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Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Published by: Water Supply and Sanitation Working

Group Advisor: Director General for Human Settlement, Department of Public Works Board of Trustee: Director of Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health Director of Water Supply Development, Department of Public Works Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Community Empowerment, Department of Home Affairs Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Department of Home Affairs Chief Editor: Oswar Mungkasa Board of Editor: Zaenal Nampira, Indar Parawansa, Bambang Purwanto Editor: Maraita Listyasari, Rheidda Pramudhy, Raymond Marpaung, Fanny Wedahuditama Design/Illustrator: Rudi Kosasih Production: Machrudin Distribution: Agus Syuhada Address: Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 http://www.ampl.or.id e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com redaksi@ampl.or.id oswar@bappenas.go.id Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address or e-mail. Don't forget to be brief and accompanied by identity.

From Editor Your Voice Main Report Knowing Various Network Water and Sanitation (Watsan) Networking International Sanitation Year Around International Sanitation Year Interview Networking to develop WSES Regulation Law No 18 Year 2008 On Solid Waste Management Insight Solid Waste Management Technology in PLTSa Gede Bage Bandung Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn) Content of Underground Water Knowing Brief Participative Learning Innovation Ecoplas Environmental Friendly Bag Made From Cassava Our Guest Building Water Conservation in Sindang Kahuripan Reportage Visit from the Democratic Republic of Timor Leste Delegation to Indonesia Inspiration Unsustainable City Reflection Dry Toilet for Dense Settlements and Areas Lack of Water ISSDP Roundabout WASPOLA Roundabout WES-UNICEF Roundabout STBM Roundabout NETWORK Roundabout WSES Roundabout Program SToPS, Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing IATPI Clinic CD Info BOOK Info WEBSITE Info WSES Publication Agenda
Percik magazine can be accessed through WSS website http://www.ampl.or.id

1 2 3 5 9 11 14 16 18 22 25 26

In The Next Five Years, Tetaf Village Will Become Prosperous Village 20

28 30 31 32 34 36 38 39 40 47 48 49 50 51 52

F R O M E D I TO R

very year we celebrate various themes related to drinking water and environmental sanitation, like World's Water Day, Toilet Day, Environmental Day, Earth Day,

too. This condition has become concerning in the past few years. Water supply and sanitation development has not reached optimal results. Service coverage is going no where, while much infestation has been contributed. Cooperation between stakeholders is needed. This theme then became the main topic of this edition. How can everyone work together in water and environmental sanitation (WSES) development. Today in Indonesia a water and environmental sanitation networking (Watsan Networking) has been established to become a place to synergize information potential, knowledge and information between stakeholders in a mutual relationship that benefits everyone in WSES development. We all hope so that this goal can be accomplished. Therefore, the history of watsan networking, interview with the founders, and watsan networking activities so far, are the main focus in this edition. And also included networking in abroad. Besides that also presented some samples of real activity from WSES development activist like Ully Sigar Rusadi with her commitment to conserve
Source: Bowo Leksono

and many more. Not to mention each year we also celebrate various others themes, and coincidentally this year is International Sanitation Year. These celebrations now become a paradox. The original idea of each celebration is to remind us of many important things we forgot in our daily activities. But later on, these celebrations has slipped into becoming one of our yearly routine. They've gotten only as far as how we celebrate and not how we start something so that the celebration can become more meaningful. We're too busy preparing exhibitions, launching policies by President or Minister, and many other things. This condition is then reflected through water supply and environmental sanitation services coverage, which until now hasn't increased much from 50% and only 65% for basic sanitation. There are still 70-100 million citizens of Indonesia that haven't received proper water supply and environmental sanitation services. While we have celebrate World's Water Day each year for quite some time now, and there were many policies launched and promise told each year. This celebration has become a routine. A change of attitude is needed so that we -governments, non governments, and community- can together change those celebrations into a start of something meaningful. The effect of each celebration is actually quite significant, but then each stakeholder is competing in celebrating them individually, and accordingly, the follow ups was done individually

nature,

Neni

Sinta-

wardani with her dry toilet innovation, and latest innovation plastic bag from cassava produced by Dana Mitra Lingkungan. Other interesting article is about Law No 18/2008 on waste management. This law is a government effort to provide a better and healthier life warranty for Indonesian citizens. The celebration of Environmental Day and Earth Day also shares some portion with the hope that we all can make them an inspiration. As wise man say "Keeping the earth safe for a heritage to our children."
OM

Percik August 2008

YOUR VOICE
Insight Deepening
When covering the WSES working group in Kabupaten Barru, Sulawesi Selatan, I got three editions of Percik and some brochures and a promise of the next editions. The magazine has deepened our insight to better know the WSES work group activities. The magazine and brochure, after being read, were given as a new collection to Iqra Reading Venue, a community reading venue we have established with several friends in Kelurahan Tuwung Kecamatan Barru Kabupaten Barru. Hopefully the reading can provide better benefit to the community in understanding the importance of sanitation and environmental improvement. For the future, I'm hoping that our reading venue can receive every edition of Percik, and other readings relating with WSES to increase our collection. Thank you for kind attention.
Badaruddin Amir Journalist of Education World magazine Education Agency of South Sulawesi Province Founder of Iqra Reading Venue Jl. Pramuka No. 108 Barru, South Sulawesi Province 90711 Ph 0427-322752, mobile: 081342138499 Email: tamanbacaaniqra@yahoo.co.id badarsaja@yahoo.co.id

Besar, it is very difficult to obtain information regarding the environment. I am very interested in getting Percik magazine. I hereby enclosed my address: Jl. Gurami No. 63a, RT 11 RW 04, Kelurahan Seketeng Sumbawa Besar (NTB) 84311. I'm really hoping to receive copies of Percik magazine. Thank you for your kind attention.
Mukhlis, ST Sumbawa Besar - NTB Dearest Pak Mukhlis, We will immediately send copies of Percik magazine.

environment. The global issue that has been brought in Percik is quite up to date, so we see it needed for us to access the magazine.
Untung Junandar Student Dormitory Kalimantan Barat Surakarta Jl. Anggur 1 No 15 Kerten Surakarta 57147

Dearest Pak Untung, Elementary schools in Kapubaten Kepulauan Seribu and DKI Jakarta have implemented green school in local content subject.

Elementary School that implies Green School


I'm interested when reading Percik article in 2007 about green school. My question is, is there any elementary school that practices it? Coincidentally I'm a member of West Kalimantan student organization that has programs in developing elementary education for undeveloped remote areas, especially in Kalimantan, that based on

Old Copies of Percik


We are from French NGO in cooperation with Health Department, is interested in acquiring old copies of Percik magazine, or even subscription, because many data and articles that are related with our focus (WASH, nutrition, etc). Please give us the necessary information. If it is needed, I can stop by at your office. Thank You, Cheers!
Rayendra Assistan Head of Mission ACF Indonesia Office 6221 7220775 Mobile 0816 903793

Dearest Pak Rayendra, It will be better if you stop by to our office to collect old copies of Percik.

Dear Mr. Badaruddin, We will try to send the WSES-relating materials to the above address. Thank you.

Percik magazines for library


Dearest Percik editors, My name is Darman Eka Saputra, a teacher in SDN Sukaresmi Kampung Talaga RT 02/04 Desa Cigunungherang Cikalongkulon Cianjur. Please send Percik magazine to us to add our library collection.
Darman Eka Saputra SDN Sukaresmi Kampung Talaga Cianjur

Difficulties in Obtaining Environmental Information


Dear Sir, I am the alumni of environmental engineering of Sapta Taruna Technological University (Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Sapta Taruna) of Jakarta. I have read my friend's Percik magazine of November 2007 edition. Percik magazine has become a very good source of obtaining information regarding environment, sanitation, etc. Where I live, Sumbawa

Dearest Pak Darman, We will send Percik magazine as requested. We hope it will be much of use.
Created by: Rudi Kosasih

Percik August 2008

M A I N R E P O RT

KNOWING VARIOUS NETWORK


PHILIPPINE ECOLOGICAL SANITATION NETWORK (PEN)
What is PEN? PEN is an organized informal network consists of government institutions (of the central, legislative, local), donor agency, program/project, university and NGO. Establishment History On 2004, the 1st International Symposium on Low-cost Technology Options for Water Supply and Sanitation was held at Bohol, Philippine, which during preparation encourages cooperation between stakeholders, starting from local government, central government, NGO, private sector, and academician. Ecosan was presented in the symposium. A working group was formed to prepare an initial draft of the action plan of activity management relating with knowledge transfer, ecosan pilot project, and establishment of PEN. Initial Act PEN's action was initiated when Clean Water Act of 2004 Implementing Rules and Regulations are being compiled. Input was needed on sanitation option other than conventional sanitation, namely ecological sanitation (ecosan). Furthermore, PEN also held an important role of the promoter of Philippine Sanitation Summit 2007 in Manila. PEN also assisted the Health Department to held Southern Philippine Sanitation Summit 2007. The Form of Organization On the early stage, PEN is still in the informal form and represents lenient advocation organization, but after two years, in consideration of increasing effectiveness, it was decided to formalize and registered it to the authority as nonprofit organization. Resource mobilization is expected to be optimized. Therefore, it was agreed to appoint several people as daily operators to hold positions of president, vice president, secretary, treasurer, and monitoring agency. Member Organizations that have officially become member are the legislative (House of Representatives Committee on Ecology), government institution (National Water Resources Board/NWRB), Health Department, study center (Center for Advanced Philippine Studies/CAPS), Institute for the Development of Educational and Ecological Alternatives/IDEAS), universities (UP-National Engineering Center, College of Chemical Engineering/Environmental Engineering Program), donor agencies (German Technical Assistance/GTZ, Water and Sanitation Program-East Asia Pacific/ESP-EAP), NGOs (BNS-Borda), association (Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines/SWAPP), companies (Manila Water Sewerage System/MWSS), projects (LWUA, ECO-ASIALinaw Projects, Waste Water Projects, Sustainable Coastal Tourism/SCOTIA). Current Role TSI 2008 launching was promoted by PEN. Furthermore, PEN also took role in developing the Program of Sustainable Sanitation for East Asia (SuSEA) - Philippine Component Year 2007-2010. SuSEA is a SIDA-funded project with the goal of accelerating target achievement of MDGs' water and sanitation targets in Indonesia and Philippine.

UGANDA WATER AND SANITATION NETWORK (UWASNET)


UWASNET is a national umbrella organization of the NGO and community-based organization in clean water and sanitation of Uganda. It was established in February 2000 with the support of Directorate of Water Development (DWD), Danida, Water Aid and a cooperation working group of 11 NGOs, to utilize potency of NGO and community-based organization in their contribution of achieving the MDGs' targets. Motto Achieving clean water and sanitation access for all in Uganda through effective coordination, better collaboration, and strategic partnership. Mission UWASNET was established to strengthen coordination, collaboration, and NGO's network and community-based organization with other stakeholder in clean water and sanitation sector in Uganda. Vision Contributing in reducing poverty through increasing access to clean water and sanitation through effective coordination of NGOs and community-based organization in the clean water and sanitation sector of Uganda. Working Group UWASNET consists of 4 Working Groups namely:

Percik August 2008

M A I N F E AT U R E
(i) Hygiene and Sanitation Working Group (HSWG), with the goal of encouraging dialog between stakeholders to increase awareness on hygiene and sanitation; (ii) Water and Sanitation Technologies Working Group (WSTWG), with the purpose to be a media of exchanging ideas and experiences regarding proper technologies; (iii) Urban Water and Sanitation Working Group (UWSWG), with the main purpose of encouraging better attention to the availability of clean water and sanitation for poor people in the urban area; and (iv) Water and Sanitation for Women and Children Working Group (WSWCWG), with the purpose of encouraging attention to the interest of women and children in clean water and sanitation development. Program and Project In order to maximize the work result of Clean Water and Sanitation NGO, UWASNET develops two main programs of: 1. Coordination, Information and Network Program The purpose of this program is to accelerate effective coordination, collaboration, and network between clean water and sanitation NGO with other stakeholders. It is expected that UWASNET member will be able to influence and respond policies, strategies, and implementations through the network and information exchange. The program objectives are (i) enabling the member to exchange ideas and experiences with other stakeholders regarding policy, strategy, and implementation; (ii) providing information focal point regarding UWASNET or other issues related with clean water and sanitation; (iii) guarantee continuity of UWASNET. Activities related with the program are (i) involvement in the decision-making process, (ii) contribution of article writing in the mass media; (iii) managing center of data and information; (iv) providing consultancy service for the member; (v) publishing routine newsletter. 2. Capacity Building Program The purpose of this program is to enhance NGO capacity in order to establish independent, dynamic, and effective NGO network as the working partner of the government. Thus NGO is expected to have an active role in achieving MDGs targets, have the ability to respond government policy, and able to perform innovative activities of clean water and sanitation. SuSana Purpose Contributing in achieving MDGs' targets through promotion of sustainable sanitation Increasing awareness on sustainable sanitation solution and promoting the awareness in large scale Demonstrating the important role of sanitation in achieving the overall targets of MDGs Changing the sanitation paradigm through promoting reuse oriented sanitation approach without endangering health Main Focus Main focus of SuSana is to promote sustainable sanitation implementation in large scale water and sanitation program. Special Objectives Collecting and compiling information that will help decision maker in assessing various sanitation systems and technologies by taking sustainable criteria into consideration Demonstrating reuse oriented sanitation Collecting and presenting sanitation best practices with regard to TSI 2008 Identifying and illustrating mechanism to replicate sustainable sanitation implementation including funding instrument to provide pro-poor sanitation Develop vision of how sustainable development can contribute in achieving MDGs In order to obtain these special objectives, general road map for TSI 2008 has been compiled. The Form of Organization SuSana is not a new organization, but more as unbinding organization network that cooperates, with open and active nature in promoting sustainable sanitation. SuSana is supported by several thematic working groups. OM from various sources.

PRINCIPLE SUMMARY

OF

SUSTAINABLE SANITATION

years ago sustainable sanitation principles S everal "Bellagio Principles for Sustainable Sanitation" havethebeen agreed by Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council known as on 5th

THE SUSTAINABLE SANITATION ALLIANCE (SUSANA)


Basis of Establishment The main motivation of SuSana establishment was the UN General Assembly decision to declare the Year 2008 as the International Sanitation Year, which followed in the year 2007 by various sanitation development organizations in establishing open sustainable sanitation network to support TSI 2008.

Global Forum, November 2000, namely: (i) Human value, live quality and settlement environmental safety should be the basis of all sanitation approach. (ii) In line with the good governance principles, decision making should involve participation of all stakeholders, especially costumer and service provider. (iii) Waste should consider to be resources and the management should be integrated and become part of integrated water resources and waste management process. (iv) Overcoming sanitation problems should be done in minimum size as manageable (household, environment, city, catchment area). (source: WSSCC).

Percik August 2008

MAIN REPORT

WATER AND SANITATION (WATSAN) NETWORKING

he network was established based on concerns of several parties that realized that the issue of clean water and environmental sanitation are currently often being ignored and have not become the attention and commitment of decision makers both in national or local level. On the other side, government policy in the WSES is not yet integrated. Many programs are overlapping; stakeholders with WSES concern are still working alone without cooperation, while the community awareness with regards to the clean and healthy lifestyle is still considerably low. A more strategic coordination and integration is required from various stakeholders to inter-coordinate and established bigger strength. Thus, a network that can communicate the need and interest of all parties is necessary so that each party may have place to be able to contribute and synergized to accelerate goals achievements in the WSES development. Since the first Watsan Network meeting on February 27th, 2007 in Bappenas that reached agreement to build Communication Network between stakeholders in this sector, continued by a more intensive meeting on July and August 2007, a concept draft and strategic directive of the future Watsan

Signing agreement of Watsan Network establishment on October 8th, 2007 in Jakarta

Network. This concept is the basis of agreement of Network members on October, 8th 2007 and has become a mandate to be accomplished by the directive teams. Name and Explanation of the Network Watsan Network-INA is a forum to synergized potencies of information, knowledge and communication between stakeholders in cooperation that presents benefits for all parties. Vision of Watsan Network is to present the network as an effective forum of WSES communication and information in supporting stakeholders' participation

(of governments, private and community) in the process of National development of Indonesia. Whereas the mission is to synergize strategic and applicable programs through application of partnership principles, cooperation development of WSES management, capacity building of the institution and the human resources, and increasing the fund for WSES development. Membership In general, the Network is open, inclusive, and independent; anyone can be the Network member: Individual, open for individuals with any citizenship.

Percik August 2008

MAIN REPORT
Non Government Organization (NGOs), independence organizations, government organization, or academicals institutions with the program and/or interest in the sectors of education and environment. International Organizations. Projects/programs managed by government or non government. Organizational Structure The organizational structure consists of (i) member as directives of the Network policy through the decision of the member meeting; (ii) Steering Committee, with the function of keeping the organization in line with the need of the members; (iii) Chief of operational, assists by general secretary and task force, that runs the daily operation of the organization. Network Steering Committee The committee is consist of 9 organizations that represent various parties, namely government, NGOs, donor, university, companies, WSES project/program team management of the following: WSES working group, WASPOLA, JAS/GTZ, Air Kita/Europromocap IWAT, IHE Indonesia, Plan Indonesia, ISSDP, Environmental Engineering Department of Trisakti University, and Tirta Pakuan PDAM. Task Force The Task Force was established in consideration of several main issues of WSES context such as clean water, waste management, sanitation, and clean and healthy lifestyle. The four issues have their own problems and management approach. In the basis of diversity, the Task Force was established in order for every problem above to be able to be more focused. The Task Forces are Waste Management Task Force (GTPS), Sanitation Task Force (GTS), Clean Water Task Force, and Health and Hygiene Task Force. Work Program of the Network 1. Center of Information Sources Building Data Integration Program, Knowledge Information, and WSES Program in the form of Data Base. 2. Capacity Building Program Realizing community enforcement and empowerment in sustainable WSES development through capacity sharing between the Network members and related outside parties, through training/workshop/seminar through methodology and best practices of WSES. 3. Partnership Development Program Developing internal partnership between the member of the Network and external parties by establishing cooperation and good relation with the parties outside the Watsan Network to support the above programs. 4. Advocation Encourage the WSES issues to be a priority of government and public by series of advocation activities involving various parties to build support, policy decision--making, campaign strategy, and solution review of the WSES sector.

