Artist and Environmental Special Envoy

Still Short of Care

perhaps, the care is not concrete. It needs a deeper insight to translate the care into real life. The habit of disposing garbage into the river, for instance. I think they already know that this practise in immoral. But is it immoral? If we could tell them in a way that makes sense and nicely, it would not be too difficult to undo the habit. In simple

f we look at the community, I have a feeling that it sufficiently cares. But,

term, if the river is clean, we can pay less for water contribution because water treatment costs less money. Isn't it so? (MJ)


Desember 2005



WSLIC 2 of Jambearjo, Malang

Rural Connection, Urban Management

egional Water Company (PDAM) service is way off from the village of Jambearjo, Kecamatan Tajinan, Kabupaten Malang. But, in every home a PDAM standard water meter is well fixed. How come? This is because of Water Supply for Low Income Communities Phase 2 (WSLIC 2) project implemented in the village. Previously, in the village that is located 18 km south of the city of Malang the inhabitants had to take water from Kali Manten, a small river running in the south part of the village, and water spring located in valley 30 m deep. This spring was the main drinking water source for the villagers. There were also several water wells, only a few of them and they are so deep. "On average well here is 24 m deep. Even if you dig a well there is no assurance that you dig at the right point to get water," says Abdullah, Jambearjo village headman. It is no wonder, several water born diseases, especially diarrhoea commonly visit to the village with 3.734 population (910 households). The inhabitants wasted a lot of time to carry water from the river of the valley. "On average 1-1,5 hours were spent daily," says Abdullah again. Water is carried on the shoulders. Drs. Imam Nawawi, Chairman of the Water Supply Management Team (WSMT) described that the above condition have made the inhabitants defecated anywhere around the house or in the river. "Most of us here are poor," he said. On the other side, there is a water source and with discharge of 30 l/sec it might be enough to supply the whole population. It is called Sumber Apak and is located far away at the end of the


valley. The community was not able to build a facility to lift the water and distributed it among the population. Up to a certain extent the people were helpless and could not do anything. Join WSLIC Project It was like a dream come true. The population's dream to have clean water service was facilitated. Thanks to the introduction of WSLIC project. The community was trying to look for information how they could join the project. It turned out that several requiremenntys must be fulfilled. Under the spirit of communal work they started with fund raising, because one of the requirements is willingness to contribute in cash and in kind. Through a village meeting attended by more than 300 inhabitants, it was then the amount of contribution be determined. There were four contribution categories, group A the very poor the contribution is Rp5.000, group B

the poor at Rp10.000, group C the medium Rp 15.000 and group D the rich at Rp20-25.000. The fund is collected in each RT, there are two of them one in hamlet Jambearjo and the other at hamlet Karangjambe. The total fund collect amounted to Rp 8 million. Before that the inhabitants have made village meeting attended also by hundreds of prople about management of the project. Furteen people were elected by the community to act as Community Facilitator Team (CFT). This team then developed the community workplan (CWP) and established two implementation units: technical implementation unit (TIU) and special implementation unit (SIU). It was the beginning of WSLIC project in Jamberarjo. The central government development fund amounted to Rp 144 million, and kabupaten counterpart budget Rp 16 million, and community contribution Rp 8 million. In kind community participation was provided



December 2005

in the form of labour, once a week for everyone. "It took almost two months of contruction and unpaid labour", said Imam. The project started with construction of a reservoir at Sumber Apak spring. It consists of a 2 m diam. concrete cylindrical structure planted 4 m deep into the ground. An electrical panel house was constructed 5 m from the reservoir and a water collector 6x6 m2 base and 2 m high capable of holding 50 m3 of water. This collector is placed at a height at the end of the village. Water is lifted from the reservior with a 12KW electric pump at a discharge capacity of 3 l/sec. The pump is mounted at top of the revervior. Pipe network to bring water to the consumers is 9.050 m. Together with the water supply the CFT initiated rolling fund toilet development programme, training for community health cadres, schoolchildren and teachers; contruction washbasins and canteen improvement in schools, The project that styarted in May 2004 was completed in May 2005. This means the job of CFT is completed. To run O&M the community conducted a villege meeting and elected from among themselves the candidates of Water Supply Management Team (WSMT). The personnel consist of ex CFT members, total personnel 7. Post Project Immediately after establishment the community elected Water Supply Management Team (WSMT) started with its job. The first thing to do was installing the home connections. "We install water meter in order to be fair. Who uses less pays less, who uses more pays more, says Imam. WSMT fixed home connection fee at Rp 250.000. Today this fee was increased to Rp 300.000 after the increase in fuel price that influences the raise in price of construction materials. And water use subscription is fixed at

re in case of breakdown," he explained. Besides, the contribution is set aside for honorarium of the Management eam. Perviously when they were membeber of community facilitators, they did get any honorarium at all. WSMT meets monthly on the 12th of each month. Ths isntitution exercise open magement system and transparent financial recording so that fiancial accountability is well maintained. Depreciation of asset is also made fot repalcement in the future. Direct Impact Abdullah, the vilage headman revealed that with the availability of clear water supply the number of household toilets in the village increased considerably. Before WSLIC there were 310 toilets in the village, now the total is 733. Diarrhoea incidence has remarkably decreased. And water supply has stimulated construction of new dwellings. From 910 now it has become 968 dwelling houses. A new housing complex is under construction. Beside that, according to Abdullah, there is a decrease in cost for water for a fiesta. "Previously in family fiesta gathering, a family had to spend Rp200.000 for water. It is now only Rp13.000," he said. The community is happy with this project. "It is more comfortable now. We don't have to go to the spring for a pail of water," said Bagilin, weho used to climbed down the valey and carried pails of water for his family. Apparently the community of the neighbouring village of Bululawang, Kecamatan Bululawang was filing a request asking for water service connection. The Management Team was ready to do the connection. At a different contribution rate, of course. Is anyone of us willing to learn to Jambearjo? mujiyanto

Immediately after establishment the community elected Water Supply Management Team (WSMT) started with its job. The first thing to do was installing the home connections.

Rp 750 per m3. Presently there are 609 home connections in all. The community pays the contribution dutifully. They come by themselves to the WSMT payment counter. So far there has been no delinquency. In November the income was recorded at Rp 6 million and the expenditure at Rp 4 million. There is an increase in income every month. The money collected from users' contribution is use for expansion of the network and pump replacement. Some time ago, a new 6 l cap/sec pump is installed as replacement of the old one. "Now we have two pumps. One as a spa-


December 2005



Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS)

Behavioural Change Without Subsidy

essimistic. That was the impression that was visible when Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) programme was first introduced to Indonesia. Many were doubtful if the community would be willing on its own do away the habit of defecating in the open without any government incentive. But now the pessimism was proven otherwise after the programme was put into field trial in six kabupatens, ie. Lumajang (Jawa Timur), Sambas (Kalimantan Barat), Muara Enim (Sumatra Selatan), Muaro Jambi (Jambi), Sumbawa (NTB), and Bogor (Jawa Barat). The whole activity was started in Lumajang in May 2005, followed by other kabupatens in June. The outcome was surprising. Within one to three months, the community triggered by this programme, except in kabupaten Bogor, made an obvious change. They were beginning to do away with the habit of defecating in the open, such as along river banks, gandens, or bushes. It their own conscience they build a toilet according to their financial capacity. The success does not end there but continues to expand to the surrounding villages. In Sambas, the Bupati has even announced that the program will be replicated throughout the region. Kamal Kar, the expert who formulated the concept, in a CLTS workshop in Jakarta on 28-30 November stated that Indonesian achievement has been excellent. Within 6 months it was capable of changing at least 3.500 people from the habit of defecating in the open.

