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Power-Factor Controller (PFC) IC for High Power Factor and Active Harmonic Filter

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Features IC for sinusoidal line-current consumption Power factor approaching 1 Controls boost converter as an active harmonics filter Internal start-up with low current consumption Zero current detector for discontinuous operation mode High current totem pole gate driver Trimmed 1.4% internal reference Undervoltage lock-out with hysteresis Very low start-up current consumption Pin compatible to world standard Fast overvoltage regulator Current sense input with internal low pass filter

TDA 4862

Bipolar IC

PG-DIP-8-1

PG-DSO-8-1 Type TDA 4862 TDA 4862 G = New type Ordering Code Q67000-A8368 Q67006-A8369 Package PG-DIP-8-1 PG-DSO-8-1

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TDA 4862

Description The TDA 4862 is excellent convenient for designing a preconverter in ballasts and switched mode power supplies with sinusoidal line current consumption and a power factor approaching unity. The TDA 4862 controls a boost converter as an active harmonics filter in a discontinuous mode (free oscillating triangular shaped current mode). The TDA 4862 comprises an internal start-up timer, a high gain voltage amplifier, an one quadrant multiplier for approaching unity power factor, a zero current detector, PWM and logic circuitry, and totem pole MOSFET gate driver. Protective features are: input undervoltage lockout with hysteresis, VCC zener clamp, cycle-by-cycle current limiting, output voltage limiting for fast and slow load changes up to open circuit, and a sinking gate driver current activated whenever undervoltage mode occurs. The output voltage of this preconverter is regulated with high accuracy. Therefore the device can be used for world-wide line voltages without switches. The TDA 4862 is the improved version of the TDA 4817 with a pinout equivalent to world standard. TDA 4862 G TDA 4862

V SENSE V AOUT

1 2

8 7

V CC GTDRV

V SENSE V AOUT MULTIN

1 2

8 7

V CC GTDRV GND DETIN

MULTIN

3 4

6 5
IEP01748

GND DETIN

SENSE

3 4

6 5
IEP01749

SENSE

Figure 1

Pin Configuration (top view)

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TDA 4862

Pin Definitions and Functions Pin Symbol Function 1

VSENSE

Voltage Amplifier Inverting Input; VSENSE is connected via a resistive divider to the boost converter output. With a capacitor connected to VAOUT it forms an integrator. Voltage Amplifier Output; VAOUT is connected internally to the first multiplier input. To prevent overshoot the input voltage will be clamped at 5 V. During no load conditions output pulses are suppressed completely whenVAOUT falls below 2.2 V. If the current flowing into this pin is exceeding an internal defined margin the multiplier output voltage is reduced to prevent the MOSFET from overvoltage damage.

VAOUT

MULTIN Multiplier Input; MULTIN is the second multiplier input and connected via a resistive divider to the rectifier output voltage.

ISENSE

Current Sense Minus; ISENSE is connected to a sense resistor controlling the MOSFET source current. The input is internally clamped at 0.3 V to prevent negative input voltage interaction. An internal low pass filter suppresses voltage spikes when turning the MOSFET on. Zero Current Detector Input; DETIN is connected to an auxiliary winding monitoring the zero crossing of the inductor current. Ground; All voltages are measured with respect to GND. VCC should be bypassed directly to GND with a 0.1 F or larger ceramic capacitor. Gate Drive Output; GTDRV is the output of a totem-pole circuitry for direct driving a MOSFET. A clamping network bypasses low state source current and high state sink current. Positive Supply Voltage; VCC should be connected to a stable source slightly above the VCC turn-ON threshold for normal operation. A 100 nF or lager ceramic capacitor connected to VCC absorbs supply current spikes required to charge external MOSFET gate capacitances.

