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Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation

From the Editor Your Voice Main Feature Making Clean and Pleasing School More about Green School Interview Dr Dewi Utama Faizah, Disseminator of Healthy Life Inspiration Regulation Permendagri No 23 of 2006 Insight Green School and Environment Care Issue Ecological Disaster and Failure of City Planning Model Water Flow Regulator `ala Barugaya Contribution from Drinking Water Provision Reportage Water Scarcity in the Mustika Housing Purbalingga in Drought Reflection Learning Sanitation from India Jambangan Village, Green All the Year Round Child Festival of Surabaya River 2007 Inspiration The Water "Pawang"

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Published by: Water Supply and Sanitation Working Group Advisor: Director General for Human Settlement, Department of Public Works Board of Trustee: Director of Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health Director of Water Supply Development, Department of Public Works Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Community Empowerment, Department of Home Affairs Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Department of Home Affairs Chief Editor: Oswar Mungkasa Board of Editor: Zaenal Nampira, Indar Parawansa, Bambang Purwanto Editor: Maraita Listyasari, Rheidda Pramudhy, Raymond Marpaung, Bowo Leksono, Reski Dian Diniari Design/Illustrator: Rudi Kosasih Production: Machrudin Distribution: Agus Syuhada Address: Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 e-mail: Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address or e-mail. Don't forget to be brief and accompanied by identity.

Our Guest Endang Wardiningsih, Perseverance in Teaching Students to Aware the Environment Around ISSDP Portrait of Mid-City Clean Environment Closing Factory Isn't Enough, What's Needed is Mutual Commitment When Diarrhoea 'Picks' Noviana Initiative for Public-Private Partnership in WHWS Around WASPOLA Around WSS Program SMK Negeri 1 Surabaya, Towards Environmentally-Based School IATPI Clinic Book Info Website Info CD Info WSS Bibliography Agenda Glossary
Percik magazine can be accessed through WSS website

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Photo: ISSDP

n reality Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) is never separable from life. It appears as a problem not readily resolved, it is even growing more and more intensely along with the growth in population number, social and economic activities. It demands an immediate problem identification and resolution. It is quite necessary to continuously inform the community the efforts are being or should be done in WSS development. One of the means is through publication of this magazine. In this nineteenth edition we present you the concept of Green School. It is presented here in the main feature. Why?

Because there are not many schools that care to its surrounding environment. This is important, cultivating hygiene behaviour early since the school age. School environment varies extensively, the students come from various different background. It is hoped when they are outside the school environment they would continue to put hygiene behaviour into application. An environmentally conducive school is necessary to produce graduates skilled through high quality education. But that is not all, conducive school environment also promotes high quality life pattern, something that is presently necessary to im-

prove competitiveness in the world market and at the same time sustain natural resources of Indonesia. Green school is identified as one committed to and systematically develop programs to inclusion the environmental values into all school activities. A school with a vision, mission and objectives and policies aimed at quality improvement and is highly interested in quality of life through Green School Program. It is indeed far from easy to build a real green school because it is not just that the school physically looks clean and lush and green, rather it is more on the development environmental awareness of school academia which is noticeable from their daily habit as a reflection of the demand of improved quality of life. The consummation of Green School is inseparable from the role of private sector, NGO and the government. And most importantly is the role of the community within the school itself, everybody including the pupils, teachers and the staff. It takes a teacher or several teachers to pioneer and become the examples to the pupils. We greet Our Guest, one of SMUN 34 Jakarta's teachers, Endang Wardiningsih who is diligent and with her environmental training experience from Unesco, give it to her students. The outcome? The subject matter on environment does not end up in an extracurricular activity but it goes beyond into a local content of an integral part of the curriculum called Environmental Education, which means that it is compulsory subject for all pupils. As a warming up, we present you a small review on the National Sanitation Conference (NSC) 2007, such as a talk show and visit to Kelurahan (Village) of Petojo, a sanitation pilot project located right in the heart of the city of Jakarta. We hope what Percik presents you in this edition would be useful and provide an inspiration for all to live hygienically and at the same time take a good care of the environment. Your comments and suggestions are most welcome. We hope you enjoy reading Percik.

Percik August 2007


How to subscribe Percik

I am an instructor of Environmental Engineering of the Trisakti University, and I wish to know how I could subscribe this magazine. Many thanks in advance
Best regards, Pramiati

We will be pleased to send you Percik since January 2007 edition

Acknowledgement and Notice of Change of Address

On behalf of PT Arutmin Indonesia I'd like to acknowledge with thanks receipt of Percik regularly. And also I'd like inform you that effective from 21 May 2007 PT Arutmin Indonesia has moved from Mid Plaza Bldg 2 9th floor to a new address as the following: Wisma Bakrie II 10th floor Jl. HR Rasuna Said Kav B-2 Jakarta 12920
Regards, Delma Azrin

Dear Ms. Pramiati, Please send us your complete address to our email address: We will send you every edition free of charge. Thank you.

reads: "there is a pond owner when asked why his latrine flushes into the pond he answers: ". I am willing to pay someone who is willing to defecate in my latrine". The answer does not at all indicate that in Banjarnegara there is a pond owner who pays anyone to defecate in his pond, rather, it is a response to a question that he considers as putting him to an odd corner, a question that considers it negative to defecate in a fish pond, etc. The answer is more as a defensive response to his behaviour, indicating a response of being offended by the question, etc. Thus, in Banjarnegara there is no additional source of income from such thing as defecating in someone else's fish pond. I would appreciate it if you could publish this straightening information.
Alma Arief Thank you for you correction

To subscribe Percik Magazine

I would herewith subscribe Percik beginning from January 2007 edition. Please be informed that our institution "Human Resource Development and Applied Technology (CREATE) East Java II" is conducting rehabilitations to the areas that were by hit flood and landslide at Kecamatan Panti, Kabupaten Jember East Java. We are looking for useful information and articles that may be applicable at community level. Thank you in anticipation. Best regards. Our mail address is the following: Ir. H.R. Soedradjad M.Sc. Chairman, CREATE II East Java Jl. Semeru VII/M-8 Jember 68121
R. Soedradjad Jember

Straightening of an article in Percik ed. July 2007

I wish to thank Percik for the publication of my article entitled "The community's most suitable latrine technology" in July 2007 edition. In general there is no problem with the edition of the article. However there is something annoying that may have occurred when editing the part on "cases in several villages", which calls for a little ironing out. In this part it is written therein: ". Even, some pond owners in a village in Kabupaten Banjarnegara, C. Java, are willing to pay for someone to defecate on the latrine built on his pond". This statement clearly indicates that in Banjarnegara there is a pond owner who pays someone to defecate in his pond. In my original article (before editing) I don't mean it that way. My original article

Notice of Change of Address

I wish to thank Percik for the receipt of the magazine regularly. Seeing its usefulness I still wish to continue receiving its future editions. I also wish to inform you of my moving from the former address of Jl. Cipinang Asem RT 02 RW 012 No. 5 Kel. Kebon Pala Jakarta 13650 to the following: FPPB UBB Jl. Diponegoro No. 16 Sungai Liat, Bangka. I would appreciate it if Percik would be willing to continue with the cooperation. Thank you in anticipation.
Best regards, Idha Susanti

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chool is an important part of environment for children upbringing. It is here, besides home and social environment, that mental and intellectual is educated and tested. Therefore, beauty and comfort are both needed to smooth the path of absorption and application of knowledge. This can be achieved through the responsibility care of everyone in involved in the school. A pleasing and beautiful school environment must not be understood as simply tree planting and clean surrounding or composting and recycling of wastes. It is more than that, it is the inclusion of environmental values and are manifested in the actual school activities. And for all of this, the role of all stakeholders comprising the teachers, students and staff and other parties outside the school is called for. The role of teachers as instructor and exemplary individuals is indispensable. The cultivation of a character is to some extent inspired by the teacher who teaches with all his heart and inspiration.

Movement at the National UKS (School Health Unit) Jamboree and the Presentation of National Defence by SMK Students at Ken Arok Sport Hall, Malang. The launching of clean and green school is expected to lead to a generation of hygiene behaviour since early age. Green school is one that is committed and systematically develops programs for inclusion of environmental values within school activities. To generate the spirit and sustain the Green School implementation, several private corporations like Coca Cola Foundation Indonesia (CCFI) and Toyota working in collaboration with non government organizations conducted green school competition. Competition is an effective means for generating awareness to sustaining green school program. Go Green School Program To support the schools in Indonesia to Green School Program implementation and to promote environmentally sensitive habit via school activities, GGS program was launched. This program is intended mainly for schools in urban areas where the community is growing rapidly. GGS was launched in 2005 by the Centre for the Betterment of Education (CBE), KEHATI Foundation, and Coca Cola Foundation Indonesia (CCFI) with support from the Ministry of Environment, especially for high school level. The Deputy Chief Executive Operating Committee CCFI Triyono Priyosusilo disclosed that GGS is a movement to promote environmentally sensitive school especially high school level in Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi. "Through this program we hope

Green School Environment is our common concern. Through common attention and effort, the environment can be sustained. And school is expected to play key role in generating environmental care within the heart of young generation, the future decision makers. In recent years several senior and junior high schools have started to implement Go Green School (GGS) Program. This program is the fruit of interventions made by various stakeholders, from the government, the private sector and the community. Last August the 4th the Minister of National Education, Bambang Sudibyo, launched Clean and Green School

Pleasing environment of a school in Jakarta. Photo: Bowo Leksono

Percik August 2007

stood as tree planting, painting wall of school building in green, washing floor and cleaning glass pane. EE should actually be able to create critical awareness of student to exploit wisely the earth natural resources. EE also stresses the importance of the method of learning from nature by exploring the facts around us, stressing more on the use of students' senses. In an opportunity, Emil Salim, former Minister of Environment revealed that the sustainability of GGS program will generate hope that in the future environment will become the policy mainstream and for this the students' involvement is important. "In 2025 they will sit in the policy making offices in this country. Therefore, now is the right time to implant environmental care within them," he had said. Green School Program has in reality provided opportunity for all members of the school community to be directly involved in creating a pleasing educational atmosphere. A good and pleasing environment is everyone's dream. The conscience of the importance of environmental conservation must be cultivated as early as possible. Bowo Leksono

School should cultivate the habit of waste separation. Photo: Bowo Leksono

that we could develop a concept and model of Green School that is suitable for high school of urban areas in Indonesia," he said. Green School according to Triyono is one with the members of the community environmentally sensitive and is made real through behaviour and environmentally sensitive school management in order to improve quality of life. "It is hoped the schools that have implemented the program would be able to sustain and inspire other schools to do the same," he concluded. The program is based on KEHATI Foundation and CCFI concern to schools as educational base and potential institution to support the efforts to improve environmental quality. With all the resources and coverage, schools play an important role in the application of environmental education for youth in Indonesia. Local Contents Schools that have won competition and have been given guidance from GGS are ones that have inserted environmental subjects into educational curriculum. They are SMA Wikrama Bogor, SMA N 13 North Jakarta, SMA 69 of the Thousand Islands, SMK Al Muslim Bekasi, SMA N 34 South Jakarta, and several others. The subject matter which is known as Environmental Education (EE) is deve-

loped by Ecoton (Ecology and Wetland Conservation) research institute in collaboration with KEHATI Foundation. Both institutes provide consultation and EE teaching materials (guidebook, CD, human resources and training), teachers training in developing syllabus and EE training method, competition in EE implementation for students through research contest and ecosystem reporting, and comparative study to other schools that have implemented EE. Up to now EE is only partially under-

Recycle house of SMU N 34, Jakarta. Photo: Bowo Leksono

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Definition reen School is an environmentally sensitive school and its members are environmentally conscience and put it into reality through environmentally friendly behaviour in order to improve the quality of life. More clearly green shool is school committed and systematically develop a program to inclusion the environmental values into school activities.

Basic Value The concept and activities being developed rest on the noble values of human life such as humanity, solidarity, honesty, justice and natural balance. Basic Principle Participatory. All members of a school and the community are entitled to obtain sufficient information and to involve themselves in the overall process (planning, preparation, implementation and control) in accordance with the responsibility and role. Sustaining. All of the activities are beneficial now and in the future. Comprehensiveness. All members of school must consider the each and every aspects of life in the process of planning, implementation, and evaluation in order to enable to provide the biggest contribution to the environment. What Green School Looks Like Green school must at least meet the following requirements (i) education is based on environmentally sensitive curriculum, (ii) design, use of materials and maintenance of facilities are based on environmentally friendly principle, (iii) run on environmentally sensitive management; (iv) school program is supported by communities outside the school, and (v) the school community maintains the habit of environment care. Program Green school can be formatted into five (5) programs, namely (i) development of environmentally based curriculum, (ii) improvement of environmental condition of school compound and the surrounding areas. This is part of the efforts to promote the school and the surrounding communities to actively improve the

Backyard garden ornamented with medicinal plants. Photo: Bowo Leksono

environmental condition, (iii) development of community based education. School is inseparable from the real life and therefore school and community are inter-dependnt one from the other, (iv) development of environmentally friendly support system. This program is significantly connected with WSS such as water thriftiness, sanitation development and waste management, (v) development of environmentally sensitive school management. It's hoped that school management could develop an environmentally sensitive culture and philosophy and is supported with capable human resources. Benefit Various benefits can be obtained among others (i) school community has had an integrated understanding about environment, (ii) school becomes an institution to learn about environ-

Percik August 2007

ment in an easy and pleasing manner, (iii) educational method becomes more dynamic, (iv) students potential and teachers capacity in environmental aspect are continuously improving, and (v) the school is getting more extensive network and is supported by the community outside the school. Application of Green School in Indonesia In general, there are still many
SMA N 13 JAKARTA UTARA Theme Integrated environmental management by the school and the surrounding community through 3R principle

schools in Indonesia that are unfamiliar with the green school concept. Some of the few that have applied the concept are SMA N 13 N. Jakarta, SMK Al Muslim Bekasi, and SMK Wikrama, Bogor. Promoting Factor The success in the application of green school concept is attributed to dedication and sincerety all stakeholders including the students, teachers, and paSMK WIKRAMA BOGOR Quality lifestyle with green school

rents who work in synergy through the availability of external funding source. Constraint Although the green school concept has been successfully put into implementation, however its further expansion is handicapped with the limited number of skilled teachers. Linkage with WSS Development So far WSS development is way from satisfactory achievement, especially as it relates to sanitation and waste management. It is believed that the major inhibiting factor is the poor hygiene behaviour of the community. Therefore behavioural change is prerequisite in WSS development. On the other side, behavioural change may take place easier if it starts early in one's life. For this purpose school becomes the most suitable means for behevioural change process. The experience in application of green school concept confirms it. This has been proven in SMA N 13 of North Jakarta paticularly in waste recycle campaign, at SMK Al Muslim Bekasi and SMK Wikrama Bogor in reusing waste as raw material for handicraft such as key holder, bags and wallet. OM

SMK AL MUSLIM BEKASI Nature and evironment based education

Purpose Establishment of environmental concern, establishment of integrated waste management, improvement of the role of school in handling environmental issues.

Application of environmentally friendly activities by the school community, availability of environmentally based local content curriculum.

Establishment of environment care among students toward 'green life' society, establishment of high quality green environment, application of school based environmental management system Development of environmentally based curriculum, development of cooperation network, empowerment of teachers and students based on environment, application of information technology in environmental management, environment care boy scout, waste management, hygiene behaviour.

Program Strengthening Green School Group, management of waste in school, cultivation of medicinal plants, integration of issues into educational activities, environmental campaign

Empowerment of Green Education team of volunteers, water and energy thriftiness campaign, waste management, integration of waste matter related issues into education, open house and speech contest on waste, environmentally based school management

Source: Kehati Foundation


(adopted from Eco-Schools International,
the conclusion is used as input in determining priority action. The survey should be done in pleasing manner. Formulation of Green School Action. As preliminary action, the plan must be realistic and can easily be achieved. The next may follow the more challenging long term plan. Progress Monitoring and Evaluation. Green Club together with other members of the school community collectively evaluate the progress. The conclusion is used to measure the program achievement. Inclusion of the activity into curriculum. Involving all stakeholders and do not hesitate to disseminate the achievement.

1. Organising Green Club. Green Club serves as motivator and pioneer in the application of green school concept. It comprises all stakeholders (students, teachers, staff, parents and school committee). It is an open organization and is run by the students. The main task is to coordinate the overall activities, provision of recommendation, and facilitation of communication among the school community. 2. Formulation of Vision. Vision should be written and affixed in public area, and can also be supported through statement of attitude from the school committee, and parents union. 3. Conduct Survey on the School Environment. The survey is conducted to identify environmental problem, then



6. 7.