MEMBER

STEERING COMMITTEE

CHIEF OF OPERATIONAL Of WSES Working Group (Oswar Mungkasa)

TASK FORCE
CLEAN WATER: Dit. PAM, Dep. PU (Bambang Purwanto) & FORKAMI (Abdullah)

GENERAL SECRETARY ISSDP (Syarif Puradimadja)

BIDANG
DATA & INFORMATION: Tim Pokja AMPL ENFORCEMENT/CAPACITY BUILDING Environmental Engineering Dept. Trisakti Univ. (Rositayanti) & ADVOCATION: Waspola (Sofyan Iskandar) & JAS (Manfred Oepen) PARTNERSHIP: Plan Indonesia & ESP (Alwis Rustam)

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT: DML (Kemal Taruc)

SECRETARIAT (Dini Haryati) & Air Kita (Indriati)

SANITATION: ISSDP (Eri Trinurini) & Dit. PLP, Dep. PU (Handy Legowo)

HEALTH AND HYGIENE: Dit. PL, Depkes (Zainal Nampira)

Percik August 2008

MAIN REPORT
Waste Management Task Force (GTPS) To facilitate member of the Network with interest in the waste sector, Solid Waste Management Task Force (SWMTF) was established. The Task Force is part of the Watsan Network that represents a forum to synergize potencies of information, knowledge, and communication between WSES Network members in the waste sector in cooperation that benefits all parties. SWM-TF coordinator, who is also Executive Director of Dana Mitra Lingkungan (DML), Kemal Taruc, to Percik said that focus of the Task Force is community-based solid waste management in small scale. While for the strategic objectives, Kemal said, is integration of data, information, knowledge, and program of SWM-TF, site availability as the facility to access qualify information for all WSES Network members in general and SWM-TF especially, and realization of community enforcement and empowerment in sustainable solid waste management. Membership Member of the Task Force is individuals or organizations such as DML, ESP, Mercy Corps, etc., which are also part of Watsan Network. According to Kemal, the involved parties in SWM-TF are all executors, observers, fans, commentators, critics, decision makers, decision executors, decision proposer, people with concern. "Everything is open for everyone who interested in community-based solid waste management". SWM-TF initiated cooperation in the form of information exchange through mailing list and site, and information that can be exchanged between members, and off course, opportunity to broaden partnership network and everything else that may came up from the Task Force. According to Kemal, the public activity in the form of community-based solid

Solid Waste Management Task Force-Watsan Network held workshop of "Community Based Solid Waste Management" on 16-17 January 2008 in Jakarta. Source: Bowo Leksono.

waste management represents important effort that requires public acknowledgement and political support (which means budget, policy, etc.). "Not just a hobby of solid waste managers in the RT-RW, kelurahan, or housing complex, as it is currently." SWM-TF Activities Until date, SWM-TF has performed various activities, such as Community Based Solid Waste Management Workshop in mid January 2008. Accordingly with togetherness spirit of the Watsan Network, the activity was held by synergizing many parties, among others are JBIC and Mercy Corps. Recently, SWM-TF held meeting at ESP office to discuss Solid Waste Management Law that has been legalized by the Legislative on early April 2008. The focus was not looking at every section of the Law, but more at law and regulations that were mandated, especially government regulations. "In the future, aside than meetings, which basically is inviting one another for activities which was initiated by one of the members, a general activity is going to be held, and is currently waiting for the most appropriate form," Kemal said.

Sanitation Task Force (GTS) GTS coordinator, Eri Trinurini Adhi said that, as for other Task Forces, those who involved in GTS are organizations and individuals that have interest in sanitation issues, both for organization's or individual's interests. "An organization or individual may join more than one Task Force." GTS is currently continues to seek memberships. Unlike solid waste issue, the sanitation (waste water) issue is not yet touched by many organizations. Nevertheless, sanitation awareness has gained more attention from organizations, either specifically, or together with other relevant issues, such as clean water and environment, health and education. GTS Activities In principle, Watsan Network is a communication network. Thus, open and sustainable communication of all stakeholders is a necessity. Inter-organization cooperation of members or other organization outside Watsan Network is customary for GTS to run its mission; one example is the simplified sewerage workshop that was held recently in May 2008. The workshop represents cooperation between National Sanitation Technical Team, ISSDP, WSPEAP and Sanitation Task Force.

Percik August 2008

MAIN REPORT
Here, GTS has a role of executor of the activity with Sanitation Technical Team and ISSDP as steering committee. GTS is also actively providing support to the DitJen Cipta Karya of Public Work Department during International Sanitation Year 2008 and World Water Day. According to Eri, the focus of GTS is learning exchange between stakeholders on the approach and approach models of currently developing rural and urban sanitation. "So far, there are many models existed, especially the developing on site model, however, it is still in a plot project." Learning between programs is important to encourage new innovation. Furthermore, GTS encourages the developed model to be adapted by broader area and by other stakeholders and the government. GTS objective, said Eri, who is also appointed as the Assistant for Team Manager of the ISSDP, is establishment of the data center and good cooperation with organization, program and individual with commitment to the sanitation development. "The work programs among others are compiling data base of the Task Force members, conduct research, and held workshops." Health and Hygiene Task Force (GTKH) WSES development is not merely focus on the physical development, but also behavior changes that presents an inseparable part. Currently, WSES stakeholders are active on encouraging behavior changes through Community Based Total Sanitation (STBM). To avoid overlapping programs, STBM activities need to be synergized. Through the Watsan Network, GTKH represents a forum to increase synergy of WSES development through STBM. Synergized steps are expected to be more effective and efficient. Therefore, on 26-27 May 2008, by coordination of Bappenas and Health Department, a Workshop of Community Based Total Sanitation was held in Bogor. The opportunity was also used as the launching moment of Health and Hygiene Task Force, one of the Task Forces under Watsan Network. The Task Force is under coordination of Directorate Environmental Health, Health Department. In the STBM workshop it was also presented the draft of STBM National Strategy by Kasubdit Water Health, who is also coordinator of Health and Hygiene Task Force, Zainal Nampira. There are 6 component of strategy, namely creating conducive environment, increasing need, increasing supply, knowledge management, funding, monitoring and evaluation. The National Strategy is also completed by work plan and indicator. Activity Plan Activity of the Health and Hygiene Task Force is currently focused on the Community Based Total Sanitation. There are five main pillars of the STBM activities, which are Open Defecation Free (ODF), Washing Hands Using the Soap (CTPS), Household Clean Water Managament (PAM RT), Household Waste Water Management, and Household Solid Waste Management. For the year 2008, from April to December, series of related activities will be performed by the Health and Hygiene Task Force; starting from facilitating STBM activity, providing guidelines, to facilitating sanitation clinic on the local level. In the future, Health and Hygiene Task Force is expected to be able to provide real contribution in the WSES development in Indonesia, especially in the STBM activity. Active participation of the Health and Hygiene Task Force in the STBM activity is expected to decrease the mortality number by diarrhea and other sanitation-related diseases in Indonesia.
BW/DH.

"Simplified Sewerage" discussion, held by Sanitation Task Force-Watsan Network in the Public Work Department, Friday, April 25th 2008. Source: Bowo Leksono.

Percik August 2008

I N T E R N AT I O N A L S A N I TAT I O N Y E A R

Around International Sanitation Year


The declaration of International Sanitation Year on March 27th by Minister of Public Works, made quite an effect. Some districts had done follow ups by celebrating International Sanitation Year with various activities.

THE

DECLARATION OF

Public Works held a series of activities in Denpasar, Bali. Starting with award given by the Minister of Public Works to the winner of children speech and painting competition with save water and environment as theme. Then continued by declaration of Denpasar Sewerage Development Project (DSDP) and TrashTrack Tukad Badung and Tukad Mati by the President. DSDP has started soon after the accident that causes some Japanese Tourists in Bali to suffer dysentery, therefore reducing Japanese Tourists up to 50 percent. Hopefully, after DSDP is built then the quality of water environment will improve. Therefore, the image of Bali tourism will be better. Other fact that degrades the environmental quality is the people still consider river as a garbage disposal place. This condition causes shallow rivers and flood. Community health level is degrading and environmental esthetics is also bothered.

PROJECT

IN

BALI

PUBLIC WORK PROVINCE

s a part of the declaration of International Sanitation Year, in June 14th, the Department of
Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono didampingi Menteri Pekerjaan Umum Djoko Kirmanto meresmikan proyek-proyek infrastruktur pekerjaan umum dan penyerahan bantuan langsung Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri serta kredit usaha rakyat untuk Provinsi Bali di Denpasar. Foto: Repro Kompas.

Without proper sanitation then tourism will never develop.

DECLARATION OF INTERNATIONAL SANITATION YEAR IN NANGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM (NAD)


After 2004 tsunami, many things had changed in NAD, including WSES development. This condition is related with the abundant support from donors and NGOs that provides basic needs such as water

The development of Trash-Track is meant to capture and extract the garbage found in the river. Hopefully this effort will help reducing environment quality degradation caused by throwing garbage to the river. The declaration of these two projects is meant to remind us that sanitation and tourism is closely related. This sentence is said by the President in his speech that tourism no longer consist only 4 S's, sun, sand, sea, smile, but also consist sanitation. Without proper sanitation then tourism will never develop.
OM

supply, sanitation, and waste management. Knowing this, the governor of NAD through Surat Keputusan No 699/66/2008 establish Tim Koordinasi Penyelenggara Program Nasional AMPL or known as WSES working group. The presence of this working group hopefully will give aid to synergize WSES development in NAD. As a part of WSES working group socialization in NAD, NAD government in cooperation with UNICEF, BRR, and GTZ

Percik August 2008

I N T E R N AT I O N A L S A N I TAT I O N Y E A R
held the Launching of International Sanitation Year 2008 and Building WSES Working Group Program in Banda Aceh on June 12th 2008. This meeting was opened by the District Assistant of NAD Province, attended by donors, NGOs, related department, and mass media. Beside socializing Governor's Decision on WSES Working Group, a socialization of Community Based WSES Development by WSES Working Group is also held in the same occasion. Further more, Mardan from Solok WSES Working Group has the opportunity to explain his experience in implementing WSES policy in his region. The event is closed by the explanation of Sanitation System Implementation Guide by the GTZ. The interesting part is, in the corner of the main road is installed a big ballyhoo and advertisement about this event. Hopefully International Sanitation Year is not only becomes the concern of the government, but the people as well.
(Sofyan)

laration of World Water Day and

Diharapkan Tahun Sanitasi Internasional menjadi bagian dari kepedulian masyarakat secara umum, bukan hanya pemerintah saja.

International Sanitation Year on May 29th 2008, in Kabupaten Kendal. The event consist series of activities such as Water and Sanitation Workshop, attended by over 300 participants from Central Java, Water and Sanitation Poster Competition, Coloring and Drawing themed "Healthy Environment" participated by 60 children. And also is held an exhibition themed water and sanitation. The main event is signed by the speech and declaration, followed with tree planting by the Governor of Central Java. The Governor emphasizes the importance of water supply by conserving and environmental sanitation.
(SBR)

DECLARATION OF WORLD WATER DAY AND INTERNATIONAL SANITATION YEAR IN CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE.
entral Java Government by Dinas Kimpraswil, PSDA, WSES Working group in cooperation

in UNICEF and WASPOLA held the dec-

WSES COORDINATION MEETING AND DECLARATION OF INTERNATIONAL SANITATION YEAR IN NUSA TENGGARA BARAT PROVINCE
n Lombok Raya Hotel Mataram on May 22nd-23rd 2008, is held WSES Coordination Meeting and

Declaration of Internal Sanitation Year in Nusa Tenggara Barat Province. This is probably the first coordination meeting in Indonesia that is held by Province Government through its WSES Working Group that invites related agencies from each district/city. In this event, an opening speech and declaration of International Sanitation Year is done by the head of NTB Bappeda, Lalu Faturrahman. Several agendas of International Sanitation Year have been prepared. In this Coordination Meeting is done some main agendas such as district Strategic Plan Finalization, and establishment of

Gubernur provinsi Jawa Tengah Ali Mufiz menanam pohon menandai Deklarasi Hari Air Dunia dan Tahun Sanitasi Internasional. Foto: Sobari.

WES UNICEF work plan.

(OM)

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Networking to develop WSES


In 8 October 2007, around 40 institutions consist of government, international institutions, NGOs, related project, universities, PDAM, regulatory committee and profession association have reach mutual agreement in establishing Watsan Network. The network consists of nine Directive Team, namely WSES Working Group, WASPOLA, JAS/GTZ, Air Kita/Europromocap IWAT, IHE Indonesia, Plan Indonesia, ISSDP, Environmental Engineering of Trisakti University, and PDAM Tirta Pakuan. The following is review summary of each directive team on the necessity of Watsan Network and their expectancies.

Why is it important to build the Watsan Network? Establishment of the Watsan Network is initiated by concern of several parties who realize that WSES issues are currently not the priority, thus receive only minor attention and commitment from the decision makers.

What is next for Watsan Network? Currently, the Network is still in the informal nature because it is not yet legally registered in the notary or in the Law Department and Human Right. This was done in purpose to provide opportunity to all members of the Network to perform first in this forum. After two or three years we will discuss the formal form of the Network. Even though, we have prepared the budget and code ethic of the Network, including form of the organization. As we know, there are four Task Forces in the Network (solid waste management task force/SWM-TF, sanitation task force/GTS, health and hygiene task force, and clean water task force) under coordination of vice chief of the operator, and four working fields (data and information, capacity building, partnership development, communication and avocation) under coordination of the general secretary. These fields support the activity of each task force. Supervision is conducted by the directive committee consists of nine institutions of whom are the founders of the Network. In near date, we will start to compile the work plan for the year 2009, while for the year 2008 still in urgent situation, thus the activities are still sporadic.

What is expected from Watsan Network? Many hopes are set for the Network. Several roles to be expected among others are (i) improve coordination of WSES development in Indonesia; (ii) become the resource center including the supply forum of advocacy materials; (iii) focal point of the WSES development in Indonesia; (iv) become the front guard of public campaign. All of the above expectancies are build to answer issues of WSES development in Indonesia such as (i) WSES data that are not in correlation with one another; (ii) difficulties in obtaining information regarding WSES learning and best practices; (iii) there are many executors of WSES development with seemingly lack of coordination among WSES stakeholders; (iv) public campaign that have not got proper attention.

Oswar Mungkasa
(WSES Working Group)

Gary D. Swisher
(WASPOLA)

It is important to develop WSES sectors network in the framework of accelerating policy reform of the WSES sectors toward effective, accurate, and sustainable WSES services. Relation and communication between stakeholders in the Network will establish commitment on WSES development acceleration, including more obvious, transparent, and accountable role division.

WASPOLA is committed to encourage the process of knowledge sharing between stakeholders, including facilitating meetings and information swap; especially on capacity building, institutional reform, and rising awareness.

As a complete forum of stakeholders, the Network is expected to be acceleration media of adoption and implementation of the National Policies, especially the ones of community based, and also become the sharing media, as well as pressure advocacy on commitment of various parties in the WSES development.

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Why is it important to build the Watsan Network?

What is next for Watsan Network?

What is expected from Watsan Network?

WSES sectors in Indonesia are still being ignored in term of investment, regulation, policies, and public awareness. In the Watsan Network, commitment is required professionally. Therefore, our commitment is needed as the form of our concern on clean water and sanitation.

Coordination of activities, data compiling, developing training modules, research, establishing legal issues, technical standards, etc. Furthermore, establishing cooperation with policy makers of various sectors such as politics and economies.

We, as the member of the Network, hopes there will be a good coordination. We are looking forward to cooperate in the funding and establishing activities by taking strategy into consideration. Cooperation is also established to assist the ignored WSES sectors.

Manfred
(JAS)

For foreign institutions wanting to assist the environment sector in Indonesia is currently facing difficulties and lack of coordination. We don't know which partner to choose, is it the Health Department, Bappenas, Public Work Department, or PDAM? The Watsan Network is the most current and effective tool.
(Air Kita Europromacap/IWAT)

I want to try to change the way of Indonesian people thinks, because their image abroad requires improvement. I want to try to motivate donors, synergized, and improve credibility.

I don't want anything. I just want to help, I don't expect anything.

Didier Perez

A step for the interest of the public can not be done individually or alone. We have to think together and walk together sustainably, although the awareness must come from each different individual.

Jan Yap
(IHE)

Donate thoughts and ideas. Because the Network has program of capacity building of the Watsan Network, in this case focus on the capacity sharing among members of the Network and other related parties outside the Network through seminar, workshop, dialogue, thematic discussion, and review; and distributing experience, review, strategy, and best practices of the WSES.

I hope the Network will be able to build a new environment-oriented culture. Full devotion and attention for the sustainability of the environment free of pollution. In the future, the Watsan Network is more integrated and sustainable.

Due to the limited resources/fund in Strengthen partnership and sharing improving the quality and coverage of of lesson learned with other institutions in WSES activities in Plan Indonesia. the WSES sector in improving WSES program in the Plan area.

WSES implementation in Indonesia will be more integrated, and strengthen each other and avoid overlaps of implementation strategies.

Tofik Rochman
(Plan Indonesia)

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Why is it important to build the Watsan Network? To establish and develop effective two-ways communication of all members and stakeholders to improve the service of clean water and environmental improvement. Through communication raft in the form of Network will make it very possible to establish synergy and commitment in uniting a more focus vision.

What is next for Watsan Network? There 3 focus activities: partnership development, capacity building, and communication improvement through advocacy and development and strengthening of WSES data bank. There is also sectoral program focus in the sector of solid waste sanitation task force development and behavior changes in the effort of providing a more efficient and effective service.

What is expected from Watsan Network? Better understanding between all stakeholders of WSES sector in order to realize more beneficial actions. Support activities and programs between governments and non governments in order to realize more consolidated social objectives. Establish mapping of various activities in the same field of different sector and area in order to understand the base line to be use as feed back in compilation of policy and strategy reconsolidation of the WSES development in the national level. Support for the program strengthening on the goverment side to have a workable program and political support for funding . The establishment of harmonization, cooperation, and collaboration amoung stakeholder infocusing the propure target services.

Syarif Puradimadja
(ISSDP)

In order to provide clearer direction, accurate, and vast coverage of all WSES activities executed by the member. Furthermore, through the Network, the WSES issues are expected to obtain more attention in the National policies.

Compile, execute, and evaluate WSES activities accordingly with the capacity and work program of Environmental Engineering Dept. of Trisakti Univ.

Acquiring synergy and broader partnership in conducting the WSES activities in the Environmental Engineering Dept. of Trisakti Univ.

(Environmental Engineering Dept. of Trisakti Univ.)

Rositayanti

Watsan Network is really important Provide ideas, innovation, experience as communication and socialization or best practices in the WSES sector to media regarding activities of clean water improve WSES in the National level. and environmental improvement, for all WSES perpetrator, practitioner, academician, and public.

Latest training and information of the WSES sector.