DETIN

GND

GTDRV

VCC

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TDA 4862

Functional Description Introduction Conventional electronic ballasts and switching power supplies are designed with a bridge rectifier and bulk capacitor. Their disadvantage is that the circuit draws power from the line when the instantaneous AC voltage exceeds the capacitors voltage. This occurs near the line voltage peak and causes a high charge current spike with following characteristics: the apparent power is higher than the real power that means low power factor condition, the current spikes are non-sinusoidal with a high content of harmonics causing line noise, the rectified voltage depends on load condition and requires a large bulk capacitor, special efforts in noise suppression are necessary. With the TDA 4862 preconverter a sinusoidal current is achieved which varies in direct instantaneous proportion to the input voltage half sine wave and means a power factor near 1. This is due to the appearance of almost any complex load like a resistive one at the AC line. The harmonic distortions are reduced and comply with the IEC555 standard. Operating Description The TDA 4862 contains a wide bandwidth voltage amplifier used in a feedback loop, an overvoltage regulator, an one quadrant multiplier with a wide linear operating range, a current sense comparator, zero current detector, a PWM and logic circuitry, a totem-pole MOSFET driver, an internal trimmed voltage reference, a restart timer and an undervoltage lockout circuitry. These functional blocks are described below. Voltage Amplifier The voltage amplifier is internally compensated and yields a gain bandwidth of 0.8 MHz and a phase margin of 80 degrees. The non-inverting input is biased at 2.5 V and is not pinned out. The inverting input is sensing the output voltage via a resitive devider. The voltage amplifier output VAOUT and the inverting input VSENSE are connected in a simplest way via an external capacitor. It forms an integrator which monitors the average output voltage over several line cycles. Typically the bandwidth is set below 20 Hz. ln order to keep the output voltage constant the voltage amplifier output is connected to the multiplier input for regulation. Overvoltage Regulator Fast changes of the output voltage cant be regulated by the integrator formed with the voltage amplifier This occurs during initial start-up, sudden load removal, or output arcing and leads to a current peak at the voltage amplifier input while the voltage amplifiers differential input voltages remains zero. The peak current is flowing through the external capacitor into VAOUT. Exceeding an internal defined margin causes a regulation circuitry to reduce the multiplier output voltage.

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TDA 4862

Functional Description (contd) MuItiplier A one quadrant multiplier is the crucial circuitry that regulates the gate driver with respect of the DC output voltage and the AC haversine input voltage of the preregulator. Both inputs are designed for good linearity over a wide dynamic range, 0 V to 4.0 V for the MULTIN and 2.5 V to 4.0 V for the VAOUT. Current Sense Comparator and RS Latch The multiplier output voltage is compared with the current sense voltage which represents the current through the MOSFET. The current sense comparator in addition with the logic ensures that only a single pulse appears at the drive output during a given cycle. The multiplier output and the current sense threshold are internally clamped at 1.3 V. So the gate drive MOSFET is protected against critical operating, as they occur during start up. To prevent the input from negative pulses a special protection circuitry is implemented. Switch-on current peaks are reduced by an internal RC-Filter. Zero Current Detector The zero current detector senses the inductor current via an auxiliary winding and ensures that the next on-time is initiated immediately when the inductor current has reached zero. This diminishes the reverse recovery losses of the boost converter diode. Output switch conduction is terminated when the voltage drop of the shunt resistor reaches the threshold level of the multiplier output. So the boost current waveform has a triangular shape and there are no deadtime gaps between the cycles. This leads to a continuous AC line current limiting the peak current to twice of the average current. To prevent false tripping the zero current detector is designed as a Schmitt trigger with a hysteresis of 0.6 V. An internal 5 V clamp protects the input from overvoltage breakdown, a 0.6 V clamp prevents substrate injection. An external resistor must be used in series with the auxiliary winding to limit the current through the clamps. Timer A restart timer function was added to the IC to eliminate the need for an oscillator when used in stand-alone applications. The timer starts or restarts the TDA 4862 if the drive output has been off for more than 15 s after the inductor current reaches zero.

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TDA 4862

Functional Description (contd) Undervoltage Lockout An undervoltage lockout circuitry enables the output stage when VCC reaches the upper threshold VCC and terminates the output stage when VCC is falling below the lower threshold VCCL. In the standby mode the supply current is typically 75 A. An internal clamp has been added from VCC to ground to protect the IC from an overvoltage condition. The external circuitry is created with a start-up resistor connected from VCC to the input supply voltage and a storage capacitor from VCC to ground. Bootstrap power supply is created with the previous mentioned auxiliary winding and a diode. Output The TDA 4862 totem pole output stage is MOSFET compatible. An internal protection circuitry is activated when VCC is within the stand by mode and ensures that the MOSFET is turned-OFF. The totem pole output has been optimized to minimize cross conduction current during high speed operation. The addition of two 4 resistors, one in series with the source output transistor and one in series with the sink output transistor, reduces the cross conduction current.

