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Applied Mathematics and Mechanics (English Edition, Vol.5, No.l, Jan.


Published by HUST Press, Wuhan, China










Chen Yen-hang (~I~.)

(University of Science and Technology of China).
(Received Feb~ 18, 1981)


In the present paper, a finite element mixed variational functional and the iterative equations of the eccentric orthogonal stiffened plates are developed in accordance with nonlinear elasticityo By using an important technique the coupling coefficients of the two-dimensional coupling matrix are resolved into the known input data in the p r o g r a ~ i n g which is a three-dimensional coefficient matrix~ The nonlinear equations are transformed into the instantaneous linear equations; and by using the conjugate gradient method the linear equations are solved. As a result, therefore, the calculation is enormously simplified, the precis sion manifested, and a satisfactory result obtained.

X, Y,Z
X, U, Z

= global coordinates for a stiffened plate


IQcal coordinates for a plate element


= the middle surface, the total number and tickness of the plate element, respectively

4w}, F, ~,

total trial function, t h e A i r y stress function, and lateral displacement function for a plate element, respectively and nodal displacements of the plate element, respectively

= column vectors of total variables, nodal generalized forces


deformation matrix for the plate elements


= nodal bending and torsional moments of the plate element for nodal point

Gm.,~.,.f.~, = bending stresses of the plate elements Ub.,~by,T~.y = membrane stresses of the plate elements


= modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio and shear modulus

~, 8a = web thickness and transverse area of the b e a m element

B,BI.B2= total number of beam elements, number of the beam elements in x -direction and in ~ -direction, respectively
~,I, = moment of inertia in zox-plane and in roy-plane for the beam element Communicated by Chien Wei-zang.


Chen Yen-hang
= square matrix of material constant and flexibility matrix for the plate

[DG,], [DG,] = nonlinear coupling core matrix [KF],[Kw].[ICo, ] and

[Kg,] = total flexibility matrix, total stiffness matrix, and total coupling matrix for a plate, respectively = total flexibility matrix, total stiffness matrix, and total coupling matrix for the beam, respectively

[KoF], [Kow],[Eoo,]and


[K,o]. [Kom] = total linear coupling matrix of the eccentric beam elements in x -direction and in y -direction, respectively [K], [H] = total linear stiffness-flexibility matrix, and total nonlinear coupling matrix of a stiffened plate, respectively [Q],[Qw],[Q~] = column vectors of total load, lateral load, midplane sidplacements, respectively q, qF, qw m = column vectors of total variables, total generalized forces, and total displacements for a stiffened plate, respectively = additional eccentric moment of beam element, see Figo i.

~~ m~=(o,. ~ct)Ix,y =--~--F,yy Ix,.y,

mi= T F,yy Ix,.yr
e is the eccenm -direction

/ '



tricity and

is positive, as shown in Fig. 1

Fig. 1


The stiffened plates are plate-beam structures widely used in engineering. A

large deformation of the stiffened plate is a kind of geometrically nonlinear problem; i.e., when ~he deflection of the plate and beam becomes larger and they goes beyond the r a n g e o f the small deflection theory under applied external loads % we must consider simultaneously the expansion and co~traction effect of the mid~ dle surface of the plate and the neutral axis o~ the stiffeners and also the change in shape,of the structure ~n the analysis. The geometrically nonlinear

problems are reduced to solving the corresponding partial differential equations in classical elasticity, but in general, one is unable to obtain the analytical solution except for a few exceptional cases. In the past, there was a lot of

literature in F E M w h i o h

dealt With large deformation~problems of the plate by the

use of the moving coordinate formulation, the formulation of minimum potential energy, etc. [I] - [4] , but few papers are concerned with eccentric stiffened plate and shell. Large deformation and post-buckling of longitudinal stiffened plate [5], but the theoretical analysis

Was evaluated by the displacement method in ref.