(PDAM Tirta Pakuan Kota Bogor)


BW

Henry Darwin

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R E G U L AT I O N

Law No 18 Year 2008 On Solid Waste Management

ince 2003, community that long for clean and healthy environment is waiting for law on solid waste. The long wait is finally over. On April, 9th 2008, Draft Law (Rancangan Undang-undang- RUU) regarding Solid Waste Management is approved by Plenary Meeting of Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) of Republic of Indonesia. The law that was academic paper of Environmental Ministry team is Law No 18 Year 2008 on Solid Waste Management. The Law represents government effort in providing guarantee of healthy and clean life for the Indonesian.

Background of Solid Waste Management Law Along with the growing population, solid waste is also continues to increase. However, solid waste increment is not merely on volume but also in type and quality. Meanwhile, current solid waste management method is still using the old final disposal (Tempat Pembuangan Akhir - TPA). Various problems present not just in matter of cleanliness and environmental pollution, but also in social aspect of friction among community surrounding the TPA. Coarsely, almost all cities in Indonesia, no matter big or small, do not have good solid waste management. Most treatment is with the same management of collecttransport-dispose; a classic arrangement that should be ended because it was proven to have flaws and tends to have negative effect. Not just for the environment, but also for the people living surrounding TPA. Surely we remember explosion disaster in TPA Leuwigajah, Cimahi, Jawa Barat that harmed hundreds of people. Not to mention conflict of community around the location of integrated solid waste management (tempat pengolahan sampah terpadu - TPST) Bojong, Bogor, Jawa Barat or TPA Bantar Gebang Bekasi that often appear in mass media. There are also solid waste problems in other cities. This is not only impacted one city, but also interrelated between cities. Therefore, it is very important that solid waste law to be issued. By issuance of Solid Waste Management, it is expected that good, proper, healthy, safe, and environmentally-friendly solid waste management will be realized. One important issue regulated in this Law is paradigm changes in the solid waste management, from currently just collecting, transporting, and disposing to TPA, into solid waste management with 4Rs princi-

Source: Bowo Leksono

ples of reduce, reuse, recycle, recover. Solid Waste Management Revolution The term was initiated by Environmental Minister Rachmat Witoelar who said that Solid Waste Management Law represents solid waste management revolution, with which hopefully soon, community will have clean and healthy environment. As in Section 4 saying that "Solid waste management is aimed in improving community's health and environmental quality while treating solid waste as resources." By application of the Solid Waste Management Law, since legalization in the lembaran Negara, solid waste management in Indonesia is arranged in new paradigm. All parties are responsible, no matter community, government, or solid waste

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related-stakeholders. As known, so far, in managing solid waste, most community is still using the approach method of collect-transport-dispose. The new paradigm sees solid waste as resources with economically value, for example to be used as energy, compos, fertilizer, or industrial raw material. Solid Waste Management Responsibility In this Law, government is not the only one who responsible on the solid waste problems. Community (household) and private sector (solid waste producer) are also obliged to manage solid waste accordingly with the Law. This arrangement can be found in Section 12 verse (1) saying "Everyone in managing solid waste of household and householdalike are obliged to reduce and manage solid waste in environmental-oriented method." While Section 13 says "Managers of housing area, commercial area, industrial area, special area, public facility, social facility, and other facility are obliged to provide solid waste separation facility." In other words, the Law forces community to recycle in solid waste management. Those who do not manage their solid waste will be sanctioned accordingly with the regulation. Other interesting thing regarding the Law is regarding regulations for producers, such as Section 14 and 15. As obligation for the community, producers also obliged to manage packing of the product that cannot or difficult to be disintegrated. Government will apply punishment and reward mechanism to the companies that violated and do not manage their solid waste. No exception to the community, both as individual or as community. Responsibility of the Local Government Before Law No. 18 Year 2008, there are no firm regulatory standards regarding solid waste management in all kabupaten/kota or province in Indonesia. Every kabupaten/kota holds their local regulations, which cause different solid waste management. It is worsen by the fact that local governments are trapped in retribution and sanctions issues to increase local revenue, more than the responsibility of managing solid waste for greater good. Through this Law, basic concept regarding solid waste management improvement can be realized in quick manner, certainly after the issuance of government regulation as guidance to execute the Law. It will then followed by local regulation with the framework of higher regulations. In writing, Solid Waste Management Law forces local government to manage solid waste, unless they want to be persecuted or sanctioned. The regulation obliged local government to

Source: Bowo Leksono

manage solid waste within their area. In Section 5, "Government and local government are responsible to guarantee good and environmentally-oriented solid waste management accordingly with the purpose as meant in this Law." Clean and healthy condition of an area from solid waste problems is solely depends on intention and interest of the leaders. Monitoring of the solid waste management is arranged in bertingkat as mentioned in Section 30 verse (1) and (2). Series of obligations for government and local governments regarding solid waste management is included in the first law of solid waste management. All parties hopes, off course, that by taking this law into action, solid waste problems of this country will be able to be reduced. In the future, hopefully, Indonesia will be a country that is no longer worry about solid waste, but in contrary, able to provide job creation from the solid waste management. BW

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INSIGHT

Solid Waste Management Technology in PLTSa Gede


By Sandhi Eko Bramono, S.T., MEnvEngSc. *) olid Waste Power Plant Gede Bage that will be built at Kabupaten Bandung apparently has caused pros and cons in the development plan. Part of the community rejected while the other part accepted, despite the issuance of visibility study of the PLTSa operation by team from Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB). Community has a right to know which process will be applied in PLTSa, considering that solid waste management may also cause sensitivity of social friction. Inaccurate or even mislead information can be boomerang to the government in the application of the PLTSa. Despite the current pros and cons, community needs to know that the treatment that will be applied in PLTSa Gede Bage is an integrated treatment. The treatment will not merely burn the solid waste, but will also generate products of electricity, usable ash, and job creation. On the other hand, if the operation is not conducted properly, environmental damage may rise in the local and regional level which will have to be paid with a high social cost by the community. PLTSa Term The term was created due to the energy generation process from the treated solid waste in the PLTSa. The term is actually quite risky, considering the high chance of incapability of solid waste treatment that will generate electricity economically. This is understandable, due to the high water content of solid waste in Indonesia (which approximately may reach 60-80 percent), that will decrease caloric and energy value that can be generated from the solid waste. For example, during the rainy season, where the water content of the solid waste is higher, the chance of PLTSa to generate electricity will be decreased, and PLTSa may consume more energy in order to treat the solid waste. In the infrastructure term in relation with the above, there are Water Treatment Installation (Instalasi Pengolahan Air IPA) and Waste Water Treatment Installation (Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah - IPAL). In order to maintain consistency, why not named it as Solid Waste Treatment Instalation (Instalasi Pengolahan Sampah - IPS)?

A banner contains support for PLTSa Gede Bage development in front of Balubur Market, Bandung. Source: Exclusive

Furthermore, IPS' main purpose is to treat solid waste, not to generate electricity. Electricity product or other usable product will only represent side products of the solid waste treatment itself. By using the term IPS, the function of solid waste treatment will be more general, which is to treat/manage the solid waste. Controlled Combustion The technology used by PLTSa Gede Bage is controlled combustion. PLTSa is designed to treat the capacity of 500 ton/day or equal with the service of 850 thousand people of Kota Bandung. While the solid waste generated in Kota Bandung with 2.6 million people (in the year 2007) is around 1,600 ton/day. In this case, PLTSa Gede Bage will treat approximately 30 percent solid waste generated by Kota Bandung every day. The Government of Kota Bandung is still have to find ways to treat the other 70 percent of the solid waste that are not managed by the PLTSa. Solid waste from the solid waste disposal locations, such as settlements, commercial, offices, industrials, until tourism areas, will be transported by garbage truck. Solid waste collecting which is normally done by garbage cart will be then transported to the Temporary Disposal Point (Lokasi Penampungan Sementara - LPS).

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Garbage trucks will transport the collected solid waste to PLTSa Gede Bage to be treated. There are zoning of solid waste services of which will be treated by PLTSa, while the rest that have not included in the service area will be transported to the Final Disposal (Tempat Pembuangan Akhir - TPA) of Kota Bandung. Solid waste that will be treated in PLTSa is collected in a large temporary solid waste bin, with the role such as reservoir. The solid waste will be placed there for 2-3 days, to guarantee continuous and constant supply to PLTSa. Without the bin, solid waste supply will fluctuate, sometimes there will be plenty of solid waste, and sometimes there will only be small volume of waste. This must be avoided to maintain process performance. After collected in the bin, solid waste will be milled to ensure uniform and smaller size prior to the combustion chamber. After being milled, solid waste will be transported into the combustion chamber with the temperature of 600-800 Celsius degree to reduce solid waste volume into ashes with residual volume of only 10 percent. The process will then continue with the second combustion chamber with temperature of 800-1000 Celsius degree to guarantee gas perfection as the result of combustion of the first combustion chamber. In the combustion chambers, solid waste is also blown from below and above by air supply and also moved by some kind of stoker to mix solid waste, air, and fire in the combustion chamber. The ash produced by the combustion process in both chambers will be collected in the bottom part of the combustion chambers, and transported by a conveyor to be collected in separated place, and disposed in TPA. Approximately 90 percent of solid waste volume has converted into gas which may still contain dangerous pollutant. Therefore, the produced gas is flowed into air pollution control unit to decrease the content of particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), sulfuric oxide (SOx), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and various heavy metals (Hg, Cu, Zn, etc.) Particulates will be trapped by cyclone and wet scrubber that will trap particulate centrifugally by contact with water. This process will remove up to 90 percent particulates. Gases such as SOx, NOx, and heavy metals will be removed in both air pollution control devices. Removal performance of pollutants is enhanced by bag house filter that will filter residual particle, thus quality of the disposed gas will be better. CO gas will be controlled in the combustion chamber with temperature control, control of air being blown, and also a more intensive solid waste mixing. From the eye of the law in Indonesia, controlled solid waste combustion known as incineration refers to KABAPEDAL Decree No 03/BAPEDAL/09/1995 on emission standard for stationary sources, including incinerator. Main standard of pollutants are particulate (must be less than 350 mg/m3), nitrogen oxide in the form of nitrogen dioxide (must be less than 1000 mg/m3), sulfuric oxide in the form of sulfuric dioxide (must be less than 800 mg/m3), and smoke density known as opacity (must be less than 35 percent). All solid waste combustion operating in Indonesia must refer to the regulation, to be able to provide relatively minimum environmental impact on human health, accordingly with the standard set by the Government of Indonesia. Environmental Impact All human activities are guaranteed to provide environmental impact, either favorable or adverse for environment. Improper PLTSa operation in term of the applied technical and law principles will cause PLTSa to be new pollutant source that will endanger health of both human and environment. Impact of the untreated disposed gas will be dangerous air pollutant. However, if PLTSa is properly operated, solid waste problems will be well overcome, with job fields that will absorb plenty of workers, solid waste experts will be able to practice their knowledge in order to solve solid waste havoc in Indonesia, able to produce electricity and ashes that can be used as road aggregates, without having to sacrifice environment. In other words, PLTSa can be boomerang for the environment, but can also be environment rescuer. It is up to the Government of Kota Bandung and the community to provide active role in the success of PLTSa operation. Among pros and cons of PLTSa Gede Bage development, it is important for us to see good intention of Kota Bandung Government in their serious effort to manage solid waste. Numbers of technologies have been applied in the past, we have to admit that they have not succeeded in managing solid waste in this city, that once receive predicate of the dirtiest city from Environmental Ministry, due to the solid waste emergency in the year 2006. As far as there is serious effort from Kota Bandung Government, professional operation of PLTSa, and objective and honest scientific review regarding readiness level of technical-technological-socio-economy-cultural sectors of PLTSa Gede Bage, why should we not ready to see PLTSa as new breakthrough in the solid waste world of Indonesia?
*) writer is a doctoral program student in Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore. Writer contact: sandhieb@yahoo.com

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INSIGHT

Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn) Content of Underground Water


By: Ir. Iyus Yusup KaSubag. Water Quality Laboratorium PDAM Tirta Bumi Wibawa Kota Sukabumi

Staff of PDAM Tirta Bumi Wibawa Kota Sukabumi is collecting raw water in the treatment location. Source: Exclusive.

urvey and analysis of new raw water source quest for customer consumption must always consider aspects in relation with water quality, other than maximum water capacity (debit). Quality consideration will provide information regarding the nature of raw water physically, chemically, or bacteriological, that may cause problems in customer's health, or increment of cost production because the water requires advance quality improvement. In this article, the writer will only discuss consideration with regards to raw water collection in relation with underground water (well) quality for consumption/distribution/sale to the

customer. The article may suit more as information regarding quantity condition of the raw water that is more and more limited, caused by more scarce and more polluted surface water that eventually people are looking for raw water alternatives, in the city area in particular, of underground water (well). From the writer's experience in conducting research, test, and analysis of the underground water, either physically, chemically, or bacteriologic, underground water is very similar with the surface water in term of water capacity and quality. Well water capacity decreased quickly during the dry season, and current quality is relatively polluted. In the picture we can see that well water is physically clear during sampling, however, after chemical test, the sample contains relatively high Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn), and not qualified as clean water/drinking water. Pollution indication, as far as the writer knows, especially from bacteriologic analysis, is always show numbers of Coli and Eschericia Coli bacteria. The same with chemical parameters that always show content of Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn), with different concentration depends on sampling locations. Absence of Iron and Manganese components in the water is usually followed by content of other chemical components that still in compliance with the standard of clean/drinking water, which means that the raw water is relatively not polluted in term of chemical. Theoretically, Iron content is usually quite common in underground water, which is not the case for Manganese component. However, Iron content usually followed by Manganese content. Water contains Iron and Manganese can still be used as clean water if the concentration is still under the maximum standard allowed (see: Table).

MAXIMUM CONCENTRATION OF IRON AND MANGANESE CLEAN/DRINKING WATER


No Parameter 1. 2. 3. 4. pH (acidity level) Iron Level (ppm) Manganese Level (ppm) Visually

IN

Minimum/maximum Standard Drinking water Clean water 6,5 - 8,5 0,3 0,1 Clear 6,5 - 8,5 1,0 0,5 Clear

Source: SK. Menkes No. 907/Menkes/SK/2002 for Clean Water and Drinking Water

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It can also be explained that Iron and Manganese elements are in the form of minerals that originally not dissolved (Fe3+ and Mn4+), thus anaerobic condition in the soil (low oxygen) of the elements will be reduced into valented ion of Fe2+ and Mn4+ thus dissolved in the water (see: Matrix of Iron elements form in the water). From several research literatures, Fe2+ and Mn4+ can be compounded with Bicarbonate, Sulfur, and Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), thus from aesthetic aspect, especially color and odor, is less attractive and complained by water user. Iron and Manganese elements with relatively large concentration (mg/l) in the water will provide the following impacts on individual, industrial, or company's water supply system: 1. Will cause clogging in the pipe installation system caused directly by iron deposit, and indirectly by iron bacteria. These bacteria will increase friction (losses) which in turn will increase energy requirement. If degradation occurs,

Matrix of Iron elements form in the water


Total Iron

Iron II

Iron III

Free

Complex Form

Free

Deposit - FeS2 - FeCO3 - Fe(OH)2

Dissolved Mineral Complex - Fe2+ - Silikat - FeOH+ - Fosfat

Organic Complex - Asam humus - Asam fulfik

Deposit - Fe(OH)3 - Other Deposit

Dissolved/dispersed Iron (escaped from filter) Deposit Iron (trapped in the filter)

unpleasant odor and taste will also occur in the water. 2. Iron and Manganese elements in large concentration of some mg/l (parts per million/ppm) will cause

Piping system to collect raw water from water source to be channeled to the reservoir. Pic: Bowo Leksono

metal taste or medicine odor. 3. In ion exchanger process, Iron and Manganese deposit will clog or cover ion exchange media (resin) that will cause losses of ion exchange capacity. 4. Causing complaints from the costumer (as in red water case) when Iron and Manganese deposit accumulated in the pipe is re-suspended caused by debit or pressure increment in the distributing pipe, thus deposit will be carried to the customer. 5. Iron and Manganese elements will cause unclear appearance on the water and leaving stain on clothes that were washed by this water, thus is least expected by the water user. 6. Leaving brownish stain caused by Iron element and blackish stain caused by Manganese element in the tub and other equipments. 7. Metal deposit can also caused problems in the water supply system of individual, industrial, or company such as PDAM.

