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Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Published by: Working Group for Water Supply

and Sanitation Advisor: Director General for Urban and Rural Development, Department of Public Works Board of Trustee: Director of Human Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health Director of Water Supply Development, Department of Public Works Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Community Empowerment, Department of Home Affairs Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Department of Home Affairs Chief Editor: Oswar Mungkasa Board of Editor: Supriyanto, Johan Susmono, Indar Parawansa, Poedjastanto Editor: Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Rheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, Mujiyanto, Andre Kuncoroyekti Design/Illustrator: Rudi Kosasih Production: Machrudin Distribution: Agus Syuhada Address: Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 e-mail: Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address or e-mail. Don't forget to be brief and accompanied by identity. This magazine can be accessed at Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Website at

Editorial Readers' Voice Headlines Small Scale Water Provider A drop of water in the barren land Drink Water Provision in Ho Chi Minh City Considering Small Scale Water Providers Reportage SMU 34 Jakarta, the Winner of National UKS Competition UKS, not a symbol of Healthy School Telescope WSS Working group of Banten Province, going with spirit and commitment Story Lost Water, scarce drops Interview Director of Multilateral Foreign Financing of Bappenas, Delthy S. Simatupang, SH: Project Preparation is a key to success Around AMPL Around WASPOLA Abstract Community Empowerment in Rural Water Provision Innovation Water Treatment Plant (IPA) of Air Mandiri Insight Water for the Poor in Jakarta Water Infrastructure and Poverty Alleviation Policy AMPL Role for Sustainable Facility Toward Independent, Transparent and Professional PDAM (Water Supply Enterprise) Book Info CD Info Website Info IATPI Clinic Agenda AMPL Literature

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Percik magazine can be accessed through WSS website


ear readers, welcome again in Percik edition one of 2006. Issued last year, Percik is coming to see you all, the loyal readers, around the country. We are always present beside you though with unfixed schedule. What do you think of water and sanitation in your place? Is it better or worse than last year? In general, we're being exposed to water service issues. Not all people get appropriate service and this is our homework left unsolved. On the other side, the competent parties expected to meet such demand are also encountering many problems. As result, all have to go with market rule. People must therefore meet water demand from alternative sources. One of them is small scale water provider. Although more expensive than PDAM and uncontrolled quality, people refer choosing them as their water sources. Water is an irreplaceable basic need. Economically, the ongoing process is reasonable. Where there is demand, there is supply. However, seen from characters of water buyers, which are commonly from the poor level, it is less advantageous for poverty alleviation. The poor have to pay more. When would they improve their living standard if they spend money just to meet basic needs that should be obtained with lower price? On the other side, many problems are still encountered to access to them. BUMD (Local Owned Companies) or private ones are reluctant to serve them for some reasons, for example, some of the poor live in the illegal settlement or they are unable to pay water connection in advance. Therefore, there should be a breakthrough in discretion and ideas on how to provide them with cheap water. Small scale water providers can be bridge for this purpose, but they need nurture. Cooperation with large scale


Exhibition: Pokja AMPL Working Group and WASPOLA participated on ICE-FTUI exhibition in March.

water providers is thus possible. This is what we will present in the headlines of this edition. Dear readers, relating to drink water and sanitation issues, we'll establish interview with Director of Multilateral Foreign Financing of Bappenas. This is important to give clear description of our position in relation to foreign loan and how we can manage the loan in order to avoid people from sustaining increased loan without optimum outcomes. In this edition, we will also present new columns, namely regulation and abstract columns. Regulation column contains recently issued regulations serving as socialization, while abstract column contains abstracts of disserta-

tion, thesis or other research findings. We hope this presentation will bright and increase your knowledge. In reportage column, you will see how SMU 34 Jakarta wins 2005 National UKS (School Health Program) competition. Imagine if each school implements the UKS program, it will bring great outcome. In the story column, we present WSLIC 2 Project damage due to natural disaster. This will be valuable lessons for us, how to deal with public facilities under serious problems. Finally, we hope Percik will serve as your reference in the water supply and sanitation issues. We are looking forward to your feedbacks in the form of articles or other contributions. Regards.


April 2006

R E A D E R S ' VO I C E

The two programs are different. However, let's see what makes these two different programs a useful thing. WSLIC 2 is water and sanitation for low income community program, especially those living in the village. This program runs with community participatory approach in the decision making, planning, implementation, operational and maintenance. All is driven by community. It has four main components, namely increased institutional and community capacity; increased hygiene and sanitation; water and sanitation development; and project management. This program is granted by World Bank, AusAID, the Government of Indonesia, and beneficiaries through incash and inkind. CLTS (community-led total sanitation) is sanitation program focusing on community awareness of latrine importance for personal hygiene and sanitation, which is implemented by considering mapping, transect, contamination route, and simulation. This program is awarded to community by referring to their language and understanding. Women's role is therefore important in the respect since they have sense of humility. If we look into both programs, they are not contradictive each other. They can even be integrated into an advantageous package because they all use demand-responsive approach. For example, in the preparation of Community Working group in WSLIC 2, in addition to chairman and deputy chairman, treasurer, secretary, techni-

cal team, health team, there should be special persons-in-charge of CLTS. They may be part of health team called 'Sanitation Coordinator'. They are responsible for collecting data of people who always move in the exposed places and recording change in their behavior without subsidy or fund from anyone. Certainly the people should be informed that latrine is not identical with septic tank. We have been doing this in Ponorogo for WSLIC 2 during 2006. Although CLTS training is not provided yet and we only learn from the guidebook, we find this program applicable and welcomed by the local people.
Bambang Apriyanto, ST PMC of Ponorogo Regency

Titih Titisari (

In every publication, we always send one exemplar to all relevant services. We find your service has been listed in our record. But if you need the same, we're pleased to send it to you via abovementioned address. Thank you.

My friends and I are interesting in SANIMAS program, which is now being developed. We also propose to make such a Community Sewerage Course. We think that what we propose will be in line with SANIMAS program. We hope you will give us information and technical concept on SANIMAS imple-

We never receive Percik

I, representing Subdin Teknik

mentation and, if you're favorable, please send us Proceedings of 2004 SANIMAS National Seminar held in Bali. Also, we'd like to know how to establish cooperation with WASPOLA. Thank you for kindly assistance.
Nurul Ichsan Sanitary Engineering of UNDIP




Engineering Sub-service) of Urban Development Plan Service of Cianjur Regency, inform you that delivery of Percik magazine never arrives in subdin so far, which is directly related to water and sanitation service. So, to avoid missing in disposition considering importance of this magazine as communication and information media, we hope you will send the Percik magazine to Head of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure Service of Cianjur Regency via: Dinas Cipta Karya Kab. Cianjur Cq. Subdin Teknik Penyehatan Lingkungan Jl. Prof. Moch. Yamin No. 131

For more information on comprehensive SANIMAS program, including seminar proceedings, please contact BORDA, Jl. Kaliurang Km.6 Yogyakarta 55283, Phone: 0274.888273. To establish cooperation with WASPOLA, please contact Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat, Phone: (021)3142046 .


April 2006




Small Scale Water Provider

More than 100 million Indonesian people do not have access to water and sanitation. In accordance with Millennium Development Goals, Indonesia should have been capable of reducing half of such amount in 2015 later. Could it come true? How could we pursue the goals? Are there any alternative services?

ater cannot be viewed as social property. It also has economic value and both cannot be separated each other. Treating water as economic property will eliminate its social function and undermine needs of the poor. In this regard, government is required to increase water access and quality throughout community since it constitutes their basic needs. This is an unanswerable challenge, not only by Indonesia but also other countries. Experiences found in several countries show that government tends to


April 2006


apply low price for water management so that they cannot increase quality of the service or even maintain the existing one. Though low price is said to give benefit to the poor, not all can access to the service and they will in turn seek alternative water source with high cost. This condition emerges ideas of private involvement in the water provision. On other side, water has become fascinating 'blue gold' for the private companies to make profit. They invest large capital into this sector. There are two patterns of this large scale water supply, namely state owned companies and private ones. They serve water supply for decades. Unfortunately, the result is still unsatisfied. Many people cannot access to their service, especially the poor. It is most likely due to tariff and management limitations. There are reasons why people cannot access to water service provided by the company, such as (i) high cost and advance pay of connection prevent the poor from water subscription; (2) water cannot always satisfy their needs, especially the poor; (iii) tariff structure and low consumption by the poor make the water company reluctant to serve them; (iv) people living in the illegal settlement are not eligible to public service. On the other side, water company are less informed of the poor so that (i) service is unsuitable with demand and only focusing on unachievable technical standard; (ii) on-time payment is unsuitable with irregular income of the poor; (iii) lack of good communication between water company and the poor. In such a condition, Small Scale Water Providers are thriving. They are there to meet water need of the poor, especially those living in the urban area, which are inaccessible by large scale water company or otherwise having discontinuous water supply. This business is potential service for the poor with low investment. Based on purposes of some empiri-


cal studies, the small scale water providers are divided into several categories: a. Providers having fixed relation with water company, from which they distribute water via stalls or hydrants. For example, water stalls in Nairobi (Kenya), Lilongwe (Malawi), Batam (Indonesia); public hydrants in Dakar (Senegal), Mopti (Mali), Dhaka (Bangladesh); and public hydrants are managed by smallholders association in Segou (Mali). b. Community that sell pipeline water to those who haven't accessed to facility. For example, water plant built by community of Buenos Aires (Argentine); water plant built by entrepreneurs of Guatemala City (Guatemala) and water selling center in Manila (Philippines) produced from river water solar treatment; tank truck and cart which take water from pipeline water from which water company cannot do service. For example: Dakar (Senegal), Portau-Prince (Haiti), Jakarta (Indonesia).

c. Community scale water plant in Dhulikel (Nepal) (Snell, 1998 and McIntosh, 2003). These small providers have distinctive characters, namely individual initiative, flexible, market-adaptable in the context of financial regulation and technical selection. Besides, such business has operational efficiency in terms of (i) cost recovery, (ii) leakage free, (iii) not requiring public subsidy and loan. "Small Scale Water Provider" study funded by ADB showed that community scale water service has some characters: (i) flexible strategy and management. Investment and operating cost limitations are addressed by choosing community based technology. Community under service is mostly casual workers so that invoicing is not conducted monthly but as frequent as possible according to their financial ability; (ii) Water company is as standard of service. Small scale providers consider water company their competitor so that they always improve service quality as equal as competitor's; (iii) less appreciation from local government and water


April 2006


company. Investment is difficult as they are alleged illegal, unprofitable, and their asset cannot be audited. As result, access to credit is limited with high interest and thus investment risk is also high; (iv) close relationship between validity and service level. Type of water service varies, such as using cart, pipeline to home (water terminal), tank truck, water stall, etc. Water stall is a rapid growing business, especially I cities, for the following reasons: (i) consumers can buy water in the adequate amount and time; (ii) capital expense per house is low; (iii) better cost recovery for water company because these small scale providers make payment as per quantity. Furthermore, small scale water providers can upgrade themselves as per prevailing condition. Some cases indicate that water cart can be converted to tank truck and even underground waterline. In Indonesia however, there is never small scale water providers converted to large water company. Therefore, their existence can promote MDGs achievement in 2015. They are eligible to be incorporated into water investment strategy for their important role in accelerating service coverage. Nevertheless, there should be special attention to them, especially in terms of expensive rate as well as lack of investment and legality. Condition in Indonesia Small scale water providers are easily found in the cities of Indonesia. However, there is no complete data on such business, either from quantity or service coverage. This is well understood since the business is commonly illegal. General description of this business can be seen from the result of survey conducted by Settlement Research and Development Center of Public Work Ministry and Hydroconsell in five cities of Indonesia (Bandung, Subang, Jakarta, Palembang and Makassar). This busi-

ness can make 2% contribution to service coverage. a. Distribution and Service Distribution adopted by small scale water service has distinctive characters. Some of them use tiered distribution and some of them distribute directly to consumers. Most of them are private and independent. Some come from foundation, self-support community or individual.

This independency is seen from its independent management. Everything is arranged by themselves, including loss and profit, while relationship with other distributors, such as mobile sellers, serves only as provider (See table). b. Price According to characters, small scale water providers use their own ways to fix water price. This depends on sources of standard water, access distance to

Service and Service Area of Private Water Company

NO 1 SERVICE House connection TYPE OF SERVICE - Continuous/shift service - Daily supply - Runoff/bore well 2 Pipeline and fleet - Water purchase using tank truck in the fleet base 3 Tank truck - Custom-based service - Minimum 4 m3 - Downtown and off town coverage - Housing with underground reservoir, 6 m distance from road - Industries - Office - Stores - Refill depot 4 Cart - Custom-based service - Service for retailer - Urban service, about 1 RT coverage - 20 liter gallon - Housing with undrinkable well water - Relatively plain housing and easily accessed by cart - Water for drinking and cooking 5 Refill - Standard water treatment - Custom-based service or on-site purchase - Custom-based service - 1-2 km coverage distance (driving range, motorcycle delivery, direct carry within 200km distance) SERVICE AREA - Crowd housing - Mid level housing - 40 Families range - Economic scale connection - Tank truck


April 2006


consumer, and facility used. In general, small scale water providers fix much higher price than formal ones, in this respect, PDAM. Comparison of water price is presented in the following table:

Distribution of Small Scale Water Supply TYPOLOGY SUPPLIER DISTRIBUTOR L e v e l1 1 TKT DISTRIBUTOR LTKTl 22 eve CONSUMER



SELLING / M 3 (Rp) 17.500 15.000 10.000 15.000 20.000/month (40 KK)=2.222/m3 184.210 447.368


Small Terminal


House well

1. PDAM 2. Small Terminal 3. Bulk Terminal 4. Electric Pump 5. Refill Mineral Water 6. Sealed Mineral Water

Refill Depot

House well Industry Office


PDAM water treatment

Bulk Terminal


Artesian well

House well

People cannot do anything to face such a high price. This is because water is basic need that should be met even when in the outlandish price. Word 'must' is the only answer since there are no other alternatives. c. Legal Base Government has issued Government Regulation No. 16 of 2005 regarding Water Provision System (SPAM). This regulation deals with water provision, standard water protection, authority and responsibility, supporting entity, financing and pricing, development and supervision, and administrative penalty. From articles contained therein, none relates to small scale water providers. Article 10 of PP, for example, says "Distribution unit shall confirm fixed quantity, quality, and continuity of distribution" (paragraph 2), and the next paragraph says "24 hours guaranteed service". Besides, article 6 provides that drink water supplied by SPAM shall meet quality standard (paragraph 1) and substandard drink water shall not be distributed to the people. Both articles will certainly be difficult to be implemented by small scale water providers. It should be recognized that articles in this government regulation just provide large scale water providers. Article

Cart Tank Truck Pipeline

It should be recognized that articles in this government regulation just provide large scale water providers. Article 1(9) pronounces that provider includes state/local owned company, cooperative, private company and/or community group which undertake drink water provision system. It does not pertain to small scale water providers at all.

1(9) pronounces that provider includes state/local owned company, cooperative, private company and/or community group which undertake drink water provision system. It does not pertain to small scale water providers at all. Indeed, existence of small scale water providers can be incorporated into private company or community group, but it only regards institution while their activities have no legality. Accordingly, there should be space for them in the form of permit/contract

to give them equal opportunity. International experience showed that authorized small scale water providers can render continuous service with equal quality as the formal ones but with lower price than their illegal counterparts. For sure, the existing small scale water provider can deal with issues that large scale water company cannot. Their operation is like 'a drop of water in the barren land'.


April 2006


Water Supply in Ho Chi Minh City

Considering Small Scale Water Providers

o Chi Minh City is the largest city in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, larger than Hanoi capital of Vietnam. In 2004, population of Ho Chi Minh City was 6.1 million with an area of 2,094 km2, while population of Hanoi City was 2.9 million with an area of 921 km2. As with large cities in the developing countries, Ho Chi Minh City is constrained in the basic infrastructure provision for its people, including water provision. In the water sector, this city is exposed to (i) lack of water due to rapid domestic and industrial needs along with economic growth, (ii) significant non-revenue water, and (iii) limited government fund to improve water service as people demand. Such factors make public water service called Saigon Water Supply Corporation (SAWACO, formerly Ho Chi Minh City Water Company) lies below target. In the 2001-2005 master plan, the government of Ho Chi Minh City targeted 90% people will have water access; however until end of 2001, SAWACO service coverage was only 50% with 40% leakage. This condition encouraged government of Ho Chi Minh City to abstain from relying only on SAWACO. Accordingly, on December 2001, government of Ho Chi Minh City decided to establish policy framework for promoting involvement of private companies, including small scale water providers as SAWACO's partner to pursue the given target. Socialization Program Political will of the government of

Ho Chi Minh City to give water access to the people was materialized into policy framework called Socialization Program, namely a program to promote involvement of local private companies to invest in the water business. This program was materialized into regulations developed by and between the government of Ho Chi Minh City and SAWACO in 2002. The regulations have been ratified and announced by People's Committee of Ho Chi Minh City on August 2003. Commencing with tryout of one of small scale water providers, Hiep An Co. Ltd, and then implemented in the broader extent. In addition to creating favorable water investment climate for private companies, regulation on the socializa-

tion program is also developed (i) to increase water production, (ii) to improve quality and service coverage mainly in the inaccessible area, and (iii) to reduce leakage level through repair of water distribution network, especially in the area with high leakage. To achieve the goals, these regulations offer six cooperation schemes: Scheme 1: Investment for Comprehensive system; investors are to invest their capital for comprehensive system development, from production unit to distribution network and home connection. This investment is conducted in the area having no access to urban water distribution network. Scheme 2: Investment for Production unit; investors are to invest their

Small scale water provider (the Hiep An Co. Ltd) that become SAWACO partner.