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Dr Dewi Utama Faizah Disseminating Hygiene Life Inspiration

Dewi Utama Faizah has been a staff of the Directorate of Kindergarten and Primary School of the Dept. of National Education since 24 years ago. Dewi as she is intimately called has been involved in curriculum development that serves to inspire the teachers at school. Dewi also lends her hand in many cooperation programs between the government and donor countries in terms of monitoring and evaluation (monev) and training for teachers, especially of kindergarten and primary school. Since 2000 the lady, who likes to wear in black, has been working together with teachers working in schools, especially of eastern regions of Indonesia. What Dewi Utama Faizah is doing while facilitating the "meritorious yet undecorated heroes"? The following are the excerpts of an interview with Percik. human being sensitiveness any time anywhere. I will always ask the teachers to render a helping hand to children resolve their shabbiness. And this can start from simple matter. For instance, to help taking care of common cold and runny nosed which is common in NTT also in NTB. When I joined in Monev Team for AusAID Partnership program in 2002 I was surprised to see how a teacher can teach when the pupils look so clumsy, red nosed with greenish mucus flowing down, dark green collar and sleeve because they use them to mop their nose. What are the barriers? I do not see any barrier. Because hygiene life is human basic demand. Unfortunately our schools, or even parents often neglect and feel it's not necessary to learn about it in the same way it is not necessary to learn mathematics and sciences. Who would not be happy if the children are healthy, they come home smells good, clean hair and smiling with white teeth. Is there any special message? Come let's disseminate the hygiene life behaviour to all children in Indonesia. Hygiene life starts from them as non hygienic life also starts from them. Let's combine head, heart, hand and healthy into learning process in this country. What are the stakeholders we could expect to render help/get involved? I hope the teachers, the community and in the future WSS stakeholders could help this program. OK? I'll be waiting for the action. Bowo Leksono

hat does the hygiene behaviour education look like in Indonesia? Too bad indeed! Our teachers now at schools are "curriculum teachers". They occupy themselves with curriculum and textbooks, while forgetting the dignity of the young people as growing and developing individuals. What it should look like? Speaking of habit is not as simple as transferring the content of a book into human mind. Developing habit comprises a series of long processes within human being, day by day from waking up in the morning till he's asleep again at night. At home and in school are the arenas where children develop their good and healthy behaviour. They need social

environment as means to do it. Then, what should be done and in what way to change the habit? Do it and do it again to make it a habit. Any time and anywhere. This in addition to the necessity of having an exemplary teacher and adult to help in disciplining. If children are immersed into this condition, there will be a feeling of something sticking to always behave hygienically. The hygiene feeling sticks firmly with emotion, while emotion is an energy that flares the children's desire to live a healthy life. Where has the program been employed? I have no specific program for that. But I will do my best to sharpen my

Percik August 2007


bined drag its income drops down. On the other hand PDAM is seemingly being placed in a difficult position if it is trying to increase its tariff. Protests from consumer community backed by the parliament become the stumbling stone. As a matter of fact, though, income from a proper tariff is indispensable to cover the operational costs. In addition, a portion of the income must be reinvested for service coverage expansion. As of 2006 piped water service coverage is still as low as 18 percent. While in terms of water tariff there are many PDAMs put tariff rate at Rp 500 per cu. m thus below the average national tariff level at Rp 1.000 per cu.m. Requesting for a loan is the last resort for most PDAMs. And the loan makes the burden heavier. They are unable to pay the loan installments, if any payment is made it is only for the interest. Finally there are many PDAMs that are deeply in debt. From 318 PDAMs only 18 percent of them is considered financially sound, which means capable of developing, loan management, asset replacement, efficient operation, and making profit. Water loss as a determining factor in basic cost calculation Considering this condition, the government sees to it that PDAM should be salvaged by issuing Permendagri (Home Affairs Ministerial Regulation) No. 23/2006 on Technical Guideline and the Mechanism for PDAM Water Tariff Determination. This regulation supersedes the earlier regulation Permendagri No.2 /1998 on Guideline to Determining

he story of losses incurred by PDAM in supplying water to the community has been a daily news over the years. The high operational costs and high leakage level com-

PDAM Water Tariff which is considered less workable with the present PDAM condition. Up to now PDAM does not reflect full cost recovery principle. Several new changes have been made in considering and determining PDAM tariff. In the new regulation basic cost is calculated based on three components, business cost, quantity of water produced and water loss. Basic cost is business cost di-

In the calculation of the new basic cost water loss is taken into account. Whilst the old regulation considers water loss as liability that has to be borne fully by PDAM

vided by quantity of water produced after deduction with standard water loss. Business cost is the total costs covering costs for water source, water treatment, transmission and distribution, partnership, and general and administration costs. Compare the old basic costs which comprise operational cost, maintenance cost, administration cost, interest on loan and loan principal. In the calculation of the new basic cost water loss is taken into account. Whilst the old regulation considers water

loss as liability to be borne fully by PDAM. This is considered quite appropriate between 2000 and 2007 there are several PDAMs that have to pay raw water tenfolds the earlier cost. This new regulation has made it clear that O&M costs in the old regulation are now the costs for water treatment, transmission and distribution. Quality of service, and raw water source protection as factors in tarif determination Tariff determination policy will undergo some changes. To improve the calculation the new regulation sets the tariff determination toward inclusion of equitability, service quality improvement, accountability and raw water source protection. In the new regulation PDAM tariff is directed toward contribu-

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tion to raw water source protection and sutainability of water resources in the long run. A progressive tariff system is intended to help raw water source protection. Based on the new regulation the calculation and tariff determination must be based on easily understandable and accountable principles. Each rupiah managed by PDAM must be transparent and accountable especially to the community. Otherwise, it'd be difficult for PDAM to increase its tariff. Water use efficiency is still the base in tariff determination. Efficiency can be achieved through the application of progressive tariff for consumers using water beyond the standard water demand. It is hoped that through this limitation these consumers will refrain from excessive use and raw water can be economized. Cost recovery principle will be considered as the main in tariff determination. The new regulation made some revision in calculating the cost recovery. For now, full recovery can be reached when minimum average tarif equals the basic cost. But if we wish to expand the service, the average tariff must be planned to cover the basic costs plus a fair level of profit. This fair profit is reached when the ratio of profit to production asset is 10 percent. However tariff is set within the reach and fairness. The tariff for standard water supply demand must be set within the reach of consumers earning a provincial minimum wage level. The tariff is said within reach if it is not more that 4 percent of consumer's income. For fairness of tariff application, it is undertaken through tariff differentiation through cross subsidy between consumer groups. Quality of service is a new consideration in tariff determination. Quality of service is still a big question with PDAM.
Photo: Bowo Leksono

It has been written many times and published the media that a particular PDAM is difficult to raise tariff because of poor service. In another case, a PDAM proceeds with tariff increase although the service remains poor. With the consideration of quality of service it will push PDAM to improve its service. Flexibility in bloc consumers and customers' group To simplify tariff calculation, consumers bloc and customers group are more flexible to the newly developed regulation. Consumers blocs are reduced from three to two, namely the consumers using water within the standard demand limit and those consuming above the limit. While customers group is reduced into four from previously five. To the new regulation, each group is determined

according to tariff category. Group 1 with low tariff, group 2 basic tariff, group 3 full rate, group 4 special rate. It is here PDAM is given a freehand to determine a policy of each type of consumers for each group based on the consumers' real condition and characteristics in each locality. What is important is PDAM does not change the number of customer groups as determined pursuant to the present Permedagri. Most important of all is that with this new regulation, the mechanism of PDAM tariff determination is based on balance of interest of the consumer community and the regional government. Therefore, tariff determination must at the same time be intended to improved service, cost recovery, and profit that eventually could be reinvested for future service development. ?
Afif Nu'man

Percik August 2007


By: Imam M.*

ecently, there is a promising environment care movement arising from students, especially high schools. The students are no longer spoiled newly as we used to describe them, today they are grown up youth who are seeking for identity. Some of the high schools students have change their views by launching activities that used to be conducted by those who are engaged in environmentally related organizations. What is interesting in these environmentally oriented activities is that the students are now aware of the negative effects of the extensively ongoing nature exploitation and environmental pollution practices. Of course, their activities will not dramatically change the polluted environment into clean and decent surroundings. The main objective is to lay basic awareness as early as possible so that in the future they will become the first person to protect the environment in which they live. If environmental awareness has been developed it will be easier to develop into environmentally oriented habit in daily life. Take for instance the students of SMUN 1 of Wringinanom, Gresik, East Java. We can say this is one of the foremost of its age in environmental awareness. Beside practicing clean and green environment by planting trees and herbs in the school compound, they are also engaged in outside school environmentally related activities. The students attended workshops on environment and persuade other high school students in East Java to conduct a study on Brantas River. This study is to find out the pollution level of the river as accumulative result of pollution dumped into it by citizens as it flows down along its course. The outcome varies exten-

Various medicinal herbs grown in a green school. Photo: Bowo Leksono

sively. Some say that the river flowing into Mojokerto is not too polluted as shown by a student named Yogi of SMUN 1 Wringinanom. Some say that it is already polluted as is shown by students studying Brantas River that flows in the city of Surabaya (Tempo, 16 April 2007). Some of the schools do not stay silent with the increasingly gloomy environmental condition. Several schools have started with environmentally based curriculum. SMUN 1 Wringinanom intends to treat it as a subject matter by giving 1 hour a week, while some other school wishes to integrate it into other subjects. This is done, for instance, in SMK Wikrama Bogor that puts environmental subject within PKN, Indonesian Language, English Language, Mathematics, and Physics. The following is the explanation:

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1. Islamic Study: Competence in Natural and Environmental Degradation. Week 18-21. 2. Civics: Competence in Natural Resources. Week 61-73. 3. Indonesian Language: Competence in Reading and Writing on Environment. Week 5-25. 4. English Language: Competence in Novice Level of reading and writing on natural environment. Week 21-40. 5. Mathematics: Competence in the application of the concept of real figure. Week 1-13. 6. Physics: (a) Calorie calculation, (b) Application of power concept, energy, capacity, (c) Application of fluid concept, (d) Thermodynamics, (e) Optics, (f) Electricity, (g) Productive RPL1. Basic Programming, (h) Computer Technology and Network, (i) PC Installation. Week 1-10. The concept applied in SMK Wikrama does not disturb subject matters because it does not add to the students' tasks because everything is integrated within the subject matters. Therefore, the concept is supporting the subjects and at the same time generated awareness to environment. It can be said that SMK Wikrama Bogor has made a systematic breakthrough in response to the environmentally critical issues into educational domain. Beside integration curricular system, they also see to it that it is reflected in the school behaviour. They install automatic device to control electricity and water use in order to economise. As to waste they have made available separate bins, each for organic and inorganic waste. In addition, in SMK Wikrama the environmental awareness is already reflected from the trees growing in all corners of

Tree shaded schoolyard. Photo: Bowo Leksono

the school compound. This school does not only look clean but also green and is comfortable and is finally the most suitable place to cultivate the seed of intelligence. Various supports Environmental care can also be seen at SMK Al Muslim Bekasi. In 2005 this school won Oxygen Prize from PT Coca Cola in collaboration with KEHATI Foundation. This prize is intended to cultivate the seed of environment care within the students to grow into reality of life. The sponsors gave them Rp 25 million in cash plus 1 year facilitation. But, as stated by Ms. Elis Setiawati, Headmistress of SMK Al Muslim: "What is more important is what will happen after the support. Indeed the GGS program has in reality provides opportunity to all members of school to be directly involved in the green education program that was conceived in 1986. Our involvement in planning, implementation, monitoring, reporting and follow-up action plan has broadened our view in the implementation of two main principles underlying GGS program i.e. comprehensive-

ness and sustainability. Most important of all is to sustain the program implementation in the future". The support provided by various organizations for environmentally oriented activities is essentially to motivate and at the same provide room to create awareness to environment. SMAN 1 Wringinanom has by itself worked in cooperation with Gresik regional and East Java provincial governments, also with Ecoton and KEHATI. But the support is only temporary assuming a participation in dissemination of the environmental awareness seedling that would be useful in the future. This is quite in line with school education that is intended to provide basic provision to prepare the students when they enter and become part of the community. In connection with the increasingly apprehensive environment this provision is quite important. Because no matter how great the opinion of environmental awareness to be built will not be of any use unless the awareness is deeply implanted within the individuals. I think this is where the go green school program becomes very important.
* Ecology Observer

Percik August 2007


denced from big flood such as the one in 2002 and again in 2007 causing many lost his life and belongings. The floods of Jakarta are not simply ordinary natural phenomenon but they are the consequence of the municipality government policy for relinquishment of the city development strategy fully into market mechanism. What is the linkage of Jakarta floods of 2002 and 2007 with a development policy that worships market mechanism? The intensive commercial development has taken away many water infiltration areas, such as parks and lakes, into extinction. The total green and open spaces are diminishing from time to time. In Jakarta Master Plan of 1965-85 the green areas is targeted at 18,000 ha, in 1985-2005 it decreases to 16,908 ha and in 2000-2010 spatial plan in goes down further to 9,560 ha. The decrease in the green areas causes increase in water runoff in rainy days that causes floods in Jakarta. The latest data for BPJHD Jakarta in 2005 indicate that only 26.5 percent of rain water is absorbed by the soil and 73.4 percent as runoff. The fact tells us why the flood of 2007 is more intense thn that of 2002. Market mechanism and social costs The handing over of the city development to the freedom of market mechanism has made Jakarta regional revenue increase considerably. But if the social costs as the result of environmental disaster are also taken into account the revenue will be sigificantly reduced. According to Bappenas estimate, the costs of from 2007 floods the community and government lost a total of approximately Rp 5.2 trillion. Plus indirect economic losses at Rp 3.6 trillion. Ironically though, such social costs miss the market' attention.
*) Executive Manager Environment Caucus Jakarta


by: Firdaus Cahyadi *)

he city of Jakarta develops so rapidly that makes it far more advanced than other cities of Indonesia. This is evidenced from the fact that it records the highest income per capita. The rapid Jakarta development had made it the centre of both business and government administration. In order to achieve a higher economic growth relative to other cities the municipality government directs the development strategy to an effort to attract as many investors as possible. A development strategy vested on market mechanism becomes the dominant paradigm of this city. This becomes

more conspicuous if we take look at the expansion of commercial areas from time to time. In 2006 for example, there were more than 30 large scale shopping centres, apartments, and office building constructed. While in 2007 to 2008 there are 80 similar buildings are under of planned for construction (Kompas, 10 February 2006). Market mechanism and flood in Jakarta The intensive development taking place at Jakarta commercial centers has made this city less and less comfortable and even environmentally and socially dangerous to its inhabitants. This is evi-

RAINFALLS TURN INTO SURFACE RUN OFF Precipitation 2000 million m3/year Run Off 1468 million m3/year (73,4%) sea surface shallow groundwater deep groundwater

Safe boundary of groundwater extracting is 30-40% of groundwater potential (186 million m3/year) 3 (Groundwater deficiency 66.65 million m /year in 2005) Source:BPLHD DKI Jakarta, February 15, 2007

12 Percik 2007 August



(Local Genius from Barugaya Hamlet, Bonto Kadatto Village of Kabupaten Takalar)
by: Sofyan Iskandar

ow could we divide the responsibility equitably an electric bill to run a communal water pump? My immediate answer would be to divide it proportionally among the users. It could be based on the quantity of water use or from the size of the family. If it is based on water use then each user must install a water meter. If this is too expensive and impractical, the alternative is the size of family. That is what I thought. But that is different with the community of Barugaya hamlet, Bonto Kadatto village, Kabupaten Takalar in S. Sulawesi. According to them my idea is too complicated, in spite of it is basicaally a simple idea, the practical implication is complicated. Say for instance, using water meter, who will read it, then who will collect the contribution, what about a payment delay. The alternative is the size of the family, there is no guarantee if a smaller family size uses less water than a bigger one. All these problems came to light because there are only few water sources available. There are only several wells to avail of. And it takes electricity to make water flow. Economising water use Fortunately we have Bassere Daeng Ta'le (45) a member of the community who has some knowledge in electricity. To overcome the problem of electric bill, it is required that each house uses its own power. In this way there is no need for a dispute on the amount of money one has to spend for electricity. It is up to each individual family to decide what quantity of water to use, the more the use the more his bill will become. If he wants to economize use water as necessary. This is unanimously accepted by the users. The system initiated by Daeng Ta'le was developed three years ago by Daeng Nai (43). This was revealed from a field visit by participants of MPAPHAST orientation to Barugaya hamlet of Bonto Kadatto, in Takalar in June 2007, an event that was organized by WSS-WG Jakarta in cooperation with DG-PMG Dept. of Home Affairs.