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Figure 2
Undervoltage Lockout V CC 11 V / 8.5 V Reference Voltage OverVoltage Regulation Clamp 8 Current Comp + Driver and Logic 7 GTDRV 1.3 V 4V 0.9 V Multiplier V CC 30 k 10 pF 6

Voltage Amplifier

V SENSE

Block Diagram
TDA 4862; G
GND 5V 0.6 V Detector V CCZ-Clamp 2.5 V / 1.9 V
IEB01747

REF

V AOUT

Clamp

MULTIN

Filter

SENSE

Clamp

DETIN

TDA 4862

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Figure 3
250 H Tr1

V IN

BYP 101 V OUT C5 470 F 400 V D2

AC 90-270 V

RF-Filter and Rectifier


C1 0.22 F

R1 1.3 M
C3 100 F
8
Detector

R3 100 k
DETIN 5

D1 R8 1N4148 100 R3 22 k

C4 100 nF
+

V TH

Q1

Application Circuit with TDA 4862; G


Multipler
MULTIN 3
+

Current OP

PWM Logic Driver

7 GTDRV

BUZ 334

R2 12 k
GND

Voltage OP
6 2 V AOUT
C6
+

4 SENSE V Ref

R5 1.6 M

TDA 4862 G

1 V SENSE

R7 0.1

R6 10 k

470 nF
IES01750

TDA 4862

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TDA 4862

Absolute Maximum Ratings Parameter Supply voltage at supply + Z-current Symbol Limit Values Unit min. max. 70 V mA mA mA mA V V V V mA mA C C K/W K/W observe Pmax observe Pmax VGTDRV > VCC VGTDRV < 0.3 V Notes

VCC Pin 8 VCC VCC-GND Pin 8 ICCZ


Pin 7 IGTDRV Pin 7 IGTDCH Pin 7 IGTDCL

0.3 0

Current into GTDRV Clamping current into GTDRV Clamping current into GTDRV Voltage at Voltage at Voltage at Voltage at Current into Current into Junction temperature Storage temperature Thermal resistance system-air TDA 4862 TDA 4862 G Operating Range Parameter Supply voltage Z-current Junction temperature Voltage at ISENSE
1)

400 500 100 100 0.3 0.3 0.3 10 10 40 50 17 6 17 17 50 150 150 100 180

Pin 1 Pin 2 MULTIN Pin 3 ISENSE Pin 4 DETIN Pin 5 DETIN Pin 5

VSENSE VAOUT

VVSENSE VVAOUT VMULTIN VISENSE IDETINH IDETINL Tj Tstg RthSA RthSA

VDETIN > 6 V VDETIN < 0.9 V


PG-DIP-8-1 PG-DSO-8-1

Symbol Limit Values Unit min. max. V mA C V

Notes
1)

VCC IZ Tj VISENSE

VCCON VZ
0 40 5 50 150

observe Pmax

VZ

VCCON means VCCH has been exceeded but the supply voltage is still above VCCL. The device has switched from standby to active. For VCCH and VCCL values see Electrical Characteristics. If 0 V < VCC < VCCON, the device is in standby and output GTDRV is active low.

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TDA 4862

Electrical Characteristics Unless otherwise stated, VCC = 12 V, 40 C < Tj < 150 C. Parameter Symbol min. Overall Supply current, OFF Limit Values typ. max. Unit Test Condition

ICCL Supply current, ON ICCH Supply current, dynamic ICCDY VCC turn-ON threshold VCC turn-OFF threshold VCC turn-ON/OFF VCCH VCCL VCCHY VZ

8.0 1.8 15

75 4 4.2 11 8.5 2.3 17

200 6 8 11.5 3.0 19

A mA mA V V V V

0 V < VCC < VCCH Output low

fDETIN = 50 kHz, CGTDRV = 1 nF


hysteresis

VCC clamp
Voltage Amplifier Voltage feedback threshold Voltage feedback threshold Line regulation Input bias current Open loop voltage gain1) Unity gain bandwidth1) Phase margin1) Output current source Output current sink
1not

ICCZ = 50 mA Tj = 25 C, Pin 1 to Pin 2


Pin 1 to Pin 2

VFB VFB
VFBL

2.465 2.45 1

2.5 80 0.8 80 2.2 12 4

2.53 5 2.55 5

V V mV A dB

VCC = 10 V to 15 V

IBVSENSE GV BW
M

MHz Degr V mA mA

Inhibit threshold voltage VVAOUTI

IVAOUTH IVAOUTL

VVAOUT = 0 V, VVSENSE = 2.3 V VVAOUT = 4 V, VVSENSE = 2.8 V

subject to production test - verified by characterization.