April 2006


capital for production unit development. Water production is sold to urban water company. This investment is conducted in the area having access to SAWACO but always exposed to lack of water and low pressure. Scheme 3: Investment for network improvement; investors are to invest their capital to improve and develop overall distribution network in the certain area. This investment is conducted in the area having access to SAWACO distribution with high leakage level. Scheme 4: Investment for water transport; investors are to invest their capital to supply water in the remote area by taking water from urban water company. Transport cost is partly borne by SAWACO. Scheme 5: Investment for performance development in the production unit; investors are to invest their capital to improve and develop performance in the production unit. Sales profit will be shared proportionally between urban water company and investors. Scheme 6: Investment for distribution network; investors are to invest their capital to develop new distribution network and distribute the water from SAWACO main meters. Until today, investors are interesting in most schemes except scheme 6, some have been in operation and some other are still in negotiation or contract. In addition to those schemes, regulations also provide other aspects such as jointoperation/investment procedure and delivery mechanism in the end of contract term or when service area has been covered by urban water company. Another interesting thing to investors is incentives, from easy access to land use, tax exemption, even for imported goods or equipments, investors are free of import duty. However, small scale water providers shall meet standard service

scale water providers and community, but also by government of Ho Chi Minh City and urban water company. Besides increasing water access for the community, this program also encourages SAWACO to improve its performance in giving public service. Today, its service coverage is growing. According to SAWACO, community served by pipeline system is 74%, and since 2005, SAWAC has successfully made profit.

adopted by urban water company, either technical or quality standard. For the reason, the government of Ho Chi Minh City requires SAWACO to provide technical assistance for the small scale water providers. Benefits of the innovative undertakings are not only received by small

Ho Chi Minh City People's Committee

eople's Committee is executive agency that holds central role in Socialist Republic of Vietnam. This agency is available in all governmental levels from central to ward (equivalent to village/kelurahan in Indonesia). People's Committee is elected by People's Council (legislatives), and People's Council is elected directly by people through general election. People's Committee in Ho Chi Minh City consists of 1 Chairman, 4 Deputies, and 7 members, which represent city governmental agencies such as police department, army, and all departments of the city level (equivalent to service). Members of People's Committee are usually heads of the departments.

Water Supply to the Poor In general, small scale water providers supply water to the area inaccessible by formal provider, which is commonly inhabited by the poor. In Ho Chi Minh City, water supply to the poor is not only conducted by small scale water providers but also public service providers such as SAWACO, including for the poor living in the illegal settlement. This policy is just made by government of Ho Chi Minh City, while in the previous time public service providers are not allowed to give service to the people living in the illegal settlement. This policy is made upon consideration that water is the basic need for all people including the poor and having no land title. However, according to Deputy Director of Urban Transportation & Public Work, provision of this basic need doesn't mean to legalize land use, thus if city government will use the land, illegal inhabitants should leave the area. In order for low incomers to access the water service, public service providers should apply rate block or progressive rate, in which the lowest consumption block will be charged below production cost. (Lina Damayanti)
Visit to Vietnam Report


April 2006


SMU 34 Jakarta, the Winner of National UKS Competition

UKS, not a symbol of Healthy School

reeze is blowing to welcome every guest in the school. A big shady tree is swinging its leaves. Just in the portal, a terraced water pool makes splattering sound. The green plants adorn each corner of the school. Such nuance is harmonized with light green paint of the wall and sports field. Any corner of the school displays notices of keeping cleanliness, say no to drugs, no smoking in school area, and beware of dengue fever. Dustbin, for organic and inorganic waste, is posted in front of the classroom. In the outer wall, flower vases are hanging with stems creeping downward. Every classroom is equipped with AC and washbasin. Model classroom is equipped with two washbasins. In the school having 8,747 m2 area, we find none derelict room. Behind this 3-floor school, students plant home herbal crops. In the other corner of the school, students raise birds in the giant cage. There is also recycle house to convert waste into useful things. That is condition of State Senior High School (SMU) 34 Jakarta. Established on 13 September 1978, this school bears mission to increase student involvement in the environmentalfriendly school program. Target of being environmental-friendly school has come true. This is more remarkable upon success of the school to win the 2005 National UKS (School Health Program) Competition. Not surprisingly to say that the school is reference for other


Schools environment always clean and green.

schools in Indonesia in the UKS and environmental program. Long Process Realizing a healthy school is not easy. It needs long time and hard work. In 2000 ago, the school had been renovated. Spirit shown by headmaster and teachers to realize vision and mission is considerable. This all brings the school as one of the top best in Jakarta. Outcome of this success is that UKS is placed in a special attention, which in the past it was less important for some schools even left unattended. "Previously UKS was integrated with youth Red Cross (PMR) in the small room," said Septina Wibarini, SPd, teacher and UKS SMU 34 coordinator. As with growing demand however,

UKS should stand independently. "Few students are always unconscious during ceremony. That's why we consider to prepare a special treatment room," she remembered again. From the time, UKS is revived by using a room in the corner of the school. In the early phase, this room just contained one simple table and sleeping bed. However, upon motivation and fund subsidized by school in cooperation with relevant institutions such as Health Service, National Education Service and Puskesmas (Local Clinic), the school succeeded in the UKS development. These institutions gave hand in the form of medicines, cupboards, and sleeping beds. Since then UKS has quite complete facilities. Now, the UKS has four permanent sleeping beds and one


April 2006


emergency beds and one dental chair. There are also medicine case and other health extension equipments. This UKS occupies 6 x 8 m room. "A good UKS should have at least four sleeping beds for one thousand students, physicians, and dental clinic," explained Septina. Activities UKS is open every school hour. One picket or more is standby every rest hour. They are Youth Health Cadres (KKR) serving any students that want to get treatment, or assisting physician on call. From Monday to Thursday, there is a physician on call, namely dentist and general practitioner, in shift. "The KKR member can immediately give minor treatment to their friend. If physician in on call, they serve as nurses," said Septina. Every year, UKS workgroup of this school recruits new cadres. About 30 students are recruited as KKR member every year or every generation. They get special training on handling minor accident, sexology, narcotics, and AIDS. This training involves relevant institutions and NGOs. Sometime, KKR members involve in extension program in the Puskesmas. "They are core cadres of school health program," Septina confirmed. About physicians, this teacher of biology explained that they come from students' parents. "They work here voluntarily. Especially dentists, they work under agreement," she said and explained that these dentists are hired based on parents and teachers during registration of new students, while for prescribed medicines, the school, via school committee, has established special budget every year. Every Friday, UKS and its cadres initiate mosquito control program (PSN) in the school. This activity involves al students for half an hour. UKS cadres serve as health team when SMU 34 students arrange outbound


UKS is open every school hour. One picket or more is standby every rest hour. They are member of Youth Health Cadres (KKR)

be associated with health," said the teacher and UKS pioneer. Meanwhile, KKR members serve as change agent for other students to pursue healthy life. School facilities and infrastructures are also conditioned to support the program. Today, there are 36 special washrooms for 24 classrooms. Drainage also gets attention, including waste management. "So, school health doesn't always mean UKS," Septina affirmed. Challenges Maintaining is more difficult than acquiring. This phrase also applies to UKS SMU 34. The problem lies on the KKR recruitment, not because it is difficult to recruit the KKR cadre, but how to impart a spirit of the winning team as they performed last year. "Their spirit is different from the predecessors'. It is likely that they're less forged," said Septina while explaining that first generation of UKS has remarkable spirit. Besides maintaining UKS, the workgroup still has another obsession, namely they will build a public clinic for the poor. The obsession is to realize school's social awareness. "This is our dream," concluded Septina waiting the dream come true. Good luck. (MJ)

activities such as sport match and others. Effects Septina explained that UKS helps increasing students' understanding of health and the relevant issues. For example, AIDS issues. Programs designed by UKS make students AIDS literate. Besides, students can make direct consultation with school physician in case they have a disease. "For sure, they are more care for healthy life. And an important thing is that they can easily get medicine when they get ill, free of charge," she said in a smile. UKS existence will inevitably motivate all school persons to success the program. "Almost every subject should



April 2006


Water Supply and Sanitation Working Group (Pokja AMPL) of Banten Province Going with Spirit and Commitment
o money, no program. This is a common myth always encountered by Indonesian bureaucrats. It is most likely that money is the key. Is this myth eliminated? The answer is: Yes. Water Supply and sanitation working group of Banten Province is one that can make it true. This team was established in 2003. Although no money and incorporation legality, this working group went forward until Governor Decision was issued two years later (2005). Incorporation of WSES working group of Banten Province was triggered by activities of National Working group and WASPOLA held in Yogyakarta in 2003. Banten participants then established a Provincial working group. On the other side, provincial government itself was committed to support this effort since water and sanitation coverage in this province was still low. Water coverage was 64.35% and sanitation coverage was 53.64% of total population of 8,939,946 individuals. Another triggering factor was frequent visit by National Working Group. Therefore, this activity runs although without money. A lack of budget to fuel this Working group is due to administrative problem of the local government. It is required that budget should be allocated clearly whereas this cannot be realized since incorporation legality is not issued yet. Since its establishment, the working group with membership being representatives of Bapeda, BPM, Bapedal, He-

alth Service, Educational Service and Public Work Service arranged monthly coordination meeting, sometimes held at the beginning of the month. Furthermore, additional meeting was sometimes held in a month. Budget for all working group's activities, either meeting or outbound activities, is charged to the relevant parties in shift. In other words, they subsidize the working group. Existence of the working group without legality is not apart from concern of the Working group Leader, which is also the then Head of Bappeda, Ir. H. Hilman Nitiamidjaya. He was the only echelon one official actively involved in the organization. Besides, role of Governor and Provincial Secretary should not be undermined as well. The triumvirate officials always served as inviters in the working group activities. As result, spirit and commitment of those officials were transmitted among working group members. Activity of Pokja AMPL Banten is prominent among others'. From 20 working group available, it is likely that Pokja AMPL is the one with frequent and continuous activities. It is then a "trade mark" for other sectors as well as cities/regencies in Banten Province to do the same. In 2005, the Pokja AMPL was legalized upon the issuance of Governor of Banten Province Decision No. 618/Kep.173-Huk/2005v dated 2 May 2005 regarding incorporation of Pokja AMPL Banten. The team has 20 members consisting of 10 members from echelon IV,

7 members from echelon III, 2 members from echelon II and 1 member from echelon I. The relevant institutions are Bapeda, Bapedal, BPM, Health Service, Educational Service and Public Work Service. Since then, Pokja has its own operational budget. In 2005, budget allocated to BPM was Rp. 127,500,000.. In 2006, budget allocated to BPM, Bapeda and Health Service increased Rp. 215 million. Socialization Socialization plays important role for the successful program, including AMPL. Socialization is directed toward all stakeholders including DPRD (Local House of Representative). The process has been conducted so far although individually, but the outcome is not bad. New Leader of Pokja AMPL of Banten Province, Ir. Harmin Lanjumin, advised that DPRD (Local House of Representative) support is great. According to him, the DPRD agrees to allocate budget to this sector provided that there should be real activities that touch lower level community. For bureaucrats, NGO, and university, the existence of this Pokja is well known. This is because they always involve in the activities held by Pokja AMPL. Regency/city government in the province has also recognized Pokja. Even, three of six regency governments have acknowledged community-based program of AMPL, namely Lebak Regency, Pandeglang Regency and Tangerang City, while Serang Regency, Tangerang Regency and Cilegon City


April 2006



will follow the same this year. Restrictions As a new working group using the new approach, it is reasonable if Pokja AMPL is facing restrictions in the implementation of the work program. The data shows that restrictions available are as follows: Lack of valid data on water and sanitation coverage Less attention from local government to water and sanitation (AMPL) development, which implies to limited fund Inadequate people's awareness of clean and healthy life behavior Work program in local level has not been implemented yet Lack of concrete cooperation between local government, NGO and commu-

nity in the AMPL development. Today, stakeholders, especially DPRD (Local House of Representative), are waiting for the implementation of the program. They find that it takes too long to make dissemination and socialization. Thus, it is possible that DPRD will cut off budget allocation to the sector. Pokja Activities During 2005, Pokja AMPL Banten has facilitated establishment of Pokja AMPL in Lebak Regency, Pandeglang Regency and Tangerang City. All 2005 work program has been implemented except one, namely Public Dialog, which will be realized this year. Pokja also provides CLTS training and development in three villages, namely Parigi, Kertasana and Rahayu Villages of Pandeglang Regency. Besides, the Pokja facilitates

socialization of Pamsimas and SANIMAS programs. This year, Pokja AMPL Banten will arrange 15 activities such as road show in regencies/cities that have not involved in AMPL program; public dialog with regency/city; finalization of draft AMPL strategic plan to make it definitive and looking forward to Governor Decision; regular coordination meeting in provincial, regency and national levels; hearing with Pokjanas (National Working group), WASPOLA and foreign donors; following training held by Pokjanas; organizing national, provincial and regency workshops' accomplishing APML data; assistance and work visit to regency/city; synchronization of 2007 Pokja AMPL program/implementation; and monitoring and evaluation.

Ir. Harmin Lanjumin, Leader of Pokja AMPL of Banten Province
okja AMPL Banten has been over two years. What can we expect now for the implementation? We have allocated budget to Health Service and BPM; now, what will we do with the budget? About preparation, Provincial Working group is ready, and it should be followed by regency/city working group because they will be in direct contact with the people. DPRD (Local House of Representative) has afforded financial support to this sector. All they expect is implementation of the program. They don't want to know that the budget is expended only for holding numbers of meeting. So there is no much time by focusing only to community empowerment. AMPL has been two years old; the DPRD likes to see reality other than strategic plan. If result is clear, they will increase budget. That is their commitment. So, socialization should not take too much time to do. I think water and sanitation (AMPL) development is very effective for the people, especially relating to health. regency/city working group. I always say, "Never confusing about money." In fact, we could make action without money. Now Pokja AMPL is a model for other institutions and Pokja. Even some foreign donors visit Pokja AMPL Banten to see our condition, which they consider successful. Existence of Pokja can eliminate sector-centric because Pokja itself involves in the activities. It means that Pokja also makes control. The relevant institutions also involve and even request to be controlled by Pokja. They are not offended if we give them ideas. We hope Pokja will go forward in the future along with fact that former Leader of Pokja, Ir. H. Nitiamidjaya, MM is appointed as Secretary Local Government. We hope he will give more attention to Pokja. I think that Banten people will not be healthy and get substandard life if they always drink inappropriate water.

Saprudin, Pokja member from BPM

ctually empowerment model has been established before Pokja AMPL exists. However, it is sectoral and scattered. With Pokja, those activities will be directed well. There will be agreement and meeting to determine direction of AMPL development.

reviously I was confusing of how to build Pokja (working group) without money. But I could remove such confusion. We then made action without money and legality. Accordingly, I use the same way to encourage

Ir. H. Nuryanto, MM, member of Pokja AMPL Banten

Rustiantoko, anggota Pokja AMPL dari Bapedal

Previously clean water and sanitation project (APBL) was available. Each sector has its own program. Now, the relevant institutions may involve in the program by using the same data. It means that all components will move in one point. Pokja will ensure success, togetherness, and sustainability. (MJ)



April 2006


Lost Water Source, Scarce Course

eople never think that their water has gone away. They live at the foot of Mountain Anjasmoro for tens of years without lacking water from Kali Sekopek. Therefore, when WSLIC 2 project existed in this area in 2003, Kali Sekopek is one of three sources, Luh and Benda Putih sources, for people of Banaran Village, Kandangan Sub-district, Kediri Regency of East Java Province. Until one morning, 24 January 2006, large flood swept away Kandangan area and the vicinity, which was available in slope of Mountain Anjasmoro. Sungai River, the so-called river, as the main of Kali Sekopek overflowed. The flood brought large mass of water, woods, mud and rocks. The flood taking six tolls dead and destroying teens of houses in Medowo River, 1 km from Banaran Village, blocked upstream of Kali Sekopek. Ongoing flow from the big river never drops anymore at Sekopek River. Upstream of the river is now only a bulk of irremovable boulders. Sekopek River is but a monument, waterless river. People of RW 1, Putuk Hamlet of Banaran Village which usually rely on this river are now desperate. Water flow to houses stopped for two days. Hadi Suwito, Head of Banaran Village and Chairman of HIPAM (Water Consumers Association) Margorukun explained that such condition has forced HIPAM board to find the way to run water back to their homes. As emergency alternative, people run the creek


Dried off: Sekopek River spring is bone-dry

to collection tank provided before. "The important thing, we have water," he said. This creek's water debit is small. Therefore they block the flow using sand sacks. Tens of sand sacks were put in rows. And water intake from Sekopek River was removed to this source. The result is not bad. Water flows again. But, people should be patient. Water is given in shift, yet it is dirty and odor. "In the past water of Kali Sekopek was clean," Hadi said. WSLIC 2 plant delivered in 2005 was serving 3133 families or 1,800 indi-

viduals available in one hamlet or 17 RTs. In addition to water lost, a main collection tank of 7 m3 capacity does not operate anymore. Hadi explained that his people do not have any alternatives so far to replace water of Kali Sekopek. If there were any adequate alternatives however, his people would be ready to give contribution. "People have no problem to collect money because they fully rely on the board," Hadi confirmed. Hendra CF that ever assisted WSLIC 2 in the village contended that there are two alternatives available, namely to


April 2006



Emergency: Residents make emergency dam to catch water

maintain the existing emergency water source or to take water from Medowo River through pipe. Limitation of the former is that water contains mud, small debit and often dried during dry season. However, it is cost saving. Limitation of the latter is that it needs large cost to procure pipe of over 1,200 m long. However, the water runs along

the year. "I think the latter is appropriate but it depends on people and fund availability," Hendra said. Hendra valuated that pipe procurement requires about Rp. 25 million. It excludes installation and intake base cost. "This is rough valuation. We have not considered pipe safety and other factors," he said and added that pipe

theft ever occurred in the source location, while it was close to the village. Hadi Suwito admitted that he never thinks so far. Moreover, his side has no idea where to find such fund that he ever got from the WSLIC 2 project. Since disaster, people have never arranged meeting to discuss their water fate in the future. All to be done is to take emergency response to damaged installation. "People can actually make contribution, but it is surely not imposed on them, isn't it?" he said. People contribution of Rp. 1,500 per family per month, which has been collected so far was expended for maintenance cost. Even HIPAM board is not paid for the work. Today, since water is clogged, people do not pay contribution anymore, except those continuously receiving water from Bendo Putih source (51 families) and Luh source (50 families). Water installation in Bandaran is different from that in Medowo. In Medowo, whole water installations from WSLIC 2 project is totally defect. As result, local government of Kediri regency allocates fund for settlement repair, including water facility. Meanwhile, Banaran as affected village, is out of attention. (MJ)

anaran village is situated in the foot of Mountain Anjasmoro. Topographically, it lies in the hillside, northeast of Kediri Regency. It is bordered by Jombang Regency. Population totaled 2,200 individuals. They live from agriculture and plantation. Water is the main problem for the people. Previously, they took water from the creek crossing in the Perum Perhutani area. Water management was self-supported by people. Those living in the downstream can get water by digging wells. When WSLIC 2 project entered in 2003, people welcomed them enthusiastically. They gave contribution as required to get the project. In the ti-

Banaran at G l a n c e
me being, every person was willing to pay in cash. With MPA/PHAST process, people determined themselves what to be built. There were three options, namely pipeline, manual well and pump well. Second alternative was difficult to meet because well depth varies, some might reach 50 m deep, while third alternative was not chosen due to high maintenance cost. Finally, first

alternative was chosen. People flowed three water sources available in the village. The three sources were situated in Perum Perhutani area. Each of them was allocated for different people as per distance, house location and water capacity. Therefore, fund collected was also different. For those getting water from Bendo Putih should contribute Rp. 20,000/month; from Luh was Rp. 18,000/month and from Sekopek was Rp. 26,000/month. Before disaster, all goes smoothly. People's contribution was also adequate. But since the incident, water flow is sluggish. (MJ)



April 2006

I N T E RV I E W Director of Multilateral Foreign Financing of Bappenas, Delthy S. Simatupang, SH.