Large Deformation Solution of Stiffened Plates by Mixed FEM


in that paper is not very strict , because it approximated the nonlinear coupling matrix of both the bending and membrane forces by an equivalent load to avoid a tremendous amount of calculation. In the past, the calculation of large deformation, in fact, was a mixed method, namely, to solve yon K~rm~n equations which are exprssed in terms of F(x, y) ~/(x,~) and

Just as well, a satisfactory solution concerning large deformation of

the plate and shell was obtained by the mixed finite element method as described in ref. [7]. But the calculation in that paper is still complex because the non-

linear coupling matrix is not resolved. In this paper, the large deformation of the stiffened plate is analyzed by a mixed finite element method, and the ~dvacement for the calculation of the nonlinear coupling matrix is obtained. To begin with , a mixed functional of large

deformation for the plate and beam is derived from nonlinear elasticity, and the n e x t calculation of spatial eccentric beam element is introduced to the mixed functional~ Since the eccentricity of the beam element brings in linear coupling forces, it is necessary to supplement an "additionalecinto a nodal

of bending and membrane

centric moment" to transform the nodal displacement of the beam displacement of the plate.

And then the general large deformation equations for The nonlinear coupling

the orthogonal eccentric stiffened plate are established.

matrices of bending and deformation, bending and membrane forces, respectively, are resolved into three-dimensional coefficientmatrices which are found out in advance as initial data in the programming. into instantaneous linear equations. the nonlinear equations are solved. The nonlinear equations are turned

By the use of the conjugate gradient method, As a result, the calculation is greatly sim-

plified, convergence is quick and accuracy high for engineering applications.


Large Deformation Mixed Funct4onal of Stiffened Plate

one of the major types for the geometrically nonlinear problem is that concerning
smell strain and large rotation or small strain and rotation, but strain and square of rotation have the same order of magnitude. ture subject to large deformation. The result is to make the struc-

Therefore, the following Lagrangian finite

strain tensor is substituted into the strain energy expression for the plate

1 2

(i, /=x,y)



+ 21--W,',


? . v . = 2 e ~ o - = , , ,~ + v . # + W , z W .g

and the curvature tensor

Chen Yen-hang



The strain energy of large deformation for a plate element is expressed as

Substituting eqs. get

eq. (2.4) into eq.

(2o4), using Lagrange multipliers

to introduce then we

(2.2) and (2.3), through variation deriving Lagrange multipliers,


D +---~ [(k==+k,,)'--2(1--~)(k;,--h==ku,)]--[ --[ e,,o--(v.,

1 , "N +yw,,).]

, 1 r,r,

+ (k==--W..,)M,+ (k,,--W.w,)M,+2 (k,,--W,=,) M,,}dxdy



N,=hc,=. N , = h ~ , , N=,=hT=,

M.f--D (k..+uk,,) M,f--D(k,,+l*k,,)

M.,------D(I--~) k=, where By ten as D=


12(i_Bz )- is the flexural rigidity of an isotropic plate. Airy stress function F(x. y). linear membrane forces are writ-



N =ffi.'-~..r, O'F


N=,-- - - ~ OfF --

o and


Assuming that the distributed load is q on the plate element, the shearing force is Q. and bending moment is M.. in boundary, the ~ are the displacements

in the plane, the work of external forces is expressed as

Hence, the mixed functional of large deformation plate element is given by U ~ + V ~. From w we eliminate


e==o, eu,o, ez,o, k==, k,u,


k=w. Neglect-

ing higher-order terms and employing the following equilibrium

condition (2 ;lOa,b)

ON.. ON.) ON,, oN, Ox ~ --~---- 0,---~-- + ~ - = 0

we obtain

D z n'=IIA.{-- 2--~-[F~..+F~...--2,F,.zF.,+2(I+~OF;.,]+-~[W...+W.,,2

+ 2~W .==W .,,+ 2 (I--~)W ,=,] +3~[ F .,,W ~. + F .,.W ;.--2F .=,W ..W ,,] .


we may derive the well-known yon K&rmln's equations;

Large Deformation Solution of Stiffened Plates by Mixed F M E

D A A W "=~+ F ,,,W ,.o+F ,..W ,.7-2F ,.,W ,. ,
AAF= '


nhfW:. ;--W,.W,,, )

(Z, i 2a,b) '

Next, we shall derive the mixed functinal of large deformation for the stiffened plate. A s s u m e those beams have the same cross-sectional area ,so and the webs have t .

the same height

Then in x-direction we have

l ,



e . s o : = . , . + -~-W.. h . ==W ,=.].,,,


and consequently, the strain energy



Substituting eq. (2.13) into eq. (2.16), using Le2grange multipliers through variation, we obtain

t. h "" ."Jy, For the same reason, the mixed strain energy of the stiffened beam in y-direction is


if F L


~e 9 +EJ.W,.,+~F,..W,;

]x du,


The total strain energy of the eccentric orthoqonal stiffened element is given as follows:

O"=O a ' ' + o m


After treatment of eccentricity, the strain energies of the additional moments in x -and M -directions are:


dw.., =
_ so~ ~" (F,nW,,,)I.~, dU,




2h h,

Hence, w e have
" {o=o1 + ~2 (2.22)

The work of external forces for the o/thogonal eccentric stiffeners is given by

v ' = - [ ~ , , w-.,~.,w,.]y, -r~,, w - ~ , , w , , ] , .

