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Abstract

Recruitment and retention of employees has been a concern for employers for many decades. However, employee recruitment and retention has taken on a new face as employers realize the methods used to attract and retain previous generations are not as effective today with the younger generation. The purpose of this study is to detelmine how employer attraction and retention practices have changed, or need to change, as Generation Y enters the workforce. This study will identify and outline the demographic characteristics of the four generations in the workplace, the Traditionalists, the Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y. It will outline what each generation needs or wants from the workplace concentrating on Generation Y. Finally it will address the strategies employers are incorporating to attract and retain Generation Y. The methodology used in this study is an online survey that was emailed to 10 Human Resources Managers. The goal was to gain an understanding of the motivations of the different generations and the current recruitment and retention strategies companies are using to attract and retain Generation Y.

Introduction
As the Baby Boomers retire and the young Millennials, also known as Generation Y, enter the workforce, this massive demographic shift is causing big problems for even the most successful companies. These Millennials are highly sought-after for their technological savvy, energetic work ethic, and young, hip attitude that can help companies connect with young consumers. Though highly sought after, these young workers are hard to recruit. Despite the efforts of employers and the good qualities of this younger generation, companies are finding that Generation Y does not always share the same traditional values of the previous generations. The high turnover rate among this generation, who must be recruited, trained and then replaced, is costing companies corers of rupees every year. Why has this new generation of young professionals turned into such a hot commodity? It is primarily because of the mass exodus expected of Baby Boomers from the workplace in the next 5 - 10 years. From the office of Employment Projections, the average large company in the India will lose 30-40% of its workforce due to retirement over the next 5-10 years (Job bulletin 2011). As a result, recruiting Generation Y has become big business.

Statement of the Problem


As employers continue to seek out new employees to replace those who have left the workplace, Generation Y is starting to enter the workforce in record numbers. There are an estimated 80 million kids and young adults in this new generation (Job bulletin 2011). Companies are spending corers of rupees updating their recruiting efforts, corporate cultures, and management styles to accommodate this unique generation (Job bulletin 2011). It is estimated that this generation will create new definitions for work environments, success, leadership, communication, management, entrepreneurship, corporate culture, and professional relationships (Job bulletin 2011). As this group of young future workers enter the workforce, bringing their unique style and new refreshing perspective, organizations are forced to adapt or risk losing corers of rupees to unwanted turnover and lost productivity Companies must first understand this younger generation, learn their background and characteristics as well as understand their work style and what motivates them. Those companies that lack a process to attract, hire, and retain this dynamic new generation, will risk losing billions of dollars if radical changes are not made.

Purpose of the Study


The purpose of this study is to determine whether Human Resource (HR) Managers recognize the workplace motivations of the different generations and if or to what extent companies are changing their recruiting and retention practices to attract and retain Generation Y into the workplace.

Research objectives
1. To identify the demographic characteristics of Traditionalists (born between 1922 and 1943), Baby Boomers (born between 1944 and 1964), and Generation X (born between 1965 and 1979) and what they want in the workplace. 2. To identify the demographic characteristics of Generation Y (born between 1980 and 2000) who are the primary focus of this study. 3. To identify what recruiting and retention efforts employers are currently using to attract and retain Generation Y. 4. To identify what type of recruiting and retention efforts employers should be using to successfully recruit and retain Generation Y to their company.

Significance of the Study


This research will identify the types of recruitment and retention efforts used by companies today to attract and retain Generation Y into the workplace. Human Resource Managers and Recruiters will benefit from this study as it will give them a tool to understand what Generation Y looks for in an employer and what motivates them to stay with that employer. This research will also help companies revise their hiring practices and adjust their benefit packages in an attempt to attract the best of Generation Y as well as retain them, reducing costly turnover rates.