Water pipe crossing directly to the community housing. Photo: Bowo Leksono

Operating Mechanism How does the system that has been functioning for three years operate? In principle each family has its own power line to be connected to a water pump at the well. Each house installs a switch to connect and disconnect the power line. To determine the turn of service each house also installs an indicator light which is on when the pump is running. The rule is you may switch on your pump when the indicator is off. After you have finished with the pump, put both the power switch and the water tap into off position. Power connec-

Percik August 2007


tion chart is presented in the diagram. Is there any electric short cut? This is already considered, the connection is made on the same power phase. This system is used in a group consisting of 3 to 12 houses. The longest distance to the well or pump is 100 metres. The costs for construction, pipeline and electricity installation as well as procurement of pump are paid collectively by the particular user group. I have to put away my critical analysis because in reality the system does work, well operated, it holds for three years now, and is self financed. Take for instance, that all indicator light flash on when one household is switching the pump on, it means 13 x 5 watts = 65 watts of electricity is being used. If this is combined with the power for the pump say e.g 200 watts, then all the households will pay for 265 watts of power. To calculate the costs we can just multiply it with the number of hours the system operates. To economize it is perhaps by replacing the 5 W bulbs with smaller indicator lamps.

A reservoir in front of houses. Photo: Bowo Leksono

When the house at the tail switches the light on, in principle the other houses can open its tap to get some water. But since the users live in close vicinity with each other, a control can always be taken, this can be seen from the flow to the tail

house is significantly reduced. If there is a pressing need a direct communication is made by asking someone to switch off his connection. Sustainable system Seeing the fact that the development has been three years in place and up to now the facility is perfectly functioning and is continuously in use, all indicates that the facility is sustaining. This fact strengthens my conviction that the community is capable of resolving its own problem, even in discovering an appropriate technology. That technology choice should open for discussion regarding its advantages and disadvantages is prerequisite for sustainability. The community decision is key to sustainability of a construction being planned. That outside party does not have to come with subsidy, does really happen in Barugaya. It is a blatant fact that if I want to contribute to the development of sustainable water supply provision in this country, I shall have to learn more and more.
* WASPOLA consultant

Water distribution pipes. Photo: Bowo Leksono

14 Percik 2007 August


By Sandhi Eko Bramono, S.T., MEnvEngSc.* Methodology of Calculation Employment generation is considered as a workable parameter to test if an infrastructure is sufficiently effective. Through employment a long chain of effects could possibly be generated for the benefit of the community. Starting from job vacancies a number of skilled workers find an opportunity to apply his skill. Through employment the economic welfare increases, this is followed by the growth of awareness to education, health, and so on. The final impact is improvement in human resources capacity, an irreplaceable national asset. Provision of water supply infrastructure significantly affects overall employment opportunity from the survey to determine the infrastructure up to field supervision to record water meter readA reservoir built through collaboration of the community, NGO and the government. Photo: Bowo Leksono

ing in each home connection. How many university graduate would be needed, then diploma and high school level technicians, and below them ordinary workers to build the facility and its distribution system. Then the number of foremen to control the workers, PDAM employees required, the number of IPA PAKET ready for installation at the location, the number of network system supervision, and so on. Based on the above calculation we can determine manpower requirement for the construction of 1 litre/sec water supply

structure must be intended to improve the community welfare. Several parameters may be proposed to measure the effectiveness to community welfare. One of the parameters worth testing is capacity to generate employment. How many employment opportunities are generated by an infrastructure development that

rovision of efficacious infrastructure is just like a pillar of national development. The infra-

affects national economic growth is a yardstick to measure the benefit of an infrastructure. One of the infrastructures that support national development is Water Supply System (WSS). In what way does WSS contribute to employment generation, and as such what percentage is its contribution to the national economic growth, are seemingly the questions that worth our further examination.

Percik August 2007


facility. In addition, the investment can also be calculated, to generate employment of that size. By comparing with the investment in each FY, we can also calculate the contribution of employment generation and national economic growth each year in water supply sector. WSS in Indonesia Based on the data from the Coordinating Ministry of People Welfare generation of 500 thousand new employments will increase economic growth by 1 percent. (United Nations Development Program) 2006 in New Delhi concludes that every l/sec WSS creates 1.72 new employments. Due to lack of such data for Indonesia, it is assumed the condition in India is similar to Indonesia (both are developing nations). In FY 2006 the amount of investment made by Dept. Public Works is Rp 1.4 trillion for WSS facilities. Assuming that the demand for water supply is 200 l/cap/day and the investment costs (including production and distribution network) for WSS is Rp 270 thousand/capita this equals to services to 5.18 million population or equivalent to 12 m3/sec facility. With such an amount the new employments created is equal to 20,640 or 0.041 percent. If the national economic growth in 2006 is 5.6 percent then 0.0412 percent of it is contributed by WSS. Economic growth through WSS It can be said that the above methodology is an accurate and quantifiable methodology to see the WSS effectiveness viewed from the national economy. It is yet still necessary to look deeper and verify more accurate data in order to obtain more detailed picture about WSS contribution to the national economy. Looking at the above calculation, it is therefore possible to accelerate economic growth through WSS facilities. The parameter related to this is e.g. reduction of l/sec investment cost. Each investment will increase service coverage which is followed by expansion of employment opportunity. In addition, it is necessary to create more extensive employment opportunity, so the each l/sec of WSS facility is capable of absorbing as much manpower as possible (such as establishThe author is a staff of Sub-directorate of Policy and Strategy, Directorate General of Human Settlement (Dept. Public Works). Currently he is working on his doctorate degree in Environmental Science and Engineering Division, NUS, Singapore. Contact with author:

ment of contracting firms capable if designing IPA PAKET/Package of Water Treatment Plant or employment opportunity capable of planning and designing WSS facility). It might be worthwhile to remember that the government recommendation for water thriftiness may result in accelerating economic growth. With less water consumption, then the investment per capita can be decreased, this will expand service coverage for an equal amount of investment. This means larger service coverage at a lower cost but provides a wider employment opportunity and increases the national economic growth. Challenges in the future

Data from UNDP

Employment generation is considered as a workable parameter to test if an infrastructure is sufficiently effective. Through employment a long chain of effects could possibly be generated for the benefit of the community.

WSS planning and design engineers are required to create facilities national that could boost growth economic

through the sector's development. Modification as discussed above, may be considered as a method to improve water supply coverage at a relatively lower (or equal) cost, but capable of supplying a bigger coverage area, thus generating more job vacan-

cies to raise the national economy to a higher level. The combination of technology-economic-social-culture is absolutely necessary, to enable us develop more creative approach in translating it into reality, in spite of financial limitations. It is not impossible that WSS sector provides a larger contribution to the national economic growth. In addition to water supply WSS can also provide a chain of beneficial impacts for community welfare, even outside the water supply. In other words an effective water supply provision system will be able to provide a real contribution as an effect from extensive employment opportunity in Indonesia. It is equally possible the employment opportunity in this sector will jack up a growth in another sector that eventually provides extensive job vacancies, as a follow effect.

16 Percik 2007 August



pute among community members. This happened in Mustika Tigaraksa Housing located at Kabupaten Tangerang, Banten province. Since the very beginning the housing which was developed in 2001 is known to have water supply problem. In a dry season like this there is apt to be dissidence among inhabitants. One man was even wounded from being assaulted by another. Of course no one wants this to happen. Ideally, water scarcity should become a blessing to unite the community to find a solution. Mustika Housing consists of 8 RWs and is inhabited by approximately 3.600 families. Mantagara Four village. RWs belong to Pasirnangka village and the other four to Geographically Another type of initiative is taken by Rohayati (31). The housewife buys a tank of water containing 6 thousand litres for Rp 135.000. "This water will last for a week or 10 days," she says. Ety as she is preferably called, has tried to dig artesian well for 4 times, none of them produces any water. Santosa, representing the community, wishes to request PDAM connection to Mustatika Tigaraksa Housing. "The nearest PDAM network is one kilometre away from here," he says. Taking benefit of an artificial lake In the centre of the housing area there is a manmade lake which was already there before the housing was built. In dry season this artificial lake is a very valuable asset to the inhabitants. Several water pumps are installed in the lake and dozens of distribution pipes convey water to the houses. One pump belongs to ten or more owners, and they take benefit from the lake for water supply. Each morning and afternoon, the members of the community come to take water from the 100 m by 60 m lake. To bathe, wash and take water for their family. But at the peak of dry season, the water level is shrinking and finally dries altogether. It seems that the community of Mustika Housing of Tigaraksa is becoming more and more tortured from the year long water scarcity.
Leksono Bowo This artificial lake is the source of water for Mustika Housing of Tigaraksa, Tangerang. Photo: Bowo Leksono

s basic demand for life, it is not surprising that water scarcity might become the source of dis-

underground water source is scarce here. Rusdianto, Chairman of RW 08 Mustika Tigaraksa Housing told Percik that the housing developer only provides the inhabitants with a shallow well for every house. "Since the very beginning the 18-24 m well did not function. Especially during dry season," he says. Some of the inhabitants made a short cut by cutting water pipe running in front of his home. Finally the community initiated to dig artesian well up to 80 m deep. One well belongs to 7-8 families. Even this initiative does not immediately solve the problem. During dry season water scarcity recurs.

Percik August 2007



cated in hilly areas and way from PDAM services. The villages are scattered in the Sub-Districts of Bakateja (1), Kemangkon (4), Pengnadegan (5) Karanganyar (8) Bobotsari (4), Karangreja (3), Bojongsari (1), Rembang (1), Kejobong (9), Karangmoncol (6), Kaligondang (11), Kutasari (1) and Kartanegara (2) Every year these areas are suffering from water scarcity and the peak is usually in October. "Our village hasn't had water ration from the government," complains Sukardi (45) of Wanalaya village, Karanganyar. Heru Sudjatmoko, Vice Bupati of Purbalingga told Percik that the local government has taken the necessary step in anticipation of this yearly recurrent phenomenon. We are providing water to the villages. "Yet not all of the villages are being served today because the condition is not yet too serious," he said. Bowo

Every year during dry season, many people from the surrounding community come to this big river to take a bath, wash and defecate. Photo: Bowo Leksono

umarto (65) with two big pails on his shoulder followed by his grandson is walking along a path in the rice field to the Laban River. Over there, in the river many people, men and women children and adults are already waiting to take turn to do their activity. Washing clothes and taking bath. Twice a day, morning and afternoon, Sumarto and many others of the community walk back and forth the 2 km path to the river. Sumarto just like several others in the community digs a hole in the Laban riverbed in order to get a little clean water. "We have to economize water from the well at home because it will get dry very soon," he said. Practically when the well is dry the river is the only source the community depends on. Since last July drought has attacked Purbalingga and several other regions in Central Java. This year's dry season

made 56 villages in 13 sub-districts suffer from dryness and water supply in critical condition. The areas are generally lo-

Lake Slumpit Shrinking

t's almost a month now since the end of July and the water level in Lake Slumpit is continuously getting lower. Pretty soon the community of Nglumpit hamlet of Kenteng village in Gunung Kidul will suffer from water scarcity. "At home, we have no well. We depend entirely on this lake for water," says Surahmiati (42). Very early in the morning, the mother of two children has come to the half an hectare lake. Washing, bathing and taking water for the family. The same routine is again in the afternoon If the lake becomes completely dry, Surahmiati and other members of community will have to order and buy water from a vendor. Water is kept in a tank outside the house. "One tank containing 5.000 litres of

water costs Rp 120 thousand and is good for 3 week consumption". Prasetyo (27) walks back and forth every day carrying two pails of water on his shoulders. This water from the lake is for cooking and drinking."We have our own pit well, but it's dry now."Gunung Kidul is geographically covered with chalk cliffs and water source is scarce. And PDAM is way from reaching drought prone areas. Long dry season is recurrent every year in Gunung Kidul. This year, the community is again made busy with water scarcity. The Slumprit Lake being the only source is getting worse. It wouldn't be long from now when not a single drop of water the lake will give. Bowo Leksono

18 Percik 2007 August



ommunity Total Led Sanitation (CLTS) approach is beginning to bear fruit in Indonesia since its introduction in November 2004. The latest data indicate that CLTS has been applied in 20 provinces, 58 kabupatens, and within 1.5 year time span at least 150 villages have been made free from open defecation. However, we still need an accelerated speed in order to come to a significant number of communities free from the habit of defecating in the open. Tens of thousands of villages are still left to be taken care of. Looking at the significant impact to behavioural change, CLTS acceleration in Indonesia is likely to become an obsession. To put ourselves into the obsession it might be necessary for us to capture some input in terms of lessons learned from other countries. India might be a good choice. They have been ahead of us in the adoption of CLTS approach and making some adjustments until they could rename it Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC). A sanitation observation visit from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh to take a look at CLTS in Indonesia early August 2007 has provided us with an opportunity for exchange of experience. WSP-EAP then facilitated Indonesian Government to make a counter visit to India on 27-31 August 2007. The area visited was District of Jalna, Maharashtra. The Indonesian delegation consisted of Dr Wan Alkadri and Zainal Nampira of Dept. Health, Oswar Mungkasa of Bappenas, Emah Sujimah (Public Works) and Dr Budi Rahayu (E. Java Health Agency). The following account attempts to summarize the lessons learned from the visit. Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) Basically TSC approach does not deviate from CLTS, i.e focused on elimination of the habit of defecation in the open rather than in latrine building, promotion of improved sanitation service at community rather than individual level, promoting conscience within oneself rather than through subsidy. The difference is that TSC allows technology choice for latrine construction, incentive provision for community that is already free from defecation in the open, and opportunity for a micro credit scheme. TSC Achievement in Maharasthra During the last two decades the achievement of sanitation development in Maharashtra can be rated as very low. Sanitation development within the period 1997-2000 through

An Indian village woman in front of her toilet. Photo: Oswar Mungkasa

Percik August 2007


Distinct Role It has been fully understood that the responsibility for sanitation development should be handed over to the level of government that is directly in touch with the community. In this matter, the government of India handed the TSC program to the Gran Panchayat. This hand over is made official through a law. The role of national government is limited to policy formulation, monitoring and provision of incentive fund for the village free from defecation in the open, either as prize winner contest or program incentive for a community that could completely free themselves from defecating in the open. State Government supports Zilla Perishad (equivalent to kabupaten Government in Indonesia) in the implementation particularly in capacity improvement, monitoring of areas free from defecation in the open, and facilitation in clean village contest (village free from defeGovernment's Full SupA certificate of appreciation awarded to a Gran Panchayat cation in the open). port directly signed by the President of India Abdul Kalam. Includes in this case deveGovernment's full support Photo Oswar Mungkasa lopment of operational at each level is a must. The guidelines, criteria of NGO support may come in various for cooperation, and monev system deveprinted one as is often the case in different formats such as provision of lopment, as well as dissemination of lesIndonesia. sanitation policy, formation of working sons learned. At the time of the visit to the villages, group with full authority in coordinating Zilla Parishad develops tender regulathe first thing to be shown was the certisanitation activity, initiation of partnertion and mechanism, and monitoring systificate including the trophy which indiship with other stakeholders, preparation tem based on criteria developed by the cates that the village has won a contest. of guidelines, preparation of incentive provincial government. The kabupaten This motivates the government to link the budget for cumminities that are free from government must coordinate all the sanitation campaign not only with health defecating in the open, implementation of involved agencies, so that the GP deals but also with other aspects such as comsanitation campaign. There are many only with one counter. fort, privacy and pride. other activities initiated by the governthe application of massive campaign and provision of incentive to the head of family. Around 1.7 million latrines were built, but the level of usage is less than 50 percent, including the use for other purposes such storage house, and others. A further study in this case indicates that 80 percent of the population still continue with the old habit of defecating on the open. Then in 2002 the Government of Maharashtra began to adopt the TSC approach as part of trial program from the Indian Government. The trial was made in 2003 in two districts, Ahmednagar and Nanded. Then since 2004 TSC was applied in all districts of Maharashtra. The result is quite promising. The number of Gram Panchayats (GP/comparable to kecamatan in Indonesia) freed from defecation in the open reached 4,000 in 2006 from only 13 GPs in 2003. Within 2.5 year span of time the program has reached an additional population of 8 million, from a start at 4.000. ment from the central, provincial and kabupaten down to the village levels. One of the support formats that attract the biggest attention by village community is the president's signature on a certificate. A real signature by his hand and not a