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INSIGHT

In The Next Five Years, Tetaf Village Will Become Prosperous Village
ome area are proud and become inspiration for other area to remain confidence that WSES development will be able to be the trigger factor of community prosperity level. In sense, WSES development that basically provide easier access -whether simply bringing the clean water closer or provide the service to the households- will present direct and indirect results that will able to increase community's revenue, health, education, etc. The outcome of clean water facility development, which above paper will be able to increase prosperity, has been truly proven with clean water facility development in Tetaf Village of Kabupaten Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS) which was facilitated by ProAir Program, a grant from the Government of Germany. The article is a gift from the trip made by documenter movie team of WSES Policy Operation in TTS Kabupaten of which most shooting was taken in Tetaf Village, Kecamatan Amanuban Barat, Kabupaten Timor Tengah Selatan. Poor Tetaf Village In general, Tetaf Village is categorized as poor. The main living is farming of seasonal crops, such as corn as their main plant, and vegetables such as eggplant, chili, cabbage, cress, etc. People also plant coconut, sirih, banana, mango, mahoni, acacia, which partly grow by nature, and other parts are grown intentionally. Truthfully, when we enter Tetaf Village, we won't see any poverty impression, because as far as the eyes can see, green plants scattered everywhere, which

By Alma Arief and Dormaringan Saragih WASPOLA Consultant indicates soil fertility and abundant crops. However, in reality, the people of Tetaf Village are in general still under poverty line. Their daily revenue and consumption level (nutrition) is still low. Most kids are going to school with bare feet, some of them with mucus showing on their nose as indication of low revenue and lack of nutrient. Their houses are still using simple materials; roof from leafs (thatch), pillars from rough woods, and floor from dirt. Only small numbers of houses with cemented walls, zinc roof, and tiled floor. This is general depiction of prosperity level in Tetaf Village. ProAir Clean Water Program Thorough WSES Program funded by the Government of Germany through GTZ and KFW -with criteria such as water resource availability, willingness to contribute in cash for the maintenance fund, statement of interest to be facilitated, etc- has chosen Tetaf Village to acquire WSES facilities development facilitation. The program known as ProAir is consistently applied national policies principles, in initiation phase, planning, development, and post development (maintenance) phase. Because the objective is more on community empowerment through WSES development, it is not surprising that during preparation phase, community needs longer time - much longer than the time needed for physical construction because public facilitation is dedicated

more to change the way of thinking, behavior, and attitude of the people, especially understanding (affective), attitude (cognitive), and behavior (psychomotor) in relation with clean water as economic and social property, as well as management to sustain continuity. ProAir in NTT has been started since the end of 2003 in three kabupatens of Kabupaten Sumba Barat, Sumba Timur, and Timor Tengah Selatan. At first, the program is relatively difficult to apply because it is a development program that applies need-based principles which consist of the idea of prioritizing community's role as the main actor of the development. 11 points of complete National Policy Principles of WSES Development are applied consistently. The problem is that NTT people as the development target are poor people, whereas ProAir firmly applied condition that the people must provide cash contribution as maintenance fund of the facility. In the national policy, this refers to the cost recovery principle. Obligation to provide cash contribution in the early stage of ProAir activity has caused conflict. On one side there is opinion that "community is capable of paying cash contribution" while on the other side, there is opinion that "community will not be able to pay cash contribution due to the poverty". Those who think that poor people cannot pay asked that cash contribution of the community can be done by converting man energy and local material donations into rupiah, while on the other side, those who think that community is capable to pay, insisted that community will

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be able to put aside their revenue or wealth in form of cash or materials (such as livestock, jacquards, etc) little by little. Latter on, what ProAir has done prove that the community is capable. However to change paradigm from "always receiving instant packages" into "involved in decision making of every phase of development, even asked for cash contribution" requires a very long time. Various facilitation to explain procedure of proposing ideas of clean water development facilitation along with conditions, explanation of the benefit of water facility, obligation of providing cash contribution for maintenance of the facility, technical training of facility maintenance, PHBS campaign to change the way of life, utilization of time and energy after easy access to the water, etc, are given intensively. In every facilitated village, ProAir is able to collect cash contribution and monthly fee. In TTS, the number of money collected from cash contribution before construction is begun and monthly fee until September 2007 is shown below:
No 1 2 3 Name of Group/Village Nekmese-OeUe (Tetaf Village) Heimituin-Oemofun Kofi Tel - Nefokoko Amount per September 2007 Rp 16.547.054 Rp 15.597.991 Rp 40.211.395

Willingness of the poor community in providing cash contribution and monthly fee is also break the myth that poor people cannot pay. With intensive facilitation, structured organization of all activities with proper administration, every problem can be overcome. Community in the villages facilitated by ProAir, whether those who live in TTS, Sumba Timur, or Sumba Barat, are able to execute all points of the national policy. And now, they have started to feel the result of the water facility development.
Source: Dok/ProAir

Synergy with the Agriculture Agency When access to clean water is started to be enjoyed by the community, they then have extra time and energy compare to the past where most of the time and energy is being used to obtain clean water for their need. The change happened together with Agriculture Agency who facilitates Tangerine (Soe) Orange seed distribution. That synergy (whether planned or not) is accepted with open arms by the people who now have extra time and energy. In Tetaf Village, community is now plant Tangerine Orange in the area of 70 hectares with orange plants of 30 thousand trees, while in OeUe Village, OeUe farmer group with 20 household members, are now planting 7,200 trees in the area of 18 hectares. Closure Water facility development, whether simply bringing the water closer or to provide service to the household, do present

power to increase prosperity of the people. In Tetaf Village, Kecamatan Amanuban Barat, Kabupaten Timor Tengah Selatan, the community with extra time and energy, accepted government offers (Agriculture Agency) with open arms to plant oranges in their land. It seems just the matter of time to see the people to harvest the oranges with smile on their faces while singing local songs. Kids go to school in the morning, with tidy clothes and shoes. However, this hope still leaves question; has the people ready to welcome abundant harvest? Have post harvest technologies been prepared? Have post harvest institutions been prepared? How about the market capacity, and where? How to handle competition with products from other area? Have the people protected from monopoly of wholesaler from Kupang who are said to buy the harvest in wholesale? There are still other questions of which policy intervention requires to synergize potencies of the related institutions.

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21

INSIGHT

Knowing Brief Participative Learning (Pembelajaran Partisipatif Singkat - PPS)

articipative learning is generally believed as a long process, where to facilitate, days even weeks are

By Risang Rimbatmaja (Researcer at JHU/CCP Indonesia) Brief but Participative Even though brief, PPS highly respect participative principles in the learning process with the basic thinking that participative space will below community's knowledge to be latter circulated between participants, including facilitator. Participative space will build community acceptance on alternative knowledge that has been identified together. Knowledge acceptance will latter greatly helped to build sense of ownership of the program. PPS has four important components, namely conducive communication situation, individual participation, general reflection, and strengthened general recall power. The four components need to be developed systematically and integrated, as illustrated below.

nent that needs to be developed in the ongoing process. Communicative situation will bring about comfort on the participants to participate and accept new knowledge as the result of discussion. When communicative situation is built, individual participation is more likely to rise. When individual participation is adequate, process of general reflection will be able to be done to enrich community with alternative knowledge. In the end, in order for the alternative knowledge to remain in memory, participants are helped to recall alternative knowledge they acquire from their own experience and knowledge. PPS Stages a. Build communicative situation Build informal communication before discussion session is started. When approaching all participants is not possible, focus on small numbers of participants (approximately

required. In reality, many programs do not have that long of time. Many programs can only allocate one day or even less than one day to introduce and acquire initial agreement from the community. In such condition, most field facilitators finally chose the non-participative ways when talking to the community. They invited the people and give out speech. If the ability of public speaking AA Gym facilitator or other has great not as advance as Bung Karno, Gede Prama, orator, unavoidably, lots of people disappear since the fifth minute. Brief Participative Learning (PPS) is a community learning method established by John Hopkins University/Center for Communication Program Indonesia (JHU/CCP Indonesia) since 2006 from various discussion facilitation experiences of community group, both conducted by CCP or its partners. PPS is actually learning a great deal from previous known participative techniques. The different is that PPS is also purposed on accommodating interest of the program to quickly introduce numbers of messages to the community groups and acquire initial agreement regarding the program to be implemented.

BUILDING COMMUNICATION SITUATION Bangun Situasi Komunikatif Encourage Dorong individual partisipasi participation

1/5 of total participants) Introduce yourself and the team briefly and presents the purpose and message that commonly conveyed by fellow facilitators such as, this session is a session to learn together, everybody is teacher and everybody is students. During discussion, show apprecia tion to the participants as source of knowledge. Follow the flow of discussion while elegantly encourage passive partici-

individual

Refleksi General bersama reflection

Strengthen Perkuat general ingatan recall power bersama

Such as shown in the diagram, building communicative situation is a compo-

22

Percik August 2008

INSIGHT
pants to speak up and controlled those who talk too much. After discussion, build informal discussion with more participants. Say thank you on the process of learning together. b. Encourage individual participation Toss interesting question that is easy to answer by all participants, such as things that they recently encountered. Toss 2-3 easy questions before tossing more difficult question (around knowledge or attitude). Use pictures and other tools to facilitate individual assessment. c. General reflection Perform games and show various pictures to raise indirect alternative knowledge. Encourage participants to practice, analyze, and interpret alternative knowledge. Encourage participants to compare common knowledge with their own interpretation of various games and pictures that inspire alternative knowledge. d. Strengthen general recall power Encourage participants to take notes and presents the result of learning together. Meta-plan can be used when participants are comfortable or facilitator can help to take notes. If necessary, use games and quiz to strengthen memory. As explained above, in MPPS application, assisting tools are required, especially pictures that can convey the message easily compare to the abstract words. Furthermore, PPS also requires edu-entertainment approach, especially
A participant is learning to fasilitate other participants. Source: Bowo Leksono

to strengthen recall power. Therefore, numbers of games and quiz need to be prepared before. From number of participant side, PPS will be more effective when applied in a group with 15-20 participants. Example of PPS application PPS can be applied on various innovations such as water, sanitation, hygiene, and also health issues and other public issues. Important thing to remember in applying PPS is ability to facilitate discussion and stock of knowledge regarding issues to be discussed. Issue understanding is important to flow discussion. Without proper knowledge, discussion will flow into unwanted direction. Component 1: Build communicative situation Before discussion started, greet the women and ask them about their families, husband, and children. Ask them where they live and how they reach the meeting venue. Focus on one or two from several groups of women and start to memorize names. Start the event with greeting and say

thank you to the participants for their willingness to come. Introduce yourself (name, organization, where we live, marital status and numbers of children). Convey important message that the meeting is purposed on learning together about drinking water. Initial question: Was it short notice invitation? Who delivered the invitation? Start to identify those who do not like to talk. Held introductory games that can be followed comfortably by participants (participants chose unknown partner and introduce name, origin, family members, and hobbies). Component 2: Encourage individual participation First question: ask health condition of children and husband. Encourage participants to answer in turn. Second question: ask them about their recent illness. Encourage participants to answer in turn. When diarrhea does not arise, ask them about illness of younger member of the family (children or grandchildren).

Percik August 2008

23

INSIGHT
ter to drink? Distribute one small color paper and ask participant to place it near the glass they chose. Count the paper and show tendencies of the participants' choice. Show the participants how the two samples of water were made. The clear water is raw water (uncooked), while the brownish water is cooked water mixed with chocolate coffee. Ask participant to choose by placing their small paper. Back to the Plano paper contains notes of criteria. Ask participants to review it; does it need to be fixed, added, or reduced? Write down the new criteria (drinking water must be properly treated such as boiled). Component 3: General reflection 2 Ask participants to come nearer to the stove. Demonstrate: raw water in the pan is boiled and when bubbles appear, turn it off directly. Ask, whether the boiled water is good to drink? (The answer is most probably no). Ask them why? Back to the Plano paper with good drinking water criteria. Ask them whether it needs to be added or changed? Write down addition or changes. Convey the message regarding time limit of waiting the water to boil for 1-3 minutes. Continue to boil between 1-3 minutes. Afterward, turn the fire off and let the water cooled. Ask them whether they are willing to drink the boiled water by scooping it with a cup and hand touches the water? Ask them why? Back to the Plano paper with good drinking water criteria. Ask them whether it needs to be added or changed? Write down the addition or changes. Component 3: General reflection 3 Show pictures of how to make drinking water (boiling, sodis-solar disinfection, ceramic filter, chlorination). Explain to them of how the methods being done. Practice application of the methods. Discuss how the methods can kill germs. Write down discussion result in the Plano paper. Ask participants for coffee break and snack. Component 4: Strengthen recall power Ask participants, what have they learnt? Meta-plan is used when participants are comfortable or facilitator can help to write. Toss questions regarding things they learned and present gifts for those who can answer. Try so that all participants take parts. Distribute leaflets or brochures containing methods, data/fact regarding proper methods of preparing and storing drinking water. Say thank you.

Dig more participants' story regarding diarrhea/cholera/typhoid/stomachache with questions referring to the cause. Show them pictures of what causes diarrhea and clarify together so that everybody have the same perception. Distribute papers containing various pictures of the cause of diarrhea. Ask each participant to mark the picture of what causing diarrhea. Repeat that one of the cause is the water being drank (most probably that was the answer of one of the participants). Ask participants of how they assess quality of the drinking water. What are criteria for good drinking water? Write down on the Plano paper and clarify with participants. Component 3: General reflection 1 Provide two glasses of water. One is clear and one is brownish. Ask participants to choose which one is bet-

24

Percik August 2008

I N N O VAT I O N

ECOPLAS
Environmental Friendly Bag Made From Cassava

aste problems are not only related to quantity or the amount of waste piles, but also the quality or types of waste. Most of family waste, especially from inor-

ganic type, is food plastic wrap that is consumed daily. As known by public, plastic is a substance that hard to dissolve. While each family cannot be separated from plastic use each day. Therefore, a solution is needed, not only for the consumer, but also for the producer to avoid or reduce the use of plastic materials as wrapping for certain products. One of the efforts to reduce plastic use in daily life is to use environmental friendly plastic for daily needs. One of Indonesian NGO, Dana Mitra Lingkungan (DML), has launched an environmental friendly plastic called Ecoplas. Previously, this product is known as BioBag by the people.
Source: Bowo Leksono

Environmental Friendly Ecoplas is a newly innovated environmental friendly bag with attractive design and affordable price. Made from from resin BE+ material. This kind of bag is produced by saving fuel/energy. BE+ or Biodegradable Resin is a new resin that is developed and created in Indonesia. It consist 50 percent of Indonesian cassava flour, and other natural material which are environmental friendly and renewable. Resin BE+ is already copyrighted and expected to become an alternative beside other resins that is already known. DML's Research Management Coordinator Eko Junadi said, ordinary plastic bag need 1000 years to dissolve, while Ecoplas only need 10 weeks to dissolve in tropical soil. "This fact is based on the research report done by Sucofindo/SGS" he said. Ecoplas Marketing DML provides two kinds of Ecoplas, die cut and soft loop. Soft loop is thicker and the handle is stronger than die cut. While the price for die cut/pack (50 pcs) is Rp. 42.000, and soft loop/pack (50 pcs) is Rp. 60.000. Ecoplas specifications are measurements: 39.5 cm x 31 cm x 11 cm (Long x width x gussets). Weight: 1,1 kg/pack or 22 gram/pcs. This environmental friendly bag can be obtained through Dana Mitra Lingkungan by contacting this number (+6221) 724.8884. According to Eko, Ecoplas can be delivered to entire district of Indonesia. "Shipping cost will be added to the Ecoplas price, adjusted to the distance and shipping priority choices." He said. Eko stated, nowadays there's no regulation that constricts people to use plastic as a material that is hard to dissolve. "Therefore, a solution is needed by creating an easy dissolving plastic." He explains. By using Ecoplas or other environmental friendly bags, that means we are participating in preserving the environment.
BW

Percik August 2008

25

Our Guest

Building Water Conservation


ho doesn't know Ully Sigar Rusady? The woman that also sings ballads has worked in environmental areas for over than 30 years. She has collected many experience and awards. The concern from the sister of Paramitha Rusady is shown when she establish Garuda Nusantara

in Sindang Kahuripan
(Gabungan Rumpun Pemuda Nusantara) Organization in February 14th 1985. This organization is a place for teenagers to express their creativity by serving nature and environment. Water Conservation Program The Garuda Nusantara Organization has done many programs, starts from training and education, volunteer post, competitions, and conservations. Many of the areas in Indonesia have been made a conservation area by Ully and friends. Right now, Ully Hary Rusady (the name Hary is taken from her husband) is concentrating at water conservation in Sindang Kahuripan, which is located at Kawah Merah Gunung Pancar, Kampung Cimandala, Karang Tengah, Sentul, Bogor, West Java. This conservation is 30 acre wide placed exact at the feet of two mountains, Astana Mountain and Pancar Mountain, Bogor. "The mountain is a water tower for us, and the earth, because water came from mountains. Therefore, it is crucial for us to protect mountain ecosystem," Said Ully, starting a conversation in Percik's office after attending the Kalpataru Award in National Palace, June 5th 2008. For the mountain ecosystem can be preserved and to minimize threat towards it, Ully said, a joint management effort is needed from the city and village citizens. "City citizen's participation nonetheless is expected to preserve water and springs, considering that mountain vegetations is the actual water supplier for the entire community." said the receiver of Global 500 Award from the UN in 2007 who always wear headband. As a sample area, around 11 years ago, Garuda Nusantara Organization established Sindang Kahuripan as a place to implement water, nature, and abandoned fields conservation programs. Based on research results and special observation, this program is in accordance with West Java Government programs, and with the rehabilitation program for water and land conservation,

Foto: Istimewa/ design: Rudi Koz

considering the large numbers of barren hills and lands that can cause floods and avalanches. "Sindang Kahuripan conservation area is a vast mountain area," said the women whose child name is Rulany Indra Gartika. With annual rehabilitation program in this area, Ully continues, we can expect water conservation in upper course of river area, and also participates in reducing global warming effects. Activities in Sindang Kahuripan According to Ully, besides reforesting critical and abandoned land to prevent avalanche, the goal of Sindang Kahuripan conservation is also to preserve water and springs in upper course area. "And invites local and city community to participate in trainings to preserve a continuous natural resources all at once," said the founder The members of Garuda Nusantara Organization in Sindang Kahuripan. Source: Exclusive. and head of the Sindang Kahuripan Organization. ment," said the environmentalist who nature and environmental conservation Multiple activities are held in Sindang was born in January 4th 1952. insight with Sindang Kahuripan as its Kahuripan such as mountain ecosystem location," said the receiver of Kalpataru conservation, forest, land, water and Nature's Friend Package Award from the Minister of Environment spring conservation, and inUlly and friends did not in 2001. crease of human resourmake Sindang KahuSindang Kahuripan has both high and ce quality for farripan as a conservalow landscape contour, surrounded by mers around fotion area for the hills, slopes, valleys, pine forest with rice rest areas. benefit for local fields, making this place more unique, While the community charming, and beautiful. This site is perplanned and her group fect for nature and environment conseractivities are o n l y . vation through ecotourism. building Moreover, There have been a lot of people the facilities for she invites experience to enjoy and learning in the forest and communities open nature. Most of them are students, environment from various nature lover organization members, education and societies to join, NGOs, researchers, and also families. training, water enjoy, and learn According to Ully, nature's friend prochannels and rein open nature. gram is the true form of community's servoirs, environThis invitation is concern for preserving nature and envimental friendly road, packed in an activity called ronment. "We have a purpose to make and natural praying room Source: BW Nature's Friend Package. "This this activity as a trend and a lifestyle in (mushola). activity package can be done by various loving and making friends with nature," "We hope that someday a community communities that care for nature and said the member of Consideration Board will be built that is environment friendly, BW environment. This package broadens for Kalpataru and Kehati Award. and actually cares for nature and environ-

Percik August 2008

27

R E P O RTA G E

Visit from the Democratic Republic of Timor Leste Delegation to Indonesia

he effect of CLTS in Indonesia has attracted several countries to invite Indonesia to exchange experience. In the Year 2007, delegation from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh has visited East Java, Indonesia. On April 20th-25th 2008 had The delegation of Timor Leste the chance to learn CLTS directly from several villages in Kecamatan Lembak, Kabupaten Muara Enim, South Sumatera. This group of 25 people consists of cross section functionary, NGOs, and representative from donor countries, is led by the Young Minister of Water, Electricity, and Settlement, Januario Perreiro da Costa. The group was officially accepted by the Governor of South Sulawesi accompanied by the head of Kabupaten Muara