Project Preparation is a Decisive Factor

ational Budget is not adequate to meet the development demand. The government should inevitably borrow from foreign creditors. Until December 2005, Government of Indonesia's debt to foreign creditors totaled US$ 61.048 billion. Such amount was 45% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Government proposes to reduce credit amount by settling the credit that has been already allocated, clearance of the credit in progress, and taking into full consideration when establishing new credit proposal. On the other side, the government will take necessary efforts to increase GDP growth through an increase in investment and improved economic foundation as well as maintaining stability of macro economy. In 2009, foreign loan will expectedly reduce to 31.8% of GDP.

Today, Bappenas is establishing Government Borrowing Strategy to improve foreign loan management. From macro economy, the strategy includes demand and usage plan of the foreign loan for 2006-2009. From micro economy, the strategy includes strict evaluation on project proposal through three screening devices, namely focus on priority, criteria of project implementation and preparation, and improved and evaluation quality. The only wellprepared and qualified project will get foreign loan, while the unprepared ones will be removed away. To know more about foreign loan and its relation to the new strategy, the following is presented interview between Percik and Director of Multilateral Foreign Financing, Delthy S. Simatupang, SH.

sectors. Provided water and sanitation sector is priority for the government, it should always be financed from both sources. Where do we get financing sources come so far? We divide the sources into three: first, bilateral countries; second, multilateral agencies (ADB, World Bank, European Community, etc.); and third, commercially. Meanwhile, credit itself is divided into three, namely grant, soft credit and commercial credit, and from soft and commercial credits, we know such a mix credit. What characteristics of the credit? Characteristics of one credit to another are different. Bilateral credit is commonly soft credit with 25-40 years installment period and 0.75-2.5% interest. There is usually grace period of 5-7 years. Credits differ based on their characteristics, namely tied and untied. Tied means that goods and services should be procured by creditors. United means that goods and services may be procured through international competition. There is also exception, for example Japan, where 30% goods should be procured from Japan and the remaining may be done through international competition. Multilateral credit is usually general untied. Which is cheaper, bilateral or multilateral?

s it likely that we don't rely on foreign loan in water and sanitation sector? We don't need to rely on foreign loan as long as our APBN is adequate. However, water and sanitation sector has been included into World MDGs. If we see, to achieve the 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), we will be left behind when only relying on our National Budget (APBN), while we cannot even make investment for water sector. Mr. Basah ever stated that we need Rp. 15 trillion to meet only clean water, not drink water. Until today, our APBN cannot subsidize such amount. Therefore, if we only rely on APBN, we'll need too long to realize the MDGs, maybe until 2030. So, foreign loan is one financing

source to accelerate MDGs in this sector. I think we still need foreign loan. Is there guarantee that using foreign loan, we will achieve the goals? At least we will approach the expected condition in 2015. How's the trend of this sector financing in the future? If our APBN tends to recovery, we will use APBN and PHLN (Foreign Loan) to finance this sector. This is a reasonable choice although it will change financing composition. If APBN gets recovered, the portion will be better as well. We hope that PHLN portion will be reduced. This certainly applies to all


April 2006


There are two opinions based on project operators' experiences. Conventional bilateral is cheaper based on cost of borrowing. However it is much more expensive based on cost project since it is tied. On the other hand, the International Competitive Bidding (ICB) has high cost of borrowing but lower cost of project since it is obtained from international competitive bidding. The bilateral one is LCB (Limited Competitive Bidding), meaning that it is only tendered in the donor country. We can imagine how could it be if companies in the relevant country regulate the pricing and bear higher cost from the set tender. The price will not as competitive as in ICB. We just choose which one we prefer. How far does the bidder/project owner involve in project quotation during preparation phase? The important thing is that owner estimate should be well supported. This is what the project owner must take into account. In determining price unit, they should know in detail. Experiences indicated so far that owner estimate is dominantly worked on by external technical assistance so that the price is more expensive. Therefore, to avoid higher cost, government should provide money for preparation of the project. Why should the project be expensive? Because we usually get the price from PPTA or TA of the creditor. This makes larger size of the project and this relates to portfolio of their credit. Just make sense. Consultant is paid by them other than by our government in providing us technical assistance. It is reasonable that their ownership is in the donor country, not in ours. The design is therefore more expensive. The problem now is that the government does not provide money for preparation of the project. If any, it is not sufficient so that preparation is taken over by the foreign consultant. If this is not fixed, the ownership will be highly insufficient. This occurs during pre-design phase, then how if this occurs during negotiation phase. I often find that during negotiation, donors or their consultants talk more. This indicates that their ownership is small. We cannot expect that project runs well if the ownership issue emerges since in the design phase. posal and negotiation is the most critical one. We will consider it carefully and we will apply the so-called readiness criteria. Why should we be stringent in the readiness criteria? Because complying with all criteria will reduce issues available in the project implementation. We have evaluated the project for the recent 10 years of why the projects are not on time, project extension does not run, etc. We find, for example, issues of land provision, assistance fund, and other minor issues such PMU and PMG that should be established from the beginning. We want that all issues have been fixed from the beginning. So far, the issues are not clear. We used to go for negotiation with unclear issues. As result, as we execute negotiation, the project does not run. And as consequence, we should pay the so-called unnecessary commitment charge, which means government loss. The project will take longer time and this also bears cost and benefit will change. For example, we would like to build water facility in a city. It should be completed in 2012 but it is in fact completed in 2012. This is beyond the schedule. And service coverage will be smaller because of increase in population. We do not pay attention to this so far and we tend to work out of procedure. Creditors do not care because upon execution of contract, they receive 1%. Bank remains a bank although it is a development bank. They do not know free charge. Therefore, we should take it seriously into account regarding the readiness criteria. Does it mean there is a change in paradigm in relation to project preparation? Our previous experiences showed that when we want to make negotiation, they (creditors) set out such criteria. But

Therefore, to avoid higher cost, government should provide money for preparation of the project. Why should the project be expensive? Because we usually get the price from PPTA or TA of the creditor. This makes larger size of the project and this relates to portfolio of their credit.
So, the projects do not run well just because of ownership issue? Ownership is not large because it all depends on consultant. The project ownership is under question. Does it mean that project preparation crucial? Preparation of the project is crucial. We in Bappenas will be strict in making preparation of the project, from preparatory work, negotiation, until monitoring. It means that we should have quality since presentation of the idea. This is called quality at entry. This will be in the bluebook. So it has been selected from national priority, budget and suitability with Mid-Term Development Plan. When the project enters into the bluebook, it means that project is ready to be funded through foreign loan. After that, the project will compete again in our proposal to donor country. And we will see again selection of priority among sectors. Timeframe between pro-



April 2006


it is not negotiation criteria but postnegotiation criteria. What happened then? After negotiation we cannot meet the criteria. Now we reverse, we will not make negotiation if not meeting the criteria. They got shocked because there was no one stepping forward for negotiation. From creditor side, they'll lose market. Finally, all portfolios were reduced. World Bank's reduced. Just imagine, from US$1.2 billion it reduced to US$100-200 million. ADB's even got zero. Now, project with good preparation will result in good implementation. Therefore, readiness criteria should be considered either local government or the relevant ministry. How to make effective and efficient foreign loan? Project preparation is so crucial. Now Bappenas is establishing the borrowing strategy, which provides our borrowing capacity and the projects funded from foreign loan should be derivative of projects under Mid-Term Development Plan. The project is no more standing alone. We're looking forward that the strategy will reduce government loan to 31.8% in 2009. And we can control our loan stock. Thus we can allocate the loan to each priority sector and each sector will have ceiling value. With fixed borrowing capacity, creditors will compete to finance the projects. For example, our borrowing capacity is US$2.5 billion per annum. With large number of creditors, the value offered may be three folds larger. However, we can only borrow such extent so that they will compete to fund the projects. Thus, project preparation will be better and put in priority. Besides, we also have to be discipline against foreign budget. It is different now. Each ministry wants to borrow according to its demand. For example, if US$2.5 billion were to be borrowed by Ministry of Public Work, it might be all for the Ministry of Public

Work. Now it must be shared. This is exactly for ready and priority project. And this is not only for the project having cost recovery but also for social projects. This never occurs before.

Project organization Financing plan and provision of assistance fund Preparation of goods and services procurement document in the first year Land relinquishment and people relocation (for physical project) Establishment of project achievement indicators as basis for monitoring and evaluation Project implementation directive

government. Loan for local government has its own criteria. One of them is measured from their fiscal capacity. Many local governments do not meet such given criteria. It means that local government is not eligible for the loan, whereas water is the basic need. This is a dilemma. On the other side, eligible local government may borrow through central government; this is called onlanding. This also bears problem because they're not willing to do so. They only want the fund is used for cost recovery project so that they can settle the loan. Meanwhile, water and sanitation, especially for the poor, are included into non cost recovery. Local government will not take the loan for such purpose. How to solve the problem? Today, Ministry of Finance is processing KMK 35 for revision. There is also revision of Ministry of Finance Regulation for on granting. We hope this will give contribution to problem solution. Is it likely that we cannot expect grant? Grant is always available but the amount is not large, so that we cannot expect them as development fund. The amount is not significant. Grant given to us is more related to preparation of the project. We even call them foreder. Therefore, we should be careful when receiving such grant because it could undercover loan. This is important for us to identify and anticipate. PPTA (Project Preparation Technical Assistance) could in turn undercover the loan, except IDTA from ADB, which is soft loan. To be or not, it doesn't matter. So that, relevant ministries and local government should take necessary care when receiving any grants because PPTA is tied although it does not mention the same. (MJ)

With the project preparation, will it not delay implementation of the project? Actually the project should not be delayed. On the other hand, better preparation of the project will accelerate project implementation. Project preparation is inadequate so far and thus implementation is delayed. Therefore, preparation should require longer time. What would be challenges in the future encountered by AMPL sector in relation to foreign loan? AMPL sector has its own challenges. These relate to application of Law No. 33 regarding decentralization. It means that with this Law, AMPL issue has been authorized to local government. Intervention of central government should be eliminated. In fact, capacity of local government is limited. And central government will finally make intervention. No problem if the funding sources are from APBN (National Budget). But if the fund is originating from foreign loan, it will bring about the problem because the financing should be for local


April 2006



Small Scale Water Providers Workshop in North Jakarta

mall Scale Water Providers is an inevitable issue. This is because there is an urgent need by people and, on the other side, water company cannot cover all community levels. To know more about their role of water provision, a Small Scale Water Providers Workshop was held on 23 February 2006 ago in North Jakarta. This workshop was attended by representative of relevant institutions (Bappenas, PU, Depdagri, BPPSPAM), relevant services of DKI Jakarta Province, sub-districts and villages in the North Jakarta, water operators (PAM Jaya, TPJ, and Regulatory Body), Settlement Research and Development Center of PU, Hydroconseil Consultant, NGO, WASPOLA and Pokja AMPL. The workshop was opened by Director of Housing and Settlement of Bappenas, Basah Hernowo. He stated that limited access to adequate and safe water facility remains unsolved. According to him, some people have not obtained service from formal providers and most of them are the poor. This group of people will be then consumers of Small Scale Water Providers (SSWPs). Therefore, we should consider the role SSWPs will play in the future. The workshop was filled with presentation being divided in two sessions. First session discussed about results of the study on Small Scale Water Providers. The presentation produced some important results as follows: Results of study in five cities (Bandung, Subang, North Jakarta, Palembang and Makassar) showed that

Small Scale Water Providers give contribution to approximately 2% of service coverage. This study also showed second potential of 8% of the people using other alternatives such as public well, river and rainwater.

The workshop was filled with presentation being divided in two sessions. First session discussed about results of the study on Small Scale Water Providers.

In general, SSWPs service is divided into three: (i) pipeline to house, (ii) tank truck and (iii) cart. Besides, service pattern also varies per city; the most variable is Bandung with eight patterns and the least variable is Makassar with three patterns. This variation is considered relating to availability of standard water; the more limited standard water, the less service pattern can be established. For further SSWPs service, this study showed that pipeline service is in the top rank followed by tank truck and cart. Study conducted in North Jakarta showed that only 50% North Jakarta people obtain service from Formal Scale Water Providers, while the

remaining depend on other sources including SSWPs. There are four SSWPs service patterns in the North Jakarta area: (i) cart vendor, (ii) tank truck vendor, (iii) small terminal vendor and (iv) pipelining. The dominant pattern is cart vendor. For North Jakarta case, SSWPs generally depends highly on formal ones. Until today, however, water resale right to the areas uncovered by formal providers or illegal settlement has not been stipulated by government. Besides, the government has not issued any regulations on small scale water providers regarding permit, service area, quality and standard pricing. International experience showed that authorized small scale water providers can render continuous service with equal quality as the formal ones but with lower price than their illegal counterparts. For development of SSWPs regulatory body in Indonesia, recommendations are made, for example, planning and regulation should involve SSWPs, formal agreement/permit with key SSWPs for definitive term until formal providers can cover the service. Discussion is aimed at making SSWPs partner of formal providers in expanding their service coverage as alternative solution until the formal provider can serve the coverage area. Service offered by formal providers remains the best alternative because it can give better and coverable service than SSWPs'.



April 2006


Seminar on Water Management at the Consumer Level

n order to disseminate alternative water management using simple and cheap technology at the community level, Indonesian Communication Forum for Water Quality Management (FORKAMI) and USAID Environmental Services Program (ESP) held seminar on Water Management at the consumer level at on 27 February 2005 in Jakarta. The seminar was opened by Chairman of FORKAMI, Abdul Mutholib. According to him, people are less aware of drink water quality they use. On the other side, water policy is more directed to pipeline use other than water management at the consumer level. "Another

way is then required to obtain safe and healthy water," he said. He considers that this measure is important because PDAM service coverage is still low, about 23%. Beyond this, community consume runoff or well as their drink water. Process by community is sometimes less hygienic so that diarrhea is easily found everywhere as result of unhygienic water. This seminar was attended three keynote speakers, namely Aman Tirta with Air Rahmat program, Yayasan Dian Desa with Solar Water Disinfectant (SODIS) and PUR, and BPLDH DKI Jakarta with Plered ceramic filter. Air

Rahmat is water purifier containing 1.25% sodium hypochlorite. This substance is simply mixed with unboiled water as per given dose. SODIS is to expose unboiled water in the transparent media under direct sunlight for several hours so that heat produced will synergize with ultraviolet killing bacteria in water. 4-5 hours heating under temperature of 50oC will be able to kill E. coli in the water. Meanwhile, PUR is a water purifier that produces clean and ready-to-drink water, and Plered ceramic filter layered with silver colloid, from study result, is able to kill bacteria and produce ready-to-drink water.

his year, the government will issue national water and sanitation program. The program is called Community-Based Water and Sanitation Program (PAMSIMAS). As preparation of the program, a workshop was held on 18-19 January 2006 in Jakarta, which aimed at creating community-based water and sanitation model. With the model, the program can be replicated widely into various similar activities throughout Indonesia. This workshop was attended by representatives of 15 provinces consisting including representatives of BAPPEDA and Pubic Work Service. The session was opened by Director General of Urban Development Plan of Public Work Ministry, Ir. Agoes Widjanarko, MIP. He outlined PAMSIMAS program and expected goals of the PAMSIMAS Workshop I. The workshop was filled with presentation by Bappenas, CPMU WSLICK 2, DJCK and Bappeda Lumajang. First

presentation was entitled "Nilai Strategis Proyek PAMSIMAS dalam Pencapaian Tujuan Air minum dan Sanitasi" by Director of Housing and Settlement of Bappenas, Basah Hernowo. The following paper was presented by D Wan Alkhadri and Zaenal I. Nampira of CPMU WSLIC 2 regarding experiences of WSLIC 2 management.On the day two, Director of DJCK Program Development, Djoko Muryanto, explained about Community-Based Water and Sanitation National Program (PAMSIMAS). The workshop produced several inputs and agreements such as: There should be coordination, definite reporting mechanism, integrated planning and management for program monitoring and evaluation in the local level There should be extension and hard work by provincial government for program socialization, especially for disadvantaged people

Selection of regency/city that is eligible to participate in the PAMSIMAS program using BPS (Central Bureau of Statistics) data, except West Sulawesi Province that has no such data. They will use data of disadvantage regency/city. There should be additional selection criteria with the statement of willingness to pay operating and management costs and community's contribution. Result of the workshop will be followed by similar workshop in the provincial level to choose regency/city that is eligible to follow PAMSIMAS program as per indicative schedule of the provincial workshop. National PAMSIMAS Workshop II by inviting the selected regency/city, which will be held on 1 March 2006. There should be regular meeting at least quarterly to discuss the data.


April 2006



World Water Day 2006

Water and Culture

World Water Day was commemorated on 22 March 2006 ago. The topic for this year is 'Water and Culture.' The topic described a fact that many ways can be taken to see and use water as culture of world community. Water also has sacred value and an important part in the ritual ceremonies. Besides, water is an inspiration of arts, either music, painting, writing and film. Water is an important part of science. Each part in the world has its own way to treat and manage water. Each area knows water as the key to human life. Unsurprisingly that people maintain water in their culture.