- -

th, ~ , th, a'F ,.l y, - - F - v -,-- ...l~,

Y -directions; 0z ~ and



~, and

~, are the known displacements of the center of~ gravity of the cros~Qz, are shear

section at the stiffener along the x - a n d forces; ~ss and

~s~ are the external moments at the end of the stiffener.

And so the total functional of the o~thogonal eccentric stiffener- is given as follows:

I1; ~ U B + V B + m


Finally, we obtain a mixed functional o f large deformation for a stiffened plate

as follows:

Chen Yen-hang

n = E n: + Z] n: = Z] [ [
m-I JJ~*t

1 = f - - ~ T Z F , , ,. +F,,,--~.pP . . . F .

+ 2 (1 +/a) F ; , , ], + ~m- [ W , 1


+W;,, +2pW,==W,,,r+2(1--p) W;,,,] .w,,l-~w

+ 89
.[ 1 f z t



-~l..zTj,. r-, ~,,~.:o + ~ - R , . , , , - , . . ~,.,+~,,w:..


., +~It, ~ _~, , ' L ,.i

~,.. +, }{+~ +EJ=w: , , T ~ ,==.. ,, ]x, dgs + 2h


$0 @

-.F%--'1 ~,,


-"..~,.~'-I., ~~

}-{~ ~" ~-~"~'" ~',

a'Y-] F , , , [ y , +

[0=, W

- -

M,,W,,]x, +





Finite Element Used in Nonlinear Analysis

According to the shape of the stiffened plate we may choose various conforming

elements and the convergent non-conforming elements for nonlinear analysis.


this paper, it is suitable to choose the rectangular element for the typical examples of the rectangular stiffened plates. of quick convergence and high accuracy. is more. The Hermite element has the advantages But we do not choose it because its "input"

The "ACM" element which has the advantages of simple stiffness matrix and

fine convergence as well as higher accuracy is not employed in the paper, either In this paper, we employ a new quickly convergent "quasi-conforming" rectangular plate bending element which is better than ACM element, ence, we assume the trial stress function and the trial displacement function as follows: (See Fig. 2). In consequg

F ( L .) = ~ a d ~ ,1",
I -+I

~ and

+ +j



w,I=-w.,, w.:, I~,

aa are undetermined coefficients and

where the

are dimensionless coordinates, i.e~

F i g . 2,

~=~, "=~
The exponents 01, a,, p4, and ~i

take the following values:

Large Deformation Solution of Stiffened Plates by Mixed FEM

O=P=[O, 1, O, 2, I, O, 3, 2. I, O, 4, I] .}


.=/3----[0,.0, 1,

O, 1, 2, O, 1, ,% 3, 1. 4] ~

(S.Sa, b)

Let us define the generalized forces nodal parameters and the nodal displacement parameters of an element, respectively, as follows:

~q,}=~F,,F,~, ,F,y ,F,,F,x,.F,y,,F,,F.~,,F,~,.F.,F,~. .F.y.}"

{q,c}----4W.,W.~. ,W.y..W~,W.~,,W',:h .W,,W.=,,W,~, ,W,,,,W.~.,, .W,~,=~"


{~}=={ {q'}
{q.} } Then we get F(~', ~)----[N]'~q,}


Furthermore, we get

in the appendix of ref. _sa =Z




where the interpolation function I/V] and the element stiffness matrix can be found

, O~ ' 8y = - 6 a ~ IV. Nonlinear Equatins of Equilibrium

From eq. (3.2), we have


(4.1a, b)

Thus, the terms of the functional (2.25) are given, respectively, as follows:

2 It .., {__{IIA.[W~,.. +W ,, + 2~W,..W..+ 2(1--.)W,..]dxdY}=fq,'[ D K


1 [F,.W2 +F...W;,--2F,.,W,~W,,,]dxdyI=--~qw[.
r K




X =)

{---r ax

' ay" '


(4.s) (4.6)




(1"2~. = /
I - #x ' ay

Chen Yen..hanq

oCN] o[NI a[N]l"

' -~--J



l p p l"


.o o 1~..__~

o ~


W,j_-__~h_h --. I (


~q,l'[N.,.] [Do.]--(


0 0






[K,]= E ab[['(X~'[D]~X~d~d,
m~] JJo M



Sor'e o t h e r terms a r e given as follows=

+I,, [_-~...+E,.,,.,..
Q = ~ q ;([K_] + [Ko.3) q.