Enim. In this opportunity, the delegation had the chance to have conversation directly with the community. The guests are excited with the community's merry reception. Even in each village, villagers welcomed them with dances and religious chants. After two days visiting the location of successful CLTS program in Kabupaten Muara Enim, the delegates then visit Kabupaten Tangeran, in Banten Province on Wednesday, April 23rd 2008. In Tangerang, the delegates are welcomed by the Bupati and Vice Bupati Tangerang. A dialogue between two sides was also held, led directly by Bupati Ismet Iskandar. The visit to Kabupaten Tangerang, was meant to learn the implementation of

sanitation and hygiene activities that are done together by the government and NGOs. Januario admits that he is facing a lot of difficulties and obstacles in fixing water supply and sanitation in his country. "Because of that, we need to come to Indonesia, who has succeeded in implementing CLTS, to observe and learn from the experience of Indonesian people," he said. According to Ismet, the low level of health is the main district problem that has became everyone's problem. "We have built a partnership pattern with the private side and community in order to lower incidents of environmental based disease," he said. Visit to MCK Plus++ in Kecamatan Sepatan After the dialogue, the group moved to Kecamatan Sepatan, precisely in Kampung Pisangan Periuk to witness MCK Plus++ with the dewats and biogas digester waste water management technology. Not far from the MCK site, the delegation witnessed the practice of hand washing hands with soap which was done by elementary students. Not only that, the group was entertained by the healthy life style jingle competition and dangdut music. The following day, Thursday, April 24th 2008, the delegation met face to face with stakeholders and programs that are related to water supply and environmen-

The delegation of Democratic Republic of Timor Leste accepted by the Bupati and Vice Bupati Tangerang. Photo: Bowo Leksono

28 Percik 2008 August

R E P O RTA G E
tal sanitation in Bappenas's office to again, exchange experiences and information. Hand Washing with Soap Program in Tangerang Noisy handclaps from the women of Kayu Agung village, Kecamatan Sepatan, Kabupaten Tangerang, accompany the group performance in the clean and healthy lifestyle jingle competition. Their performance also was meant to welcome the Timor Leste delegation. Previously, elementary students had the opportunity to practice hand washing with soap. All those activities were a part of the hand washing with soap campaign, results from the CARE International Indonesia advocation program. Health Environment Project Manager CARE Marcel Beding explained to Percik that this program was meant to lower the malnutrition problems to babies, pregnant and post maternity woman, and lower the diarrheal problems in families. "We cooperates with the government of Tangerang City for 12 kelurahan, and with Kabupaten Tangerang for 8 villages, 2 of them are in Kecamatan Sepahan and Kayu Agung village with the funding from USAID," he said. This program that has started in February 2006 has three main strategies, which are community nutrient, environmental health and health services. The hand washing with soap activity was done after we give training to the cadres and health committee members until they have the capable facilitation skills, the ability to make good proposals, and training about event organizing. This hand washing with soap program is doing a road show to schools in cooperation with School Health Unit section in each Health Promotion section, Agency of Health. By giving full trust to the cadres and committee, accompanied by the puskesmas, kecamatan, and kelurahan, and also a facilitator from CARE. There are rial procurement and people provide land, minimal 5% material contribution, and labour to help the infrastructure building for a priority activity with PADAT KARYA PANGAN pattern," he explains. Furthermore, Marcel said, CARE has also done some advocation or facilitate meetings for planning and developing in villages so that other infrastructure needs can be accommodated in APBD. "Tangerang government in 2008 budget plans for three hand washing places per school for 40 elementary schools along with the campaign activity." Untill now, at least 90% of the community is aware that by maintaining clean and healthy lifestyle, they will be safe from various diseases. Hopefully there will be no more plague repeated in Tangerang area. BW

This hand washing with soap program is doing a road show to schools in cooperation with School Health Unit section in each Health Promotion section, Agency of Health.

24 schools in 12 kelurahan in Tangerang city and 40 schools in 8 villages in kabupaten Tangerang. Obstacles According to Marcel, the obstacles faced are in form of the lack of infrastructure like clean water supply and a hygienic hand washing place in schools and community. "CARE is funding the mate-

INTERVIEW
AND

YOUNG MINISTER FOR WATER , E LECTRICITY , SETTLEMENT , J ANUARIO PERREIRO DA COSTA


WITH
What is your view during your visitation to Indonesia? I felt how the Indonesian people can organize and socialize healthy life so that community can change their behaviour. I think this is not easy. Like what happened in Muara Enim, in ony 24 hours they can produce their own toilets. It needs a hard work and time spared to do that activity. What's the condition for water supply and

sanitation in Timor Leste? For sanitation, we only cover about 40 percent, and 50 percent for clean water supply. Our citizens are no more than 1 million, 945 thousand to be exact. But their behaviour is hard top change, not to mention a lot of riots often occur. Therefore, it is up to us how we can take lessons from Indonesias experiences. After this visit, what will you do? After this, what we saw and experienced will be implemented as learning for Timor Leste community. It was a valuable experience. BW

Percik August 2008

29

I N S P I R AT I O N

Unsustainable City

ne day seminar on April 24th 2008 with the theme of "Sustainable City: Challenges for Indonesia and Sweden" held by the Swedish Embassy in cooperation

with the Environmental Ministry by the support from SIDA (Swedish Environmental Secretariat for Asia) and SBA (Swedish Business Association) has reminded us about condition of cities in Indonesia. So far we are focused on problems such as traffic jam, environmental pollution, and other detail problems in it that makes us, either we realize it or not, looses the big framework of problems in the cities of Indonesia. Much too often, we tried to overcome problems without looking at its relation with other issue or other bigger issues. Integrated city development ended up as meaningless phrase. There is no real follow up. Even if there is, mostly just in the form of follow up plans without responsible party to ensure the success of the plan. Do we realize that condition of condition of the cities in Indonesia are getting worse with problems such as flood, traffic jam, low environmental support, inadequate infrastructure service in fulfilling the need of the community, etc? Unsustainable Facts of the Cities in Indonesia A city, no matter how small, will develop until one day becomes a megapolitan. For example are Jakarta, Surabaya, Makassar, Bandung, and other cities. Basically, the cities in Indonesia, with many characteristic variations, have more or less the same problems, which is urban sprawl development. If it were to build a house, the kitchen is spreaded, such as the bathroom, bedrooms, etc. Our current spatial plan is no more than sporadic use of space. From this fact, it was obvious that many functions are not working as it should be. Regulations and policies are not applied accordingly and monitoring and control functions are barely exist. In term of clean water and sanitation services (WSES), the same problems occur. Unconcentrated settlements make planning and WSES sector development difficult. No to mention the solid waste problems in the city, availability of solid waste management facilities are often face problems. Complicated public transportation system in most part of the cities in Indonesia is basically started with the same mistake as the above spatial plan, which is unclear regulations and policies plus lack of monitoring and control. Future Steps Various facts of the low level of sustainability of the city is not only found in the cities of Indonesia, but can also be found in various parts of the world, including in developed countries. The difference is that, developed countries have done intensive actions on the regard. In Germany, it was said that massive evacuation of people in one of the cities has been done to rearrange the city. In order to fix the spatial arrangements of the city, unavoidably, must be done in phases. Seeing what has happened in Indonesia, a new master plan for the city supported by firm regulation, monitoring and control is required. It's not like the government hasn't tried the above efforts, but often, the problem is how. Supports from various stakeholders through experience, funding, etc are extremely important. Therefore, the biggest issue right now is the courage to take the step, not just commitment. Thus, cities' problems are not just common knowledge, but represents challenges to overcome. Mistakes may happen during the process, but we won't know until it has been done.
FW
Source: Bowo Leksono

The next fact is related with the environment. Opposite to its function as the main support of city's sustainability (as the city's lungs), environment is often being ignored. Awareness to preserve environment to avoid worse degradation becomes the opposite. It is important to remember that the environment, however the condition damaged or unadorned, will still exist. On the other hand, it is human that will not be able to survive in damaged environment.

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Percik August 2008

REFLECTION

Dry Toilet for Dense Settlements and Areas Lack of Water

ne of life's comforts is when the problems of "nature calls" are no longer a prob-

Neni, together with her team applied dry toilet in dense area of Kiara Condong, Kota Bandung since the last five years. "It was not easy, because the hardest part and the biggest challenge is to change behavior", Cooperation said the Head of and Community

lem, when toilet can be found, clean, not necessarily luxurious, but accessible. This maybe the ideal life measurement of living in comfort. However, not everyone have the opportunity and affordability to enjoy the above live comfort. Plenty of people such as people in dense settlements or in areas with lack of water are without proper toilet or without toilets at all. They dispose their biological waste improperly in open spaces. Rivers or fields, or in dirty toilet that lacks of water. They still feel somewhat comfortable. This is the problem of behavior, or community's habits. A researcher from Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI) Dr. Neni Sintawardani, has succeeded in creating and introducing simple technology of dry toilet known as bio toilet. "The principle of dry toilet is waterless toilet. Thus, the material is wood chuck as matrix to trap the waste to be latter treated in place or in container made of steel", said Neni when interviewed by Percik in her workplace. Potential for Dense Settlements Dry toilet is very potential to be developed in dense settlements, because in dense settlements, sanitation and clean water facilities are usually lacking. This type of toilet can also be applied in areas with lack of water. From objective point of view, according to Neni, waterless toilet is meant for
Source: Exclusive Dr Neni Sintawardani. Source: Bowo Leksono

Service Bureau of Iptek LIPI. Initiation of Dry Toilet Creation At first, in 1998, Neni Sintawardani created simple tool to manage kitchen waste. With a small box that was designed as such, household wives can manage the waste directly after finish cooking by separating organic waste. Then in 2003, the research expanded to human waste management of creating dry toilet. "Basic thinking of creating dry toilet is kitchen waste management to organic fertilizer," said Neni. Neni admitted, it was not cheap to create the dry toilet. According to her, one toilet that can be used by 40 people per day cost Rp 40 million, however, it worth the cost of less pollutant. "Costly impression is caused by the material of steel or metal for the reactor," said this mother of two. Costly impression can be erased by looking at its long-term function, that adverse impacts of bad sanitation, if not managed from now, will be much more expensive. Until date, what Neni has created has not been applied a lot, because supports from various parties, either government or private, are needed in term of investment.
Bowo Leksono

middle to lower income community. "Clean water needs for middle to lower income community is considerably large with less affordability", said alumni of Hohenheim Germany. University, Stuttgart,

Percik August 2008

31

ISSDP ROUNDABOUT

Preparation toward ISSDP Phase II

anitation development program in Indonesia of Indonesia Sanitation Sector Development Program (ISSDP) has entered the second year. The program will start the second phase on mid May 2008. In ISSDP Phase I, many things have been done and produced especially in partner cities. Establishment of Sanitation Working Group in the kota level represents the effort of institutional development in management of sanitation sector development in the area. White Book Document (Dokumen Buku Putih) represents one product of the Working Group with ISSDP facilitation. The book contains general depiction of sanitation condition that can be renewed yearly to see sanitation condition development of kota. Other document is Kota Sanitation Strategy (Strategi Sanitasi Kota - SSK) as the main product that has been compiled by Kota Working Group. SSK contains action plans that represent a meeting between top down and bottom up approach, where mission and vision of the kota government in sanitation development meets with real demand of the community on sanitation facility. In the national level, various recommendations have been produced to support national policy direction in sanitation development in Indonesia. This recommendation contains sectors of institution, law, and funding. To synergize all stakeholders in the sanitation development, ISSDP Phase I has taken its role in the establishment of the Watsan Network. Other product is sanitation campaign

Group Discussion during review of ISSDP Phase I implementation. Source: Dok/ISSDP

strategy to increase awareness of the importance of sanitation and healthy behavior. The campaign strategy is divided into five designs based on objective groups, namely decision makers in the national level, decision makers in the local level, public in general, poor community, and private sector. This strategy is planned to be applied this year accordingly with the agenda of ISSDP Phase II. ISSDP Phase I has provide significant input in the effort of establishing framework of sustainable sanitation management in its partner cities. One of the inputs is the important of province role in the sanitation management so that in the execution of ISSDP Phase II, program

approach in the provincial level can be done more intensively in larger proportion. Through provincial role, it is expected that the program coverage will be expanded to other cities in the form of ISSDP replica. For that reason, ISSDP Phase II will provide a more effective advisory assistance to the provincial government. The form of facility to the provincial government will be realized through series of capacity buildings, research and counterparts, to planning mechanism, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the sanitation management in the provincial level will be optimally established and implemented.

32

Percik August 2008

ISSDP ROUNDABOUT
Provincial involvedness in ISSDP Phase II is required to be well prepared. Comprehensive information regarding ISSDP Phase I and implementation plan of ISSDP Phase II need to be communicated to the provincial government. In order to achieve the purpose, a workshop is required which will involve Technical Team of the Sanitation Development as managers of the sanitation development in the national level, Kota Sanitation Working Group who becomes ISSDP partner, and off course, the provincial government. On this workshop, Technical Team of Sanitation Development can provide depiction of comprehensive ISSDP Phase I implementation, including achievements, both in the national and local level. Technical Team can also provide the big plan of ISSDP Phase II especially in relation with program coverage extension through replication. Kota Working Group as local stakeholder can presents experiences in the sanitation managements during ISSDP. Various achievements and challenges in two years can surely be one of the references for the province to be involved in the future ISSDP. In the end, the workshop is expected to be able to summarized provincial role in urban sanitation management, formulate and prepare operational steps for ISSDP Phase II which include working group establishment, raising resources and fund, and preparing criteria for choosing partner cities for ISSDP Phase II. Provincial Role in the Sanitation Development For sanitation development in Indonesia, authority, role and function of each government level must be reviewed thoroughly. Until date, provincial government role is not yet optimum in the sanitation program management. On the other side, the existed provincial policy frame has not yet supported sanitation development. Provincial government can take the role of organizer of sanitation program development in the area. This is possible based on the criteria of governance, where the impact of sanitation program development in the area has interrelated impacts between kabupaten/kota and/or regional, or if sanitation program development in the related area will provide more benefit when it is managed by the provincial government. To clarify the above statement, provincial government role is to organize basic services in sanitation sector that have not been done by kabupaten/kota. In this case, sanitation can be seen as basic service that refers to PP No. 65 Year 2005 regarding Compilation Guidance and Application of Minimum Service Standard (Standar Pelayanan Minimal SPM). In section 3 of this regulation, it was regulated that SPM is established as tools of governments and local governments to guarantee access and quality of basic services to the community equally in implementation of obligatory matter. The role of provincial government in basic service of sanitation can be done in two ways, namely implementing sanitation development in the related kabupaten/kota or assigning local governments of kabupaten/kota based on assistance assignment. Furthermore, active role of the province is required to facilitate mechanism of sanitation development in the area or to synergize provincial and kabupaten/kota roles. This can be done by intensifying communication with kabupaten/kota regarding sanitation program development. The purpose is to establish requirement map of sanitation development in kabupaten/kota. Requirement map of sanitation development can be combined with commitment of the related kabupaten/kota, so that target allocation of provincial sanitation development can be more optimum. ISSDP Team

Simple toilets. Source: Dok/ISSDP

Percik August 2008

33

WA S P O L A R O U N D A B O U T

From Community Media To Social Marketing A Policy Communication Strategy


estibule of Kecamatan Pocowarno, one of Kecamatan in Kabupaten Kebumen, looks bright. For four days, 36 March 2008, a "Community Media Training for WSES Socialization" was held, facilitated by WSES Working Group Kabupaten Kebumen in cooperation with WASPOLA. The training was also held to prepare 16 kecamatan that will receive WSES aid in their villages. Accordingly with community based WSES theme, the training was held in the nearest environment of the community, because during the process, there will be plenty practices in the near vicinity. Direct community involvement receives positive support from Bupati Kebumen Rustriningsih. "Community potencies are required in the WSES development, thus the training needs to be followed up", she said. The training represents strategic steps to involve community, including the women to participate from the early phase of WSES development including socialization and establishment of agreements to be implemented by the community. In the training, community digs together the importance of participation of all parties in sustaining WSES; and the key is correct communication strategy to encourage everybody to be involved. Participants were asked to design communicative media from the result of issue mapping, collect data of media potencies that can be involved, and then select media that will be used. The media chosen were Dagelan (comedy) to be played in kecamatan, WSES service commercial in radio In FM, comics, poster and service commercial on TV. The script was then prepared, and rehearsal were made prior to production. Assisted by WASPOLA team and media team from Studio Audio Visual PUSKAT Yogyakarta, a short program was produced. Other than that, dagelan was played and media productions were also shown for consumption of community. Participants practice group media methods to build dynamic discussion and attract community discussion. From the training result, six kecamatan planned jointly socialization that will be done in each kecamatan using WSES media that they have made. While in FM radio and Mas FM radio and also Ratih TV will present production result to the public. This will be done in preparation of receiving WSES aid this year. Importance of WSES Working Group forum was also presented to be established in the kecamatan level so that activity integration and empowerment process will be enjoyed by the smallest level of

Participants of Community Media training for WSES socialization. Pic: Dok/WASPOLA

government in the community. Developing Community Concern to WSES On 19-21 February 2008, in Pangkal Pinang, training was also held as follow up of WSES Communication Strategy Workshop that produce Advocacy Strategy to Save Environment for Clean Water. The workshop was opened by Setda of Bangka Belitung Province, Imam Mardi Nugroho who stated that communication is the important key in WSES development. "This skill is often forgotten in physical-oriented WSES development that forgot behavioral changes", he said. Imam hopes the training will produce accurate strategy in order for the related parties to save environment of Bangka Belitung for the prosperity of the people. Clean water and environmental sanitation issues in Bangka Belitung are related with increasing copper mining without taking regards of environmental conservation causing quality and quantity degradation of the water. The people that lived in the vicinity has starting to feel the effect and experiencing health problems, thus environmental damage becomes the title of four production media they produced, among others are photo essay

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for the newspaper, articles, comics, service commercial in the radio and TV (video). Production themes that were done in local dialect were made by participants, from idea brainstorming, script writing, photo shoot, and acting. The memorable event, according to the participants was the visit to local media office which were Babel Post and Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) Bangka Belitung. Other than broaden their knowledge regarding the mass media, this visit was also meant to build good relation and cooperation with local mass media for WSES advocacy. RRI offered cooperation that will present benefit for both parties, because drinking water issue is recently becoming hot issue among the public. Babel Post is one of the media with concern to WSES problems. They are planning to write series articles of WSES in its editions; such also the case with video and comics that will be posted in Babel Post site in order to be seen by more people. Other important thing is initiation of advocacy forum for community who concern with WSES in Bangka Belitung. Thus, whatever that have been done in the workshop will be continued with synergy from all parties. Initiative to Involve Various WSES Stakeholders West Sumatera Province is one of the provinces with great tendency in socializing WSES in the area. Using APBD fund, WSES Working Group of West Sumatra Province initiate initiative to held workshop of WSES Marketing Strategy through Effective Communication Strategy by inviting kabupaten/kota either those who already started WSES program, or those who only begin to start WSES program. The workshop was held in Kota Padang, on 25-27 April 2008. This event that is also represents celebration of World Water Day and launch-