20 Percik 2007 August

tion, but the incentive is given to the whole community as a reward for their cooperation and fruit of their serious effort. Incentive comes in the form of funding assistance for their development program such road building, school, etc. The incentive takes the form of prize for winner of contest on free from defecation in the open. This contest is organized in various levels from kecamatan, kabupaten, provincial and national. The winner of each level receives a certificate signed directly the President of India and a trophy. This incentive is effective for motivating the villages to compete one another because one of the factors that motivate the communities to change is their desire to have their village well known. The winner is determined by independent organization, namely an NGO selected by the national government through an open selection forum. The criteria are determined collectively and openly announced. OM

TABLE 1. INDIVIDUAL SANITATION PRACTICE INFLUENCES THE ENTIRE COMMUNITY Village category Household using toilet, % 29 95 100 Diarrhoea prevalence, % 38 26 7

High defecation in the open Low defecation in the open Free from defecation in the open

Source: Water Sanitation Program-South Asia

The role of NGO is directed to community level training scheme development and together with the village government in conducting the training. Sanitation should be community based Sanitation is basically the responsibility of each family, but then not all of the families fulfill their obligation, and the whole community will suffer the impact. As an illustration, a study made by Water Sanitation Program - South Asia (WSPSA) in one village in India indicates that a village with high level of defecation in the open and a low level both have a relatively equal diarrhoea prevalence. It is quite different from a village which is totally free from defecation in the open the prevalence level is quite low (7 percent). Table 1 provides a clearer picture. The fact that there is insignificant impact on the reduction of diarrhoeal prevalence if only a portion (rather than an entirety) of the community live a hygiene life has motivated the Indian government to launch a community based rural sanitation development. Seeing is believing The community tends to change its behaviour after seeing a real example. In Jalna, one of the districts of Maharashtra, in the beginning the government made a trial in just one village. This is to make certain if the result can be used as example for other communities. After the trial was proven successful the regional government launched a campaign to other

communities suggesting them to take a look at the trial. It turned out there were many who were interested in applying TSC after seeing the result of the trial. This motivated the regional government to apply the principle of 'seeing is believing'. Give a good example and the community will be attracted to also do the same. Prevent a massive implementation during an early stage of a program. Provision of incentive Incentive is believed to promote the achievement of free from open defeca-

A drawing to illustrate "Hygiene Behaviour Campaign" on the wall of a school building Photo: Oswar Mungkasa

Percik August 2007




heers and merriment are quite common during the Independence Day festivity in August. But in the village of Jambangan of the city of Surabaya the merriment seems to spark all the year round. More than that the village with 23 RTs is always sparkling with an aura of cleanliness and beautiful environment. Since 2001, Jambangan through the skilful hands of Ibu Winasih, the pioneer, become a clean and healthy village. The community's initiatives Environmental cleanliness is applied from putting two garbage bins in front of every house each for dry inorganic and wet organic waste respectively. Even some of the housewives specifically collect the plastic wrapper of instant noodles and other snacks for use in handicraft such as sandal, bag, vest, ashtray and others. While organic waste is processed into compost. This practically makes the waste collector's job easier because almost no more garbage is transported outside the village. "Everything is now processed internally," says Ibu Yus, the PKK chairwoman of Jambangan village.

One corner of Jambangan village in the city of Surabaya looks nice, green and soothing from various trees and plants growing. Photo: Bowo Leksono

His initiative has brought Jambangan village to win first place "Surabaya Green and Clean 2007" competition which was held last June. The prestigious annual clean and green environment competition is held in Surabaya under the collaborative sponsorship of the Surabaya Municipal Government, PT Unilever and Jawa Pos. Previously, in 2006 this village also won first place in "Garbage Free" competition. It is unfortunate, at this moment the community's handicraft creation is still limited to production and not in marketing to increase the family income. "For the time being we are only

Kupang Prajan Village, a pearl within a city

ho would think that in the middle of a big city such as Surabaya there is a small neighbourhood unit (RT) that makes outsiders envy. What makes them envy? The community of RT3 RW 3 of Kupang Prajan has proven themselves capable of creating a clean and hygienic environment for its community. This fact has demanded hard work and togetherness within the community. The strong togetherness and willingness to work communally is the RT's most precious asset. Without such an asset it is impossible to make the dream of a clean environment into reality. It is proven from the achievement made in RT 3 RW 3 of Kupang Prajan to win the first place in "Surabaya Go Green and Clean 2007" competition for progressing area category. "Togetherness and willingness to work collectively as the asset of the community is used as capital to turn the RT into a clean

environment," said Agus Siswoyo, RT 3 RW 3 vice chairman, speaking on behalf of the community in welcoming the team for the preparation of book on lesson learned in WSS development. The role of housewives organized in PKK in attending environmental hygiene is quite significant. The solid waste treatment becomes their routine activity. "About two years ago it took three rounds for waste collector with a cart in one day. Now it is only once, because everyone has separated his own waste," said Sri. One interesting rule agreed in this RT is every time there is a childbirth or arrival of a newcomer a potted plant must be placed in front of the house and let it grow there; this is to make the environment even greener and to build a more solid togetherness and awareness. Bowo

22 Percik 2007 August


Children Festival in Surabaya


tic purposes. PDAMs of Gresik and Surabaya also take their raw water from this river. Involving students Since April 2007 a monitoring network by Surabaya River detectives has been studying the threat to water quality and biodiversity of the river. The detectives or reporters comprise a group consisting of 10 teachers and 30 students from 10 schools, namely SMP N 1 Kedamean, SMU N 1 Driyorejo, SMU N 1 Wringanom and SMP N 1 Wringinanom, SMP PGRI2 Batu and SMP Muhammadiyah 3 Batu, SMA Wachid Hasyim 2 Sepanjang, SMP Muhammadiyah 2 Taman Sidoarjo, SMAK St. Stanislaus Kalijudan and SMA Al Falah Ketintang Surabaya.
Created by Rudi Kosasih

In addition, there was also environmental exhibition participated by several schools and prominent NGOs such as Greenpeace Indonesia, Pusdakota (waste treatment through composting), Environmental Care Journalist Community, Walhi East Java, Ecoton, Kehati (Go Green School Program and example of success with schools in Jakarta and Tangerang), The Office of Provincial Environment, etc. At the event the schools organized in Surabaya River Monitoring Network filed a petition to the provincial government on their concern to the present Surabaya River condition. The petition contains a call that the provincial government of East Java refrain from issuing permit for construction on riverbanks. Recovering Surabaya riverbanks back to their function and to take immediate measures to re-greening of critically degraded lands. In addition, also socialization of using medicinal herbs that usually grows well in riverbanks. Monitoring and imposing sanction to industrial plants violating the Environment Law No. 23/2007 on Environmental Management. It is recommended that the government design and launch a sustaining campaign through mass media, such as TV, radio, printed matter, and socialization of policy to the community interested in Surabaya River. There is also a need for firming and binding regulation the individuals and institutions against waste disposal. Determining which government agency is in charge of dealing with the problem of waste disposal into the river, this will make it clear which agency is responsible for waste disposal and protect the quality of river.
BW/ from various sources

decreased oxygen content in the water that frequently kills fish and other animals living in and around the river. That is the report from monitoring and the finding from a series of monitoring studies made by "Surabaya River Detectives" represented by 10 schools of Surabaya and other places within Surabaya River Basin. The presentation of the report is part of a series of "Surabaya River Children Festival" held last August 5. The annual agenda with the theme "Save Surabaya River for Our Future" was held by the Institute for Ecological Study and Wet Lands Conservation (Ecoton), Biodiversity Foundation (KEHATI) and Perum Jasa Tirta I Malang, at the Surabaya riverbank. Prigi Arisandi, Ecoton Executive Director disclosed that this event was held in commemoration of Children Day and at the same time as a form of children's care and concern with the increasing level of pollution in the Surabaya River. "Several agendas and activities were held in the festivals and all of them involved children," said Prigi. Surabaya River is one of the downstream courses of Brantas River, flowing from Mlirip in Mojokerto down to Jagir of Surabaya for 41 km, is playing an important role as water source for the communities, including agriculture, industry and domes-

he quality of water in Surabaya River is continuously getting worse because of domestic and industrial wastes dumped into the river. This is evidenced from

Percik August 2007




* Pawang = someone gifted with specific skill such as snake charmer, prospecting for water, etc. ties have difficulty in access to water. Clean water is a basic necessity inseparable from human life. In areas where water is difficult to get, dispute over water quite often happens. One of such areas is Kecamatan Karanglewas, Banyumas, C. Java, located south of Mount Selamet. This dispute comes from the fact that the reservoir that retains water from a spring is not enough to supply the demand of the whole community, or to be exact there is an uneven water distribution among the families. It is unsurprisingly that when there was a dispute it was almost certain that the main cause was water, and thus the term "noisy water" was coined. Until some time a few years ago a somebody named Mujamil, from Singosari village came forward to pacify it through his invention in water distribution device. The 52 year old Mujamil is not a technician. Far from it. He is a teacher in Islamic religion from the local primary school. Simple technology Previously, the community where Mujamil live obtained

lthough Indonesia is blessed with abundant water at a relatively high precipitation rate, yet water scarcity is common phenomenon in some areas. Many communi-

water from traditional reservoir, i.e. water is drawn from a source and is collected in a reservoir for distribution to individual families through a pipe or plastic hose. According to Mujamil, the system has many weaknesses. "Beside insufficient water discharge to reach all the houses the system can easily be disrupted or tinkered," he said. He cited an example, someone pushed his pipe deeper into the reservoir to get bigger flow or damage the main network in order to get a different water flow. This was what used to cause the problem. Mujamil pondered. "How to create a device that can distribute water evenly among the households." Based on his experience from two years working in Pertamina refinery in Cilacap plus a lot of thinking, the father of four children ventured to develop water distribution device. Assisted by several members of the community Mujamil started with his work after obtaining financial assistance from a community organization. He developed a tube distribution system based on the principle of connecting vessel. Mujamil designed it in such a way so that the system produced a small discharge but with even flow rate and is protected from tinkers. Through the application of connecting vessel theory the distribution was developed. Inside the tube a distributor is designed to make an equal

24 Percik 2007 August

discharge for each consumer. To solve the problem faced by tail consumers living at lower end a T shaped tube is attached for air circulation and water pressure regulator, just like a pump. To prevent damage and leakage, the tube is sealed in concrete structure that makes it look like a tomb. "With this it is no more necessary to build a reservoir," he said. Challenge The tubular water distribution system was developed by Mujamil in 1987. It was first introduced in his village where water dispute and network sabotage was a common affair. Mujamil's invention did not work smoothly in the beginning. There were many shortcomings here and there. But he was quite optimistic and continuously thinking and the shortcomings and weaknesses were solved one by one. Even the local government did not acknowledge his invention. In spite of a trial test was successfully undertaken. "Even when Singasari village intended to add more water distribution system funded under P3DT program, an agreement did not occur," Mujamil said. Only after a consultant team from the province came over to take a look, then they agreed and fully supported Mujamil's connecting vessel system. The system was made more solid after a trial test conducted by Cipta Karya and Bina Marga consultant team. Request from neighbouring village After successfully resolving the "noisy water" problem into real clean water that is easily and equally accessible to all families of his community, requests from neighbouring villages with the same problem came requesting him to build similar tubular water distribution system for them. He built a network of water distribution system in Grumbul Rabuk of Baseh village. The same was Kedung Banteng. While in Beji, due to financial shortage they are still using the old system. Not less interesting is Panembangan village built a distribution system connected to water meter almost like PDAM, and more than that this village is making an additional income from the neighbouring community. It has been years now the tubular system and the meter devices are in application. According to Mujamil, there is no major problem and they are relatively safe. "I can guarantee that the water that once was the source of dispute will no longer "noisy". For the families who used to depend on water reservoir have changed it with PVC pipes buried 70 cm deep underground. The continuous water flowing for hundreds of meter within the conveyance pipe is the supply to satisfy the consumers' demand. The spirit to try new ideas combined with creativity has enabled him to change and solve intricate problems related to water supply. And Mujamil who is Islamic Religion High School graduate is capable of taking the community into a better water supply provision system. Mujamil is a hero without decoration and in fact he does not need such symbolism. "What I have been doing is only for the sake of the community," he said. It is a pride and satisfaction for Mujamil if he could provide something useful to the community. Yet Mujamil's hard work will be in vain unless it is fully supported by the community. And the communal work is prerequisite for the whole community to work toward self reliance. Through communal work a hard work
The community water distribution system. Photo Bowo Leksono Water regulator tomb stands at a corner of a village. Photo: Bowo Leksono

will become light and easy.

Bowo Leksono

Percik August 2007


OUR GUEST E n d a n g W a r d i n i n g s i h


t seems that the interest in environmental sustainability is not limited within the mind of adults but it has also touched the younger generation especially students. One of them is high school students of SMU N 34 at Pondok Labu, South Jakarta. This school once won the second place in Toyota Eco Youth competition and first place for the best presentation in the same competition. Toyota Eco Youth is an environmental improvement contest among schools initiated by Toyota Astra. In the Toyota Eco Youth the highest mark is obtained from school capacity in involving all components in environmental pro-

a c t t c a s K o a h

jects run by the school. The achievement made by SMU N 34 Jakarta can never be made without the effort of all elements of the school, from the guiding teachers and all the students. One of the individuals with highest dedication and commitment to environmental improvement in the school is Ms. Endang Wardiningsih, Chemistry teacher and concurrently counsellor for KIR (Kelompok Ilmiah Remaja, Youth Science Club) as the initial vehicle for environmental education of the school. Endang's interest in this field was initially developed from her participation in a UNESCO workshop on coral reef in 1996. "One of the subject matters discussed in a session was on solid waste management," she said. Upon completion of the workshop Endang was motivated to put the experience from the workshop into application under the school environment. For the implementation she would use the KIR as vehicle. In the beginning Endang taught the KIR members how to do solid waste separation and solid waste management through 4R (reduce, reuse, recycle and recover) principle. The students became so enthusiastic because from here they gained new experience," she said. As it progresses the school sees that the activities are beneficial to the school. In this connection in 2002 the school dedicated a plot within the school compound especially for the activities on which Recycle House was built with Endang as a leader. Together with Biology teacher they work hand in hand in various environmentally related activities and improved community care to environment. "One way of doing it is making the Recycle House which is built at a

s v c p

c l E r s t

26 Percik 2007 August

corner of the school compound really look alive. The activities undertaken in the Recycle House consist of among others composting and treatment worm to produce recycle paper and handicraft from used paper and cartons, production of liquid fertilizer (IM4), herbal and hydroponics plant cultivation and maintenance of the 8,700 square meter (m2) school compound. The handicraft produced is sold to fellow students and the rest is displayed in the Recycle House. "This activity serves as examples for classmates and other students outside KIR group," said Endang. She further mentioned that members of KIR group do their activity on Saturdays that are specially allocated for extracurricular activities and weekdays after school hours. In performing its activities the Recycle House is financially supported by the school. "The fund is used for production activity of the House," she said. In addition, there is also an income collec ted from KIR members and proceed from sales of recycle paper which is obtained from a bazaar sale. Local contents Presently the activities related the conservation of the school compound's surrounding environment has been included as local content of SMU N 34 curriculum called Environmental Education. This achievement is inseparable from the perseverance of Endang Wardiningsih and all the teachers, staff and the students who actively contribute to KIR extracurricular activities. Subject matter on Environment is given to 10th and 11th year
Rumah hijau di SMU Negeri 34 Jakarta sebagai pusat tanaman hidroponik. Foto-foto: Bowo Leksono.

students. In this class Endang and several other teachers attempt to increase the students' care to the actual environmental problems of today. In order to obtain the latest information about environment and the applied technology, Endang diligently look for information from various sources, internet, mass media, or direct visit to an expert. "All this is intended to obtain the most recent information to be introduced to the students," she says. Endang does not hesitate to take the students to pay a visit to an environmental expert in order to learn something from him. It is hoped that this kind of activity can increase the students' interest to learn more about environment. Presently SMU N 34 has been named environmentally sensitive school by the Agency for Education of Jakarta Provincial Government. The implementation of environmental sustainability program in SMU N 34 hasn't been without constraint and difficulty, such as lack of cooperation on the part of the personnel of the school, the students as well as the staff. "This can be seen from many of them still carelessly throw away waste to places other than the garbage bins". To overcome such problem, Endang together with all KIR members remind them again and again to make the school community aware of hygiene behaviour. The individual persistence and strong commitment of Endang Wardiningsih must be disseminated extensively if we want our future generation aware and care about environmental sustainability. And if we don't start it right now, when will it be?
Astri Handayani

Percik August 2007



RW 08 Petojo Utara

A Portrait of Clean Environment within a City

some 30 percent of his community has no bathroom. "The space is limited. You can imagine how a family could live in a 2 m by 2 m land area", he explained. Almost 50 percent of the houses still depend on public MCK. In this RW 08 there are 5 MCKs all of them without a technically appropriate septic tank. While those houses with private latrine flush their excrement directly into the river. In the meantime, access to water supply has always been a major problem because groundwater in Petojo is either contaminated by faecal bacteria or it is brackish. PDAM that can only cover 40 percent of the community is facing problem with continuity of supply and method of channelling. Water supply for the families is obtained from a combination several different sources, such as shallow
MCK ++ di RW 08 Petojo Utara, Jakarta Pusat. Foto: Bowo Leksono

and deep wells, PDAM connection, and bottled water from various providers and for different purposes.

hat would one say when speaking about Jakarta? In addition to "hot", "traffic It is "slum". Yes,

city, as does RW 08 Petojo Utara Village, Central Jakarta. This place used to be a poor and dirty looking area, the community defecated in the open and disposed their garbage anywhere they like. The ditches were always full of wastes," said Irwansyah the RW08 chairman and motivator of the change. Today, Petojo stands forward and is fit to become an example for big cities of Indonesia. For all of those the community must be motivated, willing to contribute and conscience. Irwan says that

Collaborative Program Since the introduction of ESP (Environmental Service Program), Mercy Corps, Health Service Program (HSP) and Safe Water System (SWS) in May last year, the area around the banks of Krukut River and inhabited by 750 families has been changing and is becoming more comfortable. Various programs are introduced and the community happily welcome them. Green village program, MCK++ development, wash hands with soap (WHWS), composting, posyandu,

jam", pollution"?