+ ~-........

~e ~

I;Ir," *

]..,, }

,=~-{q; [Ko, ]q.+q,~ [Ko, ]q,. +q~. [lo.jq.)


dy,} [Ko,]==--E-E-~-o {I;([N.,,][N.,.]')]y. +I. ([N.--][N.- r )]-, ~9 dx. ~ -]

Ls b .


(4.hi [Ko,:lm~- ~ . ~[1"([ N,,,].IQ, I-'[ N,,,, ][ N,,'I')]y. dx,


(4 ;$j

Large Deformation Solution of Stiffened Plates by Mixed F M E




( [ N , , , ] [ N , . ] ~) i,,d~ dyj


K o . j : - z,-0-,L |~ f ' II ms| J I I





m.i J J ~ "


[ Q,,,]" -- ~.xlI~.4.~ [N]'dxdY

On the boundary we have


[N , , ] r : [N ,=]~eos=+ [N,,]rsina


cosa , Hence we get


are the direction

cosines of the normal at the boundary.

{W IN]" W., }-{ [N,,]' }'q'~


And then some other terms are given as follows:

BL 9 ~ I, B$ m-I ~ 0 Bi

5"~.0o,. W--M,,W,, ]y + ~ [Qoz. W~-N[,,W.,]., + a


+ t~-~-o~'~'F.== I.,

=[Qo.,.]'qw + [Qo,]'q,



[ Q " ] ' = ~ Ie| [(~'" - M " ]

{ IN]" ~


, [N,.]" [0,,']':E[ [". ~] { }d8 .., ~., IN,.,]"


9 Bt

[N]" [N,=]"


~, ..~

[N)" }
[H,,]" =,

[Oo,]~'. '~0 ~,, 5"=~.[N.,,]r]y. 4-~' =~=[N.-*]~'I=,

" l



By substituting the above terms into eq. (2.25), we obtain

n = ~ q ' ( [ K ] + [Ko]) q-- [Q]Tq (4.31)




then Yen-hang

[Ko,]= [K.,]+ [Ko.,] [K]=([K.]+[Kop] [K.o]+[Ko.] )




. [K.]=(

0 0


[Ko,] )
[Q,,] + [QO,]



[Q]=( [Q.,]+[Q..] +[Qo..]

AS the variables q tion of n

[Ko] , the varlaFor clearness,

are coupled in the nonlinear coupling matrix

is different from that of the usual linear functional.

we perform calculation in terms of tensors. We assume that ~J~ expresses the coefficient of the linear matrix [Ko],~,j expresses the variable of the q , and

expresses the coefficient of the [K] , q R

is the total nodal d.oof. ~ of the stiffened plate.

Thus the total mixed

strain energy of a stiffened plate is written as

d-I $ - I k - |

The work done by external forces is



E O., q,


.4. I

1 R J



8q = 0

, we g e t (k=1, 2, ..., R) (4.39)

i-l J-I

Expressed in terms of matrices, the above equation is

([K] +[H])q=[Q] where


~-[ o,] 0 [K.,] [K.,]=[K.,]+ [Ko..]





[K.,]= Y-].[[A.{YlIe[Do,]{Y2}dxdy
mR| ~-BL

[Ko,.]-- .., A ]'.', ([N.=]~qw}'[IV,,,][N,.]')ly, dx, ~

+ ~' ~;~, ([N,']~"'}'[N.--] IN,.]')i~,dy, [D.,]=( {~.}'[N,..] 0 0 ~q.}'[N,..]