Kamal Kar, the expert who formulated the concept, in a CLTS workshop in Jakarta on 28-30 November stated that Indonesian achievement has been excellent

CLTS programme was first implemented in Bangladesh in 2000. Now the programme has spread to 8 nations including Indonesia. In each nation there is always specific lessons learned to improve the process. Kamal describes that in Bangladesh there is constraint i.e intoduction of subsidy from the government that adversely affect the success of the programme. Besides, target becomes the aim rather than process. Therefore, Kamal stresses that the success of CLTS programme must be supported with the change of government attitude. In this case the government must avoid providing subsidy. Besides, CLTS needs a good many facilitators to trigger the community. Oswar Mungkasa of the Directorate of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas also stresses the most important element of CLTS programme is the

process of change, not target or freedom from defecating in the open declaration. Several basic principles, community characteristics, factors that stimulate success must be identified and improved. What should be done in CLTS 1. Well planned triggering (through introduction, participatory discussion/analysis, transect walk, triggering and motivation); 2. Understanding that CLTS is not a project, it is an approach. 3. Learning together (not an extension process). 4. Continuing triggering process to excite the feeling of embarrasment, nausea, prestige, using the type of language common to the community. 5. Intensive facilitation in monitoring. 6. Facilitator capacity development. 7. Identification and development of new facilitators (who are ready to use, persevering, and highly committed) and community facilitator team. 8. CLTS implementation in areas where there is no project. 9. Support to establish community selfreliance movement (through communal activity, adat leader, religious leader, etc.). 10. Freedom to initiate. 11. Appreciation/commend to individuals, group who are willing to make a change. 12. Provide recommendation/opinion when asked. 13. Creating natural leader and invite him to see other places (comparative study).



December 2005


14. Facilitate collaboration with third party. 15. Declaration once an area is free from defecation in the open. 16. Elimination of gap within the community. 17. Support development to the surrounding villages. 18. Staged socialization process to the stakeholders. 19. Cross sectoral common commitment (involvement of all related sectors). 20. Influence from the suppressed group (women, children, old people). 21. Filtration and decomposition. What may not be done No to subsidy in any form. Acting like a teacher/instructor. Making arrangement for others. Issuing instruction. Forcing one to do, including construction a WC and decide on its model. 6. Promise a reward. 7. Bringing project mission. 8. Distinguishing community classification. 9. Showing position identity. 10. Implementing CLTS in a locataion where a different/contradictory approach is being applied. The above principles do not necessarily be completely fulfilled. At least, if the majority is fulfilled a successful CLTS programme is not a dream. Keeping the above principles firmly the programme can be expanded more extensively in Indonesia. This is exactly what we have been doing. On a village already freed from defecating in the open there is a common agreement among ourselves that following items have taken place: - high potential in community participation and communal work; - no more WC construction along the riverbanks; - the individual community members have built a toilet on land; - no more stenching odour around the dwellings; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.


the role of facilitator, natural leader, community figure, and government employees are quite prominent. Without a harmonious collaboration among them, this programme is difficult to push through

- feel ambarrased when defecating in the open; - improved community health. What happened with kabupaten Bogor, based on analysis, was actually a combined consequence of several factors such as lack of triggering intensity and lack of facilitation (only once during the initiation). This condition made the triggered community slowly faded

again. And, it was found out that there was a "provocateur" who told them that CLTS included a subsidy for toilet construction. Apparently, not far from the trial location there was a similar project with stimulant subsidy. This clearly indicates that there is a policy discrepancy within this sector. From field observation it was found out that the role of facilitator, natural leader, community figure, and government employee are quite prominent. Without a harmonious collaboration among them, this programme is difficult to push through. This is important to consider because this programme is focussed on behavioural change, not on target achievement. What CLTS has achieved illustrates that the community is capable of changing its behaviour with its own conscience if it is sufficiently empowered. And the process is replicable for sector development other than defecating in the open. Thus, not only for digging excrement pit. Mujiyanto


December 2005



Segarau Parit Village

Local Wisdom Does Not Work

antai hamlet and Usaha hamlet of Segarau Parit Village, Kecamatan Tebas, Kabupaten Sambas, Kalimantan Barat are located at the mouth of Sambas River on the South China Sea. It takes 6 hours of travel from Pontianak, the provincial capital. From the kabupaten capital it is only half an hour ride. To reach the hamlets a visitor needs to cross by one kilometer inwidth of Sambas River in a ferry or sampan. The hamlets are about two kilometers from the jetty. Main job of these hamlets are agriculture, casual labour, and fishing. They are always in short of clean water supply. There is no drinkable water source available in this area. The abundant supply is the brackish river water. For daily consumption they use rainwater, which they collect in big pails or reservoirs made of concrete material. For bathing and washing, they use the always ready river water. Pantai hamlet is populated with 1.057 persons consisting of 175 families living in 174 dwellings. Before the Community-Led Total sanitation (CLTS) took place, none of families had a toilet. They defecate in the river, which is located near their houses. One can imagine how the river looks like. While the hamlet of Usaha is inhabited by 1.153 people (183) families living in 181 dwellings. Geographically this hamlet is farther thab Pantai hamlet from the river. It is not surprising that from the beginning there have been some toilets in the hamlet. There are 54 out of 181 dwellings. The rest are defecate used river or garden as their toilets. Actually, according to Rajiman Jufri, the village headman of Segarau Parit, there is already an local wisdom connected with hygiene. The rule says that

defecation in the open is an irrespectable manner, there should be no dirty water under clothes hanging line, do not bath in polluted water. But the rule seems to be regarded as moral suggestion and no one is paying any attention on it. On 1 July 2005, triggering was conducted at kabupaten level followed by field practise in the hamlet. The result was an agreement to build 156 units of toilets in Pantai hamlet and 60 units in Usaha hamlets. From there on the process was guided by tems of facilitators, at kabupaten, kecamatan and community levels. Rajiman explained that in Usaha hamlet the new toilet development process met with a little barrier. Thiss

because of limited manpower, because most of are migrant workers, and it was harvest time when all hands are concentrated in harvesting their crop. However, the difficulty could be overcome through communal work among the ciitizens. The community who were reluctant

in the beginning started to change and gradually built their toilets. Surianto, a citizen who was involved in this programme said that the community awareness grew gradually by itself following the triggrering. "We did not tell them or acted as a teacher. The community leaders were instrumental by inserting health development messages during religious gatherings," he said. And, some of the citizens we beginning to feel embarrased because their neghbours were beginning to build closet and were no longer defecating in the waterway. The citizens design their own toilets. Some use closet type, some others built it using oil funnel for bowl. Within one month the toilet construction was already done. The result was far away beyond the expectation. In the hamlet of Pantai, 154 unit planned, but was constructed 174 new toilets. This means all houses have had a toilet. In the village of Usaha 60 units were planned but the total constructions were 105. Not only that, there are 3 other hamlets of the Segarau Parit village were influenced. The villagers of the hamlets were beginning to leave behind the habit of defecating in the garden or ditches and start building toilets following a triggering process. This major change has made the Bupati of Sambas personally visited the village. He witnessed by himself the community declared freedom from defecating in the open. And sysmbolically he joined in pulling down and washing away of the riverbank toilets. "Now it is quite pleasant, clean, and children can run around without worry of stepping on human waste. Even at night we can defecate more comfortably," says Khairuman, a local villager. (MJ)



