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2.1 Circuit Structure

The TTL Inverter

The circuit diagram of the Transistor Transistor Logic inverter is shown in Figure 2.1. This circuit overcomes the limitations of the single transistor inverter circuit. (i) An input transistor, T1, which performs a current steering function, can be thought of as a back-to-back diode arrangement. VCC

RB T1

RB

Figure 2.2 Equivalent of Input Current-Steering Transistor The transistor can operate in either forward or reverse mode to steer current to or from T2 . Since it has a forward current gain, it provides a higher discharge current to discharge the base of T2 when turning it off. (ii) The output transistor pair, T3 and T4 referred to as a totem-pole output, provides the ability to actively source or sink current and is useful for driving capacitive loads. Resistor, R 3 , serves to limit current. Under steady-state conditions, only one transistor is ON at a time.

T4 OFF

RL T4 ON

T3 ON

T3 OFF

RL

Figure 2.3 Output Current Driving Transistors

130 1.6k 4k

R3

RB

R1 T4

Input

T1

T2
T3

Output

Vi

1k

R2

VO

VO
4

T1 SAT T2 OFF T3 OFF T4 ON C

VOH MIN
(2.86V)

T1 SAT T2 ON T3 OFF T4 ON T1 SAT T2 ON T3 ON T4 ONOFF

T1 SATREV ON T2 SAT T3 SAT T4 OFF E

VOL MAX
(0.2V)

D
0

Vi

0.5V

VIL MAX
(1.2V)

VIH MIN
(1.4V)

Figure 2.1 Schematic Diagram and Transfer Characteristic of a Standard TTL Inverter

(iii)

The diode, D, serves to increase the effective VBE of T4 which allows T4 to be turned OFF before T3 turns ON fully. This prevents large surge currents from flowing when both transistors conduct during transitions between logic states. The disadvantage is that the high logic voltage is reduced by an amount of the diode drop as shown in Figure 2.4.

T4

T3

VO

Figure 2.4 Use of Diode in Totem-Pole Output

(iv) Finally, T2 is a phase splitter driving transistor to drive the output stage. It allows the logic condition to be phase-splitted in opposite directions so that the output transistors can be driven in anti-phase. This allows T3 to be ON when T4 is OFF and vice versa as shown in Figure 2.5.

RC VO1

Vi = LO T2 OFF VO1 = HI VO 2 = LO Vi = HI T2 ON VO1 = LO VO 2 = HI

T2
VO2

RE

Figure 2.5 The Phase Splitting Stage

2.2 Logical Operation

The logical functioning of the circuit can be established by determining the state of conduction of each transistor in turn from input to output for all possible combinations of input states. Transistors can be taken as either ON or OFF. Note that the input transistor, T1, may conduct in either forward or reverse mode. Drawing up a table of conduction states accordingly with reference to Figure 2.1 gives: INPUT LO HI T1 ONfor ONrev T2 OFF ON T3 OFF ON T4 ON OFF D ON OFF OUPUT HI LO

LO in - HI out and HI in - LO out

This is inverter action

2.3 Transfer Characteristic

The transfer characteristic can be deduced by applying a slowly increasing input voltage and determining the sequence of events which takes place with regard to changes in the states of conduction of each transistor and the critical points at which the onset of these changes occur. Consider the circuit and transfer characteristic of Figure 2.1.

Point A

With the input LO and the base current supplied to T1, this transistor can conduct in the forward mode. Since the only source of collector current is the leakage of T2 then T1 is driven into saturation. This ensures that T2 is OFF which, in turn, means that T3 is OFF. While there is no load present, there are leakage currents flowing in the output stage which allow the transistor T4 and the diode D to be barely conducting at cut-in.

VO = VCC VBE 4

CUT IN

VD

CUT IN

VO = 5 0.6 0.4 = 4V Point A : Vi = 0V, VO = 4V


4

Point B

As the input voltage is slowly increased, the above condition prevails until, with T1 ON in saturation, the voltage at the base of T2 rises to the point of conduction. Then

Vi = VBE 2

CUT IN

VCE 1

SAT

= 0.6 0.1 = 0.5V

Point B : Vi = 0.5V VO = 4V
Point C

As the input voltage is further increased, T2 becomes more conducting, turning fully ON. Base current to T2 is supplied by the forward biased base-collector junction of T1 which is still in saturation. Eventually, T3 reaches the point of conduction. This happens when

Vi = VBE 2

ON

+ VBE 3

CUT IN

VCE 1

SAT

Vi = 0.7 + 0.6 0.1 = 1.2V


Note that with transistor T3 at cut-in, VBE 3 = 0.6V which means that the current through R2 is 0.6V/1k = 0.6mA. With operation in the linear active region, the collector current in T2 is

F I E2 0.97 0.6 = 0.58mA.


The voltage drop across R1 is then VR1 = 0.58mA 1.6 k = 0.94V. Under this condition the voltage drop across T2 is:

VCE 2 = VCC VR VR
1

VCE 2 = 5 0.94 0.6 = 3.46V


This confirms that T2 is still operating in the forward active mode. With T3 beginning to conduct there is a conduction path for current through T4 and the diode, D, which then turns fully ON. In this case:

VO = VCC VR VBE 4 ON VD ON
1

VO = 5 0.94 0.7 0.5 = 2.86V Point C : Vi = 1.2V VO = 2.86V


5

Point D

As the input voltage is further increased, T2 conducts more heavily, eventually saturating. T3 also conducts more heavily and eventually reaches the point of saturation also. As T2 becomes more conducting, its collector current increases. This in turn increases the voltage drop across R1 which in turn means that the voltage across T2 i.e. VCE2 drops. This falls below the requirement for conduction in T4 and the diode, D, so that both of these turn OFF prior to the saturation of T3. When T3 reaches the edge of saturation:

Vi = VBE 2

SAT

+ VBE 3 VCE 1
ON

SAT

Vi = 0.8 + 0.7 0.1 = 1.4V VO = VCE 3


SAT

0.2V VO = 0.2V

Point D : Vi = 1.4V,

2.4

Noise Margins

Using points C and D on the transfer characteristic in Figure 3.1 to identify the critical points, we have

ViL MAX = 1.2V ViH MIN = 1.4V

VOL MAX = 0.2V VOH MIN = 2.8V

NM L = 1.0V NM H = 1.4V

The manufacturers specification guarantees

ViL MAX = 0.8V ViH MIN = 2.0V

VOL MAX = 0.4V VOH MIN = 2.4V

NM L = 0.4V NM H = 0.4V