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TDA 4862

Electrical Characteristics (contd) Unless otherwise stated, VCC = 12 V, 40 C < Tj < 150 C. Parameter Output voltage swing high state Output voltage swing low state Overvoltage Regulator Regulation current Symbol min. Limit Values typ. 4.3 0.9 max. 5.0 V V 3.8 Unit Test Condition

VVAOUTH VVAOUTL

IVAOUT = 0.2 mA VVSENSE = 2.3 V IVAOUT = 0.5 A VVSENSE = 2.8 V

IRVAOUT

20

30

45

VVAOUT = VMULTIN
= 4 V,

VISENSE = 0.5 V
Current Comparator Input bias current Input offset voltage Max threshold voltage Delay to output1)
)

IBISENSE 1 VISENSEO VISENSEM 1.05 tPHL

25 1.25 250

1.5

A mV V ns

VMULTIN = 0 V, VVAOUT = 2.4 V


Detector Upper threshold voltage VDETINU (VDETIN increasing) Lower threshold voltage VDETINL (VDETIN decreasing) Hysteresis Input current Input clamp voltage High state Low state
1)not

1.5

2.5 1.9 0.6

2.75

V V V A

1.5 V < VDETIN < 2.75 V

VDETINHY IBDETIN 1

VDETINHC 4 VDETINLC

5 0.6

V V

IDETIN = 5 mA IDETIN = 5 mA

subject to production test - verified by characterization

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TDA 4862

Electrical Characteristics (contd) Unless otherwise stated, VCC = 12 V, 40 C < Tj < 150 C. Parameter Symbol min. Multiplier Input bias current Dynamic voltage range MULTIN Limit Values typ. max. Unit Test Condition

IBMULTIN VMULTIN VVAOUT K

A V V 1/V

VAOUT
Multiplier gain 1)

0 to 3 0 to 4 VFB to VFB to VFB + 1 VFB + 1.5 0.45 0.65 0.85

VVAOUT = 2.75 V VMULTIN = 1.0 V VMULTIN = 2 V VVAOUT = VFB + 1 V

Restart Timer Restart time delay Gate Driver Output voltage low state VGTDRVL Output voltage high state Output voltage active shut down 0.8 1.8 9.4 8.7 2.0 2.6 V V V V

tDLY

75

190

400

VGTDRVH VGTDRVU

Rise time 2) Fall time


1) 2)

2)

tr tf

100 40

IGTDRV = 20 mA IGTDRV = 200 mA IGTDRV = 20 mA IGTDRV = 200 mA IGTDRV = 50 mA VCC increasing: 0 < VCC < VCCH, VCC decreasing: 0 < VCC < VCCL CGTDRV = 1 nF CGTDRV = 1 nF

K = VISENSE / (VMULTIN (VVAOUT VFB))