December 2005


The Hamlet of Sukamenanti, Muaro Pijoan Village

Builds Flying Toilets

he hamlet of Sukamenanti, Muaro Pijoan Village, Kecamatan Jambi Luar Kota is located not too far from the provincial capital. By road it is about half an hour ride. The hamlet is located about three kilometers from the main road and is built along the Batanghari riverbank. During high water season this hamlet is a flooded area. The hamlet is inhabited by 75 families living in stilt houses. From the whole inhabitants there was only one family i.e M. Yumi Nangsiah, the RW chairman, who had a toilet. The rest of the population went to a creek, one of Batanghari river tributaries, to defecate. "This habit that has been practised for generations," said Yumi. This was the condition that made this hamlet together with three others in Jambi were chosen as sites for Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) field trial. On 6 June 2005, the local community was triggered to dissuade defecating in the open. The result was a total denial. Lina, the community facilitator, revealed that the hamlet inhabitants strongly refused to leave behind the habit of defecating in the creek. The reason was they do not have clean water supply. At that time the community promised that they would build toilet once they have clean water supply. The denial was voiced by the local community figure. But the citizens who had attended the training process did not lose hope. The RW chairman together with five others who joined the training took the first initiative building a toilet for their own and with that hopefully the others would follow. Concurrently the RT chairman's wife persuaded 3 RT chairmen and convinced Marzuki, the hamlet headman who was formerly one of the programme opponents. The step gai-


ned support from local youth and religious leaders. Within a week all the barriers were lifted, and the citizens were now convinced. All this time, according to Yumi, the main hindering factors to toilet building are availability of clean water, the old habit of defecating in the open, and capacity to buy construction materials. "Many of them wanted to build a toilet, but they want it a good one, not just building for the sake of building," he said firmly. For this purpose he urged the villagers to work together, communally, both for toilet construction and for moulding specimen to make simple closet. The behaviour change process was also promoted by Lukman AS the village headman and Mrs. Habibah, wife of Camat of Jambi Luar Kota who frequently made a triggering visit to the community. Triggering was also conducted through cleanliness and toilet

competition among RTs. Within two months the Suamenanti hamlet has been entirely free from the habit of defecating in the open. Each member of the community chose the type of toilet he was able to build. But all is the water sealed type. No one knows who advised them but many of toilet built were the so-called flying type. A closet built one meter about the ground. This is to prevent inundation by floodwater that often calls in to the village. The villagers admitted that they did need to spend too much money for the toilet construction. On average each toilet only costs Rp 14.000. This is because sand is abundant in the hamlet. And besides, the camat (subdistrict chief) donated cement for massive closet production. Marzuki, hamlet headman of Sukamenanti confesses that he is very pleased that his hamlet is free from defecating in the open. Now the citizens have pleaded to burn down any river toilet built on the waterway. In reality above the waterway that leads to Batanghari River is now free from toilets. This is because on last 26 September there was a communal movement to wash away all the river toilets. This event was conducted by the Head of Health Agency of Kabupaten Muaro Jambi and was witnessed by the Bupati himself. Today, the local citizens have a desire to persuade the surrounding hamlets to do the same. "We want them to also free themselves from defecating in the open, otherwise their excrement will remain contaminating our place," says Yumi. However, we haven't had the courage to talk to them whithout the accompaniment from the government officials. The reason is, they look down on us," he concluded. (MJ)


December 2005



Babakan Lemah Duhur, Village of Cimande

Only to Dig a Latrine Pit

he hamlet of Lemah Duhur, Cimande Village, Kecamatan Caringin, Kabupaten Bogor is located on the hill southeast of the city of Bogor. By road it takes half an hour to reach the hamlet and geographically one can say that this is the city's outskirt. This hamlet is divided into two RTs i.e RT 16 and RT 17 with a total 78 households living in the area. Time went by. August 2005, change had hardly been seen. The community remained happy with themselves defecating in the ditches. This went on till November. Based on information collected, the community in RT 17 there were only three toilets out of 19 haouseholds, and 5 families dug new holes. And there were true holes, uncovered. Whikle in RT 16, 59 households 24 from had toilet. Nine families dug a hole, and a true hole. Muchtar Lintang, an official of Health Agency of Kabupaten Bogor, said that this condition is caused by less intensive triggering, including lack of facilitation support. This is also confirmed by Betty, the community facilitator. She said, she never visited the village because she was overextended because of activities in connection with another project. Moreover, the sanitarian who should be working with the community is now absent because of his tranfer to other locality. More over that, said Lintang further, there is a belief among the community -and it is confirmed by the village headman that there is a subsidy for toilet development. According to the citizens, the village headman told them that the citizens need to dig a hole, the rest will taken care of by the government. And the citizens' guess was supported with


Time went by. August 2005, change had hardly been seen. The community remained happy with themselves defecating in the ditches.

the stimulant subsidy provided to the community of the neighbouring village. This fact has made Kamal Kar, the CLTS expert, wondered and decided to see for himself what the hamlet looked like. The fact was undeniable. Finally, Kamal Kar with his shrewdness conducted retriggering. The citizins were invited to gather in front of the mosque. Kamal told them stories about successes made in Sambas and Jambi. He also stressed how bad the impact of

defecating in the open is to our health. Community response was not readily seen. Finally Kamal offered the community two alternatives; first persuade those who are already free from defecating in the open to take alook at still the old habit; the second, put the news about this hamlet in mss media. The community disliked any of the two. They opted to build a toilet. They declared that they would be free from defecating in the open by 24 Descember, one month after the triggering. Bimbin, the chairman of RT 17 promised to motivate his citizens. As an initial step, together with rest of the community he worked digging hole near the MCK to function as it should be the day after. "It is now functioning, however simple it may look like," he says. The others? Hopefully it would be a repetition of just digging excrement pit. (MJ)



December 2005


Questions can be submitted to Percik Magazine. Contributor: Lina Damayanti (, Dini Trisyanti (, Sandhi Eko Bramono.

This Clinic is colaboration Percik magazine and Indonesian Association of Sanitary and Environmental Engineers.

Wastewater from Bathing and Washing

Question: I'd appreciate it if you could advise me regarding treatnment of grey water (ex washing, bathing and kitchen activities). Is it adviseable to let flow into the septic tank?
Mawardi Adi Jl. Siaga Swadaya 17, Pasarminggu Jakarta Selatan

Answer: Domestic wastewater can be divided into two categories. The first category is wastewater from toilet/closet or human excrement and is also called "black water" characterised with high organic matter content, the treatment is through a pit well of septic tank, and if

available drained into a city sewer and finally treated at the city level Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP). The second category is domestic wastewater originating from bathroom, washing and kitchen activities; this category is also called "grey water" characterised with moderately high organic material and is usually mixed with soap or detergent. The non toilet wastewater should not be drained intoa septic tank because the residue from detergent may kill the bacteria that decompose organic materials in the septic tank, therefore grey water must be drained into a specific installation, called Wastewater Treat-

ment System (WTS), for non toilet domestic wastewater. Design Flow Direction Wastewater from bathroom/washing is drained to collector chamber. It passes first through a coarse waste (A) equipped with a scrren at its base, than the sand particles carried in the water will settle at the bottom of clooector C, while oil layer will float and is drained through wax catcher B, the water will pass through to a filter tank and on into PVC pipe in the middle of the tank, countinue to the lower part and out through a pebble and charcoal screen, the overflow will flow into outside drainage system.

collector/control chamber, Bak pengumpul/ kontrol dari pasangan batu bata 0,5x0,5x0,6 m3 brick structure 0,5x0,5x0,6 m3

A B Pipa PVC PVC connecting C

pipe 4 in. diam. coconut shell Arang batok kelapa 40 cm charcoal

Tutup Tangki Resapan terbuat dari beton 8 cm penghubung Dia. 4 inch

Concrete cover. 8 cm thick

A = Ruang penangkap sampah 1 cm2 grid ,saringan kawat kasa 1cm2 B = Ruang penangkap lemak B = wax/fat catcher C = Ruang pengumpul dan C = collector and penangkap pasir sand catcher

A = coarse material catcher,

Batu koral Pebbles, 2-4 diameter 2- cm 4cm, tebal 60 diam. 60 cm thick cm

PVC pipe 4 in. Pipa PVC dia. 4 diam. inc

Tangki Filter Up flow 1,2 x 1,2 x 1,8 m3 up flow filter tank 1,2x1,2x1,8 cm3 (terbuat dari: beton / batu kali,/batu bata)
(made of concrete/rock/brick)