Definition of Terms
Traditionalists. Also referred to as the Silent Generation, people born between 1922 and 1943, this is a conservative group that was greatly influenced by World War II and the Great Depression. Baby Boomers. People born between 1946 and 1964, depending on your source, they were born during or after World War II and raised in the era of extreme optimism, opportunity, and progress . Generation X. Also referred to as Gen X, people born between 1964 and 1980, they were born after the blush of the Baby Boom and came of age deep in the shadow of the Boomers (Zemke et aI., 2000). Generation Y. Also referred to as the Millennials or Gen Y, these titles will be used interchangeably throughout this project. These are people born between 1980 and 2000 otherwise known as Echo Boomers, Nexters, and the Internet Generation. This generation is nearly as large a cohort, or larger, than the Baby Boomers, depending on one's source. They are well educated, skilled with technology, and very self-confident. They are the children of the Baby Boomers and early Generation Xers Cohort. A group of people sharing a particular statistical or demographic characteristic, born in the same general time span who shares key life experiences.

Literature Review Introduction


This chapter includes characteristics of Generation Y or Millennials, their background, work style, and motivations. It also looks at the traits that pose the greatest challenges for employers, what Generation Y expects from their employers, best practices for recruiting Gen Y talent and strategies for retaining this talent. Also included in this chapter is a look back at previous generations, the characteristics that make them unique as well as a comparison between workplace practices of previous generations and the youngest cohort, Generation Y. Finally, there is information about what each generation wants from an employer concluding with what employers should offer to recruit and retain the youngest generation entering the workplace, Generation Y.

Background and Characteristics Traditionalists


Traditionalists, otherwise known as the Silent Generation, were born between the turn of the last century and the end of World War II (1900-1945). This generation is about seventy-five million strong growing up with such defining events as World War II, the Great Depression, the Korean War, and the G1 Bill. Traditionalists have had plenty of opportunities to learn to do without as they were sandwiched between two world wars and the Great Depression . Some of the values that exemplify this generation are dedication and sacrifice, hard work, conformity, law and order, respect for authority, delayed rewards, duty before pleasure, adherence to rules, and honour. The one word, however, that best describes this generation is: loyalty. Traditionalists learned at an early age that by putting aside the needs and wants of the individual and working together toward common goals, they could accomplish amazing things). Their accomplishments are staggering. This group, with their vision and hard work, created the United States as we know it today, a country with its modern democracy is bold, powerful, prosperous, and vital. However, it has its inherent challenges and paradoxes Traditionalists are also responsible for the "great American value system." For example, when people say we need a return to "family values," they are referring to the morality of Traditionalists. When managers say young people do not have any work ethic, they mean the work ethic of Traditionalists. This is a generation of hardy scouts that had gumption and could accomplish any worthy goal.

Baby Boomers
Baby Boomers were originally the largest cohort ever born in the country and number about eighty million. They changed every market they entered from the super market to the job market to the stock market according. The children of the 1940s and 1950s grew up in optimistic times. It was a time of expansion in the United States; the greatest economic expansion this country has ever experienced. As a result, this generation tends to be optimistic. Boomers also think of themselves as stars of the show since they lived in a nuclear family with dad working and mom staying home; the kids were in the spotlight. Boomers also learned about teamwork. There were so many of them, they had to collaborate and cooperate

while sharing texts and desks. They are also a generation that pursued their own personal gratification, often at a price to themselves and others. They have also searched their souls or have been compelled to pursue spirituality, the inner world, and the meaning of life. Lastly, Boomers have always thought of themselves as being cool. As children, by their mere presence, they were trendsetters. Today they still see themselves as being cool.

Generation X
Although Generation X consists of fewer people than the generation before it, the impact that many of its cohort has on society cannot be discounted. This generation came of age during the boom of technology. They are going to be a critical part of the workforce and if employers ignore this group or write them off as cynical slackers unwilling to make a real contribution to the workforce; they will be setting themselves up for failure in the new millennium. Looking back, Gen Xers were the first Latch-key children. In other words, the first kids to be left home alone while both parents went off to work. They were forced to fend for themselves. As a result, they created a survival mentality about themselves. This generation came of age in an era of fallen heroes, a toggling economy, and soaring divorce rates. While their parents were focusing on themselves, this cohort was forced to live a parent-free childhood and had to figure things out for themselves. Because of that, Gen Xers have become very self-reliant and independent. With the feelings of abandonment that shaped their psyches from being left alone so often, they have a strong sense of family creating mini surrogate-type families from close friends, classmates and co-workers. To the kids, the parents looked like workaholics, spending evenings and weekends at the office, bringing projects home, and expending all of their energy and attention on work issues (Zemke et aI., 2000). Generation X is witness to the high price their parents paid for being so dedicated to their work. This was seen in all the health and stress problems these parents faced as well as higher divorce rates and drug and alcohol abuse. As a result, Generation X is more committed to having balance in their lives.