World Water Day was pronounced in 1992 in the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) or Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Every year, the topic presented varies. Nevertheless, there is common topic for 2005-2014 decade (Water for Life). This topic reminds everyone in the world to hold responsibility for clean, fresh, comfortable and healthy water for the present and future life. Besides, there should be full awareness that water is not only divided based on sources, but also divided based on scope of responsibility. Similar to previous years, commemoration of World Water Day doesn't speak loudly. People don't care. Even government and private agencies directly relating to water are just calm down, no special move in this event. Only few care for water. As result, World Water Day runs as it is, like water. include disposal of waste to the river, illegal

Open House: Director of PDAM Tirta Kahuripan, Kab. Bogor gives explaination about water treatment to students in open house program.

logging, and inefficient water consumption. "Disposing of waste to the river will hamper PDAM to conduct water management. High complexity will bring impact to high cost of management and operational," she said in the moment of World Water Day held in Cibinong Bogor, West Java Province. Therefore, Ina invited all people to actively involve in securing wise effort in the use and conservation of water resources. According to her, each individual should review water importance as the source of life.

uses this opportunity. The Local owned company uses the moment through small ceremony, revegetation, and open house field trip for SDSMU students. "This is in accordance with PDAM

PDAM Tirta Kahuripan and World Water Day

o far just few PDAM make contribution to World Water Day. PDAM Tirta Kahuripan of Bogor Regency is one who Tirta Kahuripan concept of action, education, and reward," said President Director of PDAM Tirta Kahuripan, Ina Gustina Agoes. He stated that commemoration of World Water Day is a right moment for PDAM to make people aware of improving their water management habit. He mentioned that such bad habits



April 2006


Mission of WSLIC 2 Supervision in Ponorogo and Kediri

n order to know condition of Water and Sanitation for Low Income Community (WSLIC) 2 Project, World Bank together with relevant institutions conducted supervision to two regencies, namely Ponorogo and Kediri in East Java Province on 14-17 February 2006. In the meantime, the mission also was also held in Jember-Lumajang (East Java), West Nusatenggara (NTB), West Sulawesi, and South Sulawesi. Ponorogo The team visited Mrican Village of Jenangan Sub-district and Pomahan Village of Pulung Sub-district. Both villages were selected based on project phase they have passed. Mrican is still in the process, and Pomahan has entered post project phase. Mrican village received WSLIC 2 Project in 2005 and today is in the fourth phase. People build pipeline facility and take water from the spring. The water is taken from the ground using water pump. All facilities have been built and under operation. Main pipeline is embedded in the ground along village road. In the phase, people will build pipeline connection to houses. This water installation will serve 397 families or 1,985 individuals of 1,209 families (4,163 individuals). Before the project, some local people (mid and upper level) have received water from PDAM. However, it is not running well and even always runs out. Some other people, especially the poor,

receive water from the ditch/small river that flows to the village. Before consumed, the water is usually let settle overnight since it is very turbid and brown in color. Although having entered final, people do not have planning that who will be in charge of management and how much people should contribute but it has been proposed to use water meter. The standing issue is legality of the land for water resources. The land belongs to PT. Perhutani. People ever requested Perhutani to grant them permit to use the area but it was not in the area on which pump facility is being built. Meanwhile in Pomahan village, the WSLIC 2 Project has been delivered. Building condition is good. Water facility by using gravitational pipeline still works and water overwhelms. Every family is charged Rp. 2,500. Water facility is managed by BUMD Tirto Aji. This management is integrated with rural mosque management. BUMD board is not paid alias they work voluntarily. According to the board, people contribution is expended for maintenance cost. During rainy season, people contribution is even not adequate because the water is turbid during the season. However, people actively involve in maintaining the facility. They are willing to work together as required. Kediri As in Ponorogo, two villages were

selected to represent under process and post project villages. Banaran village of Kandangan Sub-district represented post project village and Wonorejo Trisulo Village of Plosoklaten Sub-district represented under process village. WSLIC 2 Project entered Banaran Village in 2003. Upon project delivery, building condition is still good and well maintained until disaster hit one of water resources on 24 January 2006. Now people consume emergency water facility with small debit and dirty water. (Read the Story Column for detail). Meanwhile in Wonorejo Trisulo village, people build pipeline facility. Water is taken from river of more than 2 km distance from village. The facility is good. Even the pipeline is built to cross the hill. All is done cooperatively. Women also involve in the excavation of pipeline route. Now heavy-duty facility has been completed. The next phase is pipe connection to houses. Water s the serious problem for this village. Since the location is quite distant, people should finally buy water with higher price and well is quite deep to reach water. Today, people can get clean water from public hydrant built in the some areas of the village. People's concern in the future is condition of water sources. This water comes from the river of lava flow from Mountain Kelud. If the mountain were to explode sometime, water sources would say goodbye.


April 2006



National Workshop on Work Plan Consolidation and Marketing of Local Pokja AMPL
ational Workshop on Work Plan Consolidation and Marketing of Local Pokja AMPL was held on 13-15 March 2005 in Bali. This workshop was attended by delegation of 7 provinces and 25 regencies/cities as areas of implementation of Community-Based Water and Sanitation Program. The workshop was opened by Nugroho Tri Utomo of Bappenas and Russel Abram of WASPOLA. Nugroho explained that achievement of the program implementation in the local level result in valuable experiences. The process will continue with preparation of work plan 2006 and expansion to other regions. Meanwhile Russel explained that WASPOLA 1, for first five years, will focus on policy formulation which results in Community-Based AMPL Program. Furthermore, WASPOLA 2 will focus on implementation of AMPL-BM program in the local level. Today, such activity is conducted in 7 provinces and 25 regencies/cities. In the meantime, Basah Hernowo, Director of Housing and Settlement of Bappenas in his acknowledgement explained that AMPL-BM National Program is formulated as government's awareness of improved people welfare through sustainable AMPL service. This program consists of 11 principles as implementation reference in order to realize sustainability and optimum outcome of the APML facility. According to him, many experiences can be taken from the activities already conducted by each province and regency accompanied by WASPOLA in 2005. He hoped that such experiences will be use-

Various resources should empowered such as consumers, private sector, and even foreign donors

ful in the formulation of work plan in 2006. Another proudly outcome is that local government is in fact able to formulate AMPL strategic plan in the local level. Some areas have even conducted budget calculation in the APML sector toward MDGs. He explained that achievement of MDGs, namely to serve half of uncovered people, requires huge cost, about Rp. 43 trillion until 2015 or Rp 4.3 tri-

llion per annum. Such a huge cost will not be covered by the government itself. Therefore, Basah continued, various resources should empowered such as consumers, private sector, and even foreign donors. The workshop was filled with presentation of the result of activities 2005 and work plan 2006 in the local level. From evaluation on the activities, it is concluded that each region is aware of importance of AMPL data collection. The discussion also found importance of regular data collection. Pokja AMPL itself has coordinated with BPS to input variables into Susenas 2007. Besides, most regions have put in priority AMPL sector in the regional development even with small proportion of budget. Therefore, we should commit to increase AMPL in view of low service coverage of AMPL. (Mat)



April 2006


Training on Total Sanitation Campaign

raining on Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) took place on 1-4 February 2006 in Kebumen of Central Java Province. This training was facilitated by Plan Indonesia and WASPOLA. The event was followed by 42 participants from NGO, Local POKJA AMPL, National POKJA AMPL (Dep.PU, Depkes, Depdagri and Bappenas) and Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS). The training was opened by Oswar Mungkasa from Directorate of Housing and Settlement of Bappenas. He asserted importance of sanitation and water facilities development in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

The training was aimed at introducing approaches and techniques adopted by Plan Indonesia to implement community-based sanitation and hygiene. It is provided in the form of class discussion and field visit. Approaches adopted in this TSC are: (i) sanitation and hygiene through social marketing technique; (ii) establishing moral agreement between government and community on sanitation and water protection, (iii) assisting skill development of local government, community group and individuals to support construction of latrine and other water protection system, (iv) introducing sanita-

tion practice and will support improved sanitation, and (v) supporting community in the system supervision for sustainable sanitation and hygiene program. Participants visited two villages, namely Balorejo village that is still untouched by TSC program and Selotumpeng village that has adopted healthy life practice, namely to go the latrine provided by Plan Indonesia and community self-support. With this training, participants can see, analyze, improve and implement better sanitation and hygiene in their respective work area. (GUS/Riz)

Workshop on the Development of Policy Strategy

n order to agree with implementation of communitybased water and sanitation program, a workshop was held on 25 January 2006 in Jakarta. The event was followed by 33 participants from relevant institutions such as Bappenas, Dep. PU, Depdagri, Depkes, National Pokja AMPL and WASPOLA. The workshop for development of monitoring and evaluation framework was opened by Director of Housing and Settlement of Bappenas, Basah Hernowo. Outcomes of the workshop included nine provinces being places for implementation of program 2006, namely West Sumatera, Banten, Central Java, NTB, South Sulawesi, Gorontalo, Southeast Sulawesi and NTT. Meanwhile for facilitation will be adjusted with development strategy and taskforce of pro-


vincial AMPL. In this event, WASPOLA and National Pokja AMPL presented their work agenda for program implementation. The agenda included consolidated national workshop as result of 2005 program implementation, workshop on program dissemination for new region in the context of adhering to implementation of 2006 program, evaluation of

provincial/regional demand for program implementation, capacity building through training and workshop packages which will be facilitated by WASPOLA, technical assistance in the provincial and regency level upon request, monitoring and evaluation, and coordination meeting for review of program implementation in the regional level, in which one of the meeting will be held in the national level in the form of Water Day Forum by inviting all stakeholders. As follow up of the workshop, monitoring framework was accomplished based on participants' input complete with performance indicators, synchronization of WASPOLA action plan with Pokja AMPL's regarding other activities, and all ministries, including WASPOLA are to make proposal of activities to be funded by Plan International. (GUS)


April 2006



Community Empowerment on Water Supply in Rural Area

ater is a basic need for human being. Unfortunately, it is not distributed evenly as per demand. Today, there are more than 100 million Indonesian people who do not have access to water. Most of them are disadvantaged people and living in the village. Government has made efforts to build water and sanitation facilities in the era of 1970s until 1990s. However because of low participation of the community, the facilities did not continue. Therefore, demand response approach is being developed by involving community in all aspects of planning, implementation and maintenance. This study is aimed at improving sustainable water supply in the village and used effectively by people as well as formulating community empowerment model in the water supply. The study took place in RT 06 and 07 RW O6 Cijayanti Village, Babakan Madang Sub-district of Bogor Regency, West Java Province. The study was conducted in three phases, namely fieldwork I (5-18 June 2003), fieldwork II (8-20 September 2003), and fieldwork III (1-17 November 2004). Participatory approach used was MPA/PHAST. Both RTs are exposed to water deficit during dry season. A total of 51.68% of 567 people were the poor. The village was situated on the massive rocks and sand so that it was not suitable for groundwater deposit in


Government has made efforts to build water and sanitation facilities in the era of 1970s until 1990s. However because of low participation of the community, the facilities did not continue
the long period. On the other side, progressive exploitation of upstream soil, illegal logging and underground water exploitation for real estate developers, which were in excess of

soil absorbability. People get water from "kobakan", namely a pond built by local people in 1988 with contribution per family of Rp. 10,000 - Rp. 15,000. The water is less clean. In case of rainless, the kobakan contained less water so that people should find water in Cikeas River. Facing this condition, people were then facilitated to deal with the problem. They consisted of influential figures in both RTs, either men or women. This activity was conducted through workshop or musyawarah (people's term) as a forum to present their work in the form of identification and work plan. People proposed to build clean water facility in the form of filtration and use of river.



April 2006


They have also established details of working group and cost demand the planning and maintenance. People's proposal was then approved by Village

Head and Sub-district Head and then delivered to Local Government of Bogor Regency and relevant institutions.

The study established community empowerment model in the rural water supply as presented in the following:

PREPARATION 1. Preparing issues 2. Permit 3. Community overview (location, population, local resources, community structure, institutional) 4. Review on community development in the water supply 5. Establishing field work and preparation

REVIEW 1. Selection of candidate together with community leaders 2. Participatory identification of circumstances (identification of community welfare, water consumption, water resource condition, understanding of facility and healthy life behavior, time usage) 3. Analysis of circumstances

(PARTICIPATORY) PLANNING 1. Selection of water facility 2. Establishment of Working group (Pokja) 3. Establishment of water facility sitemap 4. Establishment of budget plan 5. Establishment of Pokja's work plan

FORMULATION OF ACTION PLAN 1. Preparation of Proposal 2. (Participatory) Workshop 3. Delivery of Proposal to financier

(PARTICIPATORY) IMPLEMENTATION To implement Pokja's work plan

Termination Phase

Monitoring and evaluation (participative)

Sumerized from Community Empowerment in Water Provision in Rural. By: Pipip Rif'ah. Post Graduate Program, IPB. 2004


April 2006



Water Purifier (IPA) of Air Mandiri

nly with media and sand, water can be treated into clean water and free from pathogen? Why not? This has been proven by Ir. Irman Djaya, Dipl.SE, M.Eng, official of Ministry of Public Work. This water purifier is called Air Mandiri. This innovation has been adopted in Perumahan Citra Raya Tangerang since 1997 and still works until today. This system uses Slow Sand Filtration (SSF). They key to successful system is: (1) net turbidity unit (NTU) of standard water of about 50 NTU; (2) flow rate through sand of 0.03-0.1 mm/sec; and (3) sand granule of less than 0.5 mm. In general, the process occurring in the sand filtration media is physical separation, deposition, absorption, oxidation (biochemical), and bacteriological activities. In specific, this SSF is a media for microorganism activity which is conditioned as such to live dominantly in the media. The bacteria will kill pathogenic bacteria, developing on the sand substrate and forming layer called Schmutz-decke, name of the founder. This equipment uses reliable, cheap, operable and sustainable principles. Thus, it is suitable for rural areas having high fluctuation of turbidity as commonly found in typical runoff. The SSF system consists of infiltration galleries, oxidizing tank, RSF (Rapid Sand Filtration), SSF, and reservoir. Infiltration galleries serve to reduce turbidity (over 100 NTU). The system does not take water directly from the water column but through galleries built near the water column. From the infiltration galleries, water is pumped or by using gravitational force toward oxi-

dizing tank. RSF serves to increase water quality to hygienically potable water. This purifier has been prepared by Irman using knock down system, so it is ready to install. The material used is fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP), easily installed and taking less than 10 days. The design is also aimed at anticipating long-term demand, namely Water Purifier is removable as required. Result of lab analysis showed that water produced from IPA Air Mandiri has satisfied water standard as covered under Minister of Health RI Regulation No. 907/Menkes/SK/VII/2002. This is shown from the following test result see table below). Price of this simple purifier is 40% cheaper than Large-Scale Water Treatment Plant, while production cost of standard water toward potable water is in fact cheap, only Rp. 37 per m3 (including wage, contingency cost, etc.). This is much lower than production cost of PDAM of about Rp. 1000 per m3 or mineralized water of Rp. 125,000 per m3. Additionally, it is easy to manage, requiring only two personnel without any skill specification. IPA Air Mandiri can be designed as

per desired production capacity, from 0.25; 0.5; 1; 2.5; 5 and 10 liter per second. It depends on fund allocation and sources of standard water available (river, swamp, lake, pond/condensed water). Capacity of 1 liter per second requires an area of 40 m2. This capacity is able to serve 1,000 individuals with consumption rate of 60 liter per individual per day. The water produced is drinkable instantly without boiling. Would you like to try? (MJ)

CHARACTERISTICS OF STANDARD WATER Net Turbidity Unit (NTU) Fe Content Coliform Content Escherichia Coli Germ / mm : 28.5 : 2.55 : 88 : 159

PRODUCT 0.78 0.05 0 0

DEPKES STANDARD 5 0.3 negative 0 0

: positive negative



April 2006


The Miserable Resources

roundwater issues are prominent along with International Ecohydrology Symposium held in Bali last November. Two months before, a national workshop on Groundwater Salvation was held in association with National Save Water Day announced by President Yudhoyono. It means that groundwater is a complex issue in line with 'scarce' of water supply to meet daily needs as well as support other activities (irrigation, industry, etc.). Water issue does not on its availability. Earth provides water of the same proportion since dinosaur era. A total of 97% comes as seawater and only one third does as freshwater and the remainder is in the form of ice (National Geographic Special Edition, November 1993). However, water availability is thought much insufficient. The following is a variety of water resources used by community according to BPS data.
Year 2000 2002 2004 Runoff *) (%) No data 21.64 21.49 Groundwater** (%) 61.32 75.17 76.04 Rainwater (%) No data 2.79 2.66

By: Gustomi R*
operate it, thus people only pay electric cost, although the existing regulations require groundwater retribution. Whereas investment in the groundwater supply is relatively similar to pipeline system depending on well depth being used. On-site, meaning that groundwater is easily found everywhere Administrative practicality and waiting list is thus not necessary These all are opportunity for MDG's achievement to increase community access to clean water supply in fast, efficient, and effective manners in terms of natural resources allocation. However, as with change in environment and demographical pressure (more than number of population), groundwater

resources decrease in quantity, quality and continuity. Nature of groundwater Increasing groundwater consumption will cause decrease in groundwater level. Groundwater level in DKI Jakarta is 48 meter below MSL, Bandung area is 95 meter below MSL and Semarang is 28 meter below MSL. Meanwhile, seawater intrusion in Cikampek area reaches 26 km, Ciasem and Subang is until 15km, Indramayu is until 6km, whereas Cirebon is until 2km. Seawater intrusion in Jakarta increases in chloride content, either quantity or quality. Almost along 1 km from coast edge, well of less than 40m deep contains saltwater. The next wells of 2 km long area contain undrinkable brine water. Another issue is contamination of

* Runoff ** Ground Water

: tapwater & river : mineralized water, pump water, well, spring

The abovementioned table shows that water mostly comes from the ground. Consumption year by year tends to increase. People's advantages of using groundwater: Groundwater is better in quality than runoff, such as river, at least the former is more clean Low operation cost Groundwater needs water pump to