Source: Appropriate Technology, PU R&D Cipta Karya


December 2005



Because water is so precious

(Note from WSS Working Group Study Visit to Australia)


ater is a precious resource. It is water that makes our earth unique, and life possible." Thus reads the welcome statement for Indonesian delegates visiting the Water Discovery Centre in Werribee, Australia. Because water is a precious resource and it is available in limited quantity Australia has a strong reason to apply the reclaimed (better known as recycled) water concept in water resource management. This note is scribbled from a study visit made by WSS Working Group and WASPOLA Secretariate to three Austalian cities: Adelaide, Melbourne and Sidney to take a look at water resource management with special attention to the application of reclaimed water concept. What is reclaimed water? What is the difference from recycled water? Reclaimed water is reuse of wastewater through a complete process in order to produce water quality equivalent to drinking water. While recycled water is reusing water without the necessity to produce a certain degree of quality. However the term recycled water is better known so that this term is generally used by reclaimed water consumers. The following water cycle diagram -obtained brom Reclaimed Water Development for Horticultureillustrates the recycled water and reclaimed water terminologies, and several of their uses.


Precipitation (rain) Transpiration Irrigation Potable Residential Industrial water Municipal WWTP Runoff Recycled WTP Evaporation

Sewage Reclaimed water

Percolation Ground water aquifer

The use of reclaimed water in Australia Australia is one of the countries that uses reclaimed water in large quantities, particular for irrigation, city landscape maintenance, ecosystem and environmental support (wetlands irrigation), and several domestic uses other than drinking water such as toilet flushing, watering garden plants, and so on. In

Water distribution is conducted in 2 different reticulation systems, red coloured pipe is for drinking water and purple coulred pipe for reclaimed water.



Desember 2005


the cities visited by WSS Working reclaimed water is supplied to newly developed housing area for domestic use through a reticulation system separate from drinking water. The effort in socializing reclaimed water is not limited to distibution to consumers but it is also complemented with educational and public campaign program. This is intended to build consumers confidence and to asssure of proper use. The use of reclaimed water is closely controlled by the responsible line agency and by EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), including water quality, operation and maintenance procedure of the reticulation system both at the utility company and at the consumer levels. Even for water for agricultural purpose of Werribee, a suburb of Melbourne, EPA puts it as a requirement for farmers to prepare a consumer site management plan to assure that water is used in the proper manner and in accordance with what it is intended for. Another effort to socialize reclaimed water is through tariff regulation. In all of the cities visited reclaimed water for domestic purposes is sold at a lower price than the drinking water, except Sidney where it is slightly higher than the drinking water. For irrigation, water price is a bit higher than for domestic purposes, but in general for all types of use the tariff is always lower than the production cost. Adelaide Adelaide is the capital city of South Australia with 1.1 million inhabitants. The whole population has had access to drinking water supply network and sewerage system. "We have no more problem regarding water supply and environmental sanitation infrastructure, but if we do not think it from now on in the future we might face difficulty in water resource availability", says one senior management of SA Water, South Australia government owned water supply and environemtal sanitation service

A fountain using reclaimed water with landscape built upon waste disposal ground in the background at the Sidney Olympic Park

provider. Aware of the importance of water resouce availability for a sustainable water supply, the South Australian government applies an integrated water resources management concept, including socializing reclaimed water. Even Adelaide has moved further into treatment of storm water and stored it into an aquifer through Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) system. Melbourne The devotion to water resource management was directly felt by the Indonesian delegates when they walked along the Yarra River bank, a river that Melbourne citizens are proud of for its cleanliness and beauty. "Making Melbourne the World's Most WaterSensitive City" is the main aim of the integrated water resource management conducted by Melbourne Water, a government owned institution that plays a central role in water resource manage-

ment in the State of Victoria. The application of integrated concept by Melbourne Water can be seen in the Western Wastewater Treatment Complex at Werribee. The 11,000 ha complex is not only wastewater treatment plant to produce water quality that worths distribution as reclaimed water but it is also conducting ecosystem maintenance through wetlands development and other ecosystem support facilities, as well as establishment of Water Discovery Centre as a educational and public campaign centre. Sidney Sidney Olympic Park is an icon of integrated management in the city of Sidney. Who would imagine that the complex used by the sport champions of the world to compete for the best performance in year 2000 was formerly a domestic and industrial waste disposal ground. "Then what happened with the


December 2005


wastes?" was the question from almost reclaimed water), landscape, wetlands Olympic Park saves approximately 850 everyone of the Indonesian delegates. and habitat for birds and other wildlife million litres of potable water from The waste was used for landscape deve- all are arranged harmoniously within reducing the use of drinking water up to Water 50 percent within this complex. lopment of the sports complex, after the one integrated land area. toxic and dangerous materials were resource management in Sidney What about Indonesia? removed to another disposal SOURCE: LINA DAMAYANTI At present it may not only a ground away from the city. In question posed by the members addition to reusing the waste of WSS Working Group who Sidney Olympic Park is also made the comparative study visit applying an integrated managebut also by all of us. Are we going ment for drinking water, waste to start after we are through with water, reclaimed water, rain the provision of water supply and water, irrigation system, conenvironmental sanitation infrastruction, landscape, and ecostructure, or are we going to start system. Sports complex, houit right now? sing area using 2 water reticulaBasah Hernowo, Direktur Perumahan dan Permukiman Bappenas, Lina Damayanti tion systems (drinking and berdiskusi dengan Executif Direktur SA Water, Anne Howe.

Orientation to MPA-PHAST for Regional Level Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSS) Working Groups
n order to improve the capacity of the Regional Level WSS Working Groups in facilitating WASPOLA and National Level WSS Working Group translating the national policy for community based WSS development in the regions, WASPOLA conducted orientation workshops on MPA-PHAST. The activity was conducted in Bandung on 17-21 October and in Solo on 28 Nov.-2 December 2005. The orientation was intended to urge the participants to understand more about the importance of changing the way of thinking on community based WSS development management that places the weight on demand responsive approach (DRA). More specifically, this orientation is directed towards improve the knowledge about the implementation concept of MPA-PHAST in planning,

monitoring, and evaluation of WSS development. The workshop was openend by Oswar Mungkasa of the Directorate of Housing and Settlement Systems, Bappenas who emphasized the importance of community participation in in the development of a sustainable and effectively used WSS facility. MPA-PHAST,

according to him, is but one tool to improve community participation. And moreover, this methodology is quite suitable to promote community participation. The subject matters dicussed in the workshop were, among others (i) community empowerment concept in the sustainable WSS development process; (ii) gender equity conSOURCE:EXCLUSIVE cept; (iii) MPA-PHAST activity framework in planning, monitoring, evaluation, and decision making as related to sustainable WSS development; (iv) linkage of MPA-PHAST with national policy for community based WSS development; and (v) MPA-PHAST tool. The participants were also invited to practise/simulation in MPAPHAST application through a field visit. (MJ)



Desember 2005


Cooperation between Bappenas and Plan International in WSS Sector

he for National Development and Planning Agency (Bappenas) has worked out a cooperation agreement with Plan International -- a non government organization -- in the application of the national policy for Water Supply Sanitation development to develop sustainable water supply and sanitation services. The cooperation is documented in an MoU and was signed at the Bappenas on Wednesday 19 October by the Deputy for Facility and Infrastructure Development, Imron Bulkin, and Country Director for Plan International Indonesia, MK Ali. Imron Bulkin stated that compared to other South East Asia countries Indonesia has a relatively low access of water supply and sanitation service. The total population with access to water supply service is not more than 53,4 percent and only 67,1 percent has a toilet. According to him, for the last three decades the government has been trying all efforts to improve the coverage through various programmes and projects. In 2003, he said further, the government has succeeded in formulating National Policy for Community Based WSS Development. This policy is intended to promote the active participation of the stakeholders. It contains 11 policy principles and 16 strategies. Besides, said Imron further, there are several things that must be brought to immediate attention such as the gap between the demand and the aviability of water supply and sanitation facilities. And the limitation of government, regional as well as cen-