Generation Y
Generation Y, like the generations that preceded them, have other names or titles associated with them. They are known as Eco Boomers because many of them are children of the Baby Boomers. They are sometimes referred to as the Net Generation because of the influence of the rapid evolution of digital technology. This generation reaches between 70 to 90 million in numbers. They are born roughly between 1980 and 2000. The size alone of this generation implies that this is a very influential cohort. This is the first generation of boys to be raised to respect girls as equals. This is the first generation of girls raised to believe they are equals (Job bulletin 2011). In the United States, this generation is the most cross-cultural, cross-creed, and cross-color generation in history. They are a diverse generation with an open mind and acceptance for differences in race, gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation .Gen Yers are independent, technosavvy, entrepreneurial hard workers who thrive on flexibility. This is a generation that has had access to cell phones, personal pagers, and computers since they were in diapers (Lancaster & Stillman, 2002). Through the use of the Internet, Generation Y has visited virtually every comer of the globe. According to Lancaster & Stillman (2002), a recent poll indicated that

Generation Y named "personal safety" as their number one workplace issue. This should be no surprise as this generation has had its share of exposure to violent outbreaks such as the Columbine shooting, readily available illegal drugs, the proliferation of gangs, and terrorism. Generation Y is optimistic and confident thanks to the idealistic Boomer parenting style. They have loyalty and faith in institutions thanks to their influence from the Traditionalists. Gen Xers have given them enough skepticism to be cautious. If there is one word to describe them, it would be "realistic". Although this generation grew up in dual-income households, divorces, and day-care, much like their older cohort, Generation X, the Millennials experienced very different parenting styles. Timeouts replaced spankings as a method of discipline. Parents protected their children from the woes the world was throwing at them. According to Gravett & Throckmorton (2007), this generation has a very different perspective on many things such as: extreme awareness of the environment, worrying about our future, locally and globally, and active engagement in recycling and reducing wastes or pollutants; being a diverse generation with an open mind and acceptance for differences in race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation; an expressive generation as evidenced by some of their dress, body jewelry, and brightly colour hair; being very socially conscious and committed to any cause they value and demonstrating that through volunteering; and having solid moral standards, being much more against premarital and unprotected sex, alcohol, and drugs than Baby Boomers or Gen Xers.

Dynamics of a Multigenerational Workplace What Traditionalist's Want


Most Traditionalists are in retirement at this time. Few are active in the workforce, most in part-time capacities. This generation currently focuses on discussion, inclusion, and process, but not on decisive actions. This generation values a collective sense of dedication, sacrifice, hard work, and respect for authority (Bartley, Ladd, & Morris, 2007). They are also more conservative in their workplace actions. This conservative nature as well as a grounded logical attitude causes many younger employees to view Traditionalists as harsh, gruff and rigid in their professional relationships and in their decision-making processes within the workplace. Traditionalists will join an organization and plan to stay with it, through good times and bad, until they are downsized or retire. You will not find this generation rocking the boat, whether they agree with their boss or not. They will also not complain and are willing to perform the same task or job duties for years. For the most part, they are thankful to be employed. As a result of their backgrounds, this generation respects authority. According to Carey (2001), Traditionalists understand that hard work is part of life and that it brings rewards over time. Traditionalists value conformity and having their experience respected. They like to work in an environment with a clearly defined hierarchy. When motivating a Traditionalist, employers need to let them know that their experience is valued.