Jakarta as metropolitan and capital city has long been identical to each of those terms. It seems that the slums of Jakarta will never disappear. They are even expanding. Into every corner, riverbanks, along the railroads, and other thickly populated areas. An eternally apprehensive condition. Fortunately, though there are places that contribute comfort to the

28 Percik 2007 August

senior citizen posyandu, clean Friday, gymnastics, mosquito fogging, RW alert, and so on. Modern MCK++ technology is relatively new and this is the first of its kind in Jakarta, was built at a cost of Rp 360 million purely grant fund provided by USAID. MCK++ consists of 12 rooms, 4 bathrooms and 6 WCs, one bathroom and mother and child, and one posyandu room. Somewhere around 300 people use it every day. This facility employs a technology that can process all wastewater into environmentally friendly water. Separation of Waste Krukut River flows through Petojo area making it a place where domestic liquid and solid wastes converge and accumulate. The community still consider river as the most convenient means to dispose their wastes. "We have clean river program once in a month," says Irwansyah. But, the river will again become full of waste deposited from upstream. "We keep on persuading the neighbouring areas to join in maintaining Krukut River's cleanliness," says Irwansyah. In Petojo, waste separation and wash hands with soap (WHWS) is collaboratively supported by ESP, SWS and Mercy Corps. This program started from with greening and composting. In the beginning the community was provided with extension and motivation to separation of domestic wastes. Inorganic materials are gathered for the scavengers, while organic waste is transported to compost maker. Compost is used for re-greening activity. Through continuous campaign and extension efforts the community of RW 08 Petojo is now aware of the importance of clean and green environment. At routine intervals they work for environmental cleanliness, including the river (called clean river program).
Adjusting to wash hand with soap behaviour by providing wash basin in front of the house. Photo: Bowo Leksono

Wash hands with soap A program not less interesting is wash hands with soap (WHWS) now being intensively promoted by the government. In RW 08 of Petojo, all houses have had a wash basin facility built in from of the house. A conscience based on cohesiveness is what makes the program works. The wash basin facility made from used paint pails are not merely decoration,

they are really being used.

"What is

important is that parents teach their children to wash hands," says Irwansyah. Petojo is changing toward betterment. In terms of sanitation, water supply, nutrition of children under five, and infrastructure. Let's hope this condition will continuously decorate Petojo Utara and other places as well.
Bowo Leksono

Two Diarrhoeal Outbursts

Closing a Factory is Not Enough What is Needed is Mutual

It's shocking again, just take a look at the second diarrhoeal prevalence in two years in the sub-districts of Sepatan, Pakuhaji, Mauk and Sukadiri of Tangerang District, to a community who are mostly without household latrine, who discharge excrement anywhere in the open, in the river, rice field, garden or a ditch. It is no wonder then that diarThis case rhoeal epidemic is spreading to a level called "Extraordinary Case". provides a harsh slap to the officials of Tangerang District with the repetition of the same epidemic in the same month exactly two years ago. And, what is more is that the basic problem has never been touched. Tangerang District, a region located in the vicinity of the capital city, about 1.5 hours on land or about 40 km from the Presidential Palace. Up to 16 July 2007 the record says that the victims of the epidemic are coming from sub-dis-

Percik August 2007


pened two years ago, but the community of Tangerang hasn't changed a bit. They keep on defecating in the river in which they also bathe, wash, and take water for cooking. Somewhere around 70 percent of population in the sub-districts of Sepatan and Pakuhaji go to the river or drainage ditch to defecate, they actually have a bathroom and pit well but unfortunately no toilet". Although this week the prevalence is beginning to subside it remains necessary to undertake community empowerment in order to persuade them to change habit. "Several approaches could be selected for application to hygiene behaviour such as inserting hygiene into school education (primary up to senior high school) for 1-2 hours a week and involvePoor community habit is one of the reasons for diarrhoeal disease contamination Photo: Bowo Leksono

ment of local university and community leaders in hygiene behaviour campaign". Community Led Total Led Sanitation (CLTS) introduces facilitation method for community participation to do away with the habit of defecation in the open and has been successfully introduced to communities with similar condition in many countries can also be applied through establishment of sub-district level WSSWG in Tangerang District. This is already summarized in WSS-WG meeting of Banten province, 17 July 2007. An active community participation and real action is what is needed because diarrhoea contamination spread very rapidly and keeps on repeating if not dealt with right from its source. It is not enough through closing two Orson syrup factories by the local police. It was believed that the disease was spread by the syrup because it was found to contain e-coli and vibrio cholera bacteria, and as a result two of the syrup factories were closed down by the local police.
Ahmad Rukny Assegaff Communication Advocacy ISSDP

tricts of Sepatan, Pakuhaji, Mauk, and Sukadiri. On 15 July 2007 469 patients were brought for treatment at Puskesmas and hospitals, three of them died. The same case two years ago took the life of 17 people. Diarrhoea and vomiting arise because the community never learn from experience how to keep food and the environment clean. A Health Agency officer felt so ashamed for the number of toll from diarrhoea. "There shouldn't be any more case like this because it relates to the very basic requirement, hygiene. In this modern world, where we have satellite, internet, yet we have diarrhoea and vomiting cases right here in Tangerang, buffer zone of the Capital City", said one doctor of Tangerang. This condition has its connection with sanitation related problems, including water supply, wastewater, drainage, and solid waste. Why? The more the population live in hygienically and environmentally poor condition the more is the extent of sanitation

problem. Whereas, in reality the present level of health condition of Indonesian population is seriously threatened. From the series of cases that are winding and intermeshing with new problems that keep on coming in addition to the poor sanitation condition of Indonesia all this has brought economic consequences through loss of Rp 65 trillion of economic growth within one FY. This figure equals to 2.4 percent of total national budget, an amount big enough to provide millions of job for the currently unemployed. To quote the statement made by dr. Yuliah Iskandar, Head of Disease Prevention and Control of the Regional Health Agency, there are apparently four reasons for the prevalence of diarrhoeal disease in Tangerang, i.e. poor environmental condition contributes 45 percent, poor hygiene habit 35 percent, health and medicare 15 percent and population density 5 percent. Further the Health Agency extension officer, Dadang Iskandar said: "We should have learned from what hap-

30 Percik 2007 August


When Diarrhoea "Picks" Noviana

them is not used and maintained properly? And t might be that Noviana, a 2.5 year old girl, the socialization made to them is not effective to never knew why her stomach continuously change community behaviour? Or socialization is ached despite she had defecated several something that must be repeated again and again times. Like children her age, Noviana was unable in order to keep on reminding? Whatever the to describe her stomach's condition, though it answer might be, the same mistake has happened was getting worse, her condition was considered again. usual by her own folks. To them it was enough Taking the community demand for water supfor her to be treated "as usual" and she would ply and environmental sanitation facility as point recover by herself. Until finally Noviana passed of departure, there is today at our disposal a proaway. It is said that she was taken to re-hydramotion/socialization/campaign method that is tion centre but it was too late and she was dead not only good to improve sense of belongingness before any treatment be applied to her. It may to the sanitation facility, but also capable of motisound stereotype, but that's what happened. vating the community to resolve its own problem. Many were submissive and inclined to accept the Photo: Bowo Leksono Based on observation, there are at least 3 well explanation. Many others were getting dizzy and began asking if that was the beginning of the problem. No one known approaches for changing community behaviour that are applicable not only for Indonesian setting but also internationknew. Although the toll number of this Tangerang case is below 1 ally. The three approaches are Community Led Total Sanitation percent, below the rate tolerated by WHO, yet it doesn't mean (CLTS), Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC), and Participatory this case may be ignored. Since after it was declared an extra- Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST). The three ordinary case the Dept. Health has taken immediate measures to approaches have been tried in many places in Indonesia. It the water source believed to be the source of the contamination. would be commendable though to start the application of behaIn addition, mobile latrine together with high capacity water vioural change approach for sanitation development in purifier unit was made available at Sepatan Puskesmas. As a Tangerang. So that the hope that there weren't any Noviana in result, the number of infected persons was gradually decreasing. the future is not a mere dream. Hony Irawan But curative method doesn't seem to resolve the root cause of diarrhoeal problem, as this was not the first of similar incidence A GLIMPSE OF SEVERAL BEHAVIOURAL CHANGE APPROACHES in the area. The same incidence happened in 2005 even worse than the present. Somewhere around 600 were treated in Puskesmas and 17 (some say 19) of them died. Further regarding the case, Republika of 14 July 2007 reported that Bupati of Tangerang, Ismet Iskandar, was quoted as saying that diarrhoea outbreak will happen again in the 3 sub-districts because the community is still in disregard of living hygienically. According to Ismet, his institution has launched socialization to improve community awareness on living hygienically. In reality there still many of them go to the river to defecate where they also take water for bathing, washing and cooking and drinking. The local government has also provided them with MCK (bathing, washing and defecating) facility. What is the problem, then? It shouldn't be difficult to ask the community not to (sorry to say!) "eat human excrement", intentionally or unintentionally, directly or indirectly. It shouldn't be difficult to ask man not to swallow bacteria that make him sick! It shouldn't be difficult to ask men to defecate in a clean and sheltered place. Or is there anything wrong that the facility made available to
1. Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) was first tried in Bangladesh in 1999 then it was introduced to several other countries such as Bolivia, Cambodia, China, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Western Africa and also Indonesia. CLTS characteristics are noted from changing community habit through participatory facilitation, without subsidy for hard ware (household latrine) construction and do not decide what type of latrine the community will build. CLTS is intended to reduce/remove the habit of defecation in the open. 2. Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) was developed in the province of Maharashtra (India) adopting CLTS approach into a massive program by the Indian government. Several other nations like Cambodia, Africa, Nepal, and Mongolia have applied it in a smaller portion. Different from CLTS, TSC permits technology choice in latrine development. 3. Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) is an adaptation of SARAR (Self-Esteem, Associative Strengths, Resourcefulness, Action-planning, and Responsibility) a participatory learning method in building awareness so that the community can solve its own problem. PHAST scope is larger, that is an approach to promote hygiene, sanitation and management of community water supply sanitation facility. PHAST have been introduced to Africa, India, and US.

Percik August 2007



An Initiative to Building Public-Private Partnership in Wash Hands Soap (WHWS)

iarrhoea is still the world number one cause for children mortality rate. According to

before feeding a baby, and 6 percent before preparing food. Based on the above findings an initiative was taken to establish a PublicGovernment Partnership in Wash Hands With Soap as means to promote beha-

vioural change, a deviation from the usual infrastructure development and curative services, whereas in reality the preventive aspect is more important for health improvement," according to Nyoman Kandun.

UNICEF each second one child dies of diarrhoea. In Indonesia, somewhere around 162 thousand children die of diarrhoea in a year, or 460 every day. I Nyoman Kandun, DG for Disease Prevention and Environmental Sanitation said that one of the reasons for such a high mortality rate from diarrhoea is lack of community knowledge in the application of hygiene behaviour. "Diarrhoea prevention is not a difficult thing to do. The habit of washing hands with soap can prevent diarrhoea incidence by 47 percent," said Nyoman Kandun in a press conference "PublicGovernment Partnership Initiative in Wash Hands with Soap," Monday 27 August in Jakarta. In 2006 a survey conducted by health service program on community perception and habit of washing hands revealed that soap has entered almost every household in Indonesia. However, only 3 percent of the population use soap for washing hands. In general soap is only used for bathing. Respondent habit as regard to the five (5) critical times for washing hands is as the following: 12 percent wash hands after defecation, 9 percent after cleansing baby, 14 percent before eating, 7 percent

Talk show "It's time to act"

Hygiene Behaviour and Feasible Sanitation Technology

he community access to acceptable sanitation in Indonesia is very low,

Kandun, DG for Disease Prevention and Environmental Sanitation, Dept. Health and Ir. Susmono, Director of Housing Sanitation, DG Cipta Karya, Dept. Public Works. In this event Nyoman emphasized the importance of hygiene behaviour to improve community health, among others through Wash Hands With Soap to prevent diarrhoeal contamination. According to Nyoman sanitation development is the responsibility of all segments of the community. "The private sector is also responsible and can take an active role through CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) program," he added. As for the appropriate sanitation technology for the community Susmono provided a tip that actually sanitation technology can be very cheap without sacrificing the technical aspect. "In principle, one that can prevent a direct contact between excrement with the surrounding environment is considered sufficient," he said. ISSDP Team

less that 50 percent. This figure is way below the MDGs target for 2015, which is at 72,5 percent. This condition is the cumulative result of many factors among others community habit that requires improvement and sanitation technology that is unreachable by the community. The issue is made a topic in a talk show: "It's Time to Act" as live broadcast in TVRI on 29 August 2007 from 18.00-19.00 hrs WIB. The program invited Dr. I Nyoman

32 Percik 2007 August


Regional Facilitation MAXIMUM Central Coordination OPTIMUM

ASPOLA office in Jl. Cianjur 4 has been practically empty during the last three months. Almost everyone is concentrating to maximizing facilitation in the regions, either for strategy plan, capacity development training, implementation of communication strategy or several other important activities such national coordination meeting (Rakornas) in relation to monitoring of policy implementation progress of the old as well as the newly facilitated regions. For WASPOLA this is an important year in laying the foundation of WSS National Policy for the years to come because in 2008 WASPOLA is phasing out. This has developed into a serious and dynamic discussion topic in the team internal workshop in Batam last July. On the other side, to expand the reaches of the policy implementation WASPOLA also actively helps WSS-WG in the preparation of Community Based Water Supply Provision and Environmental Sanitation Development in the eastern part of Indonesia, a GOI program in with UNICEF and funded by the Dutch Government. At the central level coordination WASPOLA has been actively facilitating the establishment of National WSS Network. Variation in Regional Strategy Plan Regional level WSS strategy plan is selected as the main agenda for the implementation team to analyse from both angles, structure and substance. What's unique is that regional strategy plans do differ from one region to the other depending on the specific regional condition and its demand. The strategy plan `a la region, the term was coined in Bali Rakornas in

August 2007, during which each region presented its plan in a different way. According to the initial plan, the workshop for strategy plan formulation must have been completed by all the regions in June 2007. In reality however, there are still 3 districts not completed yet, they are Districts of Dompu, Bima, and Cilegon city. The regions that are lagging behind may be considered as having no demand to the activity, as is obvious with Cilegon city. Speaking about follow up workshop for strategy plan formulation it has been conducted in many regions, among others in Konawe District, Sulawesi Tenggara Province, Central Lombok District, NTB Province, Jeneponto District, South Sulawesi Province, and Cilacap District, Central Java Province. National Coordination Meeting (Rakornas) Monitoring and evaluation of regional level policy implementation has been a routine annual agenda for WASPOLA. The meeting for eastern region of Indonesia took place on 30 July-1 August 2007 at Hotel Queen City Makassar, specifically for areas facilitated in 2006. It was attended by 35 participants from Gorontalo City, District of Bone Bolango , Gowa, Jeneponto, Wajo, Soppeng, Bima, Dompu, C. Lombok, Konawe, S. Konawe, South Timor Tengah. This meeting was opened by Sofyan Bakar, Director of Environmental Facilitation and Spatial Planning, Dept. Home Affairs. He stressed that regional strategy plan must be translated into concrete program for implementation. "If necessary, Dept. Home Affairs will issue a circular as a support to make Strategy Plan a reality," he said. An interesting note is that the regions demand a synergy of central and regional WSS-WG in policy implementation so that strategy plan could be positioned in the mainstream of the regional plan. The central WSS-WG responded it by citing that cooperation is being initiated with UNICEF in the framework of operationalization of policy. Implementation starts from strategy plan formulation. For those regions that have developed WSS-WG and strategy plan can move towards the next phase. There are several WSS development related issues currently being faced by the government, among others are WSS asset management, data management, and communication strategy. What is often considered a burden is transfer of employees to some other position can adversely influence the regional WSSWG performance that may even end up in failure of sustaining the WSS program. There is a need for another strategy directed to socialization of a more extensive stakeholders' approach.