Develop communication strategy and promote hygiene behaviour to children and their families; as well as supporting research and development to expand technological choices in the provision of water supply and sanitation services to the community.
tral, fund to run the O&M of the existing facilities. Therefore Imrom welcomes this cooperation and hopes that this will help to solve parts of the problem. Meanwhile, MK Ali described that an integrated service in sanitation, hygiene, and water supply is compulsory because this will contribute to life expectancy and children growth and community health as a whole. Through this cooperatin, he added, Plan will help to develop a guideline/prose-

dure to translate the national policy into field level implementation. In addition, Plan will expand its technical capacity to develop knowledge network in WSS sector together with related agencies; develop communication strategy and promote hygiene behaviour to children and their families; as well as supporting research and development to expand technological choices in the provision of water supply and sanitation services for the community. Plan will adjust its water and sanitation program with the National Policy for WSS Development. Plan activities will be implementated in 7 provincies, namely Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Jawa Barat, NTB, NTT, Sulawesi Selatan, and NAD, plus 3 big cities, i.e Jakarta, Surabaya and Makassar.


December 2005



Plan International in Brief

lan International is an NGO focussing its activities on children all over the world. Its staff and volunteer workers work with children, their families and communities in 60 countries. The activities consist of skill improvement and provision of resources to enable children having the same voice and opportunity to improve health, education, and responsibility of their adults. Besides, Plan also develops a direct approach and campaign for children all over the world. Plan's vision is a world where children could put their potential into reality in accordance to their right and dignity. Its mission is to improve children's quality in life of the developing nations through uniting the world culture and better understanding and life values. Plan Indonesia has been doing its activities since 2 September 1969, based on a cooperation agreement with the Indonesian government. In disseminating its programme, Plan builds partnership with local oragnizations and also with government agencies. Plan is working in 6 provinces: Central Java, East Java, South Sulawesi, NTB, NTT, and Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD). Presently there are 13 districtslevel programme units . Plan Indonesia has developed a medium term strategy 2005-2010. Plan wishes to fight children poverty and would contribute to put Convention on the Rights of Children in Indonesia into reality, covering: The right to clean water, sanitation, and health; Right to education; Safe household life; Right to protection and participation;

Cooperation for strengthening the civil society; Post tsunami life recovery. In health sector Plan Indonesia sees that the choildren reserve their right to grow optimally in a healthy surrounding, good sanitation, sufficient health and hygiene service. In this connection Plan works towards: Improving the percentage of families with access to accepatble health service provided by a Posyandu; Improving the number of schools with a relatively good health programme through provision of he-

alth maintaining facilities such a favourbale surrounding for children to study and communicate among themsleves; Application of reproduction health initiatives by emphasizing youth capacity such as promotion of safe and responsible sexual life including dissemination of information regarding HIV/AIDS; Incresasing the quantity of assistance through development of improvement of skilled workers through community based safe motherhood project. (MJ)

Points of Cooperation between Bappenas and Plan International

Pilot project/implementation of water supply and environmental sanitation in compliance with the national policy principles. Plan Indonesia provides assistance in community development, including water suplly and saniotation service, to more than 300 villages/slum areas in 15 kabupatens scattered in 7 provinces. In this connection Plan will work together with kabupaten level governments to improve knowledge about demand responsiveness approaches and exploration of possibilities ffor cofinancing with the the government agencies related to WSS development. Technical assistance. Plan will provide the needed technical and fiancial assistance including an expert for the Bappenas. Management and Information Network. Plan will work in close cooperation with WSS Working Group to gather information and leassons learned from various WSS development projects. Bappenas and Plan will help WSS Working Group in its effort to develop an information centre. Communication Strategy Development. Bappenas and Plan agrre to undertake a study the knowledge, attitude and practice that can provide feedback for the development of national communication stategy. Research and Development Support. Both parties agree to undertake the necessary efforts to make available and use the most appropriate technical choices and to promote the local industries to produce them. Quality Assurance and Inspection (QA&I) Bappenas and Plan will develop/aplly a QA&I system both for hard- as well as software intervention. Common Planning and Monitoring/Regular Study. Bappenas, Plan and WSS Working Group will develop a detailed yearly action plan and study the progress quarterly and take correction measures as necessary in order to keep the track and effectiveness.



December 2005


Dissemination of CWSH and WSLIC 2 Activities

y the purpose of disseminating Community Water and Sanitation Health (CWSH) and Water and Sanitation for Low Income Communities Phase 2 (WSLIC-2) to the regional governments the future sites of the projects, the Directorate General for Bina Bangda of the Dept. Home Affairs held an information seminar in Surabaya on 6-7 December 2005. This workshop was attended by 170 participants consisting of Bupatis, regional people's representatives, regional coordination teams (provincial as well as kabupaten). The event was officially opened by Dr. Ir. Dede M. Maskuriyadi, Deputy for Human Resources and Culture, Bappenas. In his opening speech, he said that environment represents one of the important parts to maintain health. "Health cannot stand by itself. Most of the health problems come from outside health sector," he says. He further descrides the factor outside health sector consist of physical environment, chemical, biological, socio-economic, cultural, and political. Besides, there are also factor that inherent within an individual, behaviour, and life style. "Water and sanitation are factors that are connected to behaviour/life style that determines health status," he says. Dede reveals, the fact from the result of WHO study that investment made to children (early age) will reduce mortality. If access to drinking water increases by 10 percent infant mortality will reduce by 3-4 percent. While 10 percent increase in health sector budget


percent, while good quality of drinking water and maintaining the habit of washing hands with soap reduces the diseases by 3565 percent. According to him, based on monitoring result WSLIC-2 project has improve community health, improvement in managerial aspect. Based on the lessons learned, methodology, and approaches applied in WSLIC-2 implementaton, the government has decided to apply a similar accitiy and approach for CWSH project. CWSH Project will be implementaed for 5 years (2006-2010) in 20 kabupatens of 4 provinces to cover 1.000 vil-

will reduce infant morality by 0,8-1,5 percen. Unfortunately, he added, government budget for health sector is still much too low, i.e around 5,4 percent or equals to USD9 per capita. This figure is lower than Malaysia (6,9 percent) and Vietnam (8,1 percent). Therefore, according to Dede, it is important that everyone must support all effort to improve health status of the community through improvement of community access to health services. The programme of the workshop consisted among others of presentation by Director General for PP & PL of the Dept. Health, Director of Housing and Settlement Systems, Bappenas, and presentation of experiences by the Head of Jawa Timur Provincial Health Agency and Bupati of Sambas, Kalimantan Barat. The Director General for PP & PL in his presentation emphasized that water supply tends to reduce diarrhoea prevalence by 35 percent, toilet utilizing by 28

lages. Both WSLIC-2 and CWSH are intended to villages that belong to below poverty line level, hgh perevalence of diarrhoeal disease, low access to water supply and sanitation facility, committed regional government to such development thus willing to set aside counterpart budget. In the meantime, Basah Hernowo, the Director of Housing and Settlement System of Bappenas, described the present condition of water supply and sanitation and the national policy for community based WSS development that has been formulated. He stressed the importance of building a united movement among the central, provincial and kabupaten governments to work together for the achievement of MDGs targets. Included into the agenda was filed visit to 4 villages of Kabupaten Malang, namely Jambearjo, Kalisari, Tlogosari, and Petungsewu. (MJ)