Bupati Kebumen Ratringsih in action. Source: Dok/WASPOLA

ing of Indonesia Sanitation Year 2008 was followed by talk show. It was revealed that WSES problems were not only physical problems; it was more behavior problems of various parties, not only community, but also government and other parties. The low level of participation and unsustainable management were caused by current socialization that was still using one way old models. On the other side, behavior from one generation to another is difficult to change. From the designed strategy, every sector has target audience that may be affected problems arise; among other are weak water manager institutions in the national level. Thus, short drama was made in the radio with key message "strong institution, healthy talago". While from solid waste group it was agreed that the target is household wives, maids and women group. There are two posters produced with the theme of improper solid waste disposal will cause disease and you violated your neighbor and your environment. Whereas from domestic liquid waste

group, it was agreed the target is the people living around the river and community in general. The theme taken was regarding pollution of the river that has been used as disposal place of solid waste and biological waste, causing unhealthy environment. The video was brief but hit the mark by showing what dirty river may do to the community settlements with the key words "your waste, your tiger, ready to threat your life". Production that was made by the participants was quite informative and carries local wisdoms that actually really close to the lives of Minang community. In the end of the workshop, participants from kabupaten/kota designed socialization event that can be done in their area using media they have created. While new kabupaten/kota will use the media to motivate establishment of WSES Working Group in their area. Group from the media will air the production to motivate public awareness not to pollute the water source and to maintain environment health. WH

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WES-UNICEF ROUNDABOUT

WES-UNICEF Program Lesson Learned in Government Capacity Building and Community Preparation
n the year 2006, cooperation decree between Government of Indonesia and UNICEF was agreed and set in Country Program Action Plan (CPAP). The cooperation was implemented in several sectors, among others is community based Water and Environmental Sanitation (WES) WES program was initiated in the year 2006 and ended in the year 2010 with the target of developing 180 villages, 500 elementary schools, and 70,000 people living in slum areas. In batch I (2006-2007), the program was implemented in NTT, NTB, Central Java, and Yogyakarta. WES program in Yogyakarta has been completed in the year 2007, while implementation for NTT, NTB, and Central Java, are continued in batch II. In batch II (2007-2010), with the support from the Dutch and Swedish Government (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency/SIDA), WES Program is expanded in 25 kabupatens, and 5 kota in 6 provinces of Papua, West Papua, Maluku, NTT, NTB, and South Sulawesi. In implementation of batch II, UNICEF together with National WSES Working Group coordinate the implementation of the WES Program. Learning from previous experience, in was agreed that focus of the WES Program is not only WSES facility development, but also on community behavior changes and capacity building of the local government. Past experience shows that WSES facility development without support of community behavior changes will cause minimum facili-

ty utilization even no utilization at all. Not Just Involving the Community Capacity building of the local government is initiated by establishment of WSES Working Groups at the provincial and kabupaten level of program location. It is expected that the established WSES Working Group will be able to coordinate various WSES-related activities, among others is WES. Through WES program, series of capacity buildings of local WSES Working Group is done by the technical assistance of National WSES Working Group, such as Training on Trainers (TOT), WSES Strategic Planning (Renstra), MPA/PHAST, Community Lead Total Sanitation (CLTS), health promotion health, school facilitation, and participative monitoring and evaluation. In term of community preparation, especially for behavior change, there are couple of things that were agreed to be implemented, namely importance of health campaign prior, during, and post construction. This is meant that along with step by step behavior change, clean water and sanitation facilities will be available for the community. Thus, the facility will be built accordingly with the need - not the wishes- of community. Furthermore, it is expected that sense of belonging of the facility will be considerably high. Community involvedness has two important meanings namely decision making and responsibility. Decision making is done because community is able to define the best choice to fulfill their need; whereas

responsibility is community commitment in taking all consequence of the choice. Government role will then becomes important in consorting the -starting to independent- community. Thus, government capacity needs to be strengthened in order to keep up with development of community empowerment. Phases of WES Program Implementation: A Process Due to the vast range of WES program control batch II, WSES Working Group and UNICEF is agree to compile a Project Implementation Document (PID) or guidance (petunjuk pelaksanaan - Juklak) of the program. The PID is agreed to be a "living" document and expected to be able to accommodate various learning results of program implementation in the field. Therefore, in the end of the program, PID that can be referred to as implementation guidance for other similar programs can be achieved. According to the outline, WES program implementation is divided into 6 phases, namely (i) Roadshow; (ii) institutional preparation; (iii) local government capacity building; (iv) choosing program location; (v) community preparation; and (vi) program implementation. Monitoring and evaluation activity is already integrated in each phase. WES program batch II is started with series of road shows to identify interested areas with commitment to implement the program. As mention above, in this batch, there are 25 kabupaten and 5 kota in 6 provinces. From series of road shows, several follow ups were agreed; submis-

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sion of commitment letters from each kabupaten/kota, recruitment of consorting consultant in the provincial level (Project Officer), establishment of local WES Working Group. These follow up actions that have been planned, in implementation are facing several problems, mainly related with PID compilation. PID experiences delay in development , thus causing different interpretation between one kabupaten/kota and another. Meanwhile, the activity is continued to be implemented based on local experiences in program implementation. This represents difficulty for National WSES Working Group and UNICEF in coordinating the activities. Despite difficulties if coordination, program implementation on the sixth provinces is still running accordingly with general program implementation. Until date, NTT province is the most advance province in term of implementation compare to the other five provinces. Most advance, not just in term of phases, but also in term of process. For example, process of choosing location of villages and school which this year is planned as pilot project locations, is completed through series of ideal process, which is through long list, road show on kabupaten level and location determination. This should be used as learning material for other provinces, not just because of the process, but also because of the impact by existence of big interest and commitment from the villages and school chosen. NTT is currently starting to prepare community work plan activity (rencana kerja masyarakat - RKM) compilation in the village level. NTT is expected to be able to complete the pilot project by early 2009. Provinces of Maluku and West Papua are currently in the institutional preparation and local government capacity building phase. Institutional preparation in Maluku and West Papua is completed by carrying out several TOTs as conditioned in implementing WES program or other similar program. Although local government capacity building in West Papua is seemingly limited in term of time and fund, but it is expected that capacity building process that has been completed can be well followed up. According to the information received by National WSES Working Group and UNICEF, chosen kabupaten in West Papua is currently compiling WSES Renstra. Provinces of South Sulawesi and NTB are basically completed the phase of institutional preparation, because most of selected kabupatens in both provinces are managed by WASPOLA. Two new kabupaten in South Sulawesi, which are kabupaten Luwu Utara and Barru, have also followed other kabupatens by establishing WSES Working Group in each kabupaten. Until date, both provinces still have not started the phase of local government capacity building due to several things, such as clarity of capacity building process and the next phase, and, especially for NTB, implementation focus is still completing batch I. While for Papua province, until date, activity implementation is still in the phase of institutional preparation. It is planned that in near date Papua province will implement local government capacity building process. Program Lesson Learned Based on the problems exist, WSES Working Group and UNICEF are trying to rearrange mechanism of program management through review meeting of WES Program that was held in June 2nd 2008. There are three main roots of the identified problems, namely (i) period of program implementation which is too short for community based program where emphasis on capacity building and community preparation are extremely important; (ii) matching understanding toward program implementation phases is essential; and (iii) fund allocation based on the need of each kabupaten/kota. Regarding the time, batch II implementation is expected to be completed by mid 2009. It was proposed that in the year 2008, selection for the rest of village targets to be implemented in the year 2009 have been completed, which are 4 villages supported by UNICEF and 2 replication villages by local government. This is meant so that the rest of the target villages can be completed in two years period, which is first year for local government capacity building and community preparation, and second year for WSES facility development. In order to achieve similar understanding on program implementation phases, PID socialization will be done in late June 2008 as well as socialization to all stakeholders. Furthermore, local commitment will be confirmed on completing program replication in the year 2009 by ensuring fund allocation for the replica in APBD of the year 2009. The learning gained so far is the need for basic understanding regarding community based concept in the WSES development. Sufficient time allocation is also important to ensure local government capacity building and community preparation to change behavior, represents possibility to guarantee avoidance of previous failures that were captured through hundreds even thousand WSES "monuments". This understanding is applied for all stakeholders. Another learning gained is the importance of similar understanding on program implementation phases, especially program with vast control range. Scattered program location in East Indonesia also represents other learning that requires attention. Geographic and cultural condition, as well as understanding community based concept in WSES development can still be considered as new paradigm, plus decentralization policy that requires special strategy in managing and coordinating the program. FW

Percik August 2008

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STBM ROUNDABOUT

Declaration of Free from Open defecation

ommunity-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) or adopted to Bahasa Indonesia as Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat (STBM), once again shows its success.

Toilet in every household represents condition achievement where no more individual disposing their biological waste improperly on open space. This time, eight villages in Kecamatan Tugu, Kabupaten Trenggalek declare their freedom from improper biogical waste disposal. On May 14th 2008, community and government official joint together at Tumpuk Village Hall (Balai Desa) to listen to declaration of Open Defecation Free/ODF. Eight villages in Kecamatan Tugu that have been freed from open defecation are the villages of Tumpuk, Winong, Puru, Gembleb, Ngulon Kulon, Wonokerto, Panggungsari, and Tegaren. As appreciation of Tumpuk village as the first village that achieves ODF, ODF declaration was done in Balai Desa Tumpuk. The event held by village community with fund assistance from the government represents reward for community effort to change behavior of open defecation into toilet utilization. Triggering Strategy with Acceleration Method STBM approach has been known generally as behavior changes approach through trigger method on the aspects of disgust, shame, dignity, and religious. Nevertheless, community being triggered does not always show behavior changes. Sometimes ignorant people are found. Therefore, in Kabupaten Trenggalek, triggering is not only completed once, but up to four times in every village. Through this acceleration method, input of APBD fund for STBM program of Rp. 150,641,500 in 5 months in the form of facilitation activities have produced output of toilet development fund by community with the amount of Rp. 1,528,500,000. Moreover, one proud thing from the STBM program in Kecamatan Tugu, Kabupaten Trenggalek is ODF coverage in eight villages, up to 20 communities from the targeted 30. Furthermore, there are four additional communities which initially do not show interest that have achieved ODF. Follow Up Plan STBM program in Kabupaten Trenggalek will not stop after freeing eight villages from open defecation. Kabupaten Trenggalek has vision to free the kabupaten from open defecation in the year 2009 and achieving Healthy Trenggalek by 2010. For that reason, Kabupaten Trenggalek has prepared training to train 29 new facilitators. Budget proposal for the next triggering process has been set in agenda of STBM program. Thus, target of all villages in Kabupaten Trenggalek received triggering by the end of December 2009 will be able to realized.
Condrorini Dyota
Source: Dyota Condrorini

National Counterpart Even after training and try outs, facilitators do not instantly become expert in triggering. Many mobilized facilitators still struggle with lack of confidence, thus requires counterpart/consorting activity. Not only to consort facilitators in triggering process, consorting activity also presented plenty benefits in achieving ODF. Through consorting activity, verification activity on community access to sanitation becomes easier. Moreover, consorting activity also took the role of bridging communication between kabupaten and central government.

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WAT S A N N E T W O R K R O U N D A B O U T

Community-Led Total Sanitation Workshop and Launching of Health and Hygiene Task Force

ommunity-Led Total Sanitation (Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat - STBM) is a movement toward clean and healthy lifestyle. There are five pillars in STBM movement, namely disposing biological waste in the toilet, washing hands with soap, household scale drinking water treatment, household scale waste water management, and household scale solid waste management. All fifth pillars have been completed by various parties; however, the implementation is not yet well coordinated. With regard to the issue, an STBM national strategy has been compiled that will become movement base for STBM executors. On this STBM workshop, STBM national strategy is socialized to the STBM stakeholders with the purpose of acquiring inputs from STBM executors. The workshop was initiated with a speech from Oswar Mungkasa who represented Bappenas Director of Housing and Settlement as the Head of WSES Working Group. Next, Director of Environmental Improvement (Penyehatan Lingkungan), Health Department legally opened the

Participants of Community-Led Total Sanitation (STBM) Workshop, Puncak 26-27 May 2008. Source: Dyota Condrorini

workshop. On this occasion, it was also launched one of WSES working groups, which is Health and Hygiene Task Force (Gugus Tugas Kesehatan dan Higienitas GTKH). This Task Force is under coordination of Directorate of Disease Control and Environmental Improvement (Direktorat Pengendalian Penyakit dan Penyehatan Lingkungan), Health Department.

After introducing Watsan Network and launching of GTKH, the workshop was continued with presentation of draft national strategy of STBM. Presentation was made by Water Improvement (Penyehatan Air) Kasubdit, Zainal Nampira. Brief presentation was followed by focus discussion as the next in agenda. In the draft of the STBM national strategy, it was stated that there are 6 strategic components, namely: (i) Creation of Conducive Environment, (ii) Increasing Demand, (iii) Increasing Supply, (iv) Knowledge Management, (v) Funding, and (vi) Monitoring and Evaluation. During the workshop it was also compiled STBM work plan for the year 2008. The work plan represents general work plan, which means that it's not only covers government's work plan, but also other stakeholder's such as NGOs or education institutions. Thus, coordination, cooperation and collaboration are expected to be established between stakeholders, in order to increase WSES profile in Indonesia. DYO/DHA

Meeting of Solid Waste Task Force

Government Regulation (PP) Priority Regarding Solid Waste Law (UU)

fter being launched last January during Solid Waste Workshop, Solid Waste Management Task Force (Gugus Tugas Pengelolaan Sampah - GTPS) held a meeting on May 9th 2008. The meeting that was held in ESP/USAID office was attended by representations of various institutions such as Dana Mitra Lingkungan (DML), Yayasan Perisai, IATPI, ISSDP, Mercy Corps, WSES Working Group, and ESP. The meeting discussed prioritization of government regulation with regard to

the Law No 18 Year 2008 on Solid Waste. Prioritization was done by assessing eleven government regulation plans and sorting based on ranking of most points. Prioritization criteria was compiled based on the impact on health and social condition quality of community, community economic growth, and quality of environmental support power and local institutional capacity by the scale of 1 to 5. Identification was followed by considerably long discussion which resulted in plan prioritization on eleven government

regulations regarding Solid Waste Law. Government regulation regarding the funding of solid waste management and community role in solid waste management received the highest point and first priority scale. The result of GTPS meeting, as a follow up, will be presented in form of recommendation to all decision makers in a special meeting that will be held in near date. This effort was done as one form of GTPS support in order to realize solidwaste-problems-free Indonesia. DHA

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WSES ROUNDABOUT

(1) Public Works Minister Djoko Kirmanto gave speech on World Water Day 2008. (2) Public Works Minister Djoko Kirmanto, Women Empowerment Minister, and several high rank officers are attending celebration of HAD 2008. (3) Solid Waste sorting competition between directorates of Public Works Department. (4) Ballad singer, Nugie, also celebrating HAD 2008. Source: Dini Haryati

Main Event of World Water Day 2008


M
ain event of World Water Day 2008 was held on Friday, May 16th 2008 at office yard of Public Works Department, Jl. Pattimura No 20-27, Kebayoran Baru, Jakarta Selatan. The event was started by report from Head of National Committee for World Water Day 2008 (Hari Air Dunia 2008 - HAD), Staf Ahli I Public Work Department Mochamad Amron. After the report, a speech from Women Empowerment Minister was presented followed by speech from Public Works Minister. In his speech, Djoko Kirmanto reminded everyone of the importance of sanitation in maintaining availability of clean water and sanitation problems that have become general problems, thus sectoral efforts are no longer applicable. Furthermore in his speech, he stated that local initiative is the motor of current sanitation development. Central Government only assists local governments who really willing to develop and maintain. After the speech, series of events related with Water Day were presented; among others was "Washing Hands with Soap" campaign by Eselon I Officer. With background song of hand washing with soap, in the campaign, the officers of eselon I consorted by students of SDI Al Azhar, Jakarta Selatan, were asked to show how to properly wash hands with soap. Furthermore, series of events such as competition regarding solid waste sorting between directorates of Public Works Department, comedy with the theme "Sanitation is the answer", and singing performance by Nugie were held. Nugie

performed songs with environmental theme. The event that was arranged quite attractively could at least leave message and warning for all of us that water source availability is currently degrading due to continuous pollution. This, off course, is up to us to maintain and fix. The benefit may not be felt directly by us, but more importantly, will be felt by our children and grandchildren. If we make the effort to provide proper sanitation now, the future of our country will be better with less pollution. DH

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WSES ROUNDABOUT

World Environmental Day


2008 has entered its 36th age since initiated the first time in the year 1972 through the UN conference. Celebration theme is different every year. In 2008, HLHS celebration was planned to be held at the capital of New Zealand, Wellington, with the theme of "CO2, Kick the Habit! Towards a Low Carbon Economy". New Zealand was chose because New Zealand is the first country that has promised to make the country free from carbon gas and has been very focus on forest management as tools to reduce green house effect. Celebration on June 5th 2008 was filled with various activities; among others are house to house presentation that World Environmental Day 2007 Environmental topic that year was "Melting Ice - A Hot Topic". That year, the celebration was focused on the content of climate changes that will trigger ice melting in the polar cleft. The city that became the host of HLHS celebration that World Environmental Day 2006 For the year 2006, the theme was "Don't Dessert Dryland". Shrinking number of desserts and dry lands are concerning. Unlike water and air that are relatively cleanable, soil damage requires thousand of years to be fixed. As additional information, 40 percent of earth's surface is covered by dry lands and desserts. Therefore, the celebration that was held in Algeria focused on the topic. Follow Up of HLHS Celebration: What and How our Current Environment? That is at least the issue taken for World Environmental Day for the last two years. Various issues were brought up accordingly with the booming topic at the time. Two years went by since celebration of World Environmental Day in the year 2006 with the theme of Don't Dessert Dry Lands. Fixing 40 percent of earth surface

orld

Environmental

Day

will be done by local environment organization to talk about topics around education, food, transportation, energy, and increasing public awareness. For 36 years celebrations of World Environment Day have used various themes that were usually adjusted with developing hot topic of the year. In order to understand how the previous year HLHS celebration was followed up, brief discussion is held regarding topics of HLHS celebration in the last two years.

year was Tromse, Norway, a city known as the gate to the North Pole. The big agenda is how to face everybody on environmental issue while at the same time making the world community as agents in realizing equal and sustainable development to change behavior to always hold principles of environmental conservation. The celebration was also celebrated by bicycle parade, "green" concert, competition of article writing and environmental posters that was held in schools, planting trees and recycle campaign.