Percik August 2007


In the Rakornas a question was raised regarding the central government commitment to guarantee the sustainability of post WASPOLA policy implementation facilitation. Several commitments were discussed by the central WSS-WG, among others the central WSS-WG will provide some form of capacity improvement (non physical) such as facilitating donor partnership, participation in DAK (Specific Budget Allocation) for community based water supply implementation guidelines, and facilitation in the expansion of information access for regional WSS-WGs. The next Rakornas for the first batch of facilitated regions was scheduled for 28-31 August 2007 to be attended by 6 provinces namely Bangka Belitung, S. Sulawesi, NTB, C. Java, Banten and W. Sumatra, together with the respective 15 districts/cities including S. Bangka, W. Bangka, Pangkalpinang city, Takalar, Pangkep, Selayar, W. Lombok, E. Lombok, Grobogan, Pekalongan, Pandeglang, and Lebak. The issues discussed in the meeting consisted of the need for alternative funding source for WSS sector and the importance of marketing strategy so that the regions will be capable of developing their own fund raising strategy. The participants also noted the importance of corporate based financial management in order to initiate partnership with the private sector. On the other side it's time for the Local Government to start with asset management because such thing is deemed necessary to measure Pemda's capacity in achieving a planning target. It was made known the technical guideline for Village Budget Allocation (Permendagri No. 37/2007 on Village Budget Allocation) will be issued soon in which also includes WSS sector. This can serve as an alternative source of funding for WSS sector implementation. WSS Communication Strategy being applied in the regions There is one result obtained from the training in Bangka Belitung (for more

information please visit AMPL website). This workshop was attended by 32 participants produced a draft of WSS development communication strategy plan for provincial and 5 districts levels in Bangka Belitung for FY 2008. One of the strategies is aimed at the effort for the recovery of the deteriorated raw water source by building the community awareness to become "the master fighter in environmental improvement". The budget for implementation of this effort will be covered from FY 2008 Additional Budget. Another interesting issue arising from a discussion is "media relationship". It is revealed just now that all this time there is a "prejudice" between the government and mass media because there has never been any open communication regarding WSS development. After coming to a common point the two parties finally declare a synergy effort to push ahead with the WSS development. Dody Handriyanto, the news coverage manager of Bangka Pos said that mass media is basically open to cooperation and not only looking for negative story of the government. It was also mentioned about the tips and strategies in cooperation with media in order to become sustainable.

Strengthening the Capacity In June and July 2007 WASPOLA team held a series of training activities, MPA/PHAST in Makassar, CLTS in Untirta (University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa) in Banten, and in collaboration with DG PMD facilitating Basic Facilitation Orientation in Yogyakarta and Mataram for PAMSIMAS project area. Another activity is facilitating a workshop on participatory monitoring of provincial level WSS-WG performance held in Tanah Datar, West Sumatra. PDAM NAMPA (National Asset Management Program) activities were beginning to take place during this reporting period. In the beginning, the study team made a visit to PDAM of Tangerang District to identify asset management issues in PDAM and at the same time to discuss the trial of NAMPA application in the region. The NAMPA study is conducted by GHD a consultant firm. Let's continue to take action, to continuously developing the spirit of WSS development through the 11 policy principles so that anyone who has never been involved will be attracted to take an active participation and the poor families who used to be marginalised could be better served. WH

34 Percik 2007 August


WSS Network Formulation Team Elected

n responding a common challenge and problem, working together is better than to do it individually. This statement was pronounced by some participants when they enthusiastically clapped their hands as Basah Hernowo, Director of Housing and Settlement, Bappenas concluded his welcome speech at the third WSS Network Meeting on 21 August. Basah Hernowo stressed that it is already time that WSS is implemented in a better coordination and synergy to obtain a stronger echo and a widespread impact to improve WSS sector development. It was also emphasized that here and there the government has its shortcomings. "Synergy with all stakeholders is the best alternative," he said. The welcome speech seemed to generate enthusiasm among the 60 participants occupying Hall FG5 in Bappenas. The spirit was quite obvious when they were beginning a group discussion to determine where the WSS Network is to be directed. The unique is, when nominating formulation team, many new institutions that were coming for the first time nominate themselves to sit in the team so that all make up to 20 candidates. Finally, based on majority votes 6 institutions were elected; they are WSS-WG, WASPOLA, ISSDP, FAS, Europromocap, IWAT, KAI, and a special member IHE Indonesia. There were several new participants attending such as UNICEF, Toilet Association of Indonesia, Directorate of Community Education of Dept of National Education, Central PKK Motivation Team, National Headquarters of Indonesian Scout Movement, Environmental Engineering of ITS, STIKES Bandung, Technical Faculty

Univ. Indonesia, Tirta Dharma Training Foundation, PD PAL Jaya, PDAM Bekasi, Water Partnership Indonesia, and Mercy Corps. In spite of their new involvement none of them feel awkward in taking an active part, thus making the discussion really alive.

For the time being the stakeholders association is called Jejaring AMPL (WSS Network), the acronym is left to the formulation team to work out
The meeting that was organized by Europromocap in collaboration with WSS-WG being the follow-up of the first two meetings has produced a draft concept note of WSS Communication Network covering the identity, organization and program of work. In this third meeting all members were actively participating in the completion of the network concept and strategy toward the future. With facilitation from WASPOLA, IHE Indonesia and Plan Indonesia, each of the three groups presented their draft of network concept to be discussed and concluded in the plenum. For the time being the stakeholders association is called Jejaring AMPL (WSS Network), the acronym is left to the formulation team to work out. The network vision is an umbrella organization for WSS information and communication to effectively support the stakeholders (government, private sector and community) in national development in Indonesia. The organization will be

open, formal and inclusive. The mission is partnership principle, cooperation, capacity improvement, and fund raising in WSS sector. The membership consists of individual professional, government, university, research institute, NGO, donor organization, professional association, WSS operator, mass media, consultant, contractor, and community organization. An interesting idea came out from the participants is member gets member into the network to expand information availability and dissemination faster. The work program consists of database compilation, increase concern, training/workshop, and partnership with media. Another agenda from the meeting is participation in NSC (National Sanitation Conference), in which WSS network will be involved in panel discussion, and in exhibition. A formulation team has been nominated and for the next three months it will have to formulate the conceptual and future direction of WSS Network involving various stakeholders such as the university, mass media and community organization in small teams for finalizing works. In addition the team will have to prepare the Network participation by involving other network members in the National Sanitation Conference (NSC) scheduled for October. We hope this work plan could be completed soon, we are ready to get involved," said Rosi, a participant from Trisakti University. "Come, this is the time we work together!" said Eny from Toilet Association. Good luck for the establishment of National Level WSS Network. Come, let's build a common power! WH

Percik August 2007




What comes into the mind of these heads of region regarding WSS? The following is the summary.

Gusmal Dt. Rj. Lelo, the Bupati of Solok


ater determines human life, but is not any water, it must be clean and drinkable water. What is more important is that not all of the clean water is government provided, it can be handled by the community itself. Therefore, clean water program, or whatever it is called, WSLIC, WSS will be guaranteed of my support, I will see to it that this will included in the three central issues and will be included in medium term development plan and will be made official through regional government regulation (Perda) so that it will not be rejected by DPRD". (This statement was made while interviewing Bupati with WASPOLA in assessing the WSS communication strategy implementation in West Sumatera, June 2007 )

David Bobihoe Akib, Bupati Gorontalo


SS is now a demand by the community, thus it is now impossible for the regional government to neglect it. This is a basic need! Now, the community participation becomes very important to improve awareness and sense of belongingness to this program". (This statement was made while receiving WASPOLA and Kabupaten Gorontalo WSSWG in March 2007)

Siti Komariyah, Bupati Pekalongan


his is a pro-people program and since we are giving priority to the people's interest we are in full support of the DAK (Specific Budget Allocation) through community preparation. In the future the DAK from the central government will be used base on community based approach". (This statement was made while receiving site visit of National Policy Consolidation Workshop participant in February 2007) )

36 Percik 2007 August


Radjamilo, Bupati Kabupaten Jeneponto


ublic MCK is not quite appropriate therefore it is not used, I have requested Public Works to restudy the program. It would be better if the Rp26 million budget is used for household latrine development, there will be at least 13 families, and they will be used. (It is stated in front of sanitarian, village nurses, Head of Sub-district, Head of Local Agency, and Local WSS-WG on Workshop Opening of WSS National Policy Assessment and Issue Identification, December 2006)

H. Ahmad Dimyati, Bupati Pandeglang


he MURI acknowledgement for household latrine development should be considered as an impetus for us to continue with this program in other regions and villages. It should not stop at the acknowledgement, we will continue with the implementation." (This statement was made when interviewed on press conference of Receiving MURI Award to Kabupaten Pandeglang for developing latrines (2000 latrines) in one year with community participation).

M. Jufri, Mayor of Bukitinggi

Masduki, Vice Governor of Banten

or Bukittinggi the highest priority is water supply because of lack of coordination with other district we have very limited water resource. " (It is stated on WSS Strategic Planning Workshop in October 2006)


irtayasa University as scientific reference in Banten has made a breakthrough by using basic sanitation as the Actual Field Practice by the students in the context of community empowerment. I will strongly back this up and hopefully it will be replicated by other universities". (This statement was made at the opening of CLTS Preliminary Meeting for students and Instructors Tirtayasa University, June 2007).


Percik August 2007



Socialization of Permendagri No 23 of 2006 on Technical Guidelines and PDAM Water Tariff Calculation Method

epartment of Home Affairs in collaboration with Perpamsi held a workshop on Socialization of Permendagri No. 23 on Technical Guideline and PDAM Tariff Calculation Method," Thursday 5 July in Jakarta. This Permendagri (Home Affairs Ministerial Regulation) serves as implementation guidance of Article 60 (8) Government Regulation (PP) No. 16/2005 on Water Supply System Development. In connection with the lack of interest from the investor, the party who in general persuades PDAM to raise its tariff, the representative of DG Treasury of Dept. Finance explains the mechanism in channelling of central government foreign exchange loan to the regional government. "Based on PP No. 2/2006 the regional government is not authorized to seek a direct loan from foreign sources. Especially if a particular PDAM is merely

an operator, then the responsibility for financial matters is in the hands of the Pemda (local government). A PDAM in need for capital loan must submit a request through the Pemda (Local Government) to be forwarded to Bappenas and finally to Minister of Finance. Then later the Finance Minister issues an instruction to Pemda to submit loan request to Finance Minister. In relation to this new Permendagri on PDAM tariff, Agus Wijanarko the DG Cipta Karya of Dept. Public Works cited that water supply development policy is formulated based on Government Regulation (PP) No. 16/2005 as umbrella under which the current Permendagri stands. Regarding the tariff guideline as provided by Permendagri No 23 Eko Subowo from DG Regional Autonomy of Dept. Home Affairs explained: "The most

important in this discussion is the explanation regarding the basic company cost upon which PDAM tariff is calculated," he said. As it relates to PDAM tariff adjustment, most important of all is the accountability from the part of PDAM itself so that PDAM could convince the stakeholders, and tariff adjustment may follow by itself. FN

Open Partnership Meeting on WHWS Program

ash Hand with Soap (WHWS) Program is a global initiative to

capacity. Suharman Noerman the representative of Corporate Forum for Community Development (CFCD) discussed the social investment strategy from the corporate viewpoint as it relates to WHWS. "The collaboration in WHWS can increase corporate social benefit through brand image sustainable profit which eventually will end up in financial profit of a particular company," he said. From CFCD viewpoint, the government in this case Department of Health should take a serious effort to sit together with corporate CEOs so that sanitation Program). In his opening speech he programs such as WHWS could be included in corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs in the future.

promote a statement that the habit of washing hands with soap can reduce diarrhoeal contamination, a disease that causes most of infant mortality in various nations of the world today. To strengthen the pavement toward achievement of the objective, this program is wrapped in a public private partnership (PPP) effort. For this purpose the DG Disease Control and Environmental Sanitation (PP&PL) Dept. Health held an "Open Partnership Meeting: Wash Hands with Soap Program" on Monday 9 July. This event was opened by Tri Nugroho, Bappenas representative in water supply and wastewater development and ISSDP (Indonesia Sanitation Sector Development stressed that it is of prime importance each stakeholder should cooperate in equitable manner based on each other's

38 Percik 2007 August


Second WSS Network Meeting

s follow up to the first meeting on Thursday 12 July WSS-WG and

The deliberations of the first group came to conclusion on the vision and mission of the network. The vision is establishment of WSS issues in policy mainstream. The second group was tasked to determine the management of the network in the future, proposing who will take care of the demand of the network in the future through a formal and independent secretariat. However, based on an investigation by the third group, the consequence is that each element of the network should contribute some resource, e.g. funding to help WSS-WG secretariat to serve as the network coordinating office. Another agenda is to investigate to determine the steering committee (SC) of the network. In the beginning the SC will consist of representatives from five selected institutions based on majority votes. But later it was agreed that SC will consist of each element in order to obtain representativeness. FN

WASPOLA in collaboration with Plan Indonesia and IHE held the second meeting on WSS Communication Network at the Sapta Taruna Hall, Dept. Public Works. In his welcome greeting, Handi B. Legowo from the Directorate of Environmental and Housing Sanitation, Public Works made mention that the first meeting on WSS network has come to a preliminary which is still short of effective communication strategy among the involved parties. "And additionally, the cooperation and collaboration among the parties are still vague," he said. The agenda was focused on strengthening the network. The participants consisting of representatives from the central government, NGO, academician, mass media were divided into three groups each to formulate the identity, the management and the program. Each group was to discuss among themselves and the result was presented in a pleno.