April 2006


domestic waste such as poor safety tank drainage (should be 10 m distance from latrine or other domestic waste area). Survey of Ministry of Health in year 2000 suggested that almost 45% nonplumbing water resources (mostly originating from groundwater) are contaminated by E. coli. Further result is frequent land subsidence as occurred in some area of Padalarang - Cileunyi toll road (Padaleunyi Bandung). This is due to decrease in soil bearing capacity since interstitial pores formerly occupied by water is now substituted by air. Causes In simple way, all issues above are caused by excessive groundwater exploitation resulting in decrease in groundwater level. Entering regional autonomy, provincial government has no right to limit or grant exploitation permit. For the sake of local revenue generation, city/regency government sometimes ignores environmental aspects. In Jakarta area during past 1998-2003, there was an increase in groundwater exploitation until 38%, from 16.8 million-23.2 million m3/year. The same occurs in other big cities such as Bandung, reaching 21%. The data was taken from well registered in local mining ministry excluding illegal well constructed by household or industry. If tracked further, the main cause of the issues is an increase in population number, urbanization, and social change (poverty and lifestyle). The increase in population number will automatically encourage 'demand' for basic needs. Urbanization causes pressure on land exploitation and triggers urban poverty and overexploitation of limited natural resources. In the meantime, poverty issue itself restricts the people from access to appropriate living 1. resources (drink water, housing and food) so that distressing the natural resources. Another social issue is the change in lifestyle due to improved edu-

cation and economy. As comparison, water consumption in cities reaches 132 liter/individual/day whereas in rural areas the amount is 25 liter/indivi2. dual/day. Such difference is 5 times larger, which means that 1% increase in urbanization rate equals 5% increase in water consumption. Therefore, there should be more effective approach for any policy to this lifestyle issue. 'Key' cause of the water overexploitation is mass policy of the living re3. sources such as industrialization (including agriculture, plantation, mining and tourism), which ignores environmental aspects. This process is interpretation of the previous demographic quantity. For example, rice, energy (oil and gas), palm plantation, supporting industry, et cetera. Those are like an invisible link against demographic change. Water as the main support of those activities will be distressed. What should be done? Before further discussing on precautionary measures for groundwater conservation, let us look around influential variables to groundwater condition. Water-containing soil is called aqui-

fer; soil with poor water (even lack of it) is called aquicklude, such as clay and rock; and transitional category is called aquitard. In each discussion on groundwater, aquifer is the most frequently highlighted. There are 3 types of aquifer: 1. Pressurized aquifer. This type is confined by impermeable layer in the upper and lower parts. Thus, it is identical to water flow in the pipeline. It is 40m to hundreds of meter deep. This type of aquifer runs based on difference in intersegmental pizomtric pressure. 2. Non-pressurized aquifer. This type has free water flow following soil contour. This flow is identical to open profile (river, canal). It is not more than 40m deep from groundwater level. This aquifer flows based on difference in water level (following soil contour). 3. Semi pressurized aquifer. It is similar to pressurized one. The difference is that the confining layer of the latter is impermeable. This aquifer is identical to pipeline with porous wall. If the aquifer is illustrated in two-


April 2006


dimensional section, it reveals water in the pipeline running by pressure difference. However, if illustrated in threedimensional section, this reveals a large lake beneath the wide ground (especially pressurized and semi pressurized ones). It is then called basin, for example, Bandung Basin, the famous basin in Indonesia. This basin has 1,730 km2 wide. With average rainfall of 2,478 mm/year, rainwater penetrating into ground is about 8.6% (213 mm/year) and the recharge will be about 368.5 million m3/year. There are three key parameters to measure capacity of an aquifer: Coefficient of permeability (K), namely capacity of an aquifer to pass through a 1m2 section beneath 100% hydrological slope (vertical) Specific capacity (Qs), namely water debit obtained by the decrease in groundwater level as long as length unit in a pump well until end of pumping period Aquifer depth (D) against cross section These parameters determine productivity of an aquifer naturally. However, the three parameters are actualized by morphology, stratigraphy and structural geology in the form of hydrogeological contour. Meanwhile, general standard to determine the existing condition of an aquifer lies on groundwater level. Human intervention affecting condition of an aquifer is in the form of: 1. Land use that will determine recharge to groundwater. Change in land layout such as soil tamping and blocking will reduce the recharge. Non-pressurized aquifer is relatively influenced by land and rainfall, while pressurized aquifer is determined by recharge area with higher topography (mountains, hills and the like) where pizomtric pressure may be higher to form the pressurized groundwater flow. Bandung Basin for example, recharge area in-


However, if illustrated in three-dimensional section, this reveals a large lake beneath the wide ground (especially pressurized and semi pressurized ones).


cludes Lembang (southern area of Mountain Tangkubanparahu), North Bandung, Jarian, Majalaya and Soreang Hills. Land change in these areas will automatically influence availability of pressurized aquifer of Bandung area and the vicinity. Debit of consumed groundwater is water volume exploited in one unit of time. As known, groundwater

exploitation in the cities is conducted massively, mainly by industrial sector. 3. Duration of exploitation. Exploitation will degrade the groundwater level. The longer consumption time, the faster degradation rate. Continuous exploitation does not allow recovery of a well. Furthermore, energy used for continuous exploitation will be higher. 4. Well density in an area. This will strongly affect degradation rate of groundwater level and aquifer in one area unit for recovery. 5. Well depth within an aquifer. The more well consuming water in one aquifer layer, the faster degradation will be. 6. Technical design of pump filter placement in the aquifer and pump type used (capacity of pump head and debit) With the abovementioned definitions, technical management of the groundwater can be determined to ensure its continuity. There are three


April 2006


factors to be undertaken in the context of land conservation (Decree of Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources No. 1451-K-10-MEM-200): Recharge maximization (by constructing absorption well and determination of conservation area for recharge area) Exploitation permit (restricting issue of new permit on groundwater exploitation; exploitation permit includes validity, debit quantity, and well depth; stipulating taxes; and giving technical recommendation on permissible depth of groundwater consumption) Groundwater protection (reliable safety tank design, industrial waste management) However, implementation of the policy should be taken into account. For example, in the issue of groundwater exploitation permit. This permit should contain optimum permissible quantity of water debit determined from pumping test. By seeing the 6 human interventions as aforementioned, each change in those factors 'should' automatically affect the water exploitation. In the common sense, well quantity will increase and recharge capacity remains constant (even decreasing in the reality), optimum debit of each well in one basin will certainly change in volume. Unfortunately, in the process of permit extension, pumping test is not undertaken anymore to determine new debit of the altered condition. This will be technically a susceptible point. Non-technical measures The abovementioned policy should be complemented by real implementation together with profound research as well as integral and valid data. Education for stakeholders as well as awareness and persuasive campaigns should be conducted. If necessary, it should be included into curriculum for primary and secondary schools (although not in the form of special subject). Another


Land, water, flora and fauna will react against any change. Pollution, landslide, flood, drought and climatologic change are logic process of natural evolution to react against any change. They are not 'hurt' for what human being has made because survive and perish are the same state as the human taking food and drink.

issue to be accomplished is law enforcement. Media release commonly highlights complaint on difficult access to groundwater and legal proceedings against groundwater abuse. By seeing such condition, big strategy should be taken in relation to MDGs achievement. We cannot rely on groundwater to achieve the MDGs if there is no significant change in the management. Meanwhile pipeline system will be cost consuming. This big strategy requires holistic and integral framework other than relying on command and control mechanism as apparent so far.

On the other side, there is lack of good governance. In this case, community participation should be encouraged in the policymaking and implementation process. Community participation will provide easy control and effective education for environmental awareness. Besides, creative process is required in the incentive and disincentive creation for industries involving in environmental conservation. Land, water, flora and fauna will react against any change. Pollution, landslide, flood, drought and climatologic change are logic process of natural evolution to react against any change. They are not 'hurt' for what human being has made because survive and perish are the same state as the human taking food and drink. They are only sad to witness 'idiot' destruction made by human that will in turn bring disaster to human himself. They cry when seeing human compete to change their lifestyle coincidentally with destructive pace they will suffer. They cry for our bad fate. How deep their solidarity to us is.
*Staff of AMPL Working group Secretariat and activist of Komunitas Periuk Nasi,


April 2006


Water for the Poor in Jakarta

By: Riant Nugroho Dwidjowijoto*)

ntil to date, most of DKI Jakarta low income people (hereinafter referred to as "Jakarta") living in the slum area, especially in North and West Jakarta, are exposed to clean water supply issues. There are three combinations of clean water issues. First, there is a lack of drink water supply by PAM Jaya so that they will have dark future in terms of clean water access. Second, substitution of groundwater is unavailable because those areas are degrading in water quality (water sources exposed to sea intrusion and resulting in brine and likely salty water). Third, high cost of clean water, until Rp. 20,000 per m3, more expensive than that of the highest cost customer in DKI Jakarta, only Rp. 12,000 per m3. These issues exacerbate condition of the poor in Jakarta and create public hygienic problem, which will in turn increase the public cost to be borne either by individuals or local government, in the form of subsidy. The existing approaches are to provide water tank facility, which is evident to be expensive, highly exhausted, and prone to abuse. There should be other approaches to resolve the problem based on the following characteristics: cheap, self-support, powerful and partnership. The model offered is temporarily called PENGELOLA AIR MINUM MANDIRI (SELF-SUPPORT WATER SUPPLY) or "PAM2". PAM2 model is based on the fact that there is a total of 1,196 public hydrants mostly owned by individuals.


These are initially intended to meet public needs, which the PAM (waterworks) cannot access to (usually the slum areas). In the following progress, owners of these hydrants make water commercialization by means of selling the water to the poor with expensive price, while PAM offers 5A (low) rate. Thus, there has been 'public crime' committed by "hydrant owners". Firstly, 'individual ownership' of the public asset (hydrant). Secondly, social product (hydrant water sold with social

price) is commercialized beyond reasonable price by using water lack among the poor. Thirdly, consumption of large volume of water by using large debit from hydrant (flowing from secondary pipeline) will bring loss to adjacent consumers that receive water supply from tertiary pipelines. Fourthly, this creates a kind of 'water mafia' that interferes with social economy in the area. The model offered is to build PAM2 by changing hydrant ownership status and establish new 'hydrant'.



April 2006


Nine Notes PAM2 model can be visualized as follows:

Rumah penduduk Community Settlement

Pipeline Jaringan pipa

Hydrant hidran

Bak Collection penampungan

Jaringan pipa Pipeline




ume limiter to provide the same proportion of water. Sixthly, "drink water management" is established in the area, which is called SELF-SUPPORT WATER MANAGEMENT (PAM2) Unit, Agency or Institution. Seventhly, PAM2 is led by a manager, which will undertake water distribution to each household and invoices. This simple water management is illustrated as follows:

bute water in DKI Jakarta. Cooperation and financing are undertaken by using two models. Two development models In the model 1, PAM development fund is regarded "loan" to be reimbursed by PAM2 to the project. The project will 'roll' the reimbursed fund to finance other PAM2. Thus, while in the first phase, 10 PAM2 can be realized with 5year reimbursement, other PAM2 can be developed in the following five years without any subsidy or new financing because they obtain fund from the rate on investment of first phase PAM2. This model can be illustrated as follows:
Donor Donor Grant from Government Pemerintah Grant fromPemda Dana Local Government (APBD) Private Swasta Sector Partnership Fund of Dana Kemitraan Drinking Water MPengelolg Airm e n t a n a a e Minum (PAM, Palyja, TPJ) Private Swasta Sector Bank Loan

Community Settlement Rumah penduduk

Hydrant hidran

Pipeline Jaringan pipa

Bak Collection penampungan Jaringan pipa Pipeline


PAM Jaya


Air bersih Water


tarifTariff to kepada Operator operator5 A) (Tariff (> Tarif 5A)


The abovementioned visualization can be elaborated as follows: Firstly, there are (existing) hydrants running from tertiary pipelines toward slum areas. These hydrants were owned and managed by individuals and for individuals' interest other than common use. The hydrants will be managed under public assets. Secondly, ownership status of the (existing) hydrants is changed to public status (controlled by RT, and maximally RW). Thirdly, to build collection tank to meet people demand. For example, if the area is occupied by 100 poor families and each family needs 10 m3/month of water, then maximum volume to be supplied to the collection tank will be 1,000 m3 per month. This is to prevent neo commercialization of drink water in the area. Water meter will be then installed between hydrant and collection tank with maximum demand. Fourthly, from the collection tank, pipeline is installed and distributed to each family upon self-support fund or grant (in the form of IBRAD/ADB grant) through Output Based Aid. Fifthly, each household is given vol-

AirWater Minum PAM2

Water Air bersih Clean

Operating dipergunakan Selisih hargaprofit will be used for "manager" untuk honor manajer/ fee and maintenance cost, pengelola, pengelolaan/ while rate of investment pemeliharaan, dan bagi will be used for public hasil untuk seluruh warga interest peserta

GrantDonor dari donor

Pinjaman Perbankan

(PAM, Palyja, TPJ)

Lebih Bigger than besar dari operator tariff tarif yang dibayarkan kepada operator

Pipeline Construction pipa Pembangunan jaringan Collection tank Construction Pembangunan bak penampungan MeterPemasangan meter khusus equipment Construction

Household Rumah tangga

Project proyek AdministrasiAdministration Fund distribution Administrasi pengguliran dana Capasity Building Local Government Pelatihan/capacity building -Donor-Operator Independency Pemda-Donor-Operator Pemandirian Community Representative Wakil Masyarakat Monitoring & Evaluasi Monitoring & Evaluation Institutional Kelembagaan of PAM2 Project

Proyek PAM2

First Stage Tahap Pertama

Secondkedua Tahap Stage


PAM2 B PAM2 B Community Dana Fund masyarakat

PAM2 2 C" PAM C Community Dana masyarakat Fund

PAM2 D PAM2 D Community Dana masyarakat Fund

Eighthly, selling price to PAM2 should be above social (5A) rate enabling operators to increase their income but selling price to the people remains coverable (below the highest rate). Thus, PAM2 management will get reasonable profit. Operating profit will be used for "manager" fee and maintenance cost, while rate of investment will be used for public interest, for example, educational subsidy (scholarship) or health aid (for the sick) so that PAM2 will build social trust and independent social security within the PAM2 location. Ninthly, project finance will be obtained from local government in cooperation with donors (World Bank) and drink water providers, especially private partners holding concession to distri-

Community DanaFund masyarakat

Business Circle Proses bisnis

Model 2 is "pure grant" where project financing (from donors, local government and private) is regarded pure grant and thus PAM2 does not need to make reimbursement. Management model is presented as follows: From both models it is seen that banks (see rightmost box) are 'allowed' to finance the project as long as they are given political support and/or guarantee by the government. If these models are adequate, banks may consider giving the loan. Of course the relevant bank will be Bank DKI Jakarta.



April 2006


The existing model It is to be noted here that, firstly, such models have ever been developed with different name. Under Ministry of Marine and Fisheries RI, similar program was developed what so called "Badan Usaha Milik Rakyat/Smallholders' enterprise (BUMR)". The program was implemented in Lumajang Regency, Tangerang Regency and Bengkalis Regency. The same model was "Unit Keuangan Mikro/Micro Finance Unit" developed by Bappenas and the program was developed by German Government in Indonesia through Promis Program/GTZ in Nusatenggara.
Donor Donor Grant from Donor Grant dari donor Government Pemerintah Grant fromPemda Dana Local Government Private Swasta Sector Private Swasta Sector Bank Loan


Partnership Fund of Dana Kemitraan Drinking Water M a n aolg Airm e umt Pengel a e Min n (PAM, Palyja, TPJ)

Common sense of the PAM2 approach is to apply micro business management in the community level. In detail, there are four characters of PAM2 approach: Firstly, to establish commercial and independent water management in the poor community level. Secondly, to establish "business management" other than "bureaucratic project: so that the value will be sustainability. Thirdly, "output" and "outcome" other than "input". Fourthly, to prioritize social capital in the form of trust building in the development of clean water installation within the slum areas.

administrative at once) staff, distribution staff (to check any problem in water distribution, including prevent theft) and maintenance (including security). Conclusion Name of "PAM2" may constitute "the second PAM institution", that is, self-support waterworks in cooperation with PAM (Jaya). This model is suggested to respond issues of clean water availability and access for the poor in Jakarta as well as to build independent and sustainable institution in the poor community level.



Pinjaman Perbankan

(PAM, Palyja, TPJ)

Project proyek AdministrasiAdministration Pipeline Constructionngan pipa Pembangunan jari Fund distribution Administrasi pengguliran dana Collection tankbak penampungan Proyek PAM2 Pembangunan Construction PelCapasity Buildinging atihan/capacity build Meter equipment meter khusus LocalGovernment Pemasangan -Donor-Operator Independency Construction Pemda-Donor-Operator Pemandirian Community Representative Monitoring u Evaluation Wakil Masyarakat Monitoring & Eval&asi Institutional Kelembagaan of PAM2 Project

management training and socialization of the policy; (3) support of public policy in provincial level (Local Government/Governor Regulation) and village level. Management Model Common sense of the PAM2 approach is to apply micro business management in the community level. In detail, there are four characters of PAM2 approach: Firstly, to establish commercial and independent water management in the poor community level. Secondly, to establish "business management" other than "bureaucratic project: so that the value will be sustainability. Thirdly, "output" and "outcome" other than "input". Fourthly, to prioritize social capital in the form of trust building in the development of clean water installation within the slum areas. Management model for PAM2 is recommendable to include supervisors taken from three local figures, that is, Head of Village, Head of RW and Head of RT, unless stipulated otherwise; a manager ("former owner" may act as manager) and three staffs: financial (and

Manager Manajer

Finance Keuangan



Maintenance Pemeliharaan






PAM 2 C"



Community Dana Fund masyarakat

Community Dana Fund masyarakat

Community DanaFund masyarakat

Community Fund Dana masyarakat

Business Circle

Proses bisnis

Secondly, in case of hydrant, there should be local government regulation or Decision of DKI Jakarta Governor on local government (PAM) owned hydrant to be lent to people via PAM2, and restriction of individual own hydrant. Thirdly, prerequisite for PAM2 development, namely (1) infrastructure preparation including collection tank pipeline in the area of PAM2 participants; (2) capacity building including

Today, Jakarta receives aid from the UK Government via World Bank, which is called Output Based Aid (OBA) Program. A total of US$ 5 million aid is designed to build clean water installation for the poor in Jakarta, especially those living in the North Jakarta area. While the conventional program, direct to home, may get only 20,000 customers, the PAM2 program will get 10 x 20,000 customers. It is Hope that this approach can be applied as alternative.
*) Member of Clean Water Regulatory Board of DKI Jakarta (This paper does not represent opinion of BR PAM Jaya).