(Hari Lingkungan Hidup Sedunia - HLHS) in the year

Kalpataru and Adipura Award


On the peak celebration of World Environmental Day 2008, Indonesia President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono awarded environmental preservation award to nine peoples from various provinces and three NGOs at Istana Negara, Jakarta, Thusday, June 5th 2008. Kalpataru was divided into four categories, namely environmental exponent, environmental servant, environmental rescuer, and environmental builder. For environmental exponent, it was awarded to Cukup Rudiyanto from Indramayu West Java, Sriyatun from Surabaya East Java, Abu Wenna from Wajo South Sulawesi, Theresia Mia Tobi from East Flores, NTT, and Abbas H Usman from Indragiri Hilir Riau. Environmental servant was awarded to Jadjit Bustami from Bondowoso East Java, Lalu Selamat from Dompu NTT, and Muthalib Ahmad from Banda Aceh NAD. Environmental rescuer was awarded to the people of Pekraman Buahan Village Bangli Bali Province, Argo Mulyo farmer group from Madiun East Java, and Bahtera Melayu NGO from Bengkalis Riau Province. Whereas environmental builder was awarded to Angerius Takalapeta from Alor NTT. Beside Kalpataru, Adipura award was also awarded. Metropolitan city category was awarded to Kota Palembang, Jakarta Selatan, Jakarta Barat, Surabaya, Jakarta Utara, and Jakarta Pusat. Big city category was awarded to Pekanbaru, Padang, and Batam. Medium city category was awarded to 28 cities and Small City category was awarded to 57 cities. According to the data from Environmental Ministry (Kementrian Lingkungan Hidup - KLH), since Kalpataru has been awarded to individual or groups who have fought for the sake of environment in the year 1980, at least 240 people and groups have received this award.

Percik August 2008

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WSES ROUNDABOUT
have not been done yet, it was worsen by green house effect and global warming. New problem arise: melting ice, and increasing water surface. Both problems triggered the same effect: fewer places to live for the world's inhabitants. Ice melting in the earth surface becomes the focus Day in 2007. World United Environmental world's resources. Not just fossil fuel such as natural oil, but also forest. Until date, the forest that is left is no more than 6 percent of the earth's surface, and represents home for 30 million species and provides 30 percent oxygen for the world. This year, Guiness world record book will put Indonesia as a country with highest level of forest destruction among countries with 90 percent of the world's forest. Greenpeace noted, every hour Indonesia destroys forest that is equal with 300 soccer fields. 72 percent of original forests in Indonesia have been destroyed and half of what is left is still under threat of fire, commercial logging, and forest opening for sawit coconut fields. Forest destruction is the real source of disaster. Oxygen that represents the most important element for human life is thinning. This fact is inversely proportion with the high level of green house emission that may potentially destroy the life. What are we waiting for? Let's start now. Start from small things. Such as proper disposal of solid waste or using less motor vehicles. Let's make World Environmental World 2008 as the entry point that will never ends to maintain the environment. Happy World Environmental Day.
Willy from several sources

Nations Environment Program (UNEP) took the theme of "Melting Ice, Beware!" Main celebration has been held at Tromso, Norway. As with air, water, and soil, ice also have important role in creating the environment in this planet. Ice, in the form of ocean, glacier, chunks, or snow reflects the sun. In the contrary, dark ocean surface and uncovered land surface are keeping the heat, and increase the earth's temperature. When the ice layer disappears, the earth will continue to store the sun's heat. The higher the temperature of the earth, more ice will melt, and this will trigger global warming. Increased temperature of the earth has been forecasted by many people. Increasing use of fuel since the birth of industrial world in every part of the world has triggered gas emission such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. This gas emission had increased temperature of the earth's surface, including ozone layer damage in the earth's atmosphere. Industrial world has run out all the

ince celebrated the first time in the year 1972, the topics are as follow: 2007 Melting Ice - a Hot Topic? 2006 Desserts and Desertification - Don't Dessert Drylands! 2005 Green Cities - Plan for the Planet! 2004 Wanted! Seas and Oceans - Dead or Alive? 2003 Water-Two Billion People are Dying for It! 2002 Give Earth a Chance 2001 Connect with the World Wide Web of Life 2000 The Environment Millennium - Time to Act 1999 Our Earth - Our Future - Just Save It! 1998 For Life on Earth - Save Our Seas 1997 For Life on Earth 1996 Our Earth, Our Habitat, Our Home 1995 We the Peoples: United for the Global Environment

1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974

One Earth One Family Poverty and the Environment Breaking the Vicious Circle Only One Earth, Care and Share Climate Change. Need for Global Partnership Children and the Environment Global Warming; Global Warning When People Put the Environment First, Development Will Last Environment and Shelter: More Than A Roof A Tree for Peace Youth: Population and the Environment Desertification Managing and Disposing Hazardous Waste: Acid Rain and Energy Ten Years After Stockholm (Renewal of Environmental Concerns) Ground Water; Toxic Chemicals in Human Food Chains A New Challenge for the New Decade: Development Without Destruction Only One Future for Our Children Development Without Destruction Development Without Destruction Ozone Layer Environmental Concern; Lands Loss and Soil Degradation Water: Vital Resource for Life Human Settlements Only One Earth

City of Wellington, New Zealand from above (Source: www.wikipedia.com)

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WSES ROUNDABOUT

Earth Day

2008

pril 22nd is a date in one year which most people do not realize. Maybe for environmentalists, the date is not so strange.

Since the year 1970, awareness to preserve environmental of

water, earth, and air, have been raised, including actions all over the world with one main objective of making the world healthy. "Earth Day". Yes, that's how they call it. It is hoped that in every celebration of Earth Day, the earth is not getting "sick" because what the inhabitants did. Earth Day is celebrated to remind us of our daily behavior to the world where we live in. Many bad things have been done to the earth, such as uncontrolled deforestation, usage of chemicals endangering the ozone, wasting energy source such as water and oil, and improper waste disposal. On that day, we are reminded of the negative impact of our actions to the planet that we called home. The most apparent impact is global warming. Global warming happened due to the green house effect. Concentration of green house gas is blocking sun radiation reflection from earth to the space, thus accumulation of hot radiation is trapped in the air causing excessive heat. Many ways can be done to reduce green house gas emission, among other is to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) level in the air. One of the ways is to use polluted-free vehicles as often as possible or use environmental-friendly and energy-safe vehicles. More important is behavior change of the earth inhabitants. Start to safe water, recycle solid waste, stop illegal logging, ensure efficiency of energy source (such as electricity and fuel) utilization, don't use chemicals that may harmed the ozone, and ensure proper waste disposal. History of the Earth Day It was initiated from the speech of Wisconsin Senator, Gaylord Nelson in the year 1969 in Seattle, USA. At the time, he proposed national appliance of teach in, additional lecture on hot controversial issues, especially environmental issues.
Source: Bowo Leksono

Nelson's idea acquired great supports from the civil community. This is the embryo of Earth Day, because a year latter, to be exact, on April 22nd 1970, million of people are parading on the street of Fifth Avenue, New York. No less than 1500 universities and 10 thousand schools participated in this demonstration in New York, Washington, and San Fransisco. Time magazine wrote around 20 million of people have flood the street that day, together launch the Earth Day and demanding to start a "green revolution". The first Earth Day celebration in the year 1970 was considered to be the peak of environmental movement of the 60's. From the first Earth Day movement phenomenon in USA, various environmental groups were born, among others are Environmental Action (in Washington, 1970), Greenpeace (environmental groups that is known to be radical and militant, born in 1971), Environmentalist for Full Employment (group that against industrialist, born in 1975), Worldwatch Institute (research and study center that collects various information regarding global environmental threats, 1975), and many others. This monumental movement, according to Nelson, who died on July 4th 2005 at the age of 89 years, is said to be "incredible weed root explosion". It was not surprising if Nelson is said to be Father of International Earth Day. And to date, every 22 April, countries all over the world are celebrating it.
MCH

Percik August 2008

43

WSES ROUNDABOUT

irst stone placement of pilot project of school toilet in order to increase school and environmental sanitation was focused in SDN Sepatan I Kabupaten Tangerang on Wednesday, May 7th 2008. Beside SDN Sepatan I, the pilot project was also done at SDN Sepatan IV and V, as well as SDN Kedaung I and III. Activity in order to celebrate One Hundred Years National Movement and International Sanitation Year 2008 (Seabad Kebangkitan Nasional dan Tahun Sanitasi Internasional 2008) was held by Solidaritas Istri Kabinet Indonesia Bersatu (SIKIB) through Green and Clean Indonesia Program in cooperation with the Public Works Department. Vice Tangerang Bupati, H. Rano Karno expressed his happiness as well as his shame. "This area is bolbon area (disposing biological waste in the field)", he said followed by laughter of hundreds of school community. However, Bung Rano, familiar nickname for the vice bupati who is also an actor, is confident that if we still have shameful feeling, then we are still being

First Stone Placement for School Toilet


tion in the school area. He and his staff will continue what the central government has done to the area. Inducement for Local Government Team from the central government comprises of SIKIB and Public Works Department. Present was Head of SIKIB, Murniati Widodo AS, Lis Djoko Kirmanto, Erna Budi Yuwono, and Erna Witoelar. Also present was Directorate General of Cipta Karya Ir. Budi Yuwono. Coordinator of SIKIB Green and Clean Indonesia Program Erna Witoelar said that they have chosen Sepatan because this area has high risk in cleanliness and cholera plague as well as dengue fever is often happened. "Here, awareness in sanitation is still low especially in schools," she said. Erna hopes that the aid for one unit toilet with the cost of Rp 150 million represents inducement for local government to continue toilet development in other schools. "Furthermore, what more important is that the toilet will be properly used and maintained," she said. BW

Head of SIKIB Murniati Widodo AS with Vice Tangerang Bupati H. Rano Karno is placing the first stone. Source: Bowo Leksono

responsible. "After your school toilet is built, I don't want to hear boys peeing under the tree," he said, again followed by laughter of hundreds of people. Bang Rano who represented Bupati Tangerang hopes that the aid for school toilet will give benefit to increase educa-

Dirty and Smelly School Toilet


inta who still studying in the second grade of SDN Sepatan IV, was blushed when asked where she disposed biological waste when she was in school. She answered that she had to go back to her house that located not far from the school. Different story told by Husni and his two seemingly close friends. Husni, third grade student of SDN Sepatan I and his buddies will run to the back part of the school whenever they wanted to defecate. "School toilets are dirty, smelly, and sometimes without water," said Husni.

The same condition caused him and the entire school community to feel uncomfortable in disposing their biological waste. Last, SDN Sepatan I doesn't even have toilet for both student and teacher. Students had to go to the back of the school, while the teachers had to go to PGRI office nearby. While SDN Sepakatan V, located in the same complex with SDN Sepatan I, have six toilets but they are not functioning because plugged and full. BW

Little doctors from SDN Sepatan I Tangerang. Source: Bowo Leksono

44 Percik 2008 August

WSES ROUNDABOUT

Training and Workshop of Strategic Plan (Renstra) Development of Kabupaten Barru


increase community role, and iii) promote clean and healthy living. In order to define strategic issue and policy, participants performed deep analysis on internal and external condition of WSES development. Identification and analysis of strength and weakness were done to find out internal condition, while external condition was reviewed by identifying and analysis of opportunity and threat. The analysis is known as SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat) analysis. The result among others can be seen in the table below. From SWOT analysis result, participants developed strategic issue, policy, and program. Four agreed strategic proEXTERNAL
WEAKNESS OPPORTUNITY T H R E AT

Source: Dok/WASPOLA

he important of synergizing WSES sector management and coordination is urgent to be done at Kabupaten Barru in order for the optimum goals of sustainable WSES can be achieved. This is revealed in workshop and training of Renstra compilation in Kabupaten Barru, South Sulawesi, that was held for 5 days, 14-18 April 2008, in Pare-Pare. WSES Renstra Workshop and Training was opened by Head of Bappeda Kamil R who stated that WSES activities require multi-parties involvedness and require umbrella of comprehensive and integrated planning. "SKPD Renstra is still sectoral, thus we need program Renstra, especially WSES," he said. The main purpose of the training is to provide WSES Working Group member of Kabupaten Barru with method of WSES Renstra development, analysis skill of WSES sector issues and at the same time skill to develop the WSES Renstra. Workshop and training that was held in participative method, representing dynamic education for adults, was facilitated by WASPOLA, program that was focused on policy and sector reform development in Indonesia. The workshop

and training itself represents cooperation between WSES Working Group of Kabupaten Barru , National level WSES Working Group and WES-Unicef.
INTERNAL
STRENGTH

Human resource availability Water resource potential availability Local government commitment in implementation of WSES program Conducive leadership climate

Low capacity of functional officers in managing sustainable WSES program Limited fund No local regulation for Community Based WSES sustainability Weak coordination in managing sustainable WSES program

Central Government policy regarding WSES Partnership opportunity with private and donor agencies Increasing demand of clean water Community support for sustainable WSES development

Conflict of interest in water source utilization Unsuccessful/unresponded WSES policies Unsustainable WSES facility Large amount of investment required to provide service for the increasing number of population Degrading drinking water service productivity

Result discussion of the participants during identification and analysis is that WSES problems are not only unfunctioning facilities, but also lack of coordination. Discussion result was then mapped into goal of WSES development in Kabupaten Barru. The result is formula of vision and mission. The vision is "availability of sustainable clean water and healthy environment in Kabupaten Barru by 2015," that will be realized through the mission of i) increase WSES service coverage, ii)

grams will be further developed in strategic actions. Strategic action will be referred to in program and activity compilation in related SKPD. In order to formulate and finalized the Renstra, it was agreed to establish formulation team coordinated by Bappeda. The members represent cross sectoral/institutional. Furthermore, in this workshop and training membership and structure of WSES Working Group of Kabupaten Barru were also formulated.
DHS

Percik August 2008

45

WSES ROUNDABOUT
STBM Training for Internship (KKN) Student Candidate of UGM
ted SKPD. To support the program, Banten Working Group has cooperated with Project Concern Indonesia (PCI), National level WSES Working Group, WASPOLA, and Tirtayasa University. The progress made Banten the partner of national level WSES Working Group in developing STBM. Currently, national level WSES Working Group helps to fund STBM development in Banten Province through funding scheme together with central, province, and kabupaten. Until date, training for community has been done on WSES management. The follow up effort that was planned by Banten WSES Working Group is cooperation with Danamon Peduli program, but it was focused more on urban solid waste management. The program will also be developed with participation pattern and STBM trigger. Field Visit After the meeting, a visit was made to Taktakan Village, Kecamatan Taktakan, approximately 30 minutes from the province capital, to see the result of STBM application. In this location, Sumbar Working Group is greeted by Camat Taktakan and engages dialogue with the community. Until date, ownership and access to toilets in Taktakan have increased since triggered by Tirtayasa University. Then, the number was only 20 percent. Community has also compile work plan to prepare STBM and free of open defecation. Acceleration of the action (free of open defecation) is done by cooperation with Puskesmas that willing to provide budget for midwife facilitator and sanitarian. Banten Working Group innovation receives attention of Sumbar Working Group. Banten strategy will be adopted and implemented in the work plan of Sumbar Working Group next year. It was planned that in 2009, Sumbar Working Group will develop STBM in 10 kabupatens. Visit to National Level WSES Working Group On this visit, Sumbar Working Group also planned meeting with National WSES Working Group and WASPOLA. The meeting discussed WSES program development in Sumbar Province, implementation strategy for the year 2009, National WSES Working Group support to the area and continuity of WASPOLA support in Sumatera Barat. The meeting was especially discussed follow up of WSLIC activity in Sumatera Barat post project. In near time, Sumbar Province will held workshop to discuss action plan of the province and WSLIC location. dhs/pur/syaf

raining of Community-led total sanitation (Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat - STBM) for KKN Student of UGM Yogyakarta and Waterplant Community was held on 25-27 April 2008 at LPPM Meeting Room of UGM. The training represents cooperation between WASPOLA, WSES Working Group of National level, and Waterplant Community of UGM. Waterplant Community is a community that focuses on community development sector in supporting achievement of sustainable development in the framework of water supply in the rural area. Material of the training includes direct field practice in the village. Cooperation with UGM is the second cooperation with university after Tirtayasa University Banten. STBM training in cooperation between national level WSES Working Group and various universities is planned in order to accelerate STBM implementation to achieve MDG's target for sanitation by the year 2015.

mong the activity of preparing the planning for local development 2009, WSES Working Group of Sumatra Barat Province will held cross learning to WSES Working Group of Banten Province on 24-25 April 2008. The visit was done to exchange information regarding WSES program implementation in both provinces, especially implementation of STBM. During the visit STBM development strategy and implementation of Banten Province was discussed. In Banten, STBM in expansion phase is involving kabupaten Working Group, NGO, universities and school. Program design was prepared by Banten Working Group, while implementation was done by rela-

Cross Learning Sumbar Working Group to Banten Working Group

Visit of Sumbar WSES Working Group in National level WSES Working Group Secretariat. Source: Exclusive

The training will continue and reach broader objective group. Field executor and the design were fully developed by WSES Working Group Banten. To maintain and accelerate STBM implementation, Banten WSES Working Group also targeted community member and institution that can be initiator. The initiator will be trained and shaped as the agent of sanitation behavior changes in the community level. Banten WSES Working Group is actively produces leaflets, brochure, and other communication tools for STBM. Some schools use BOS fund to produce leaflets that are suitable for school children, as campaign tools of behavior changes into clean and healthy living since early stage, including washing hands with soap (CTPS).