Training on WSS Data Management

o improve the capacity in planning, monitoring, and evaluation of WSS Planning (Bappenas) held

how to better manage data. One way is through an introduction of DevInfo database software with the help of a UNICEF facilitator. DevInfo is database software for the management and presentation of social

development data and indicators in integrated manner, cross-sectoral, cross geographical border and group, regardless of timeframe and source of data. Through DevInfo, data and indicators can be interconnected for various development purposes and objectives, convention and program log frame. It is hoped that this training could be expanded and used in wider scale data management in the fields other than WSS. Further, after seeing the benefit of the software one of the participants mentioned that next time DevInfo training is budgeted in the regional activity including WSS development.

development the Agency for Development "Training on WSS Data Management" The training was held for 3 days, 18-20 July 2007 at the Bappenas Building, Jakarta. The first part of the training was used to introduce the participants with data collection. to basic research methods. The The first day session was an introduction trainer for this is a statistician from the National Bureau of Statistics (BPS). In the second and third days as the main part of the training was used to educate the participants on

Percik August 2007



Training on Basic Skill of Facilitation

he Directorate General (DG) for Community Empowerment and Rural Development (PMD) Dept. Home In his opening speech Johan Affairs held a "Training on Basic Facilitation Skill" held on 23-27 July 2007 in Yogyakarta. Susmono, the Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology described the purpose of the training was to improve knowledge and skill of the participants to understand, develop, and use facilitation media to motivate and provide impetus to the community. "This is done to make community capable of taking an active role in development process," he said. The training was attended by 32 participants from various central and local level government officials, especially Bappenas, Public Works, Bappeda, Regional Public Works, Health Agency, and Regional Office for Community Empowerment. In the training the participants were introduced with basic skill in facilitation including communication in facilitation, group dynamic, facilitation method, selection, preparation and use of facilitation media. The participants were given opportunity to join a practical experience in preparing facilitation media in PUSKAT Audiovisual Study, Yogyakarta. As follow up the participants request for an opportunity to attend a specific training in communication media preparation for application with the community especially in water supply and environmental sanitation.

Workshop on Communication Strategy Planning for WSS Development

number of participants are discussing to formulate the key message to generate concern to the restoration of the deteriorating Bangka-Belitung environment. The deterioration is considered as the cumulative result of improper mining practice, poor sanitation habit of the community, insufficient government support to WSS development and lack of DPRD attention to this sector's development. As the problem was finally identified and was wrapped into a message for communication a brilliant idea suddenly came up "An environmental master fighter is in great demand, save our region right now!" The group members consisting of provincial level WSS-WG, mass media, and academician became so enthusiastic to develop the idea into a practical communication

strategy. The plan is to be implemented through FY 2008 budget. The discussion represents one of the sessions in "Workshop for WSS Communication Strategy Planning" in Bangka Belitung Province held on 25-26 July 2007 by the Provincial WSS-WG. The event was opened by Drs. Rasyimin, Head of Bureau for Organization of

Bangka Belitung Provincial Government, on behalf of the Governor. In his welcome speech the Governor stresses that WSS development can proceed better considering the high demand for WSS service and the present service is still below the demand. "DPRD has also provided its support to this program," he said firmly. Facilitated by WASPOLA team the two-day workshop was not only a transfer of practical communication knowledge but also in effective application of communication principle of "listening, seeing and doing". This learning by doing method provides the participants with the practical ways in formulating well targeted communication strategies. WH

40 Percik 2007 August


Love Water Festival

Teaching Water Resource Conservation


ur home town is now cleaner, the river is becoming clearer. No more we go river to defecate. It's comfortable indeed, believe me," says Yayah (36) of Kampung Wangkal, Kalijaya village, Bekasi. This condition is the result of activities supported by Love Water Program initiated by Coca Cola Foundation Indonesia (CCFI) and USAID/Indonesia. One of the peak events was Love Water Festival held at Taman Menteng (Menteng Park), Central Jakarta, Monday August 5th. The community of Kampung Wangkal, the pupils of Sukadanau primary school, and four (4) high school students of Bekasi, namely SMU 2, SMU Negeri 6, SMU YPI 45, and SMU Al Azhar Kemang Pratama were involved. There were many activities in the agenda. The students from Go Green Schools held a visual display on soil erosion, composting, simulation on water infiltration, and recycled paper. While on the stage the community of Kampung Wangkal together with primary schoolchildren from Sukadana shared experience through "lenong" -- a traditional play. Triyono Priyosusilo the Deputy Chief Executive of CCFI said that the festival is part of Love Water Program to serve as means to show the example of community participation in water source protection to improve living condition. "This program has been on-going for one year. It is planned to be completed next August. We are still working out a plan and selection which school is to receive our guidance next," he revealed. According to Triyono, the selection of Taman Menteng as the place of the festival was intended to provide the general community, especially Jakarta inhabitants a means to gain knowledge about water source protection and improve-

Lively atmosphere at the Water Love Festival involving students and the community of Bekasi. Photo: Bowo Leksono.

ment of the quality of life. "This park is important for Jakarta citizens as water infiltration and open green space," he concluded. As part of the festival the surrounding community and spectators were invited to join in the decorating garbage bin contest and creating useful product from

waste materials. Also it was not forgotten an event in planting tree seedlings to symbolize the necessary intervention for water resources conservation and at the same time a symbol of oxygen tribute from Bekasi community for Jakarta inhabitants. Bowo Leksono


efore it was named a city park this place was a stadium that could seat 10.000 spectators. This stadium was the Persija Headquarters, a football club established in 1921 under the name Voetbalbond Insdische Omstrekken Sport (Viosveld). The stadium itself was designed by Dutch architects F.J.kubatz and P.A.J. Moojen and was originally intended for sport ground of the Dutch colonials. Later in its progress since 1961 until shortly before its conversion into Menteng Park the stadium was used as Persija training and competition ground. The historic Persija stadium

became the pride of Jakarta and the national football organization. In 1975 the Governor of Jakarta issued a decree designating the stadium a cultural inheritance and therefore must be preserved. However, when Sutiyoso was appointed governor the 84 year old stadium was brought down and the space converted into city park. There were protests and tremors in the beginning, but soon the protestors came to a standstill. Perhaps gradually the community was beginning to feel the benefit from the existence of the park. BW

Percik August 2007



Promotion of 7 Hygiene Behaviours

he cute fingers of the children are showered with water from a row of taps. Then they apply some soap and cleanse them. After they feel clean a small towel is used to dry their hands. This was the wash hands with soap (WHWS) competition participated by children of poor families of RW 09 Kali Angke Village, West Jakarta on Wednesday 13 August. The event consisting of healthy infant competition, colouring, arrangement of food pyramid, and variation of healthy foods, was sponsored by an NGO called Mercy Corps. The participants were not limited from RW 09, other children from the neighbouring RWs were also welcome to join the event. Spectators seemed to enjoy themselves standing along the banks of Kali Item. The event that was intended as behavioural change campaign promoted by Mercy Corps under the Senyum (Sehat dan Nyaman untuk Masyarakat, healthy and comfortable for the community) program was organized as part of the commemoration of the Independence Day on August 17. Fadillah Effendi, Coordinator of Senyum program told Percik that this program was intended to reduce malnutrition in children below five years old from the poor families. "The lack of proper child care is highly influential to the health of children below five," he said. From a study by this institution in October 2005 there were 17 kelurahans (villages) in W., C and N. Jakarta it was found that the quality of child care by parents is very poor. The findings mention that defecation in a toilet is 44,5 percent, advanced breast feeding (6-24 months) 65,2 percent, posyandu attendance 1,94 percent, varied feeding (rice, vegetables, and other side dish) for children of 6-24 months stands at 25,5 percent. For the above, since a year ago Mercy Corps has been promoting 7 practices of hygiene behaviour consisting of wash hands before eating, wash hands after defecation, breast feeding up to 2 years, provision of varied foodstuff, healthy snacks, defecation in the toilet, and posyandu visit every month. BW

Seminar on "Water and Sustainable Environment"

ater crisis has been a common phenomenon in some areas of Indonesia. The rapid population growth, housing, agriculture and industrial development have increased water demands, all that leads to water shortage. That was revealed in Integrated Water Resources Management seminar with a theme "Water and Sustainable Environment" held by Water Partnership Indonesia and Global Water Partnership (GWP), Thursday 6 September 2007 at the office of Dept. Public Works, Jakarta. The chairwoman of Garuda Nusantara Foundation, Ully Hary Rusady, one of the speakers made mention that the availability of raw water never increases while the demand tends to grow along with the population growth and the

development. "In order to sustain water supply it is deemed necessary for reasonable management efforts including a regulation to sustain, use, distribution of the avail-

able potential and institutional development," says the singer cum environmentalist Ully. Ully added that it is necessary for a community movement to take real action in water and environmental sustainability of the upper watershed/mountain regions from where water flows down to the lower areas. The increase in water demand is also stated by I Gede Wenten from the Chemistry Department of ITB. According to him, beside domestic demand water is also need for industry. "To satisfy water demand by the industries water sources reclamation technology is a recommended alternative in addition to wastewater treatment based on reuse technology principle," he said. BW

42 Percik 2007 August


Roadshow on WSS Program in the Eastern Region of Indonesia


he workshop for the selection Districts of the Eastern Region of Indonesia for CB-WSS program implementation was held on 8-9 August 2007. This activity is a part

of cooperation between RI and UNICEF. To this end, Bappenas in coordination with the involved technical departments (Public Works, Health, Home Affairs, and National Education) are preparing a water supply and environmental sanitation program for the eastern end of the country. The program will be funded from grant fund provided by Swedish and Netherlands governThe aim of the program is to improve community health and welfare through improved hygiene and access to water supply and environmental sanitation. The program will be implemented based participatory approach consists of 3 components, (i) water supply, (ii) improved sanitation and hygiene development in rural villages and slum areas of the urban, and (iii) school education especially for low income communities. It is agreed that the program will be implemented in 6 provinces, NTB, NTT, S. Sulawesi, Maluku, W. Papua and Papua. Twenty five (25) districts covering 180 villages and serves 320 thousand people will be selected as the site of the implementation. The result of the WS is a long list of candidate district for UNICEF-WES (Water and Environmental Sanitation) program. The Districts in the long list will be invited in Roadshow in the respective provincial capital to be offered with the program on condition that the participant shall have to provide a certain amount of contribution as a precondition of being the owner of the program.
GT Photo: Bowo Leksono

Training on Basic Facilitation Skill for Eastern

s a follow-up of MPA/PHAST Orientation meeting in Makassar

cipants were introduced on the principles of adult education, ethics of a facilitator, communication methods for effective facilitation, group dynamic, facilitation method and communication media, and CLTS approach as part of field scenario.

From field observation it was found there arises some concern of CLTS might cause underground water pollution from latrines built carelessly in absence of any sort of supervision. A facilitator must know the economic condition of the community to be triggered through CLTS. The triggering process for latrine development should take into consideration the local economic condition. A facilitator should keep in his mind the general condition of the area for reference to the type of latrine applicable in the triggering area.

and to support the Pamsimas program, DG PMD of Dept. Home Affairs held training on Basic Facilitation Skill in Lombok from 29 August-2 September. Johan Susmono, Director of SDA & TTG Dept. Home Affairs revealed that this training was conducted based on the findings of the government weakness in communicating the WSS development that ends up in non sustaining facility. The training was divided into two parts, in classroom and in the field. In the classroom the parti-

Photo: Afif Numan

Percik August 2007


schools that maintain this activity. But for SMK Negeri 1 which is located at Wonokromo in the city of Surabaya, cleanliness and health are given top rate extracurricular activities. The activities do not only draw the attention of the students but all members of the school in general. "In this school we select environmental cadres through a tight selection process, and for this we are fully supported by the internal student association," said Suharto, deputy headmaster responsible for student affairs, an interview with Percik at his office some time ago. At present the SMK with 2405 students has 120 student environment cadres to serve as motivator and provide examples to the student body. "Scouting for interest is conducted during student initiation at the beginning of academic year," says Suharto. Once identified the cadre candidates are given guidance from the teachers who have been trained in environmental subjects. What is unique is that these activities are not named extra-curriculum, but the headmaster officially names it working group (WG). There are three WGs: greening, cleanliness, and health. In performing its tasks each WG is inter-related one another. Each WG is managed by a committee consisting of 8 officers. Constraint SMK consists of 8 divisions, namely secretary, accounting, salesmanship, multimedia, TV, animation, software, and telecommunication (which is combination of SMEA, Economics High School and Technical High School) has been accustomed to spend one hour for communal work weekly on Fridays. According to Suharto, it was difficult to find cadres to join the working groups to make the 2 hectare schoolyard clean and green. "Since in the Junior High School the students were not used to this kind of activities and therefore they were

SMK Negeri 1 Surabaya

Towards EnvironmentallyBased School

xtracurricular activity is a means to channel the students' hobby. Sport and art are two areas most students are interested in. Other activates are usually considered as "second rate". Cleanliness and environmental sanitation is way from being preferred. This activity is not a mere hobby but it demands interest, awareness and sincerity. And for sure there are only few

A corner of the schoolyard is used to place Wind Triangle waste treatment model Photo: Bowo Leksono

44 Percik 2007 August


Cleanliness and environmental sanitation becomes a favourite extra curriculum in this school Photo: Bowo Leksono

not interested,' he reveals. Not only that, the schoolyard which is located in a depression and is suffering from recurrent flood is itself a constraint. "Each time there is a cleanliness competition, we are always being confronted with flood problem. Especially when the valuation is made during flood season, where-

as we have spent a lot of money to prepare for the competition," said Suharto. School achievement SMK N1 of Surabaya has won prizes several East Java provincial level clean environment competitions, such as school health unit (UKS) competition and Toyota Eco Youth. Unfortunately to

A notice of smoke free area is engraved in a post at the school entrance Photo: Bowo Leksono

move further to national level this school is constrained with the fact that it is located in a recurrent flood area. The fund for working group activities is specially allocated by the school plus a contribution from the students collected at the beginning of academic year. "New students are required to pay Rp 3.000 during student initiation, each student group are required to bring with them medicinal herb, flower, fruit tree, and shade plant seedlings," said Suharto. Devi Permatasari, one of the school's environmental cadres who is also vice chairman of cleanliness group says that she is quite happy for being member of the group. "I learn to discipline myself and now I know how to make compost," she said. Through teachers' guidance the students learn how to make compost following the so-called "wind triangle" as well as the manual method for use within the school and for the neighbourhood. This school has implemented the principle of environmentally-based school as a requirement for 'international pioneer school'. Bowo Leksono

Percik August 2007




lternating Upflow Anaerobic Double Filtration (AUAF) is basically a hybrid of upflow anaerobic filtration (UAF) treatment system. The filter is made from ring form ceramic material at a not more than 0,8 cm external diameter and not more than 0,6 cm inner diameter. Because it is made of ceramic the attached micro organisms (especially from bacteria group) are growing faster and thus may cut down the start-up time of the reactor (installation). The ringlike form of not more that 0,8 cm long provides more room for bacteria to grow. This type of cavity also provides suspended group bacteria to grow. Therefore, this kind of UAF is a combination between suspended and attached growth systems. By placing the filter only at the upper part, only a part of the reactor is filled with ceramic filter, the lower part is filled with the growth of suspended bacteria as is the case in the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) which perhaps more commonly known in Indonesia. The UAF with only half filter is actually a combination of UAF and UASB which basically is an overall combination of attached and suspended growth systems. This system becomes superior because it combines the existing anaerobic treatment systems. Because of the double filtration there 2 reactors, in which the effluent from the first reactor flows into the second. This separation provides a more dominant

condition for hydrolysis process in the first reactor and methanogenesis in the second. Therefore the UAF performance can be increased further. A change of flow where the first reactor takes the place of the second at a time when the whole system records, for several reasons, a decreasing performance (especially because of clogging), can indeed improve reactor performance back to its former condition in a short time. This indicates that a change of process from hydrolysis to methanogenesis and vice versa works easily, in spite that this happens in anaerobic reactor that is believed to have a much lower kinetic compared to aerobic reactor.

Because AUAF uses domestic waste at approximately 5 hour retention time, this indicates that anaerobic system is also applicable to treat low COD ( 300 mg/l) organic wastes at a relatively short time. It appears that for the duration of almost 300 days this reactor being operated at a variety of shock loading the CO2 content in the biogas produced does not exceed 20 percent.
Condensed from a dissertation by Eddy Setiadi Soedjono at Birmingham University, England. Eddy Setiadi Soedjono is a senior lecturer at the Environmental Engineering Dept. of Surabaya Institute of Technology, concurrently Secretary of Development Study of Regional Potential - a Research and Community Dedication Institution.