0 0




Finally we get the large deformation iterative formulas as follows:

Large Deformation Solution of Stiffened Plates by Mixed FEM

(JR,] + [Ko,])q~" + ([K,,,]+CKo.])q:" + ~--Le,oe.lq. =[.Q,] ([K,] + [Ko,,]) q;'~ + [Ko, ]q~"-" = [Q,,] V. Decomposition of the Nonlinear Coupling Matrices
Two-dimensional nonlinear coupling m a t r i c e s [Kos] are [K~z~ , which


(4.46) (4.47)

include memb-

the nonlinear coupling of bending and deformation as well as bending and

rane forces, respectively, are some of the most impotant characteristics of the geometrically nonlinear problems~ How to calculate the nonlinear coupling matrices If we calculate

is the key to analyzing geometrical nonlinear problems by t_he FEM.

them in an ordinary way, a lot of double integrals of the variables of the two nonlinear coupling matrices in the iterative equation (4.46) and (4.47) will make the calculation very difficult. In order to simplify the calculation and retain the

stricteness of the theory, we decompose the nonlinear coupling matrices in eqs. (4.46) and ( 4 . 4 7 ) b y means of the tensors as follows:
Ri RI . &k

E X,~, +-~E $-J ~,,.,,q,=Q'. E $'! J'l





V-I 3-1

R RI=~-"

(h=1, 2, ..-,RI).



are the linear flex ibiiity tensor and the linear stiffness ten-

sor of rank two, respectivley. ~,~i and 9~.~,, are the coupling coefficient tensors of rank three. q:

and and

q~ O~

are the first-order generalized force variables tensor. are the first-order displacement variables tensor. are the first-order generalized displacement tensor and gen-

0% and

eralized force tensor. Expressing~ obtain


[Ko!] and [Ka,] in terms of tensor

G~. and Gj,

respectively, we

G,',ffi ~,," q, E
|-I Jl


G,. ffi ~'- q: E

Since the tensor of rank three


~ij~=~J~j: , we may evaluate the coupling coeffici-

ents of an element by the use of double integrals for the three-dimensional array of data input. When the variables q, (or q~ ) of the preceding iteration are

determined, the two-dimensional nonlinear coupling matrix for each iteration is determined. Hence, the nonlinear eqs. (4.46) and (4.47) are transformed into the

instantaneous linear equations for each iteration.

11.32 Vl.

Chen Yen-hang Evaluation by the Conjugate Gradient Method

With decomposition of the two-dimensional nonlinear coupling matrix, the nonlinear equation group is linearized and an iteration format [9] of the conjugate gradient method is composed as follows:

where the Kw is the nodal displacement column vector and the (the corrective direction vector), and the and the c is the proportional factor. r p

q, is the nodal load column vector

is the total linear stiffness matrix of the structure and the

is the calculated residual vector

The conjugate gradien~ method is a nonlinear iterative method suitable for the case where the coefficient matrix Kw is a syn~netric positive definite matrix. q~'; through continuous correction, is not orthogonalized to the correspond(4.46) and (4.47)

We may obtain a better approximate solution provided that the corrective direction ing remainder ~ . ~

By using the conjugate gradient method eqs.

are solved in the following steps of calculation: i. Let ~p=0 we obtain the initial vector (4.46) and calculate into the ~') , (4.47) and obtain the res~,~'~ from eqo (4.47) o Then sub-

stitute it into eq. 2.

Substitute the vector ~ > ~; 9

[K0z] of eq.

idue vector 3. where From

Kwq~"' =@--c r

calculate the vector ~*)

c~.,= (~<"-",F("-i>)
4. F o r each n:I, 2, -.., repeat the above steps.

Stop calculations when ~"~ is the solution of

I < ~ ( t h e allowance error). the finite element equation.

The corresponding


Numerical Examples and the Results

In theis paper, the calculations were performed on a China made Type 320 computer with the FORTRAN program. to be identical and isotropic. the calculations. The materials of the plate and stringers are assumed The torsional and warping effects are ignored in average value of two successive

For quick convergence we t a k e a n

displacement values for the next iterative initial value. Example I. We have Clamped square plate under uniformly distributed load (Fig. 3)

a'=b=6Ocm, h=Icm, ~=0.3, E = 7 . 2 x l 0 B k g / c m ', 4=J~I0kg/cm*.

From symmetry of the plate and loading we heed only consider one quarter of the plate. =0~ Mesh SX3 is used, In this case, we have


then the input is the 18000 word length.

The central deflection under the load is plotted against the load parameter in

9Large Deformation Solution of Stiffened Plates by Mixed FEM

Fig. 4.


The solutions of classical small deflection theory are obtained with the [12] and those of large deflection theory are obtained with the

formulas of ref,

formulas of ref. [I].

