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RK-Notes- EM Induction Analysing electromagnetic induction How induced e.m.f. is produced?

Figure 8.27 The south pole of the magnet is moving into the coil. The induced current flows in such direction to as to produce a south pole to oppose the approaching of the magnet Figure 8.26 Figure 8.26 shows that a voltage is induced when a conductor cuts a magnetic field. The movement of a conductor in a magnetic field produces an electromotive force (e.m.f.) in the conductor. An induced current is produced when the conductor is connected to a closed circuit. This effect is called electromagnetic induction. The magnitude of the e.m.f. can be increased by: (i) moving the wire faster. (ii) using a stronger magnet. (iii) increasing the length of wire in the magnetic field. Highlight Faradays law of electromagnetic induction The voltage induced in a conductor is directly proportional to the rate at which the conductor cuts through the magnetic field lines. The direction of induced current depends on the direction of the motion. The direction can be identified using Lenzs law or Flemings right-hand rule. Highlight Lenzs law An induced current always flows to oppose the movement which started it. Example :

Figure 8.28 The south pole of the magnet is moving away from the coil. The induced current flows in such direction so as to produce a north pole to oppose the leaving of the magnet.

Highlight Flemings right-hand rule

Figure 8.29 The direction of the induced current which flows in a wire cutting through a magnetic field can be identified as shown in Figure 8.29.

Application of electromagnetic induction AC and DC generators A generator is a device that produces electrical energy by electromagnetic induction. Generators are the inverse of motors. (a)

(a) (b) Figure 8.31 Figure 8.31 (a) shows a simple DC generator. The output current varies but still flowing in one direction as shown in Figure 8.31 (b). The commutator reverses the contacts of the coil when the coil passes through the vertical position. (b) Figure 8.30 Figure 8.30 (a) shows a simple AC generator. The output current varies during the rotation of the coil as shown in Figure 8.30 (b). The current is zero when the coil is vertical. The current is greatest when the coil is horizontal. The magnitude of the induce voltage can be increased by: (i) rotating the coil faster. (ii) using a stronger magnet. (iii) increasing the number of turns in the coil. (iv) increasing the area of the coil. (v) winding the coil on a soft-iron core. The DC generator is produced when the slip rings are replaced by a commutator. Figure 8.37 Figure 8.37 shows the simple structure and the symbol of a transformer. A transformer consist of two coils of wires which are known as: (i) the primary coil (ii) the secondary coil Analysing transformers Operating principle of a transformer

The electrical energy is transferred from the primary coil to the secondary coil even they are not connected directly to each other. When an AC input flows through the primary coil, the magnetic field changes continuously. This induces an AC output in the secondary coil. Step-up and step-down transformers The voltages in the primary and the secondary coils depend on the number of turns in the coils. The relationship between the voltages and the number of turns in the coils is given as:
Primary vo ltage Number of turns in the primary coil Secondary voltage Number of turns in thesecondary coil

A step-down transformer has more turns in the primary coil than in the secondary coil (NP > NS). The primary voltage is greater than the secondary voltage (VP > VS). Primary and secondary current In an ideal transformer, all the power supplied to the primary coil will be transferred to the secondary coil. This is given as: Power input = Power output VPIP = VSIS VP I S VS I P VP N P From, VS NS IS N P We get, IP NS Energy losses in transformer Some of the energy supplied to the primary coil may be lost as heat in all practical transformers.


Figure 8.38 Figure 8.38 shows the simple structure and the circuit symbol of a step-up transformer. A step-up transformer has more turns in the secondary coil than in the primary coil (NP < NS). The secondary voltage is greater than the primary voltage (VP < VS).

The energy losses are due to: (i) resistance of coils. (ii) magnetization and demagnetization of the core. (iii) eddy currents in the core. The efficiency of a transformer can be determined using:
Efiiciency Outputpower 100% Input power

Quickcheck Question :

Figure 8.39 Figure 8.39 shows the simple structure and the circuit symbol of a step-down transformer. Figure 8.40

Figure 8.40 shows an ideal transformer used to operate a 12V bulb from the ac mains. What is the turns ratio of the transformer? A 10:1 B 20:1 C 30:1 D 40:1 Answer : B

Figure 8.41 Figure 8.41 shows a simple model of electricity transmission system. A step-up transformer is used to increase the voltage and lowered the current at the power plant. The electricity is then transmitted through a grid system. A step-down transformer is used to decrease the voltage before the current is being delivered to consumers. The National Grid Network

Understanding the generation and transmission of electricity Generation of electricity Electricity is generated by electromagnetic induction. The electromagnetic induction is carried out by a generator which has a huge dynamo that is turned by a turbine. Types of energy sources that can be used to produce the electricity are: (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (b) (i) (ii) Renewable Hydro power Wind Waves Solar Biomass Geothermal Non-renewable Fossil fuel (coal, petroleum, natural gas) Radioactive substances

Figure 8.42 Figure 8.42 shows a model of the National Grid Network. The National Grid Network is a system which connects all the power plants, the station and consumers to form a closed network. Some of the advantages of the system are: (i) The power station can be built away from the populated area. (ii) The power supply is uninterrupted since the breakdown in a power station can be supported by another power station. The power supply is distributed according to the demand to prevent energy wastage.

Each of these source has its own advantages and disadvantages. Transmission of electricity Electricity is transmitted through wires from a distant. The magnitude of the current has to be lowered before the current is transmitted to consumers.