There are many households who still dump domestic wastes into the river. Photo: Bowo Leksono

46 Percik 2007 August

Percik magazine in cooperation with the Association of Sanitation Engineers and Environmental Engineers maintains Clinic column. This column deals with question and answers on water supply and environmental sanitation. Question can be forwarded through Percik magazine Contributors: Sandhi Eko Bramono (, Lina Damayanti (

Question: Recently, long after I bought the house that we are now living in I came to realise that we have no domestic wastewater treatment (every drop of our wastewater flows down into an external drainage system). Since we have only very limited land area and it seems unlikely for us to build a septic tank. But I have in mind to build a retaining tank for chlorine (Ca(ClO)2) treatment before the wastewater is released into the drain. My question is whether this method feasible?
Eng Tat, Medan

Foto: Bowo Leksono

Waste material management

Question: Presently I am processing our own domestic waste into compost. Because of distance and limited fund required for laboratory analysis it is difficult for me to know if my compost is already mature enough. My question is whether there is any simple and non costly visual method to determine if a compost product is sufficiently mature?
Simandjuntak, Pematang Siantar

Answer: Disinfectant addition method is usually applied in oxidation process, especially in wastewater containing pathogenic compounds and microbes. However, this method (chemical process) is more expensive compared to the generally applied biological wastewater treatment. The biological wastewater treatment is intended to significantly reduce the amount of organic compounds, so that at the end of the process only a small amount of disinfectant is necessary to make the entire process complete. In other words, disinfecting process is an additional process (as a polishing process) to make the previous process complete, thus reduces the total cost. Through an entirely chemical process (such as what you have in mind), the total amount of disinfectant needed would be too much just to treat the same amount of wastewater compared to that is needed for a biologically pretreated process. Besides, there is a possibility for an excessive development of carcinogenic compound (one that initiates cancer) called Tri Halo Methane (THM) as a result of a reaction between high concentrations of organic compound with chlorine. This could be very dangerous, because THM may flow into community drainage system then to the river and finally is extracted as raw water for PDAM. To resolve the problem in your house, a septic tank remains a necessity. But you could work it out through building communal facility (septic tank) together with several families with the same problem in the neighbourhood. The management is of course lies with the users of the facility.

Answer: To determine compost maturity through visual observation, without the help of laboratory analysis - though less accurate can be done in several different ways. In general, the temperature of mature compost is close to the surrounding temperature (from a relatively high in the previous days), the material is less odorous (because the organic materials have been oxidized into inorganic compounds), there is no more larvae or swarming insects such as flies and roaches (because the organic materials on which the insects thrive have been broken down into inorganic compounds), and there is a noticeable growth of greyish white specks on the compost (it is Actinomycetes sp. fungus thriving on nitrates as a result of decomposition of amino compounds). A more accurate method is of course through laboratory analysis, including the examination of the decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD), decrease in volatile suspended solids (VSS), decrease in C/N ratio, decrease in NH4+ and increase in NO3- compounds.

Percik August 2007




nvironmental issue is our common concern. It is only

lues in all school activities. The

through our common concern and serious efforts that we may expect nature and its resources can be saved from degradation. It is here that schools are expected to play key role, to generate environmental sensitiveness within the young generation upon whose hands the decision making will rest in the future. To help schools of Indonesia move towards Green School and to promote school initiated environmentally friendly habit the Go Green School is conceived and put into action. This program is intended for school in urban areas considering that the commu-

Title GO GREEN SCHOOL: TOWARDS GREEN SCHOOL Author: Go Green School (GGS) Concept Formulation Team Publisher: Jakarta, KEHATI, 2006 Pages: 16 pages (revised, 2nd edition)

green school concept developed by GGS Program can be found in this book. The 16 pages-book discusses the green school concept and program framework (indicator and development phases) including an example of a green school and its activities. It is hoped that with this book the school applying GGS program will become an environmentally-based school and the surrounding population will care to

nities of such areas are growing fast. Green School is a school committed and systematically develop programs to inclusion of environmentally related va-

and put environmentally sensitive behaviour to practice toward improvement of the quality of life.

Learning About Solid Waste Since Early Age



entitled Title

ter 3.

The children meet


with Pak Jain in chapter 4 and learn about waste management until they can make compost to fertilize the local soil in chapter 5 and handicraft making from waste material in chapter 6. All these are brought to an exhibition for mutual benefit in chapter 7. This module type book would not be of any use unless it is taught and practised together with children. What is interesting, in the District of Thousand Islands waste material is selected as the local content subject matter. It is commendable that similar activity be followed in other places in Indonesia.

written as a module for primary schoolchildren contains drawings and information related to wastes. The module tells interesting stories in colourful illustrations is intended for grades 5 and 6, to guide the young mind to identify local contents for Primary School in the

Author: "Green's Journey" Module Team Publisher: Jakarta, KEHATI Foundation Pages: 36 pages

enough for the young mind to grasp. It consists of 7 chapters describing about wastes. It is opened with introductory greetings and enters the chapter that invites the children to wade across a river and sail on the sea. In chapter 2 the children arrive at Kelapa Island and then play the role of saving the island game in chap-

District of Thousand Islands of Jakarta. Therefore, the story and illustrations are based on sea and coastal area. However, this does not mean that this book is limited to schools within the coastal regions. The discussion about waste is given universally and simple

48 Percik 2007 August

Green Bud Club

his site contains a wide variety of information related to environment involving children. It is provided through a series of menu such as program activity, photo gallery, poster, comic, song, green school network, and others. This site is maintained by Klub Tunas Hijau (KTH, or Green Bud Club) a Surabaya based non profit organization specializing in environment and is growing through the work of young people. KTH was initiated from the visit made by 5 young scout members from East Java to Australia. Since then KTH is consistently doing real efforts to help to a better the environment. KTH always involve private organization in implementing its programs. Based on the principle of mutual benefit collaboration with other parties are continuously developing. KTH is routinely conducting activities with schools and other places outside Surabaya.

munity at large, adults as well as children. PPLH Bali works in collaboration with all segments of the community including students, teachers, government as well as non-government institution, and individuals with inclination to environment and community empowerment. Various program info, activities, environmentally related info, and most interesting of all is environmentally related bibliography can be obtained from this website. Established in 14 June 1997, PPLH Bali works in close cooperation with government and non-government institutions, and local and international communities. The core of the program lies with environmental education and community facilitation.

The Kehati Foundation, The Centre for Betterment of Education (CBE) and Coca Cola Foundation Indonesia (CCFI) collaboratively are working on Go Green School (GGS) Program especially for senior high schools.

Association of Green Schools
stablished in 2004 this website is maintained by the Association of Green Schools by parents who are concerned with the environment in which their children would live in the future. They collectively proposed that each school in the US must be made into healthy school. Various information and news about green school can be obtained here. BW


KEHATI Foundation
nformation on green school is presented in this website. This web is maintained by KEHATI (Keragaman Hayati, or Biodiversity) Foundation, an autonomous non profit funding organization intended to sustainable benefit, fair and equitable biodiversity conservation in Indonesia.

elcome to the environment training centre. Thus reads the greetings of the website maintained by Bali Environment Training Centre or better known as PPLH Bali. It is a non-profit non-government organization focusing on environmental education and community facilitation. The programs run by PPLH Bali are directed towards the com-

Percik August 2007



Water for Life

n a long dry season like this water is hard to get, we have to human to be close to God the Creator. God Bless man with rainfall man is so thankful for the relief of the long sadness. Rain is falling. The people take the best benefit out of the blessing, take benefit from each drop for their life. The rain has brought them back to life. However, a continuous water supply cannot depend on rainfall alone. The people have to immediately find other sources in order to sustain life. This documentary video is the product of the Water Supply and Sanitation Home Affairs also reveals the tragedies related to water scarcity. The people have to walk long distances during the night for a pail of water from a cave. The crisis is a tragedy that brings for Low Income Communities Project, funded by the World Bank, Government of Indonesia and the participation of the communities to help to make clean water supply available.

walk long distances to get water," says one housewife from Sumberharjo of Wonogiri District, C. Java in the midst of the dry season. In this village as well as in several others water source is located far away, and it is the only one upon which all the people depend. Whereas, in terms of quality the water does not meet the requirement for healthy human life. Imagine, all water related activities take place around the well, even washing animals. The real picture is recorded in a documentary video that illustrates water crisis in Wonogiri District. produced by the DG The video (Directorate

General) for Regional Development Dept.

Water Tempest

n the last few years the drought has brought with it several disasters. Drought is everywhere, Thousands of hec-

ming phenomenon. Long dry season, such as that of the recent years, lasts longer. In Indonesia, as if a customary, the dry season as it is the rainy season is equally disastrous. This is unmistakably the consequence of man's failure to sustaining nature and environment that leads to a disaster to his own life. This is the phenomenon that is presented in a short documentary film by the Cinema Lovers Community. The film with water scarcity background tells us the testimony of the men who suffer from drought. It was filmed at Purbalingga of C. Java and Gunung Kidul of DIY both the sites of the dry areas. It is planned that the ten minute film is to take part in some independent environmentally based film festival.

especially on Java.

tares of rice fields are without water. Thousands of the population are always in want of water. Wells and other water sources are drying. The population turn to rivers and lakes for water. Some of them have even been used to depend on these sources for their water supply. Unfortunately, water supply in the rivers and lakes is also getting less and less. To sustain life the people continuously look for other sources although they have to walk for miles from home. While others buy water from a vendor or just wait for water subsidy from the government. Many experts blame this climatic change to the global war-

50 Percik 2007 August


FINAL REPORT STUDY ON GOVERNMENT'S KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND MOTIVATIONS ON PRO-POOR SANITATION Publisher: Indonesia Sanitation Sector Development (ISSDP). The World Bank, Jakarta February 2006 STUDY ON SANITATION IN LOW INCOME URBAN COMMUNITIES IN BLITAR CITY: FAST TRACK ACTIVITIES Publisher: ISSDP-WSP (Water and Sanitation Program). The World Bank, Jakarta February 2006 REPORT ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISK EVALUATION IN BANJARMASIN CITY Publisher: Indonesia Sanitation Sector Development (ISSDP). The World Bank, Jakarta April 2006 - In Bahasa REGIONAL REPORT ON SEMI ANNUAL IMPLEMENTATION PROGRESS 2007 Publisher: DG for Regional Development, Dept. Home Affairs. Jakarta 2007. In Bahasa REPORT ON DRINKING WATER AND SANITATION PLANNING MEETING Publisher: DG for Regional Development, Dept. Home Affairs. Jakarta 2007. In Bahasa

HEALTHY WATER FOR LIFE (HEALTHY LIFESTYLE SERIES) Publisher: Tabloid Gaya Hidup Sehat, Jakarta 2007 (In Bahasa) THE ULTIMATE WATER RESOURCE GUIDE Publisher: Benson Media Group, Singapore, 2007 SANITATION AND HYGIENE PROMOTION - PROGRAMMING GUIDANCE Publisher: Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) and World Health Organization (WHO), Swiss, 2005 MY EARTH IS COVERED WITH FOG (ENVIRONMENT CARE SERIES) Publisher: Bejis Project (BAPEDAL East Java Institutional Strengthening Project) AusAID, Surabaya, June 2005 (In Bahasa)

AIR BELANDA INDONESIA (Dutch Indonesia Water) Special Edition, June 2007 (in Bahasa) WATER & WASTEWATER ASIA May/June Edition 2007 AIR MINUM (Drinking Water) Edition 142, July 2007 (in Bahasa) PERCIK Edition 18, April 2007 English Version PERCIK JUNIOR Edition 03, August 2007


Percik August 2007



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

04-05 July 2007 05 July 2007 09 July 2007 10-13 July 2007 12 July 2007 16 July 2007 23-27 July 2007 23-24 July 2007 25-26 July 2007 25-26 July 2007 30 Jul - 01 Aug '07


WS for Finalising of CB-WSS Strategy Plan Kab. South Timor Tengah, NTT by WASPOLA Water Dialogue: Review of Sanitation White Book, at WSS-WG secretariat by ISSDP Open Partnership Meeting WHWS Program at Dept. Health WS on Formulation of CB-WSS Policy for Kab. Konawe Selatan, N. Sulawesi by WASPOLA WSS Communication Network Meeting, Jakarta by WSS-WG, WASPOLA, Plan Indonesia, IHE Indonesia Review of Findings: "Small Scale Water Provider (SSWP) Study" at Bappenas by WASPOLA WS on Basic Facilitation Skill in Yogyakarta by DG PMD, Home Affairs WS on Formulation of CB-WSS Policy for Kab. Bangka by WASPOLA WS on Formulation of CB-WSS Policy for Kab. Jeneponto S. Sulawesi and Bone Bolango, Gorontalo by WASPOLA WS on Strengthening of CB-WSS Communication Strategy for Bangka Belitung Province by WASPOLA Coordination Meeting on CB-WSS National Policy Implementation for Eastern Region Indonesia in Makassar by Dept. Home Affairs

12 13 14 15

31 July 2007 05 August 2007 06 August 2007 07-08 August 2007

Talkshow: Optimising stakeholders role to accelerate sanitation development at MetroTV by ISSDP Water Love Festival, Taman Menteng Jakarta held by CCFI and USAID Hospitality meeting with mass media, Socialization of National Sanitation Conference, held in Jakarta by ISSDP Coordination Meeting on CB-WSS National Policy Implementation with provincial WSS-WG is W. Sumatra, Bangka Belitung, Banten and C. Java held in Bandung by Dept. Home Affairs

16 17

07 August 2007 08-10 August 2007

Meeting of WSS-WG Province Banten held by WSS-WG Prov. Banten WS on Community Based Water Supply and Sanitation and Environmental Sanitation, a cooperation between GOI-UNICEF in Jakarta, held by WSS-WG and UNICEF

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

13-15 August 2007 13-15 August 2007 15 August 2007 20-25 August 2007 23 August 2207 21 August 2007 21 August 2007 22-24 August 2007 22-24 August 2007 23-24 August 2007 27 August 2007 27-28 August 2007

WS for Socialization of CB-WSS National Policy held at East Sumba by WASPOLA WSS to finalise CB-WSS Devl Strategy held at Gowa, S. Sulawesi by WASPOLA National Asset Management Program Assessment (NAMPA) held by GHD in Jakarta WS on Basic Facilitation held at Makassar, by DG PMD, Home Affairs. WSS to finalise CB-WSS Devl Strategy held at Tanah Datar, W. Sumatra by WASPOLA Third Meeting of WSS Communication Network held at Bappenas by WSS-WG, WASPOLA and Europromocap IWAT Press Conference: "Portrait of Success in Urban Sanitation Improvement" at Petojo by ISSDP WS on CB-WSS Devl Strategy Plan Formulation at Sumba Timur, NTT by WASPOLA WS on CB-WSS Devl Strategy Plan Formulation at Jeneponto, S.Sulawesi by WASPOLA WS on CB-WSS Devl Strategy Plan Formulation at Kab. Bangka, Bangka Belitung by WASPOLA Press Conference: Government Call for Hygiene Life held by ISSDP in Jakarta Preparatory Meeting on Kabupaten level WSS-WG Communication Strategy Implementation and Visit of Kecamatan level Communication Forum, held by WASPOLA at Kebumen, C. Java


28-31 August 2007

National Coordination Meeting on Achievement of Operationalization of Regional Policy Facilitation 204-05 held at Denpasar, Bali by WASPOLA

31 32

29 August 2007 29-31 August 2007

Talkshow: Hygiene Behaviour and Feasible Sanitation Technology held by TVRI and ISSDP WS on Basic Facilitation held in Mataram, NTB by DG PMD Home Affairs

52 Percik 2007 August


Pressure relief valve

Also called Safety Valve - an automatic pressure release when internal pressure of a pipe exceeds beyond a certain limit

Pressure sewers
Also called pressurized sewer system - a sewer system in which wastewater flow to treatment facility is entirely or partially driven by a pump

Process for removal of sediment and floating materials in a water treatment.

Primary channel
Part of main drainage system that leads to final discharge (recipient water body).

Primary sedimentation tanks

Main sedimentation tanks - The tanks where primary (main) of a series of sedimentation processes takes place.

Primary mains
Also called arterial mains, primary distribution main - Water distribution pipe conveying water from distribution source/installation/reservoir to distribution network (secondary, tertiary) in service areas.

Primary treatment
Treatment stage to make a major (dominant) change to the treated material

Primary (water/wastewater) treatment

The first stage in water/wastewater treatment - Water/wastewater treatment intended to remove dispersed solid (pollutant) through sedimentation or floating process.

Very simple communal or individual sanitation facility used for defecation.

Also called opportunity, possibility, guess.

Process oxidator
A package processing unit which combines pre-aeration and sedimentation processes.

An element with atom number 61 and mass weight 144.9128

Rotating component producing turbulence of material (fluid, gas) that comes close to it.

Proper pipe material

One of preventive measures against pipe corrosion through selection of the most suitable pipe material for the local soil condition Quoted from Dictionary of Foreign of terms and abbreviations of Environmental and Health Engineering Publisher : Trisakti University