December 2005



Workshop on the Evaluation of Sanitation by the Community (SANIMAS) Project Implementation


orkshop on Sanitation by the Community (SANIMAS) Project Implementation Evaluation was held on Wednesday, 8 December 2005 in Surabaya. The event was officially opened by Ir Susmono, Director of Environmental Sanitation Development of the Dept. of Public Works. In his opening speech he stated that community based sanitation is a development pattern that must be applied in Indonesia today. "This is intended to make Indonesia free from defecation in the open by 2009," he stressed. According to him, with directorate has programmed to develop Sanimas in 100 locations. He hopes this programme will obtain support from the regional governments and other stakeholders. We need to develop coordination and synchronization," he further emphasized. The workshop agenda consisted among others of presentation by Basah Hernowo, Director of Housing and Settlement Systems, Bappenas who specifically highlighted sanitation condition of urban areas of Indonesia. According to him, the total combined percentages of families using septic tank and pit well toilets in towns and cities is 80,5 percent (without seeing the quality condition of each of the facility). From this figure 73,13 percent of the families use household toilet, and 16,9 percent communal or public toilet. While there are 10 cities with sewerage system by 13,9 % services from total population. The reason are, according to Basah, lack of community awareness to sanitation, the systems already constructed did not sustain, lack of budget allocation for sanitation sector development, and lack of policy framework and regulatory framework. Moreover, the rapid population growth made the water supply and sanitation development

acceleration lags behind. "More than 100 millions of our population have no access to acceptable sanitation system," he explains. On the other hand, he continued, sanitation development need amount of investment. UP to 2009, at least we need Rp9 trillion (approximately Rp1,8 trillion a year) for sanitation development. Whereas, the government is presently in no position to set aside such an amount. Therefore, we need to explore investment potentials from within the private sector and the community. Basah described further the experience obtained from sanitation development, they are (i) sustainability of a system is influenced several aspects consisting of institutional, financial, social, techological, and environmental; (ii) community participation is key to sustainability; pre sanitation project development a community facilitation process costs a lot of time and money; (iv) community based sanitation facility must be managed at the lowest level of the community; (v) communication among stakeholders increases development efficiency; (vi) in some cases sanitation system management needs ainvolvement

of all the stakeholders even beyonf administrative boundaries. At the future, he added, the agenda will include development of an integrated strategy, efficient funding sources management, provision of technical assistance, and institutional support. "All the stakeholders must work together in synergy and simultaneneously" he stressed. The workshop agenda also included presentation by Frank Fladerer BORDA Representative Indonesia) and Surur Wahyudi (CBS Programme Coordinator) about SANIMAS programme and its achievement. In addiion, there is also presentation by the regional government of Blitar representing the region implementing the programme and SANIMAS management from a selhelp organization of Miji Serasi from Mojokerto. The SANIMAS programme was tested in 2003 to 3 kabupaten/kota in Jawa Timur and one in Bali. In 2004, the activity was relicated in the same locations. In 2005, The replication was continued in 6 cities in Jawa Timur plus 4 cities in Jawa tengah , 2 kabupatens of Yogyakarta and one city in Bali. (MJ)



December 2005


Workshop of Activities Partnership between Government of Indonesia - Plan International

egarding the MoU between Bappenas and Plan International, POKJA AMPL and Plan was conducting a workshop in Hotel Aryaduta Jakarta on Wednesday (21/12). This workshop has an objective to implement MoU in real action and was attended by POKJA AMPL, Plan Indonesia, and WASPOLA. Workshop opened by Direktur Perumahan dan Permukiman Bappenas, Ir. Basah Hernowo, MA. In his opening speech he said that Government of Indonesia is not able to allocate a sufficient budget to all development of WSES. It is need to involve all of stakeholder. NGO as a grass root organization could be a mediator between GOI and communities.


GOI role could be changed from provider to facilitator. NGO has a skill in empowering communities and sustainable technology, also mobilizing funding resource and human resource. In future, he said, all stakeholder

need to increase the synergy, broaden WSES network by increasing the involvement of non GOI stakeholder, and searching for alternative funding to WSES development (from community, donor, NGO, or private sector). There are group discussions in this workshop to formulate the activities that will be applied by GOI-Plan Indonesia in year 20062008. The scope of activities are include: (1) Pilot/implementing WSES, (2) Technical Assistance, (3) Knowledge Networking and Management, (4) Communication Strategy and Development, (5) Support Research and Development, (6) Quality Assurance and Inspection (QA & I), (7) Joint Planning and Periodic Monitoring/ Review. (MJ)

Communication Synergy Meeting and WSS Stakeholders Partnership Network

n the framework establishing synergy amongst the WSS development related stakeholders, Directorate General for Bina Bangda of Dept. Home Affairs held a follow up meeting with partner stakeholders in Jakarta on 18 October 2005. Present in the meeting were 37 participants representing NGOs, government and private sector. The meeting was opened by Oswar Mungkasa of the Directorate of Housing and Settlement System, Bappenas. In his opening speech he discussed about the low community access to water supply and sanitation in Indonesia. The existing facilities do not meet thechnical and hygienic requirements. On the other hand, the sanitation sector has not been given government pri-

ority. This is evidenced from national budget allcoation for housing and settlement is less that 10 percent, whereas in the regional; budget is close to zero. "Specifically with WSS developemnt it is even lower," he stressed. Therefore, according to him, it is important to invite the participation of the community. It has been proven that the community is able and willing to contribute and participate. He hopes the pivate sector would increase their care throgh the social responsibility agenda. Because, according to him, this step could create a better brand image. He hopes this meeting would be able to develop a common perception amongst the WSS staheholders, the field level executors,

and policy makers in innovative approach, technical and funding, stimulating sustained casmpaign through mass media, education and consumers' product, and improving synergy between the government, private secttor and NGOs. The agenda of the meeitn also included presentations by NGOs and the private sector. The first presentation was made by Surya Aslim of Islamic Relief Indonesia on updating of sanitation issues. The next presentation was by Kuwat Suryadi of PCI discussion about behavioural change within the poor community through sanitation. The last presetation was given by the Chairman of Corporate Forum for Community Development (CFCD), Thendry Supriatno. (MJ)


Desember 2005



Solution without Privatization

DAMs of Indonesia, currently more than 300 in number, are in generally in a condition that leaves much to be desired. Only 10 percent of them are in healthy condition. The majority are suffering from various ailments, managerial, human resources, and capitalization. Curative measures have been taken and on-going, yet the result has not been up to what is expected. In the midst of this condition, certain parties try to push to have the PDAMs privatized in accordance with globally whipping current that has been seething since 1990s. It seems that privatization is the only way to remedy the public service company, inspite of the bad experience from privatization case in Jakarta. This book tries to present a different perspective about the danger of privatizationespecially for the poor community. In it a number of examples of failures in drinking water management by multinational coporations in several countries. The corporations failed to fulfil their pro-

Belen Balanya, Brid Brennan, Olivier Hoedeman, Satoko Kishimoto, dan Philipp Terhost PUBLISHER : Amrta Institute for Water Literacy Year of Publication : 2005 Pages : 318 halaman

mise to improve water supply service. Because private companies focus their attention on profit, they increase the tariff, significantly to a level the poor community could not reach. Through this book the team of authors wish to demosntrate that there are other interesting and implementable alternatives the bureaucratic and inefficient go-

vernment could take rather than being being drifted by privatization current. Lessons learned from many parts of the world are discussed in this book such as cooperative movement in Bolivia, waer in Porto Alegre in Brazil, community management in Kerala, India, in Penang, Malaysia, and in Savelegu, Ghana. The successful experiments seldom attract a sufficient attention. These important lessons could become a valuable inspiration for water resources management in Indonesia. One thing in this book deserves serious attention is that the blame for failure of a public company is not always taken solely on the company itself. There are a number of influencing factors that are related to the prevailing government system, such as dictatorship, in total disregard of human rights, and intransparent. A public company can only survive in a climate where good governance is being practised. ? (MJ)

Integrated Water Resources Management

ater crisis that hits Indonesia is a general phenomenon and is happening almost everywhere across the globe. Unsprisingly, therefore, the theme for Water Day commemoration last March 2004 was "Water and Disaster". The international community is now aware how the world is presently being faced with water imbalances. This happens as a consequence of a considerable environmental degradation. Water is scarce in the dry season, and disastrously excessive during the rainy moonsoon. Water resources protection is constrained with many factors such as limited government fund, high population growth especially in the urban areas, economic crisis, and euphoria from regional



PENULIS : Robert J. Kodoatie, Ph.D dan Roestam Sjarief,Ph.D Penerbit Tebal : Penerbit Andi Yogyakarta : xiii + 357 halaman Tahun Terbit : 2005

autonomy that tends to be abusive at the regional/city level. On the other hand water supply service has not reached the most needed community level both in villages and in towns, and the drainage system development that looks like a patchwork program rather than an integrated wholesome programme.