They should provide stability and security, address their desire to be self-sufficient and be clear in all work and performance expectations according to C. Howe and Strauss (2007) also conclude that this generation benefits more than any other generation has or will from ample late-in-life payouts such as benefit pensions, retiree health care, and golden parachutes. They have entered retirement with a hip lifestyle and unprecedented affluence. What Baby Boomer's Want As Boomers reach the retirement age, many will remain involved in the working world. To Boomers the word "retirement" will acquire negative connotations of indolence and mindless consumption. The new goal for "serious" elders will be not to retire but to replenish or reflect or simply to keep working. In the workplace Boomers are viewed as likely to focus on consensus building, are excellent mentors and more likely to remain loyal and attached to an organization. Boomers are also considered more diligent on the job and value having a high degree of power within the organization This generation is driven by the mentality that the possibilities are endless. They are eager to succeed, have a strong work ethic, great determination, and expect similar views from the younger employees . Boomers are considered a competitive generation and aim to do their best to prove themselves and their talents in the workplace. Although not empirically tested, the sense of supremacy held by the Boomers coupled with their tendency to belittle future generations may help to explain what fuels much of the conflict concerning generational diversity. In the workplace, Baby Boomers are interested in learning new skills, having an opportunity for personal improvement and the opportunity to be creative. Cennamo & Gardner (2008) also note that the focus of this generation on hard work and achievement suggest that Boomers value status and extrinsic rewards for loyalty and commitment. Because of this commitment to work, Baby Boomers have also been known for their inability to balance work and family. In a supervisor, they like good working relationships. In co-workers they prefer positive interactions. The preferred communication modality favored by Baby Boomers is face-to-face communication . This generation thinks nothing of getting up from their desk and walking to the next office or cubicle to talk with or ask a colleague a question.

What Generation X Wants


Generation X tends to be uneasy with and insecure about corporate America which stems from the uncertain economy of the latter part of the twentieth century. This generation was left with feelings of inferiority and economic instability as they were raised learning the last thing they could trust was the permanence of the workplace. In addition, they were told they could never do as well as their parents. Bartley et ai. (2007) also state that the economic downturn in the early 1980s coupled with bad employer-employee relations, set the stage for Gen Xers' feelings of insecurity and ambivalence and a desire for a hands-off, self-reliant work environment. According to Hart (2006), this generation is unimpressed with authority and prefers leadership based on competence. Although Generation X wants to be mentored and does require frequent feedback, they also have an entrepreneurial spirit, thrive on limited bureaucracy, and want the freedom to work independently. Also, after watching their parents

lose their jobs, they rejected company loyalty and focused on a commitment to their work, their team, and their boss. With this generation focusing on their own careers, you may find them preferring organizations that value skills development, productivity, and work-life balance rather than status and tenure that we saw in the previous generation. In the workplace, Gen X desires more flexibility with their schedules, unlike the previous generations. It has been noted that Gen X works to live rather than lives to work (Bartley et al., 2007). This cohort prefers guidance and inspiration from their managers only in the planning stages of a project and prefers to be left alone between goal setting and completion of the project. As a result of their desire to create their own success, Gen X prefers a manager who acts as a teacher, mentor, or facilitator. Since Boomers tended to be controlling, diligent, and overworked, the characteristics of Generation X in the workplace create a challenge for their predecessors. Generation X also feels that if they did not struggle for balance in their lives, all they would do is work, especially with the advanced technologies in today's workplace.This population believes that it does not matter how work gets done or where it gets done, as long as it gets done. They are more concerned about the outcome and the process than the avenue used to get there. In the workplace, the prefelTed communication modality for Generation X is generally email, instant messaging, or text messaging. This generation is more comfortable sending quick emails or other digital messages than having a face-to face conversation or picking up the phone.

What Generation Y Wants


Undoubtedly, Generation Y is coming and will join the workforce in large numbers. Generation Y will bring a new style and a new perspective to the workforce, but unless organizations are willing to adapt, they risk losing billions of dollars to unwanted turnover and lost productivity. This generation is well educated, skilled in technology, and very selfconfident. They bring with them to the workplace high accomplishments and even higher expectations. Because Generation Y has grown up with supportive, overprotective parents who took pride in their kids, this generation has walked into the workplace with a high degree of self-confidence . In addition, growing up with instant technology and taking it for granted, Generation Y is used to instant communication and is accustomed to giving and getting instant feedback. In the workplace, Gen Y prefers constant feedback and detailed instructions. As a result, they are more at ease and are able to do the job right. The readily available technology has molded them into team-oriented, interpersonal, and gregarious new workers. Generation Y wants to be challenged. They will move on quickly if they become bored with their job for long periods of time. This generation is loyal to people, not to their employers, unlike their parents, the Baby Boomers, who were workaholics and very loyal to their employer. Since employers are accustomed to Baby Boomers working 50, 60, even 70 hours a week to get the job done, this younger generation with their different outlook on work-life balance, will force employers to rethink their expectations when recruiting this generation.