April 2006



Clean Water Infrastructure Policy and Poverty

nfrastructure development is one of crucial agenda in these days. It is fact through Infrastructure Summit II held this year. In general, infrastructure is divided into economic and social infrastructures. Economic infrastructure covers physical facilities such as road, harbor, airport, power plant, water supply, and outputs of the facilities such as clean water and sanitation, electricity, transportation, etc. Whereas social infrastructure covers social facilities such as school, culture center, hospital, etc. In the context of infrastructure development, there are two significant aspects; first, infrastructure development is currently not dominated by public sector but also by private one. This is caused by three changes, namely change in ideology, advanced technology and financial crisis. Second, infrastructure development is not merely intended to achieve technical objectives such as operational efficiency, but also in relation to social group or income, especially to the poor group. In the context of economic liberalization, infrastructure availability will contribute in improving household productivity and in the broad extent, will improve economy and reduce the poverty level. Contribution of available infrastructure to reduced poverty due to work opportunity through infrastructure development and improved services accessible by the poor. In the developing countries, including Indonesia, infrastructure condition is miserable mainly after economic crisis. Such deterioration takes place in line with limited finance owned by the

By: Hamong Santono


government for infrastructure development. In addition to finance, infrastructure management and maintenance also degrade due to reduced capacity of public institutions, either in central or local level. This will put the poor to marginal group.

infrastructure to private sector and the government only focuses on basic infrastructures, non-commercially but economically viable ones, decentralization, minimizing public sector monopoly, corporate-oriented, establishment of regulatory board, cost recovery and unbundling. Clean water infrastructure policy As mentioned above, infrastructure condition in Indonesia is still miserable, including clean water infrastructure. For example, from about 306 PDAM (waterworks) in Indonesia, they serve only 33 million (39%) urban people and 9 million (8%) rural people with substandard quality, low consumption (14m3/month/household) and average pipeline leakage of 40%. From the amount of PDAM, only 9% exist in the sound condition, while the remainders are less sound (31%), unsound (32%), critical (28%), and PDAM debt until today is Rp. 4.032 trillion. Associating with issues encountered and changes in infrastructure policy, clean water infrastructure development is not apart from two significant aspects, namely poverty alleviation and increased participation of private sector in the clean water supply. Both aspects are strongly interrelated and this can be seen from government efforts to achieve MDGs target in 2015. To achieve the MDGs target, there should be an increase in the production capacity of 155,000 liter/second with service coverage of 80% for urban people and 40% for rural one, and this requires investment amounting to Rp. 25 trillion while the RI government can only provide Rp.

Associating with issues encountered and changes in infrastructure policy, clean water infrastructure development is not apart from two significant aspects, namely poverty alleviation and increased participation of private sector in the clean water supply.

Inefficient service, bad maintenance, much debts, and economic restructuring emerge the change in provision, management and financing of infrastructure, which is not dominated by the public sector. Therefore, infrastructure development has been renewed from provision basis to demand one. In the context of Indonesia, the change is then implemented into regulation reforms including delivery of commercially viable



April 2006


600 billion/year resulting in capital expenditure gap of about Rp.19 trillion. Thus, participation of private sector is expected to compensate this gap. The policy for increased participation of private sector in the clean water infrastructure development is explicitly covered under Law No. 7/2004 regarding water resources and Government Regulation No. 16/2005 regarding PAM resources. Poor Problems on Clean Water Infrastructure and PSP Problems on Poverty Alleviation Agenda In the context of poverty, essential infrastructure problems encountered by the poor are (1) access to limited even null resources, (2) poor's capability to pay compensation against lowest or even null service. For example, to obtain clean water, the poor pay more expensive other than the haves; besides, a lack of access will cause they waste time to visit water sources. With the problems, infrastructure policy should be able to ensure the poor's access to facilities that contribute to their income generation. In relation to infrastructure policy, especially basic infrastructures such clean water, it is seen that government, with limited infrastructure finance, is trying to seek other financing resources, especially from private sector participation. Debate on either public or private sector to manage the clean water infrastructure is still in progress until today. Support to public sector in the clean water supply is based on the perspective that water is public goods and the management is done by nature, while support to private sector is based on the perspective that water is commodity and government has failed to conduct good management. In the perspective of public goods, water includes essential services and center of social contract between government and community. The social contract promotes fairness and uniformity through redistribution mechanism to ensure minimum access


In relation to infrastructure policy, especially basic infrastructures such clean water, it is seen that government, with limited infrastructure finance, is trying to seek other financing resources, especially from private sector participation.

to essential goods and services. On the other side, public utility in the clean water sector has failed to provide sufficient service and coverage. This failure is due to government disability and public utility is sometimes used as subject of political intervention and corruption. Upon the reasons, private sector is considered efficient rather than public sector and such efficiency

will bring benefit to all consumers including the poor. From this context, PSP role and benefit remains under debate. Eric Guiterezz et al in their study suggested that: "PSP does not comprehensively tackles these admittedly difficult underlying causes of water utilities failure to serve the poor. For example, privatizing the operation of an urban water utility will not necessarily resolve efficiency problems if the underlying cause is corruption". Furthermore, the study opposed donors to put pressure on the developing countries while they receiving PSP in the clean water service as aid requirement, trade or debt cut off. Besides, it urged PSP as the main reform policy to limit government and public to improve and find innovation for best regulation. Nevertheless, the study did not reject PSP in the clean water service and therefore the PSP policy should be balanced by increased capacity and insti-


April 2006



tutional reforms. According to Beecher and Gleick, privatization profit is achieved only if it is accompanied by than integrated regulation, competitive offer, performance assessment, conflict resolution mechanism and reliable negotiator. Another opinion was suggested by Kessler through his study on water privatization rationality. Kessler argued that private sector will avoid cherry picking such as slum or rural areas with complex topography, low consumption per capita and of course low income generation. This argument is supported by the fact that the poor group pays 4 to 100 folds, even study conducted by Asian Development Bank (ADB) in Delhi found that the poor in Delhi should pay up to 479 folds to have pipeline connection. ADB admitted that private sector will not or cannot tackle service in the slum areas, and if could, its performance will not be better than the public sector. Public sector participation has monopolistic characteristics so that in theory and practice, the private sector is most unlikely to provide clean water to the poor with low income generation. Alternative to Clean Water Infrastructure Policy From the foregoing, it is no doubt that infrastructure development, including clean water, will contribute to poverty alleviation; however the infrastructure policy undertaken by inviting private sector will worriedly put away the poor from clean water access. Therefore, pro-poor approach is required in the clean water infrastructure development in Indonesia. In this context, there are several factors to be considered, namely (1) clean water is non-substitutable goods so that lack of clean water as access is unavailable, for example, will be miserable, (2) infrastructure availability cannot be understood only as effort to improve econo-

my; it should be understood as public goods to be met by each country and thus social contract between government and community, (3) as a social contract, availability of clean water infrastructure requires further government role rather than regulator or facilitator, and (4) private sector cannot substitute the government in providing basic coverable infrastructure, especially for the poor. Therefore, to encourage pro-poor clean water policy, it should be followed by change in macro economic policy from Market-led Development to Stateled Development where basic infrastructure such as clean water and sanitation is the basic needs for every citizen to be met by State and the state should

Redefinition of private sector role should be initiated by redefining state role in providing basic infrastructure where government is not only regulator and facilitator but also ensures infrastructure availability for the poor.

therefore allocate the fund. With limited budget, government should make political decision to allocate larger expenditure in the basic infrastructure development. The government should also redefine role of public sector. This is based on the fact that private sector cannot substitute the public sector to provide the coverable infrastructure espe-

cially for the poor. It should be understood that the main difference between private and public sectors lies on investment goal. Public sector investment is to gain not only profit but also larger social goal while private sector investment is to gain return on investment without considering fairness and distribution. This difference causes performance of public sector being lower than private one. Redefinition of private sector role should be initiated by redefining state role in providing basic infrastructure where government is not only regulator and facilitator but also ensures infrastructure availability for the poor. Alternative financing through APBN (National Budget) restructuring and mobilization of state revenue should also be conducted. In addition to change in macro policy, sectoral improvement of clean water supply should also be conducted. If we refer to study undertaken by Eric Guiterez (2004) where PSP income needs special requirement, the same also applies to public sector. In general there are two main issues in the clean water supply, namely governance and finance. To deal with the issues, there should be public infrastructure management by confirming relationship between government and public utility as well as promoting transparency, accountability, community participation and independent management. Besides, there should be poor-based plan to prevent centralized service as well as improve quality public service (in this context, public to public partnership should be introduced as alternative to the existing policy). From financial side, bail out and cut off of PDAM debts should become priority.
People Coalition for Water Rights (KRuHA) Coordinator and now member of Infrastructure Watch, a civil society alliance established to criticize infrastructure development policy in Indonesia.



April 2006


Implication of AMPL Institution for Sustainable Facility

xperiences found when following evaluation on AMPL development and facilitation of AMPL-BM implementation has led me to conclusion that institution of water provider plays important role for sustainable facility and service. Evaluation by WASPOLA in cooperation with Yayasan Pradipta Paramitha (Flores Revisited: 2002) found that there is a positive correlation between institutional function and water contribution and between water contribution and sustainable AMPL facility (spearman rho correlation). Similarly, experiences during facilitation of AMPL-BM implementation in Central Java and Gorontalo Provinces found the same correlation. Field study on success and failure of AMPL development was conducted in several villages namely Talumelito, Molintogupo and Tangga Jaya, which explicitly indicated important role of AMPL institution for sustainable facility. In the three villages, all water facilities were severely damaged, while water institution did not work at all. In Kebumen Regency, information on sustainable water facility was obtained either from field visit or secondary data. Some data clearly showed that functionality of AMPL institution highly determines sustainable water facility. From 28 pipeline facilities, 14 worked well, while the remaining was out of order. From 14 good facilities, 12 had active institutions and two other

By: Alma Arief


had inactive institutions. On the other side, from 14 inactive facilities, their institutions were inactive as well. The abovementioned information clearly explained important role of AMPL institution. This paper will describe complex issues in water management on empirical basis during evaluation and field study. Many Problems Management of APML facility, especially the pipeline, is not as simple as we think. Several cases are even complex. It is not only because of wide and diverse dimension of the problem, but also its

specific location so that a problem emerging in one area, even between one village and another, may be highly different. Water issue may divert to issues of environment, technology, financial, social culture, and institution. Because of wide and complex issues, it is highly recommended that AMPL facility should be managed by those who have courage, wisdom and wide perspective. Strong institution is able to deal with problems in the recoverable extent. The issues are: Environment In various regions, environmental issue highly determines sustainable AMPL facility. In Lewolaga village of Larantuka Regency and Wonda Village of Ende Regency, and Adiwarno Village of Kebumen Regency, water facility is always cut off during landslides or rockslides. In Lewolaga Village, flood and big tree fall associated with landslides were found to cut off water pipeline. Big flood in the river drifted away iron pipe as the pipe was not hanging across the river. In Adiwarno, water collection tank was collapsed by landslides, while in Wonda Village of Ende Regency, pipeline along road in hillside was collapsed due to falling cliffs. In East Sumab, environmentalrelated APML issue is different from other regions. In this regency with large flock of cow, pipeline may be cut off by the flock. Environmental issues in Gorontalo were about to emerge recent-

In various regions, environmental issue highly determines sustainable AMPL facility. In Lewolaga village of Larantuka Regency and Wonda Village of Ende Regency, and Adiwarno Village of Kebumen Regency, water facility is always cut off during landslides or rockslides. In Lewolaga Village, flood and big tree fall associated with landslides were found to cut off water pipeline.


April 2006



ly such as Talumelito case. In this area, water facility was out of order due to insufficient debit in the collection tank. This occurred because catchments forest has been replaced with corn plantation, while in Molintogupo, pipeline and collection tank amid the river were drifted away by flood. In Bangka Belitung Province, forests were damaged due to illegal mine. Since illegal miners use hazardous chemicals in their process, water source in the area is dangerous to be consumed. Technology Technological issues, in many respects, relate to environmental issues. Type of technology is highly determined by environment. In Kelurahan Dembe I of Gorontalo Province and Kelurahan Wonokromo of Kebumen Regency, water pipeline was sometimes broken especially in the nighttime due to insufficient consumption. This was due to high pressure onto the pipe, thus it requires pressure release tank or pressure regulating valve. In East Sumba Regency, as intense sunlight, various water facilities were built by combining solar panel as power generator and water pump. However, because it adopted high technology and complicated maintenance, the facility was damaged without repair, besides the solar panel was lost. In East Sumba, solar panel was associated with windmill as power generator to water pump and ice making. The 10 windmills were all damaged. In several villages of Kebumen with turbid water, people should filter it first before consumption (using conventional filter or Slow Sand Filtration). Social culture Social culture seems more complicated and locally than other variables, which may root to social cultural value of local people, conflict among villages, conflict among hamlets, internal conflict, etc.


Technological issues, in many respects, relate to environmental issues. Type of technology is highly determined by environment.

In East Solor Sub-district of Larantuka Regency, sustainable water supply highly depends on regularity and contribution of Rp. 1,250,000/year to the water owner. Meanwhile in Wonda Village of Ende Regency, NTT, since water source was in another village, traditional agreement/ negotiation should be established prior to access to the water source. In Lewolaga village of Larantuka, as water source was in another village of over 10 km distance, traditional marriage should be conducted by people from the two villages prior to access to water source. Social cultural issues also relate to conflict among villages when pipeline passes through another village. For example, Lewolaga case, since pipeline passed through forest and farm field of

the people from another village, the pipe (PVC) was frequently destroyed by the neighboring people. From the information, people of the village on which pipeline passed through, request their portion. The same occurred in Haikatapu Village of East Sumba Regency. In this village, many pipes got lost and thus disrupted people activity. This was because the pipeline passed their field and they did not receive water portion. In Banyumudal Village of Kebumen, social culture associated with environmental issue. It commenced from water sources which depleted drastically during dry season due to illegal logging in the catchments. This caused people the area, especially in the upstream, which never lack of water previously got angry and damaged the catchments plant.



April 2006


Furthermore, water facility management unit resigned because they were intimidated by people and until now facility management boar has not been appointed. In the previous time, the facility was managed appropriately including contribution bookkeeping, connection request procedure, penalty in case of delay, etc. In Talumelito Gorontalo, facility management unit (UPS) did not work at all after water supply depleted and people in the upstream consumed water inappropriately. This act was then followed by disobedience of some people (in the downstream) to not paying water contribution. UPS was automatically inactive. Depleted debit in Talumelito was due to illegal logging for corn plantation. Financial Water contribution is absolutely necessary for maintenance and development cost. Field study showed that not all villages having pipeline facility made contribution, or they didn't make contribution anymore due to irregular supply. As result, water contribution was unavailable and facility management unit was automatically inactive. It should be noted that water contribution is highly inadequate. In Lonuo village of Gorontalo for example, monthly contribution was Rp 500, while in Balaweling of East Solor Regency, monthly contribution was Rp. 200/person. Of course this was inadequate for maintenance and development cost. Institutional Institutional issues in principle relate to norms and human. Role of water facility management unit as aforementioned is very important and requiring personnel who have courage, wisdom, wide perspective, and legitimate. Policymaking should involve the stakeholders. The prevailing condition so far is that there is standardized management. Facility institution uses the same

Institutional failure is due to many factors. To know right answer about this, deep study should be made. Water facility institution is not only playing important role for sustainable facility, but the result can be utilized to make intervention for problem solution and identifying what institution ideal based on the result of the study. For temporarily, we just rely on assumptions although it is likely clear in some villages.

name (even I all regions). Besides, the existing regulations and institutional structure are also similar. It means that existence of the water institution is hierarchial other than community initiatives. It is much better that determination of institutional aspect should involve community. An interesting case is in East Sumba. In Tamburi village with well managed facility and seems to be sustainable for long term (the best facility in East Sumba I've ever found), NGO was established to facilitate development and institutional formulation. Organizational composition and regulations were all established by people through a meeting. Although the regulations were still inadequate, all people comply with them as those are established upon mutual decision. Why does institution fail? Institutional failure is due to many factors. To know right answer about this, deep study should be made. Water facility institution is not only playing important role for sustainable facility,

but the result can be utilized to make intervention for problem solution and identifying what institution ideal based on the result of the study. For temporarily, we just rely on assumptions although it is likely clear in some villages. In Banyu Mudal Village for example, facility management unit is dissolved and no replacement. The management dissolved because they couldn't settle conflict among village regarding water consumption. In Lonuo Village of Gorontalo, UPS was inactive due to people disobedience of paying contribution. Precedence of village head election, in which one of the candidates promised "free water contribution" and UPS leant to one political side was the main cause of UPS dissolution. In other regions, UPS was inactive soon after operation of the water service and afterward facility was damaged. This occurred in Molinto Gupo and Tangga Jaya Villages of Gorontalo, while in Talumelito, UPS was inactive due to inappropriate and irregular distribution of water so that people didn't want to pay contribution anymore. There may be other causes of institutional failure occurring in other places. Deep study should therefore be made. Solutions The following are solutions given against the issues of unsustainable facility: 1. Facility management unit should be elected by people based on candidate competency to solve various complex problems. 2. Immediate replacement/election of new management in case the existing one fails to meet their responsibility. 3. Immediate problem solution through deliberations. 4. Establishment of organizational composition and regulations on rights and obligations of consumers, which are adjusted to local demand.
*)WASPOLA Consultant.


April 2006



Toward Independent, Transparent and Professional PDAM

ater Supply Enterprise (PDAM) as public water provider is entering new era in the water management system. Service given should be transparent, qualified, accountable and environmental friendly. Internal/external condition of PDAM has changed rapidly especially in the last 8 years (1997-2005). Globalization and reformation era significantly influences community behavior in response of public service, especially water service. Factually, central government has positively responded to changes in water service with the establishment of Community-Based Water and Sanitation Development Program, which is a new community-based approach. If we refer to the national program, this approach is urgent and crucial with complex issues available, especially relating to water facility and infrastructure procurement. The issues include: Less effective and efficient investment for water and sanitation facilities development. The existing paradigm says that water is social assets obtained freely. This is based on poor knowledge and awareness of "water scarcity". Limited government capacity. Development financing depends on government budget, especially national budget. Lack of policy and regulations on utilization of hidden potentials among the people.

By: Abdul Gani


Starting from national program, PDAM plays significant role as water provider. This is due to total quantity of PDAM throughout the country of not less than 316 institutions. Therefore, it is not an exaggeration to focus on promoting PDAM performance in In-

donesia. Discourse and ideas to create PDAM professionalism, transparency and accountability are unavoidable. Creating perception and commitment We recognize that water is vital for human being and not substitutable and we recognize that adequate water in-

Factually, central government has positively responded to changes in water service with the establishment of Community-Based Water and Sanitation Development Program, which is a new community-based approach.