not subject to production test - verified by design

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TDA 4862

Supply Current ICC versus Supply Voltage VCC


6
IED01751

Supply Current ICC versus Junction Temperature Tj


6
IED01752

CC

mA
5

CC

mA 5

4
V VSENSE V VAOUT V MULTIN V ISENSE V DETIN Tj =3V =3V =1V = 0.5 V =2V = 25 C

4
V VSENSE V VAOUT V MULTIN V ISENSE V DETIN =3V =3V =1V = 0.5 V =2V

0 0
5 10 15 V V CC 20

0 -50

50

100 C 150 Tj

Turn-ON/-OFF Threshold Voltage VCC versus Junction Temperature Tj


12
V CC
IED01753

Open Loop Gain GV and Phase versus Frequency f


100
dB
GV
IED01754

0
deg

V
V CCH

V CC = 12 V 3.0 < V VAOUT < 3.5 V T j = 25 C A0

11

80

30

10

60

60

9
V CCL

40

90

20

120

7 -50

50

100 C 150 Tj

0 10 -2 10 -1 10 0 10 1 10 2

150

kHz 10 f

Semiconductor Group

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TDA 4862

Threshold Voltage Change VFB versus Junction Temperature Tj


10 mV
IED01755

Threshold Voltage VISENSE versus Regulation Current IRVAOUT


1.4
V ISENSE V
IED01756

V FB

V CC = 12 V Pin 1 connected to Pin 2

V CC =12 V

1.0
0

-40 C

0.8

-5

0.6 0.4
150 C

25 C

-10

0.2
-15 -50

50

100 C 150 Tj

0 29

30

31

32

33 A 34 RVAOUT

Threshold Voltage VDETIN versus Junction Temperature Tj


3.00
V DETIN

Current Sense Threshold VISENSE versus Multiplier Input VMULTIN


1.4 V ISENSE 4.0 V V 3.5 V 1.0 3.0 V 0.8
IED01758

IED01757

1/V
V CC = 12 V V MULTIN = 1 V V VSENSE = GND V ISENSE = GND
V DETINupper

2.75

2.50

2.25
0.6 2.75 V
V DETINlow

2.00
0.4 0.2

1.75

V VAOUT = 2.5 V

0 -50

50

100 C 150 Tj

V 5

V MULTIN

Semiconductor Group

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TDA 4862

Current Sense Threshold VISENSE versus Voltage Amplifier Output VVAOUT


1.4
V ISENSE V
2V
IED01759

Multiplier Gain K versus Junction Temperature Tj


1.2
K
IED01760
V CC V MULTIN V VAOUT

V MULTIN = 3 V

1/V

= 12 V =2V = VFB + 1 V

1.0

0.9
1V

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 2.5

0.6
0.5 V

0.3

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5 V 5.0 V VAOUT

0 -50

50

100 C 150 Tj

Restart Time Delay tDLY versus Junction Temperature Tj


240 s 220
IED01761

Output Voltage Low/High State VSAT versus Load Current IGTDRV


6 V SAT V 5 VCC = 12 V T = 10 ms t p = 200 s VCC VGTDRVH 4 VGTDRVL at VCC = 7 V
IED01762

t DLY

200

3
180

2 VGTDRVL
160

140 -50

0
0 50 100 C 150 Tj

100

200

300 mA 400

GTDRV

Semiconductor Group

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TDA 4862

Package Outlines Plastic Package, PG-DIP-8-1 (Plastic Dual In-line Package)

Sorts of Packing Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our Data Book Package Information. Dimensions in mm 16 2005-02-17

GPD05025

TDA 4862

Plastic Package, PG-DSO-8-1 (Plastic Dual Small Outline Package)

Sorts of Packing Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our Data Book Package Information. SMD = Surface Mounted Device

Dimensions in mm

17

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GPS05121

TDA 4862

Revision History:

Current Version: 2005-02-17

Previous Version:2003-05-01 Page Page (in previous (in current Version) Version) 1 1 Subjects (major changes since last revision)

Pb-free lead plating; RoHS compliant

Edition 1999-11-08 Published by Infineon Technologies AG St.-Martin-Strasse 53 D-81541 Mnchen

Infineon Technologies AG 1999


All Rights Reserved. Attention please! The information herein is given to describe certain components and shall not be considered as warranted characteristics. Terms of delivery and rights to technical change reserved. We hereby disclaim any and all warranties, including but not limited to warranties of non-infringement, regarding circuits, descriptions and charts stated herein. Infineon Technologiesis an approved CECC manufacturer. Information For further information on technology, delivery terms and conditions and prices please contact your nearest Infineon Technologies Office in Germany or our Infineon Technologies Representatives worldwide (see address list). Warnings Due to technical requirements components may contain dangerous substances. For information on the types in question please contact your nearest Infineon Technologies Office. Infineon Technologies Components may only be used in life-support devices or systems with the express written approval of Infineon Technologies, if a failure of such components can reasonably be expected to cause the failure of that life-support device or system, or to affect the safety or effectiveness of that device or system. Life support devices or systems are intended to be implanted in the human body, or to support and/or maintain and sustain and/or protect human life. If they fail, it is reasonable to assume that the health of the user or other persons may be endangered.

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