46

Percik August 2008

PROGRAM

SToPS
Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing
otal Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing (TSSM) or SToPS is the first program in Indonesia that translates in vast scale the new strategy of Government of Indonesia regarding community based sanitation. SToPS program is a partnership program between Government of Indonesia (GoI), Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), and Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The fund of US$ 1.9 million from Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation were used to develop the approach comprehensively. Learning from CLTS or sanitation marketing experience, GoI has decided to implement SToPS program in all 29 kabupaten of East Java Province during the period of 2007-2009. This was done as the effort of increasing access to sanitation in safe and healthy manner, as well as quick and sustainable hygienic behavior. What can kabupaten done to acquire benefit from SToPS Program? Kabupaten may implement existing sanitation programs with SToPS program approach. Eliminating subsidized fund of family toilet development and channeled it to alternative program such as reward for community for achieving collective behavior change, held inter-village and inter-kecamatan competition in achieving the status of open defecation, developing local sanitation market, and promote hygienic behavior, demand creation, etc. Adopt and develop SToPS approach in broader area, considering that the program is only available in limited time and area. Establish kabupaten working team. Benefit for Kabupaten that Participating in SToPS Program The participating Kabupaten in SToPS Program will receive technical assistance to: Strengthen political commitment for scale up effort among local leaders, such as Bupati, DPRD/politician/political party, leaders of community organization, NGO leaders, camat, local media, etc. Build institutional capacity and implementation support

A toilet beside the house located above the fish pond. Source: Bowo Leksono

for local government (Health Agency, Bappeda, and related partner institution) to manage demand creation, increasing supply, and monitoring implementation and the achievement. What does SToPS Program want to Achieve in Indonesia? It is expected that by the year 2009 (the end of program), SToPS Program will: Increase number of community with access to safe and hygiene sanitation facility at least to 1.4 million people in East Java. Gain learning regarding sustainable approach application in broader scale in Indonesia, in the effort to achieve MDG target for rural sanitation before or by the year 2015. Develop learning contribution on global understanding that enable replication of the approach in 5-15 other countries, as well as increasing access to safe and hygienic sanitation for over 250 million people by the year 2015. BW

Percik August 2008

47

I AT P I C L I N I C
Percik Magazine in cooperation with Ikatan Ahli Teknik Penyehatan Lingkungan Indonesia, opens Clinic column. This column contains questions and answers regarding clean water and environmental sanitation.
Questions can be submitted through editors of Percik Magazine Contributor: Sandhi Eko Bramono (Sandhieb@yahoo.com), Lina Damayanti (Ldamayanti@yahoo.com)

tor to produce methane gas that I have been using to produce electricity for internal installation. The produced gas is initially very high, however, after about one year, gas production tends to decreased. When solid waste is treated in the reactor (around 20 days), I found color change from food waste that was normally blackish in the reactor, and currently become grayish. For your information, to maintain pH, I'm using natrium bicarbonate. What should I do to increase performance of my reactor? Did I put too much concentration of natrium bicarbonate?
(Sukamto, Jakarta)

Methane Gas Reactor


have tried to treat waste from food industry (leftover) in anaerobic reac-

process, where the waste will have blackish color. In order to achieve that, it's a good idea to mix strong base as neutralizer (such as natrium hydroxide), mixed

Answer Mercury exclusion is generally done using adsorption process. Using active carbon may reduce mercury concentration over 90 percent. Adsorption unit can be installed in the end part of operational unit after filtration process using Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). In IPA, sometimes GAC utilization can be attached to quick sand filtration. This will reduce area requirement. However difficulty will be faced in regenerating GAC because GAC cannot be cleaned by common filter cleansing, because the mechanism is not common straining like sand

Waste Water Management Pond (PD PAL Jaya) in Setiabudi area, Jakarta. Source: Bowo Leksono

media, but adsorption mechanism, where special and exclusive regeneration is required. Modification of coagulation

natrium bicarbonate. This will reduce accumulation of natrium compound, because natrium hydroxide requirement is less than natrium bicarbonate. To fix performance of your reactor, it is advised to clean approximately half of the waste volume in the reactor, to be followed by system stabilization and use natrium hydroxide plus a little natrium bicarbonate to maintain pH.

process using coagulant in excessive amount (enhanced coagulation) can exclude mercury, although the performance will not be as high as adsorption process. Enhanced coagulation (can be up to 120 mg/l, where common coagulation usually require only 40-50 mg/l) will coagulate particle along with mercury in coagulation process which eventually will bond mercury with floc, become thicker floc, until finally deposited on sedimentation unit. Microfloc containing undeposited mercury on sedimentation unit will be flowed and filtered in quick sand filter.
* Contributor is doctoral program student At Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore. Contact: sandhieb@yahoo.com

Answer Utilization of natrium bicarbonate to maintain pH is normally done in installation with large capacity to regulate pH on optimum pH for anaerobic process, which is 7,0-7,2. It is very possible that natrium compound is accumulated in the reactor, due to large quantity of natrium bicarbonate in the reactor. Natrium concentration above 3,5-5,5 gr/l can be toxic for methanogen microorganism/bacteria. Color change in the reactor indicated that anaerobic process is no longer perfect. The color was caused by failure of sulphate reduction process into sulfur, which should mark the anaerobic

Water Treatment Installation


In Water Treatment Installation (Instalasi Pengolah Air - IPA), how to modify process unit or operational unit to produce mercury compound (Hg)?
(Tatang, Bandung)

48 Percik 2008 August

CD INFO

MDGs Documenter Movie

pproaching half way to achievement deadline of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2015, achievement performance of Indonesia can not be proud of. It was obvious that Indonesia's challenge of achieving target 10 in objective number 7 which is to reduce by half, in 2015, of population proportion without access to basic clean water and sanitation represents a heavy task. One of the main challenges is lack of understanding of decision makers, especially in local level regarding MDGs. Therefore, it is important to explain MDG in a documenter movie with the title of "Toward Indonesia 2015". The content is packed briefly and easy to be understood. Furthermore, as assistance tool, the documenter movie is completed with booklet as written

explanation. The movie that represents cooperation between Bappenas and Plan Indonesia is part of the effort to spread information regarding MDGs. The movie focus on achievement reality of objective number seven of the MDGs especially in achieving access to basic clean water and sanitation. The movie with 20 minutes duration is completed with data in the form of achievement tables of all eight objectives. Moreover, speech from ex MDGs' Ambassador for Asia Pacific Erna Witoelar and interview with Bupati Boalemo Iwan Bokings responding to MDGs can also be found in this movie. The movie is available at WSES Working Group library, jl. Cianjur No 4 Menteng, Central Jakarta. BW

Documenter Movie "Sang Pawang Air" (the Water Tamer)

"S

ang Pawang Air", documenter movie from Purbalingga, Central Java is presenting water problem faced by the community. Community initiation in overcoming their problems collectively is an interesting depiction in the movie with 18 minutes duration. Technically, according evaluation from the jury, the movie directed by Bowo Leksono is well performed that leads the movie as the second winner in the Documentary Movie Competition 2008 with the theme "Human and Water" held by FORKAMI. Mujamil, the Pawang Air (Water Tamer), is not an engineer or professor. He is just a religious teacher in an Elementary School and Junior High School in Baseh Village, Kecamatan Karanglewas, Kabupaten Banyumas. However, his concern to the community is able to encourage him to create clean water division tool.

At first, in Baseh Village, water struggling between people in the community is often occurred. Reservoir and water pipes are not excluded from community vandalism. This is the background for Mujamil to create a tool of water division in order to ensure justice between people in the community in clean water consumption. The tool that at first is opposed by Local Government was based on correlated canister technique. Government legality became less important because of the more urgent needs of the community regarding the clean water. After utilization of the water division tool, not only water provision problems that are solved, but also fair and equal division. No wonder Mujamil is called the water tamer. DVD of this documentary movie is available at WSES Working Group Library. BW

Percik August 2008

49

BOOK INFO

Depiction of WSES Development in Indonesia


WSES development best practices as an experience. Location and activity selection was not done by firm criteria, but more from "mouth to mouth", which is followed by field visit. The book frame which first edition was issued on April 2008 consists of three parts and divided into eight chapters. First part represents brief pictures of WSES condition in Indonesia, second part reveal WSES learning with focus on lessons learned from the field visits which then written completely in the attachment. The closure part represents summary from the overall learning. While in the attachment, we can see reports of the field visits from each location completed with sources list along with their address. The book that is available in WSES Working Group library,

other similar books have been issued; however, the 163 pages book is a little different. What is the difference? The difference is in the frame and documentary process of

he book reviewed lessons learned and best practices regarding WSES development in Indonesia. It is true, that many

Jl. Cianjur No. 4 Menteng, Central Jakarta, represents part of cooperation between Bappenas and Plan Indonesia. One of the main objectives of the cooperation is knowledge management and resource center of WSES. At least, this book will add more reference in WSES sector.
BW

MDGs Booklet
which suppose to be achieved by the year 2015. MDGs are quantitative and scheduled target in the effort of overcoming global poverty and other poverty dimension such as hunger, disease, basic infrastructure provision (housing and settlement) and promoting gender and education equality, as well as sustainable environment. MDGs also represent the effort of fulfilling human right such as included in the UN Millennium Declaration. The eight MDGs objectives are: fighting poverty and extreme hunger, realizing basic education for all, encouraging gender equality and women empowerment, reduce mortality number of the children, increase health of the mother, fight HIV and AIDS, malaria, and other diseases, ensuring environmental preservation, and developing global partnership for the development. The explanation in this booklet is focused on the seventh objective, which is ensuring environmental preservation which also includes target to reduce half of population proportion without sustainable access to safe clean water and basic sanitation by the year 2015. BW

his simple booklet of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was made in order to provide written explanation for MDGs documentary movie that was issued under cooperation between Bappenas and Plan Indonesia. The booklet contains eight MDGs objectives with 18 targets and 40 indicators,

50

Percik August 2008

WEBSITE INFO
The site that was developed since the year 1992 is initiated by the need of a media as information sharing and experience regarding clean water provision in the rural. That is why the members came from multidiscipline such as government institutions, multilateral organization, donor agencies, NGO, and private companies. Information exchange between stakeholders is vital in synergizing the effort of achieving MDGs targets. Since the early stage, RWSN has set its important agenda which is clean water and sanitation provision for poor community through proper and sustainable technology that is affordable and able to answer the need of low income community.

Freshwater Action Network (FAN)


http://freshwateraction.net
Freshwater Action Network (FAN) is a networking site that was legalized through the World Drinking Water Forum, March 2000. The main purpose of the site is to ensure that all community institutions or NGOs of drinking water and sanitation sectors can speak up their aspiration, especially in forums of policy decision of drinking water and sanitation at the international level. In order to achieve the purpose, through this site FAN invites all NGOs of clean water and sanitation to be active members. The benefit is that FAN will provide latest information in form of bulletin and newsletter regarding policy of drinking water and sanitation. Moreover, FAN can also provide training and advocacy for all members. FAN membership is open for all NGO with concern toward clean water and sanitation. FAN currently has 400 members from all over the world, including several NGO from Indonesia.

and nutrient. Various brief articles regarding various health and disease issues can enhance our knowledge. There is "Water and Us" column that provides information regarding clean water for our needs. Furthermore, information regarding environment is also completed the site.

DIMSUM
http://dimsum.its.ac.id
Dimsum is a research institution in the sector of clean water and sanitation in the river area. Work area of this institution is developing countries such as Nepal, Malaysia, India, and Indonesia. In Indonesia, Dimsum is working together with Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology -ITS) with work area of river area. Dimsum Indonesia has its own site that also connects with the site of Dimsum International and other site relating with clean water and sanitation. Various information regarding WSES program can be accessed in this site. WL/BW

RWSN (Rural Water Sanitation Networking)


http://www.rwsn.ch/
RWSN (Rural Water Sanitation Networking) is a global site that contains information regarding clean water provision practice in the rural area.

Until date, there are 500 members of individual and institutions, among others are WSP, UNICEF, WaterAid, Water and Forestry Department of South Africa, IRC (Dutch), etc. RWSN currently has several tools as media of knowledge and information exchanges, which are newsletter, interactive site, e-conference, meeting, training, and direct field visit. Up to the year 1992-2005 clean water provision for poor community has been done in countries such as India, Pakistan, South Africa, and several other countries.

Healthy Family
http://keluargasehat.com
Keluarga Sehat site is a site that provides latest information regarding health

Percik August 2008

51

WSES Publications G U I D A N C E
BIKIN PUPUK YUK... Publisher: Self Development Club SMA Semen Gresik, June 2007 DRAFT OF STRATEGIC PLAN OF WSES-CB KABUPATEN CILACAP 2008-2012 Publisher: Government of Kabupaten Cilacap, 2007

INTEGRATED NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Publisher: Yayasan Kemitraan Air Indonesia (KAI), Jakarta, Oktober 2007 EXPERIENCE OF CLEAN WATER FACILITY DEVELOPMENT: STUDY CASE PROAIR IN PRABAIKUL AND TARAMANU VILLAGE, WEST SUMBA Publisher: NTT, Mitra Samya - ProAir GTZ Sumba Barat NTT, June 2007

R E G U L A T I O N
REGULATION OF PUBLIC WORK MINISTER NO 21/PRT/M/2006 ON NATIONAL STRATEGY AND POLICY OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LAW OF REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA NO 26 YEAR 2007 ON SPATIAL PLAN REGULATION OF BUPATI SOLOK NO 48 YEAR 2006 ON STRATEGIC PLAN OF DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF WSES-CB YEAR 2005-2015

MAGAZINE
PERCIK Edition 20, October 2007 (English Version) PERCIK Edition 22, March 2008 Newsletter WSLIC-2 Edition 11, 2007 Newsletter WSLIC-2 Edition 12, 2007 Newsletter AMPL Edition March, 2008 Newsletter AMPL Edition April, 2008 Tekno Limbah Edition 7, 2008 Greeners Edition 02, February 2008 ESP News Edition 25, February 2008 Kiprah Edition 26, March 2008 Air Minum Edition 151, April 2008

B O O K
PLUMBER ROMANCE Publisher: Drinking Water Magazine Perpamsi, Jakarta, 2005 WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES: POTENTIAL, DEGRADATION, AND FUTURE Publisher: LIPI Press, Jakarta, 2007 RIVER BASIN MANAGEMENT FROM ACADEMIC DISCOURSE TO FIELD PRACTICE Publisher: LIPI Press, Jakarta, 2007 CLEAN WATER AND SANITATION ACTIVITIES FOR LOW INCOME COMMUNITY Publisher: Directorate General of Environmental Health and Disease Control, Health Department, 2005 WORKING TIPS OF SANITATION IN THE SLUMP AREA: SUMMARY OF SANITATION STUDY RESULT OF LOW INCOME COMMUNITY IN THE URBAN AREA Publisher: Bappenas - Depdagri - Depkes - Dep.PU - Dep. Perindustrian - KLH - WSP-EAP, Jakarta, November 2007

C D
WATER PLANT COMMUNITY: WATER FOR PEOPLE Publisher: LPPM UGM - Public Work Department, Yogyakarta, 2008 INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON CONSULTATIONS AND STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS IN THE WATER AND SANITATION SECTOR Publisher: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) - PPIAF, 2008

52 Percik 2008 August

AGENDA
NO. T I M E
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 3 April 2008 7 April 2008 7 April 2008 8 April 2008 10-11 April 2008 11 April 2008 12 April 2008 14-19 April 2008 17 April 2008 18-20 April 2008 21-26 April 2008 21-23 April 2008 24 April 2008 24 April 2008 27-30 April 2008 5-9 May 2008 6-9 May 2008 9 May 2008 13 May 2008 13-16 May 2008 15 May 2008 15 May 2008 16 May 2008 19-23 May 2008 5-19 May 2008 21 May 2008 22-23 May 2008 26-27 May 2008 27-30 May 2008 27 May 2008 28 May 2008 29 May 2008 2 June 2008 5-8 June 2008 7 June 2008 9-12 June 2008 12 June 2008

A C

Coordination Meeting of Steering Committe and Operational Chief, held in Jakarta by Watsan Network. Workshop "Protecting Health from Impact of Climate Changes", held in Jakarta by Health Department Socialization of WSES-CB Policies and WES Program Kabupaten Belu, held in Atambua by Government of Kabupaten Belu and UNICEF Wrap-up Meeting Project WSLIC-2, held in Jakarta by Health Department Workshop "Future of Clean Water Sector Development and Resistance Anticipation on the Impact of Global Climate Changes" held in Jakarta by PERPAMSI Seminar of Civil & Environmental Engineering Faculties of ITB & Stakeholders "Toward Increasing Quality of Human Resources", held in Bandung by cooperation of ITB with the Public Work Department. Launching of Hand Washing with the Soap and Sanimas in celebration of World Water Day 2008, held in Kota Tangerang, Banten by Public Work Department Training and workshop of WSES-CB Strategic Plan Compilation of Kabupaten Barru Workshop of National Asset Management Program Assessment (NAMPA), held in Jakarta by WASPOLA and WSES Working Group Jakarta Go Green Festival, held in East Parking area of Senayan by Green Initiative Forum (GIF) Training and workshop of WSES-CB Strategic Plan Compilation of Luwu Utara district, held in South Sulawesi by Government of Luwu Utara district and UNICEF Field Visit of Delegation of Timor Leste Democratic Republic to Muara Enim and Sepatan WSES Meeting and Discussion with Delegation of Timor Leste Democratic Republic, held in Jakarta by Bappenas Seminar of Sustainable Cities Challenges for Indonesian and Sweden, held in Jakarta by Swedish Embassy and Environment Ministry Review Workshop of Learning of Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing (TSSM) Program, held in Surabaya by cooperation of Government of Indonesia and WSP-EAP of the World Bank and Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Training and workshop of WSES-CB Strategic Plan Compilation of West Papua Province, held in Sorong by WSES Working Group of West Papua Province and UNICEF Meeting of National Development Planning (Musrenbangnas) held in Jakarta by Bappenas Discussion of Solid Waste Management Law: Prioritization of Government Regulation, held in Jakarta by Solid Waste Management Task Force Workshop Kick Off ISSDP 2, held in Jakarta by Bappenas Training and workshop of WSES-CB Strategic Plan Compilation of NTT Province, held by UNICEF Roadshow WSES Working Group in the Framework of Socialization of WSES-CB National Policy, held in Kota Serang by Government of Kota Serang Forkami Discussion Forum "The Need of Underground Water Conservation to Decrease Volume Reduction of Underground Water", held in Jakarta by Forkami Main Event of XVI World Water Day year 2008, held in Jakarta by Public Work Department Training and workshop of WSES-CB Strategic Plan Compilation of Maluku Province, held in Ambon by UNICEF Training and workshop of WSES-CB Strategic Plan Compilation of West Papua, held in Sorong by UNICEF Workshop of Achieving Millennium Development Goals, held in Jakarta by Bappenas Coordination Meeting of WSES Program and Launching of Sanitation Year for NTB Province, held in Lombok, Mataram, by WSES Working Group of NTB Province Workshop of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Launching of Health and Hygiene, held in Puncak, Bogor, by cooperation of Watsan Network and Health Department Training and Workshop of Clean Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, held in Ambon by UNICEF Meeting of TIM Kota and Evaluation of HPE/Lestari Project Activity - Mercy Corps, held in Jakarta by Mercy Corps Discussion Study on Economic Impacts of Sanitation, held in Jakarta by Technical Team of Sanitation Development Launching of International Sanitation Year Central Java Province, held in Kabupaten Kendal by WSES Working Group of Central Java Province Mid Term Review (MTR) Program Meeting of WES-UNICEF, held in Jakarta by National WSES Working Group Indonesia Environmental Week, held in Jakarta by Environmental Ministry Workshop of Solid Waste Management Accordingly with Law No 18 Year 2008, held in Jakarta by Environmental Ministry Socialization of Clean Water Management Manual and Environmental Improvement, held in Banding by Directorate General of Rural Community Empowerment, Domestic Department Media Panel Discussion and Campaign of Environmental Improvement, held in Jakarta by Watsan Network