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Element Central Government

Role Issuing regulations on national water supply system

Responsibility Coordination, synchronization and facilitation of implementation of water program

Commitment Facilitator, supervisor, but not operator

Local Government (Including DPRD)

Referring to central government to issue PERDA

Regulate and supervise implementation as per local demand and complying with national policy

Regulator, supervisor but not operator

Provider (PDAM)

Implement water supply based on given procedure

To meet water supply for the people as per given standard To comply with regulations regarding water management system

Independent, professional and accountable operator Actively involving in water development program


Support and supervise the implementation

Unsound financial, which brings impact to difficulty to settle due date payment. Low pricing, resulting in imbalanced revenue and expense that will affect operational performance. High loss of water resulting in less revenue. Low coverage due to inability to allocate investment cost. Low productivity. Less efficiency of water invoicing resulting in affected cash flow. In addition to the issues, several actual conditions occur upon effectiveness of regional autonomy such as i) area expansion resulting in PDAM movement; ii) conflict of interest for standard water between local government and/or institution. Challenges By recognizing actual issues and challenges encountered by PDAM in the future, the strategic plan can be established easily. The challenges encountered by PDAM in the future are: Actualization and implementation of Good Corporate Governance Quality Assurance (impact of PP No. 16/2005 regarding PDAM) Water sources competition Free access to service information and transparency Strategic Plan Based on identification of actual issues and challenges encountered by PDAM in the future, the strategic plan should focus on capacity building in order to achieve independent, professional, transparent and accountable PDAM. Simple concepts of strategic plans to be focused on by the government, providers or community are: a. Reinforced institution

fluences health level. Ironically, water sector in Indonesia is factually overridden by other sectors. The fundamental thing to be considered by all stakeholders is how to create similar perception and commitment that water fulfillment is joint responsibility of government (central and local), providers and community. Pragmatically, concrete understanding on role, responsibility and commitment is necessary, including: PDAM Actual Condition PDAM as main water provider is responsible for social and commercial mission as policymaker as well as operator. From formal juridical view, PDAM is an extremity of local government that is authorized to implement water service for the people. Its organization composition by virtue of Joint Decision of Minister of Home Affairs and Minister of Public Work No. 28/KPTS/1984 stated that PDAM constitutes equipment of

From formal juridical view, PDAM is an extremity of local government that is authorized to implement water service for the people. Its organization composition by virtue of Joint Decision of Minister of Home Affairs and Minister of Public Work No. 28/KPTS/1984 stated that PDAM constitutes equipment of regional autonomy and implemented based on corporate economy for improved community welfare.
regional autonomy and implemented based on corporate economy for improved community welfare. PDAM is run by board of directors under control of Supervisory Board (Chapter II Article 2). Issues commonly encountered in PDAM management are:


April 2006



Redefinition and restructuring of PDAM into PT (Limited Company) Strategic plan to be implemented by the government is to ratify RUU BUMD to become Law to enable clear and definite legality of PDAM Formal legality on documents of the water development plan in the local level which is materialized into PERDA (Local Regulations) Legality on work mechanism and structural relationship between PDAM, owners, supervisory board and legislatives (implementation of GCG Concept) b. Financial Performance Change in financial management policy focusing on Cost Based On Revenue. It means that each corporate operation is conducted upon Cost and Benefit Basis Standard regional pricing (normal range) should be established. Format of standard pricing based on similar study group with characteristics of each PDAM using Full Cost Recovery. Pricing adjustment based on inflation rate and should be listed in the corporate plan document. c. System and Organization SOP should be available in the PDAM workplace as strategic plan of operational activities as per role and responsibility of work unit Performance-based reporting, i.e. PDAM management based on achievement of results which is measurable, comparable and oriented to stakeholders' information demand Functional and horizontal model of organizational composition to keep abreast of present and future demand. d. Human Resources Development


Comprehensive capacity building approach is a strategic action plan for development of professional PDAM in carrying out realistic vision and mission based on stakeholders and environmental demand.

Strategic plan documentation is available for staff development SOP on Directors and Staff Recruitment Outcome-based evaluation Conclusion To realize independent, professional, transparent, and accountable PDAM, strategic plan is required involving government, community and

PDAM management based on mutual perception, action plan and followed by concrete commitment. Comprehensive capacity building approach is a strategic action plan for development of professional PDAM in carrying out realistic vision and mission based on stakeholders and environmental demand.
*) Team Leader of PDAM Development Study Based on Stakeholders Reinforcement and PERPAMSI Benchmarking Team



April 2006


Creating Job Field with Waste Management System

standard of 8 hours/day. Such he case of public rejecBy: low efficiency in waste coltion upon TPST (InteSandhi Eko Bramono, S.T., MEnvEngSc.* lecting system causes collectible grated Waste Procesemployed as concrete brick aggregate, it garbage cannot achieve 200 housessing Point) Bojong, Bogor Regency, will directly or indirectly open several /day. It is finally compensated with proWest Java, and landslide of IPS (Waste new business opportunities for public. vision for extra garbage cart investment Processing Plant) Leuwigajah in BanWaste collecting system is defined as assuming that garbage cart will only coldung is the proof of such weak waste waste disposal system from waste lect totals to 1 rotation/day. management system in Indonesia. In source (residence, trade zone, industry According to economic review, it is various big cities in Indonesia, garbage area, and others) to TPS (Temporary such an extravagance in view of garbage accumulated everywhere, garbage colWaste Disposal Point). In Indonesia, it cart officer is paid for 8-hours/day-work lecting time by garbage cart and waste is commonly conducted by using hour. Meanwhile, demand for waste colhaulage by dump truck are not regularly garbage cart. lecting system which is until 100 peroperated, trickle of water dump in road Garbage cart usage, either made of cent each day leads to requisite provipassed through by dump truck until wood and steel, will indirectly increase sion for extra cart investment that its waste management which is not welljob field absorption within such manutotal doubles from its ideal amount. operated are some blurred portraits of facturing sector and various support Again due to such double investment, exacerbated waste management in this industry products. Each garbage cart is operation and maintenance cost of the country. able to collect garbage for 100 houses in garbage cart will be doubled as well. It actually can be solved whether it is each day. It is required time ranges However, another economic impact found waste management system. The around 3-4 hours/day. This duration is that is actually required is additional system will be profitable for public as actually still under minimum work hour waste producer in chain system. Besides SOURCE: EXCLUSIVE environment quality that is still maintained due to high education level, public life quality will be increasingly encouraged as well whether it is found a factor that is possibly rare to be emerged into surface namely a matter of creating job field. Upon good waste management system, some workers will be absorbed to the procurement for garbage cart, garbage cart and dump truck operators, and Waste Processing Plant operator. It is exacerbated with the impact of waste processed product utilization in form of compost that may be turned into organic fertilizer, biogas that its caloric content can be utilized, and incineration ash that can be


April 2006




Waste processing system is defined as waste processing system to be turned into a product which has lower environment impact whether disposed to environment. It can be performed through garbage conversion into a much more profitable product and having economic value, and should provide limited negative environment impact.
garbage officer that also means creating several job fields. Provisions for garbage cart will also create one additional business opportunity for manufacturing and industry sector, particularly engaged as provider for wood material, steel material, wood paint, wall paint and provider for glove, harrow, open garbage basket, and tailor for garbage cart uniform. These are things that should be an evaluation for government as well. Efficiency in handling infrastructure (including waste matters) in Indonesia is frequently quite low though it is quite effective. According to investment aspect, it can be said as an extravagance, likewise according from the aspect of operation and maintenance. However, according to its social impact, there are so many work opportunities among people, which is eventually contributive in increasing economic standard and other public livelihood. Waste Haulage System Waste haulage system is defined as waste disposal system from TPS (Temporary Waste Disposal Point) to IPS (Waste Processing Plant). In Indonesia, it is commonly conducted with dump truck. Dump truck is commonly selected by using steel material as its haulage container material. It will also open business opportunity for manufacturing and industry sector related with dump truck. Upon provision for dump truck, there will be several economic chain impacts, such as total absorbed manpower into dump truck manufacturing industry and even until total absorbed manpower into standing garbage cart officer. Once again, by considering such total standing dump truck officer, which

is in reality in field it is found "unofficial dump truck officer" that works part time with official dump truck officer. It is definitely increasingly reduces waste haulage system because such minimum work standard quality that these "unofficial dump truck officers" will apply. They of course are not trained to transport waste according to the stipulated procedure nor trained to remove waste in Waste Processing Plant referring to the stipulated procedure, and they even less responsible upon garbage container quality within such damaged and perforated truck. However, it frequently occurs in field and its supervisory is difficult. Realized or not, it also opens new job field for these "unofficial dump truck officers". There will be some manpower employed there to turn their economic wheel, and ultimately increase their prosperity as well. Once again, efficiency in handling infrastructure (including waste matters) in Indonesia is frequently quite low though it is quite effective. Extravagance of investment cost, or operation and maintenance costs will increase as well. Waste Processing System Waste processing system is defined as waste processing system to be turned into a product which has lower environment impact whether disposed to environment. It can be performed through garbage conversion into a much more profitable product and having economic value, and should provide limited negative environment impact. Garbage that is processed into compost of course will provide economic value for the garbage itself. Thing that must be done immediately is that public can be taught about how the way to make compost in simple manner and reliable marketing strategy to be able to



April 2006


sell the compost. Increasing current trend in organic agricultural product usage may also boost compost usage rather than chemical fertilizer. In this case, garbage that is initially considered non-economic may create new job field for public to be able to sell compost. Under lower compost price than chemical fertilizer, and supported by organic agricultural product marketing, and the farmers that begins to switch from chemical fertilizer into compost will ultimately a positive synergy to turn economic wheel of this waste processing product. Indirectly, simplicity within compost process, also supported by tough compost marketing will bear a lot of entrepreneurship souls among people. People aspire to be able to learn about compost making process. It will open some opportunities for trainers to provide elucidation about compost making, there will be some manpower absorbed to market Waste Processing Plant that uses composting process, and also to market compost to farmers or local Gardening Agency to use compost, and manpower will be absorbed as well to operate Waste Processing Plant that uses composting process, until finally it will produce a lot of manpower namely vegetable product and organic fruit sellers in various areas. It is an example of such job field creation relies upon garbage processing product in form of compost. Other processing processes also open new job field, which is specific against each waste processing type of process. Government Participation In perspective of micro economic sector, job field creation aspect is something which is very crucial. Usage and utilization of economic value of infrastructure product, inclusive in this matter, will provide significant added value

of the investment. Likewise within waste collecting system and waste haulage system in Indonesia as abovementioned, it is frequently found that the system does not run efficiently, not subject to procedure, but effective. It is definitely must be reduced in gradual and eventually erased to increase efficiency in available budget spending. Job field increment in fact occurs but such efficiency is also very low. Government should anticipate the same by providing good elucidation to garbage officers, while keep considering job field creation that can be switched from waste collecting system and waste haulage system into waste processing system. Within waste processing system, there will be greater opportunity in case of manpower absorption. Waste processing products commonly have good sale price, whether government also provides

appropriate institutional management and law umbrella to market them. Under marketing technique supported by government, it will open some new opportunities among people in which people may actively involved there, which is eventually will create various wide entrepreneurship chances. Through such matter, it is expected that waste paradigm as product which has no economic value in fact can be modified into a product which has economic value and sale price, which eventually will create job field to increase living standard and public prosperity.
*) Author is a practitioner in waste sector; alumnae of post-graduate program at School of Civil and Environment Engineering, UNSW, Australia; member of InSWA (Indonesian Solid Waste Association) and IATPI (Association of Indonesian Sanitation Engineering Expert and Environment Engineering)

In perspective of micro economic sector, job field creation aspect is something which is very crucial. Usage and utilization of economic value of infrastructure product, inclusive in this matter, will provide significant added value of the investment. Likewise within waste collecting system and waste haulage system in Indonesia as above-mentioned, it is frequently found that the system does not run efficiently, not subject to procedure, but effective.


April 2006



Refocusing Clean Water Management Mechanism in Indonesia:

From Technocracy to Participatory

ater is essential element for human being. He can die just in several days without water. In the modern economic sector, water also acts as essential element, from agriculture, industry, power plant to transportation. Therefore, water should be treated wisely and avoided from contamination other than mistreatment to cause water deficiency or contamination

By: I Gede Arya Sunantara *)

diseases. Many people understand environmental pollution but not aware of further implication of it. Industry uses much less water than irrigation. However, it may bring severe impact seeing for two aspects. First, water use for industry is not covered under national water resources policy so that it is

exaggerated and inefficient. Second, untreated industrial effluent causes runoff or underground water dangerous for consumption. Industrial effluent is always drained without undergoing any treatment. In some part of Indonesia, the biggest issue on clean water supply does not lie on water scarcity comparable to population quantity; it lies on misleading water policy. Government and community have been about to recognize the issue long after emergence of the issue. Although increased investment in this sector is required, such an increase should be accompanied by the change. Resources conservation, efficient use and sustainable, coverable and acceptable services should be taken into account as well as use of technology should be improved. Any technology meeting the criteria should be regarded suitable. It means that if radical change in water utility is not taken, it is possible that water will not be consumed without special treatment, which costs beyond economic resources owned by the country. Therefore there should be long-term consideration on environmental integration into comprehensive



April 2006


gram. The abovementioned program is intended to understand that many people groups in Indonesia have adequate Improvement and efficiency natural resources but they lack of skill Improved and efficient water resoand import equipment/ technology. The urces operation and recovery are much viable project should therefore focus on better and giving real outcomes than local industrial development in the form costly end-product treatment since of manufacturing and construction. Remany issues strongly relate to operation silience should be preferable to reliance. and maintenance and the lack of good This reveals fast repair of damaged will for water conservation and recothing by using local very. The problem develpotential. The key ops to mistreatment and is development of uneven distribution other local potentials as than insufficiency. Water hygiene and basis for public For example, lost sanitation are specific examples of long-term water supply. The water due to excessive cost and benefit planner should leakage. This may due to frequently ignored. Disproportional think "small and person's unauthorized development (increase in supply quantity local" things. Cenact, sabotage, or adwithout drainage or sanitation) tralized and largeministrative failure, is popular but it cannot improve health qualscale plan requires which will in turn result ity due to contaminated control over the in inadequate service. environment. Untreated industrial effluent oncoming urbaniVery often, most water zation. Indonesia available is used only by will raise health problem has not got this small quantity of largein the future. control and the scale consumers. It large-scale and means that water is centralized projects dominated by industry nagement, other than constructing new are not significant anymore. Decisionrather than household; on the other expensive facilities, including 1) leakage making process should be at least based side, industry does not implement detection and repair, 2) meter detection on lifecycle cost including all cost appropriate waste management system. and repair, 3) repair and modification of required to keep investment viable. Besides, industrial consumers pay less old design stock in the residential area; Another significant consideration is that for the water service so that government household is offered water efficient there should be locally designed and lashould give continuous subsidy for this bor-intensive resolution to create installation complete with leakage and service quality becomes insuffiemployment opportunity. Such resoludetector, 4) industry should undergo cient. This will then make other groups tion has big chance to long-term surcommercial and institutional audit use an expensive alternative. Housevive. (combining energy and water) and audit holds should buy two to six folds expenWater hygiene and sanitation are result disseminated. Modification of sive water from the peddlers in comparspecific examples of long-term cost and equipment and maintenance will save ison to monthly payment, one tenth, of benefit frequently ignored. Disproporthose who have direct connection to about 10% to 25% water consumption, tional development (increase in supply water supply. 5) modification of public facilities, such quantity without drainage or sanitation) as installation of water save toilet in the is popular but it cannot improve health "Small and Local" Thought public areas. 6) information to commuquality due to contaminated environAs problem arises, water competent nity on purpose of outcome of the prowater, sanitation, drainage and solid waste management.

authority, in this case government with fix fund support, will be more easy to develop new supply mechanism than use the existing fund to repair nearly broken facilities. Focus on extensive supply and lack of efficient water utility strategy will lead to severe groundwater overexploitation. These will result in water scarcity, degradation of groundwater level, and saltwater intrusion. There should be comprehensive ma-


April 2006



ment. Untreated industrial effluent will raise health problem in the future. From the foregoing, it is said that almost all people are aware of 'water' but almost none of them are aware of sanitation, whereas there is strong relationship between water supply and sanitation. Three Pillars In essence, water supply should be integrated into other urban environmental management, especially in terms of sanitation. Both aspects should be developed proportionally. However, sanitation without drainage means vanity. Sewerage will not run without solid waste management. Optimum benefit and protection of the environment can be obtained only from integrated and well-designed services. The following is presented water resources management measures in Indonesia: Conservation; conservation program should include activities designed to complement one another. In some developing countries with miserable management mechanism, first priority should focus on reducing lost water. Regular leakage detection is the most simple conservation method. Second priority should focus on efficient water installation. Besides, water distribution should be improved and modification of old stock implemented. Third priority should focus on reasonable tariff. In principle, water tariff increases with water consumption so that water supply for basic needs is got in reasonable price and large consumption (garden watering, car washing and swimming pool) will increase the price progressively. Such conservatory activities usually create better condition for water supply and require consumers' participation in the other parts of this program.


Conservation program should include activities designed to complement one another. In some developing countries with miserable management mechanism, first priority should focus on reducing lost water. Regular leakage detection is the most simple conservation method. Second priority should focus on efficient water installation.

Better options in industry and industrialization; possible water saving can be achieved by instructing industries to use water efficient and recycling plants. Strict supervision on water exploitation, including imposing realistic charge upon industries for the use of water resources. Community education and participation; this is important mainly in the area of poor water supply or elsewhere,

which rises gap between tariff and service; thus improvement should be taken such as a) water management technology; nowadays there is tendency to adopt simple technology other than complicated and auto control filtering one to enable installation and supervision by people themselves, b) water supply standard; old mechanism adopted in many developing countries is inherited from colonialism. Although it has good



April 2006


design, this regulation tends to be exaggerative because it was used to different situation. Deep review on the existing standard indicates that much more people can obtain service with similar cost. Computerized system used to review and determine exact method is now available in replacement of imported criteria. This program enables the designer make cost efficient distribution line rather than conventional one. c) Community involvement essential development element for long-term survival. In urban areas, similar approaches result in NGO and community groups' involvement, d) Reasonable pricing and cost recovery. Waterworks often adopt average or historical cost as basis for water pricing. As result, the pricing will be too low for two reasons. First, cost inflation exists since development of the system. Second, increased water consumption urges the companies to expand their production capacity and they should then develop new resources and the new resources will be progressively more expensive than the existing ones. Therefore, the companies are exposed to long-term increasing marginal cost to be included into pricing scheme in order to minimize overexploitation and delay new expensive resources. The pricing uses marginal cost to reflect actual resources cost, which will increase with water consumption so that people will not trigger to consume water in excessive amount. In the meantime, there is 'salvation' tariff to help the disadvantaged access to their basic needs. Such tariff will enable the companies suffice their operation and maintenance cost without relying on external subsidy. Conclusion and Recommendation "To do business as usual" is not an acceptable trend anymore so that refocusing or evolution is an alternative so-

Indonesia should not adopt water supply and liquid waste management system as offered by developed countries. It is better to create self-support system based on lessons learnt in order to respond the current condition and avoid system failures and environmental deterioration.

lution. Technical, financial and institutional approaches are necessary to adapt with social economy of the people and improved as applicable. Indonesia should not adopt water supply and liquid waste management system as offered by developed coun-

tries. It is better to create self-support system based on lessons learnt in order to respond the current condition and avoid system failures and environmental deterioration. As conclusion and recommendation, there are three principles to support the healthy future development in the water supply, namely: 1) Conservation; 2) Sustainability; 3) Circular System. With an increase in pressure of population against limited resources, we should take circular system into account. Urban areas that dispose of their pollution into drainage and harmful to another is not tolerated. On the other hand, treated effluent should be considered valuable resources.
*) Alumnus of Master Program on State Administration FISIPOL UGM and Master of Peace and Conflict Resolution - MPRK UGM. Water security observer, having domicile in Yogyakarta.