Therefore, a wise, integrated and wholesome watwer resources management becomes a compelling demand. The integratedness reflects interlinkages of the various aspects and stakeholders and various disciplines. Wholesomeness reflects a wide coverage, across resources boundaries, inter location, upstream and downstream, among various conditions, land use types, covering many aspects and multidisciplinary. Water resources management calls for holistic and environmentally sensitive approach. Every discipline is involved and interdependent, be it social, economic, technical, environmental, legal, and even political. Water is the concern of all, so shall be the philosophy to be borne in mind. ? MJ



December 2005


Replication of Sanimas 2004

ANIMAS is short for sanitasi oleh masyarakat (sanitation by the community). This programme was initially a pilot project conducted in 2001-2003 sponsored by AusAID through WSP-EAP and was supported by the government of Indonesia. In the field this project was implemented by BORDA in seven kabupatens/kotas of two densely populated provinces, namely Jawa Timur and Bali. This pilot project was completed in 2003. Then in 2004 the programme was replicated in the same kabupaten/kotas. All the projects have been completed and officially inaugurated. SANIMAS is a new programme applying new approaches and new funding system. Therefore there are many les-

sons learned from this project. Even with this replication BORDA was successful in formulating a promotional and presentation guideline to the stake-

holders, the community, and guideline to community self-selection, guideline for community level planning, training guideline for community and selfhel organization, and guideline facility O&M by the community. With this CD BORDA wishes to share the experience in handling SANIMAS and its complicacies. SANIMAS I is of course different from SANIMAS II. In terms of process SANIMAS II is better conceived than SANIMAS I. Besides, this CD also provides valuable inputs for the government, central as well as regional, in its participation to support the project. And more interesting is how the lessons were learned during the processes of kampung selection, planning, and implementation. (MJ)

Water for All

ater is vital for human life. It cannot be replaced by anything else. Unfortunately though, not all of us have the same access to water supply and environmental sanitation. Based on Asian Development Bank record, one of three Asians has not access to water supply system, while half the population living in Asia and the Pacific has not access to aceptable basic sanitation facility. This condition is obviously quite apprehending. It is therefore natural there are many kinds of water and sanitation related diseases. Through this CD the Asian Development Bank publishes water issues related to poor community in several coun-

tries members of ADB. CD with athe title "Water for All" contains 15 titles of

cases studies, thematic working papers, activity reports, statistic, and regional study report. Actually, ADB has published published these materials in blue prints, of which several series have been discussed in this magazine. This CD comes in soft copy. The readers may also obtain the hard copy through Several of titles contained in this CD are: Water and Poverty; Poverty and Water Security; The Water and Poverty Initiative; Water and Poverty in the 3rd World World Water Forum; Bringing Water to the Poor; Past Experience and Future Challenges; Small Pipe Water Network; 'Water Voices' Documentaries; and An Agenda for Change. (MJ)


December 2005



World Water Forum /home/cuartowwf06.asp?lan=

2006. It is estimated that participants from 40 countries will be attending the conference. They will consist of researchers, educators, government officials, consultants, managers, community figures, and others who are interested and connected to the subject of waste materials. The topics to be discussed will vary widely covering policy, regulation, education, economic, up to technical matters such as recycling, technology innovation, and case study.

Australia. Concurrently the 4th international conference on Water Sensitive Urban Design will also be undertaken. These conferences will be organized by International water Association (IWA). The conferences will discussed two main topics related to drainage models and water supply design in urban setting. These activities are designed for those related directly to city management and planning, either at the level of policy makers, city planners, water supply and sanitation practitioners, an so on.

World Water Agenda 2006

he fourth World Water Forum will be held in Mexico on 16-22 March 2006. For one week this forum will discuss a number of topics summarized in a workplan. The topics are among others, water supply and sanitation, water for agriculture, and environment and risk management. The topics will will discussed in parallel each day. There are 150 sessions planned, with average time allowed 2 hours for each. The main presenter will present his/her paper. Together with the forum a World Water Expo will also be held. The Exposition will exhibit various new innovations in the filed of technology, equipment, and water related problem solving. Commpanies related to the development from various nations will take part in the event. water.htm

his website specifically presents water agenda from November 2005

Conference on Urban Drainage Models UDMandWSUD/ he 7th International Conference on Urban Drainage Models will be held on 3-7 April in Melbourne,

Waste Technology and Management Conference call.html he 21st Waste Teknologi and Management Conference will be held in Philadelphia, US on 26-29 March

up to November 2006. The activities are to take place in many parts of the world. Each activity item to be held includes time frame for sending the paper and participant registration. Though the topic is about water, the agenda -- in limited number- also includes sanitation, such as conference on dry toilet, energy conference, and marine. (MJ)



December 2005


Rahmat (Blessed) Water

Converting Clean Water to Drinking Water


new breakthrough is being made in water purification technique. Rahmat (Blessed) Water, so it is called. Rahmat is short for murah (cheap, non costly), mudah (easy, simple) and hemat (economical). This water is a drinking water purification solution containing 1,25 percent sodium hypochlorite. This solution can increase water guality from clen water to drinkable (potable) water without boiling. This water is produced, distributed and marketed by Aman Tirta, a consortium consisting of PT Tanshia Consumer Products, PT. Dos Ni Roha, LOWE Worldwide, Jon Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health/Center for Communication Programs (CCP), CARE Indonesia, and supported by USAID. Rahmat water works as desinfactant, killing water born microorganisme in drinking water. This is because of the chlorine content that is effectively puts to end the activity of most of living microorganisme that causes diarhoea to human bening. Usage Rahmat Water is applicable to fresh water that is usually taken for drinking. It can be used easily by mixing with the water in accordance with direction. For example, 3 ml Rahmat Water for every 20 l of drinking water. Mix or stir the mixture and let it stand for about 30 minutes. Rahmat water will kill all the bacteria, virus and other parasites. Water is ready for drinking, without boiling it first. Rahmat Water is believed to safe fuel and time. One package is sold at Rp4.000. The bottle containing 100 ml is enough to purify 600 l of water, water consumption for a family of four for one month. Field testing Before launching, Rahmat Water

Rahmat Water is applicable to fresh water that is usually taken for drinking. It can be used easily by mixing with the water in accordance with direction. For example, 3 ml Rahmat Water for every 20 l of drinking water. Mix or stir the mixture and let it stand for about 30 minutes. Rahmat water will kill all the bacteria, virus and other parasites.
has undergone testing in Tangerang, NTB, and Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD). The result is sufficiently effective. Previously, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and part-

ners have conducted Safe Water System programs to reduce diarrhoea incidence in African, Asian and Latin American countries using the same solution. Survey in those countries indicates that this program is able to reduce diarrhoea incidence by 50 percent. How to get For the time being it is produced for a limited circulation. In December it is launched in Banten and Sumatra Utara. It is estimated the by next January this product will reach the communities in Jawa Barat, Sumatra Barat, Jakarta Metropolitan, and Jawa Timur. The distribution will go through the traditional network system (store, kiosk, sundry store, drug store) and non-traditional (NGO, midwives, health cadres, etc.)