-~.~ ~
.~.,, L r l T I x /

/ /

Linear theory Present study

/ "


Fig. 3




150 200 250


Fig. 4 The deflections, membrane and bending stresses at the plate centre are given in Table 1

Table 1 Method Deflections and stresses at the plate centre Deflections Membrane stresses (k~/cm 2) 0
205 228

Classical small deflection theory Large deflection theory Mixed FEM It takes only 15 minutes per 5 steps of loading.

Bending stresses [kqlcm ~)


0.625 0.542 0.549

lOT8 980

The error of the centre deflec-

tion from the classical theory solution is about 4 per cent. Example 2. Clamped square plate with an eccentric stiffener along the x -dir-

ection under uniformly distributed load (Fig. 5).

We have a'=b'=B0cm, h=ho=lcm, p = 0 . 3 , E=7.2x10skg/cm2, so= 4 c m i , e = 2 " 5 c m '

t=4cm, Ji~=--5.S3cm 4=l'~i0kg/cm '- From symmetry of the 4, plate and its loading we need only take one quarter of the plate. have Mesh 3X3 is used. In this case we A--A

[K.,] = [ Q p ] = 0

The input is 20;000 words

in length. The centre deflection, under the load, is plotted against the load parameter in Fig. 6. The solutions

oUI '/.
Fig. 5

of classical" small deflection theory are obtained with the formulas of ref. [3].

The deflections and stresses of the plate-beam centre are given in Table 2 at

4=5kg/cm z


Chen Yen-hang

It merely takes 15 minutes per 6 steps of loading. From the above example, the use of the present method for analyzing the large deformation problem of the stiffened plate is shown to have the advantages of quick convergence, less amount of computation,higher rigorous theory. accuracy and



0,TJ 0.5~ Q.21



It can be accepted The proFig~ 6

by the engineering circles.

blem concerning the post-buckling an ~

alysis on a stiffened plate will be treated in another paper. Table 2 Deflection and stresses of the plate-beam centre

Method Classical small deflection theory Mixed FEM Large deflection theory

]. of

Deflections the plate

O. 18 ~
O. 186

Bending stresses


Membrane stresses

Max immum ssresses of t n e beam

(k~/cm =)

Shear force~ of the beam centre (kg)



i .L


This research was carried out under the supervision of Prof. M. K. Huang whose constant encouragement and helpful suggestions are gratelfuiiy acknowledged.



Murray, D. W., and E. L. Wilson,

Finite element large deflection analysis

of plates, Jo Struct. Div~ ASCE, 95 (1969)o (2) Walter, E. Haisler, Development and evaluation of solution procedures for~ geometrically nonlinear structural by the direct stiffness method, AIAA. J. 4 (1971), 1-13. (3). Fox, R. L., Development in structural analysis by direct energy minimzation, AIAA. J. VOlo 6, No~ 6 (1968). Liu Zhing-xing, FengTai-hua and Li Ding-xia,


Solution of geometrical non-

linear problem of a stiffened plate and ~hell by the finite element method, Journal of Nanjing Aeronautical Institute of China, No. 5, (1979). (in


Large Deformation Solution of Stiffened Plates by Mixed FEM

(5) Chang Fu-zong, Liu Ye-lang et al.,


Finite Element Analysis of Large DeformaScience and Technology Material, The ~2ird Ministry

tion and Post-buckling for Stiffened Plate, Noo 1, (1980)o

(Complied by No. 605 Research Institute, People's Republic of China)

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(in Chinese) (Eng-

Foundations of the Nonlinear Theory of Elasticity,

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Rochester, New York:

Gass, No and B~ Tabarrod,

Large Deformation analysis of plates and cylindInto J. Numo Mesh, Eng. VOlo

rical shells by a mixed finite element method, 10, 711-746o (8) Chen Yen-hang, ing Element, China in 1981o (9) Feng Kang, China,

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Numerical COnfuting Method, (in Chinese)

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(10) Washizu, K., Press,

Variational Methods in Elasticity and Plasticity,


(1968), 164. Pliable and Tough Plate and Shell, (Chinese version, tr.

(11) Oulemill, Ao C.,

from Russian by Lu Ven-da et alo) Science Press, (12) Timoshenko, McGraw-Hill, S., and S. Woinowsky-Krieger,


Theory of Plates and Shells,

New York, 1st ed. (1940), 2nd ed. (1959).