April 2006



Resolving Flood and Drought Concurrently

ndonesian natural condition is in emergency condition. If rainy season comes, flood and landslide hit several areas like currently happened. Thousands of people become innocent victims. Assets and agricultural land destroyed. If dry season comes, drought spread out. Water is scarce though only for drinking and household necessity. This irony keeps ongoing. The management that has been conducted seems nothing. There is concept mistake in handling this problem. Partial method of pure civil infrastructure engineering is prioritized. Though this concept in fact brings a lot of negative impact and depletes big amount of fund. Therefore it is required a new concept and notion which is more relevant, comprehensive and systemically having significant added value compared to ongoing partial concept. This book offers integral eco hydrau-


Agus Maryono PUBLISHER : Gadjah Mada University Press 2005 WIDTH : xvii + 162 halaman

lic concept, which mixed ecology, physical-hydraulic, hydrology and morphology components. This concept has been applied in various countries in the world, such as Japan, German, United Kingdom, USA, and Canada. The result is very good and sustainable. According to the concept, solution key upon flood is namely that watershed (DAS), river area (WS), river boundary

(SS), and river body (BS) should be viewed as a unit of integrated eco-system and hydraulic-ecology system. Resolution upon flood should be conducted in integrated way from upstream to downstream. The method is on holding or retention of water in upstream, middle and downstream watershed, and hold water along river area, river boundary, and river body in upstream, middle and downstream. It is concurrently the way to cope drought of the area or watershed. Upon the concept, river normalization which means river straightening, river cliff hardening constitutes inappropriate action. This book offers eco-drainage method to solve flood and concurrently drought. This method namely conservation pond, absorption water, riverside polder, and expanded soil water protection area. Thus, this book deserved to read by region planner and decision makers. (MJ)

Health Promotion
ealth promotion is determined by two main factors namely behavior and nonbehavior (environment and service). Improvement on physical environment and social cultural and health service constitutes intervention against nonbehavior factor. Meanwhile, the approach into behavior factor is promotion or health education. Health promotion is the approach to improve public willingness and ability to maintain and improve health. Final objective of health promotion is not merely people's willingness to live healthy but also their ability to afford living healthy.



AUTHOR : Prof. Dr. Soekidjo Notoatmodjo, SKM, M.Com.H PUBLISHER : Rineka Cipta WIDTH : viii + 389 halaman

Health promotion in theory and art (application) covers other science sectors. Health promotion can be categorized into two sectors: (a) behavior science, namely science which lays basis in

shaping human behavior, particularly psychology, anthropology and sociology; (b) required sciences to behavior science inter alia education, communication, management, leadership and so forth. While, based upon its dimension and operation place, health promotion is divided into two dimensions namely the aspect of health service target and its operation place. Eventually, scope of health promotion is so broad. This book is quite representative describing in detail about this. Starting from basic theories until foolproof application for comprehension. (MJ)



April 2006


Compilation On AMPL Data

long these days data about drinking water and environment sanitation (AMPL) is distributed in many places. Besides distributed, such displayed data is also different depend on the agency that issues the same, and what standard that is used. On the other sides, establishment planners definitely require standard data that can be used for subsequent development planning. Such condition encourages AMPL Task Group (Pokja) to produce CD on AMPL data. This CD contains AMPL data from various agencies/institution. Existing data is compiled based on general criteria. So, the data is still as is but becomes more organized.

Through the existence of this data CD, it is expected that the stakeholders

will be easier to search AMPL data. Behind that, AMPL Task Group expects that relevant agency/institution may jointly prepare data standard in simultaneous way with the same preference so that such output data is not scattered again and different one to another. The displayed data is categorized into drinking water, waste water, garbage and drainage. The data is taken out among other things from Statistics Central Bureau, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Public Affairs, and State Ministry of Environment and other sources such as WHO, World Bank and research books. This CD can be obtained for free in AMPL Task Group. (MJ)

erhaps a lot of people have been familiar with or at least have heard about Water and Sanitation for Low Income Community project (WSLIC) 2, however they do not know precisely what is performed in the field. This Video CD gives success description on WSLIC-2 project including entire processes happened within since the beginning of the project and its continuation. This VCD begins with general description on low-income rural community in anticipating clean water problem. Clean water scarcity has consumed their time so that they becomes unproductive. This project attempts to resolve the problem under public empowerment model with MPA-PHAST method.

WSLIC-2 Project Experience

From this VCD, the viewers may see about how such method is applied among public. People is directly involved since planning process, development and maintenance of drinking water facility. Through facilitator, people are facilitated to be able to handle their problem with their capacity. People provide contribution namely a few fund and energy, while local government, central government, and World Bank support its required fund. Visualization that took object on WSLIC project in Lumajang Regency is probably able to describe about project performance that is almost ideal. Of course, success of the project does not only depend on such applied method, but also other factors such as people tradition, intensity, accompaniment, and so forth. (MJ)


April 2006



Water for Children

adopted by educators in Indonesia which is definitely in view of modification refers to the condition.

Teaching Teen about Water his website provides teaching guidance for teenagers/youth regarding waster and curriculum data basis to people-based development. Through this data, it is expected that teen and educators may be the key to build partnership to achieve objective of water education. The data source contains a lot of ideas, references, list of partners, and material on public education activity. There are about 150 topics on education curriculum that has been displayed. Visitors just search according to the required topics. For example, there are topics about drinking water, comprehensive water education book, earth as water planet, and other water science either particularly or in specific. This curriculum can be selected as well referring to grade and topic.

This website also describes about several successes of water program education for people either in form of after=school lesson, summer program, festival and campaign. Some audiovisuals can be viewed through this website.

Using Water Wisely

his website provides various information regarding different things relating to water for children. There are games, activity and interesting tours, and well-understandable guidelines book for teachers and students. This website made by Environment Protection Bureau of America divides lesson about environment according to group age, for instance, 4-10 years, 5-8 years, and 9-12 years. The learning is accompanied with well-understandable pictures by children. For instance, any harmful things exist within housing environment in order not pollute environment. In this website it is found theme about 'Recycle City' that gives description about urban environment that can be saved by the residents including children. In one of its part, this website presents about water education. Such existing information is addressed to educators. There are various topics, such as acid water, children's position within environment, children and drinking water standard, protection upon children health, and so forth. The presented method is quite unique and can be

ow far your family has protected water? This site provides guidance on how the family may perform self-evaluation into water usage and whether daily behavior has reflected efforts to conserve water in well manner. Besides that, this site explains about low consuming water plants and how long and how many frequency to shower plants for optimum growth. This site is equipped with learning tool in form of downloadable game. This tool is specifically purposed for children and teen. Through this game, children/teen is introduced to various wise behaviors in consuming water. (MJ)



April 2006


Government Regulation No. 65 of 2005

Guidelines for Preparation and Application on Minimum Service Standard (SPM)

ach region is minimally obliged to provide basic service for the residents. Such concerning basic service is fundamental and absolute type of public service to satisfy public requirement in social, economic and government affairs. Therefore each region is required to have minimum service standard (SPM). This SPM contains achievement indicator either quantitative and qualitative employed to describe target to be fulfilled in certain SPM in form of input, process, output and/or service benefit. SPM has simple, concrete, easily reliable, open, responsible and accountable in nature and having achievement time limit. Besides that SPM is adjusted to necessity development, national and regional financial priority and capacity and regional institution and personnel within relevant sector. This standard will be prepared by each minister/head of state non-department institution through consultation coordinated by Minister of Home Affairs. The result will be stipulated under Regulation of Minister and equipped with technical guidance. For regional government, such SPM is the reference to prepare planning and budgeting of local government operation. In this case, local government is demanded to prepare SPM achievement that contains annual target. This achievement plan is expressed into Regional Middle Term Development Plan (RPJMD) and Strategic Plan in

Regional Task Force Apparatus (Renstra SKPD). Meanwhile, annual target is expressed into Work Plan of Regional Government (RKPD), Work Plan of Regional Task Force Apparatus (Renja SKPD), Budget General Policy (KUA) and Budget of Regional Task Force Apparatus (RKA-SKPD) according to regional budget capacity. Annual target on SPM achievement plan and the realization is required to be informed to the public.

For regional government, such SPM is the reference to prepare planning and budgeting of local government operation. In this case, local government is demanded to prepare SPM achievement that contains annual target.

In relation with public affairs concerning cross- region, region is required to manage public service collectively with its surrounding region to create efficiency. Therefore SPM achievement plan must be jointly approved including contribution from each region. Region is also provided opportunity to cooperate with private.

SPM achievement result will be monitored by government in multi-level way. In case of any region that is not able yet to develop its capacity in giving SPM, government may delegate such development to the governor as government representative in region. In order to support capacity development of regional government, government may perform facilitation, general orientation granting, technical guidance, technical counseling, education and training or other technical aids. Government may provide award to regional government that is successfully achieve SPM with good manner in determined time. Otherwise, government may also punished regional government that is failed to achieve SPM. The objective of government regulation performance stipulated on 28 December 2005 is the guaranteed public rights to receive basic service from regional government under certain quality; functioning as the tool to determine total required budget in providing basic service; being a basis in determining financial balance and/or other aids which is fairer and more transparent; being the basis in determining budget of performance-management based performance; to make clear of regional government major tasks and encouraging the realization of effective check and balance; and encouraging transparency and public transparency in operating regional government. (MJ)


April 2006



Questions can be conveyed through PERCIK magazine editors. Contributor: Sandhi Eko Bramono (, Lina Damayanti (

Percik magazine in cooperation with Association of Indonesian Sanitation Engineering Expert and Environment Engineering opens Clinic column. The column contains dialog about drinking water and environment sanitation.



Question: I live in a district in Jakarta. My family and I use soil water for our daily needs. I found problem that the emergence of white sediment when water is boiled. Besides that, soap becomes faster depleted (it becomes faster depleted when it is in contact with water). How come did it happen? What is within the water and does it have any negative impact for health?
Wulan, Jakarta

when reacting with soap, producing crust within pipeline or heater pan (reducing heating process efficiency), and is able to emerge disturbance upon kidney function (deposit in kidney). However, it is all very determined by consumption level and water hardness level.

(with dosage of 5-10 mg/l) to oxidize organic compounds which are possibly decomposed into stingy gases.


Question: Almost once in a year, we call for sewage service truck to drain existing septic tank within our house. Is there any technique to extend septic tank usage duration so that we are not too often draining the tank?
Cahyo, Banjarmasin


Question: Ditch in front of my house is frequently plugged emerging inconvenient odor which is very stingy. Simultaneously with ditch cleaning, is there any practical way that we can perform to eliminate the odor?
Reza, Ambon

Answer: Soil water that passes through lime stone (karst or dolina) commonly owns high-level content of Ca2+ and Mg2+. This ions presence emerges water hardness within water. Water hardness caused by bicarbonate ion presence is commonly called by temporary hardness. This hardness can be eliminated by heating process that results in CaCO3 sediment. While permanent hardness is hardness due to combined Ca2+ and Mg2+ with nonbicarbonate ion (sulfate or chloride). This hardness can be eliminated with chemical process, such as by adding ash soda. Damage incurred by hard water namely soap extravagance because it produces precipitate or sediment

Answer: Inundated water contaminated with domestic waste and mixed with garbage usually will produce stingy odor. It is because decreasing dissolved oxygen within water followed with anaerobic water in that water. The product of such anaerobic reaction is stingy gas, such as NH3 and H2S. The best way that can be performed to eliminate the odor namely through regular cleaning of drainage. Besides that, odor is also can be eliminated with showering chlorine solution into the drainage

Answer: According to construction aspect, septic tank should use absorption field so that water within septic tank can be absorbed after experiencing stabilization process in septic tank. Concrete making in entire walls will cause septic tank is quickly full. Excessive chemicals (disinfectant) in latrine will also increasingly reduce septic tank usage duration. This disinfectant will kill decomposer microorganism that should play role in decomposing wastewater (including feces). Besides that, spare feces mud in sufficient volume when sucking feces mud (do not do full suction). The mud will play as pioneer bacteria to accelerate growth of new decomposer microorganism in quick period.



April 2006


11 12-14 16 17 18-19 23 24 25 26 27 1-4 1-2 2 6-7 13 14-15 20-21 21 22-23 24 27 27 3 7 12-18 13-15 29

January January January January January January January January January January February February February February February February February February February February February February March March March March March

Discussion Meeting on Activity Performance Plan on AMPL Task Force 2006 WASPOLA facilitator meeting Preparation meeting for annual work plan in cooperation with Indonesian government - UNICEF Presentation of Study Review of Financing for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector in Indonesia Preparatory meeting for small data team Preparation for Guideline Guidance Concept for Performance and Guideline of Operation Performance Workshop I for National Program of Drinking Water and Community-based Sanitation Coordination Meeting on performance plan establishment for joint operation of government of the Republic of Indonesia - Plan International Workshop on Regulation, Policy and Strategy within Waste Water, Waste and Drainage Sector Advanced meeting on Study Review of Financing for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector in Indonesia Workshop on Strategic Development for National Policy on Drinking Water and Environment Sanitation 2006 Study Small Scale Independent Provider meeting Discussion on performance instrument of SANIMAS Outcome Monitoring Study (SOMS) Workshop on WASPOLA Work Plan Advanced meeting on Development for National Policy on Drinking Water and Environment Sanitation 2006 Training on Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) Plan International -AMPL Task Force in Kebumen Final Workshop on Community-based AMPL Implementation of Gorontalo Province SSIP Workshop, Subang Final Workshop on Community-based AMPL Implementation of NTB Province AMPL Task Force-Plan international meeting about activity TOR of 2006 Final Workshop on Community-based AMPL Implementation of Banten Province Final Workshop on Community-based AMPL Implementation of Bangka Belitung SSWPs Urban Workshop, Jakarta Final Workshop on Community-based AMPL Implementation of West Sumatera Province Task Force Meeting of PSP Review for Indonesia Monitoring on SANIMAS Outcome Monitoring Study (SOMS) Final Workshop on Community-based AMPL Implementation of East Java Province One-day water treatment seminar in user level Presentation on Study on Drinking Water Investment Impact Upon Economic Growth Coordination Meeting on AMPL National Policy Implementation SSWP Vietnam Study Visit Final Workshop on Community-based AMPL Implementation of Bali Province 2005 Meeting of AMPL Task Force - Plan International Indonesia on Laws and Regulation Discussion


April 2006




Publisher: Water, Engineering and Development Centre, Loughborough University, UK, 2002


Publisher: Water, Engineering and Development Centre, Loughborough University, UK, 2002


Publisher: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2004



Penerbit: Statistics Central Bureau, 2004




Publisher: IFAD, 2002

Publisher: Directorate General for Public and Rural Empowerment, Ministry of Home Affairs, 2005

Publisher: Directorate General for Public and Rural Empowerment, Ministry of Home Affairs, 2005

Edition 124/January 2006 Edition 125/February 2006 Edition 126/March 2006



Publisher: CV Eka Jaya, Jakarta, 2004


LAND & WATER Edition December 2005 Publisher: WALHI


Publisher: Directorate General for Regional Development Fosterage, Ministry of Home Affairs, 2005 PROJECT COMPLETION REPORT ON THE CAPACITY BUILDING PROJECT IN THE WATER RESOURCES SECTOR IN INDONESIA Publisher: Asian Development Bank, 2005



April 2006

Most Probable Number (MPN)
Amount that states total coli bacteri water sample through multi-tubular experiment technique

Municipal waste water

Urban waste water-Combination of all waste water resulted by a municipality, starting from household waste, social facility and public facility, industry, infiltration and run-off from rainfall

Natural treatment system

Waste treatment system using natural potential for the process, such as porous soil for screening, etc.

Negative residual head (negative pressure residue)

Condition where total headloss along stream line (processed water) in treatment units or along transmission line/water distribution that exceeds available pressure potential.

Official issue or action upon failure to satisfy sufficient chemical material provision or immediate revision upon a treatment installation or distribution system or its failure to satisfy outlined rules within EPA standard (an agency handles environment impact problem in USA)

Net Population Density

Population density within an area counted based upon total population divided by such established area width

Night Soil
Human feces that have been processed (relatively safe) and collected to fertilize soil.

Pipeline auxiliary material functions as connection device on shrink tip part (included into pipe tip part top be connected), and equipped with/without thread.

Biological process in which conversion from ammonia (NH3) into nitrite takes palce and then becomes nitrate by nitrosomonas and nitrobacter species.

Nocardia foam
Thick foam type and brown color that usually covers aeration or clarifier container that frequently emerge problem upon active mud performance. Producing odor and resulting in bad effluent quality.

No Observable Effect Concentration (NOEC)

Highest measured concentration from effluent (output) or toxic material which having no effect based upon observation through chronic test.

Ocean disposal of effluent

Functioning ocean as final disposal place/location of waste

Aroma emerged out waste or waste treatment unit due to gas emergence, which constitute by-product of organic substance decomposition or due to material addition into waste.

Off-site sanitation system

Centered sanitation system (not local)- Handling/management system of human waste (feces) that still requires activity/collection process/accumulation or haulage into processing or disposal system.
Quoted from Kamus Istilah & Singkatan Asing Teknik Penyehatan dan Lingkungan (Foreign Word & Abbreviation on Sanitation Technique and Environment) Publisher: Trisakti University