December 2005



Germ free water filter

Ceramic Water Filter

uring the dry season some people in many areas have to use turbid water for drinking. Though they have tried to filter it with cloth, the water remains turbid. This is of course an ineffective and non hygienic practice. While using a more modern appliances, the price is beyond their ability to pay. Therefore, several efforts have been tried to produce a not only effective but also hygienic water filter. To answer this demand ceramic workers of Plered, Purwakarta have been succesful in producing ceramic water filter. This device serves as a drinking water dispenser and is equipped with microscopically porous ceramic filter with a permanently fixed silver particle layer from a dried silver colloid that works as desinfectant. The product has been tested for effectivy in the Regional Environmental Management Agency of Jakarta Provincial Government. The test indicates that the silver layered water purifier ceramic is quite effective in killing bacteria so that the filtered water is good for drinking. While the non silver layered device is unable to eliminate bacteria from the filtered water.


filter tube
Construction The purifier is made from clay mixed with incinerated material during the burning process and leaves microscopic pores in its place. They generally come in red colour because of the Plered clay being used as raw material. To create porous ceramic, sawdust is chosen as admixture. Now the ceramic may come in white colour for esthetic reason. It is prepared by using soil taken from Sukabumi mixed with diatomite and wheat flour to

ceramic filter

receptable filtered water

create the desirable pore size. The ceramic filter is molded with hydraulic press, dried and burned in a kiln at

850C for Plered soil or 1200C for Sukabumi soil. This ceramic water purifier consists of two main parts, i.e. a filter tube and a receptacle. Water filled in to the tube will seeps through the filter pores down into the receptacle. This water is readily drinkable. Generally drinkable water can be obtained from the second round of filtering process, since water resulting from the first filtering still has smells. This is because of the residual ash from the ceramic burning process and of the colloidal silver sticking with the ash. After the first round of, the next batch of filtered water is clear, from from bacteria, and drinkable. (MJ)



December 2005

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November November November November November November November

Preliminary meeting on National Policy Talk Show in TV Kick off meeting: Study of sanitation for Poor Urban Community Preparatory Review of World Bank Loan for NPCWSS Project Talk Show on Institutionally Based WSS Development in Metro TV Visit to CLTS Field Trial Sites in Sambas, Muaro Jambi and Bogor WSS Working Group Meeting on CLTS workshop training conducted by Plan International WSS Working Group meeting to review survey instrument for study of Sanitation for Poor Urban Community Talk Show on Institutionally Based WSS Development in TVRI Worshop on Monitoring of CLTS Field Trial Implementation in Indonesia MPA/PHAST Training and its Application to Planning and Monitoring of Community Based WSS Projects in Solo WASPOLA Midterm Review Workshop on WSS Database Development in Gorontalo Workshop on WSS Database Development in Kab. Bone Bolango and Kab. Pohuwato Workshop for the Preparation of Infrastructure Summit Meeting with AusAID PSP Review Working Group Meeting MPA/PHAST Training and its Application to Planning and Monitoring of Community Based WSS Projects in Solo Review of Working Paper on Drinking Water and Poverty at LIPI WASPOLA Midterm Review Meeting with Plan International on Preparatory Meeting for Formulation of PoA WSS Working Group Meeting with AusAID, ADB, Bangda and WASPOLA Review of Working Paper on Drinking Water and Poverty at LIPI WSS Working Group Meeting: WSS Working Group Activity Planning Roadshow of National Policy for Community Based WSS Development to Sumbawa, NTT Meeting on Donor Harmonisation Study Disseminaton of CWSH and CLTS Projects to Provincial and Kabupaten Coordination Teams in Surabaya Socialization of Manual for Management of WSS Facilities for Provincial and Kabupaten Level Government Officials in Palembang Dissemination of the Method of Drinking Water Tariff Calculation WSS Working Group Meeting on the first survey in Bandung Workshop on the evaluation of SANIMAS and Dissemination of Waste & Drainage Guideline, 2005 Workshop on WSS Strategy Plan for Banten Province Socialization of Manual for Management of WSS Facilities for Provincial and Kabupaten Level Government Officials in Senggigi, Mataram CLTS Training in Cooperation with PCI in Padeglang WASPOLA Annual Plan Workshop on the Implementation of UNDP CCF 2001-2005 Meeting on Presentation of Assessment of the Status of Sanitation Preliminary Meeting for Workshop on Formulation of Cooperation between Indonesian Government and Plan International WWS Working Group-WASPOLA Coordination Meeting on evaluation of WASPOLA activity implementation Workshop on Formulation of Cooperation between Indonesian Government and Plan International



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December 2005




Publisher: McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, Maret 2002


Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional, Mei 2001




Publisher: PT. Pustaka LP3ES Indonesia, 1995 (in Indonesian)

Report of Coordination Meeting on the Implementation of National Policy with Program Partners & Workshop on the Implementation of National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in the Regions for NGO Partners and Related Institutions Publisher: Dirjen Bangda - Depdagri, 2005 Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report Publisher: World Health Organization and United Nation's Children's Fund, 2000 Summary of SANIMAS Replication Implementation Report 2000 Publisher: BORDA, 2005


Publisher: Central Bureau of`Statistic (in Indonesian)

Publisher : CV. Eka Jaya Jakarta, 2005 (in Indonesian)

Small Scale Water Service in Indonesia. Palembang, Jakarta Utara, Bandung Metropolitan, Subang
Publisher : Water and Sanitation Program-EAP, 2005 (in Indonesian)

Publisher: Directorate of Housing and Settlement Systems, Bappenas






Edition 120, September 2005

Author : Water Act 2003 - Water Supply Licensing, 2004

Author : Aris Harnanto & Fahmi Hidayat, 2003

Vol. 13 No. 4 December 2004 Publisher: UNDP

Author : Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, 2001



December 2005


Level of Services (LOS)

Number or amount to quantitfy the rate of service of a sanitation facility within a service area or territory.

Loss of head
Loss of water pressure pressure potential either through friction with the channel media, resistance from the flow regulator, barrier by a drop structure, etc.

Alkaline containing liquid - one of leachate components.

A cavity constructed in a facility structure or in a network system for man to enter to examine or work a repair to the system.

Manhole Chamber
A channel located at the lowest floor of a chamber (bathroom, kitchen, wet operation room, and so on) that serves to collect and discharge wastewater through a control dip into wastewater drainage; this is to keep the floor always dry

Marble Test
A practical testing method to measure stability of water sample, especially for alkaline content.

Mass diagram of reservoir

A diagram illustrating the accumulated discharge entering a reservoir over time.

Maximum allowable toxicant concentration (MATC)

The maximum allowable toxic compound concentration to be produced or released to the environment by an industry of organization.

Maturation stabilization pond

Aerobic wastewater stabilization of low contaminant containing pond.

Maximum contaminant level (MCL)

The maximum allowable contaminant concentration to be produced or released to the environment.

A simple hydrocarbon compound produced from decomposition process of organic wastes. In can be used as fuel if mixed with 90 percent air.

A wastewater treatment ficility consisting of a rotaing cylinder wrapped with perforated plate forming a screen. Wastewater enters through the axis of the cylinder and spreads around the perforated cylinder.

Mottled enamel
Tooth disorder caused by habit of taking water with flouride content in excess of 1,5 ppm

Moveable intake
A movable raw water catchment structure or facility that can be shifted in horizontal or vertical direction. It is made as an adjustable construction. It is eqpped with a rope to adjust it to the best position in a relatively large and deep water source.

Dikutip dari Kamus Istilah & Singkatan Asing Teknik Penyehatan dan Lingkungan. Penerbit: Universitas Trisakti.