Those top ten hot buttons for recruiting Generation Yare: 1. Having a fun work environment, 2. Sharing the types of challenges they will face, 3. Informing them of the opportunities and making them aware of the path to the top with the Company, 4. Giving gen y the space and the trust to be creative at work, 5. Showing or demonstrating the ethics of the leaders as well as listing the values and principles Of the company, 6. Giving them a sense of ownership on the job, 24 7. Giving them the details of all the ways the company supports a gen y friendly lifestyle such as flexible scheduling, company sponsored dodge ball teams, free passes to cool events, nearby live music venues, and other outdoor activities, 8. Demonstrating how the company embraces all types of diversity, 9. Highlighting how technology is a prui of the workplace and how employees are allowed to test new technology, 10. And bringing the company mission to life, giving gen y a chance to be part of the difference, and playa role in the joyous results. The communication modality preference of Generation Y is very much the same as Generation X. They prefer to use digital means to communicate rather than face-to-face. Generation Y is the first to be digital natives growing up with these technologies in abundance. They are not afraid of new technologies and are often the first to try, buy, and spread the word about cool new gadgets and technologies. This comes as a price, however. Digital communication is not the best source of conducting business, especially with situations where bad news is shared or where conflict is present. This dependence on digital technologies for communication renders this generation inept when it comes to developing more personal relationships with colleagues, managers, direct reports, and clients. Generation Y has big expectations for their future. Once employers understand what this generation wants or what they are looking for in a job, they can adapt their existing recruiting approaches and messages to achieve immediate and measurable results.

Recruiting and Retaining Previous Generations


A culture that has been shaped by the values, standards, and policies of one generation is not necessarily going to be compatible with the next generation that comes through the door. When there are generation gaps at work, when employees do not feel like they fit in, they decide to leave. Although every generation wants to earn more money, there are other factors that encourage each generation to stay with an employer .Traditionalists, for example, show a great deal of respect for authority. They are not opposed to working hard and believe that it will reap great rewards over time. This generation values conformity and appreciates having their experience respected. They also value having a clearly defined hierarchy in the workplace. This speaks to their military backgrounds. Baby Boomers want to see the bottom

line in payroll. They do not have time to watch the market on a daily basis, so let them see their profits in their paycheck. They also want to be recognized by their colleagues and management for the years of experience they have as well as for their daily efforts. Boomers also welcome the opportunity to mentor younger co-workers. This generation is driven by their work. Titles are important to them. The more important and powerful-sounding the title, the more the title will excite a Boomer. Boomers value learning, so to motivate them, organizations must promote lifelong learning, give them public recognition, provide visible perks, and reward them, personally and publicly, especially for the many long hours they give to their work. Generation X, on the other hand, will pick a lower paying job if it gives them more flexibility with work hours allowing them more time for greater work/life balance. This generation also brings with them a strong need for selfimprovement, desiring opportunities to learn in the workplace. For an organization to attract this generation, the job must be fun. It must also contain leading edge technology, continued training and flexibility as well as hands-off supervision. They will suffocate if they are micromanaged. Generation X is also motivated by having the newest technology at their fingertips in their work environment. Generation X is business savvy; they are adaptable and are comfortable with change. If you want to be successful when managing a Gen Xer, treat them as an equal. On the downside, Generation X can be easily bored and cynical when not managed properly. They are neither impressed with nor intimidated by authority. As a result, they will not hesitate to confront or publicly disagree with a manager who treats them as anything but a full partner. Manage them with care.

Recruiting Generation Y
According to Lancaster & Stillman (2002), there is a talent war out there. As we have been hearing, a large number of Boomers are in a position to retire over the next few years. Plus Traditionalists have been able to afford to retire at a fairly young age. In line to replace them is Generation X. However, Generation X maxes out at approximately half the size of the Baby Boomer generation. At the same time, Generation Y is still a decade or so away from filling those gaps in management. So regardless of what happens with the economy, there will be fewer workers available to replace those retiring. Gen Y has grown up with technology since day one. These young adults live in a virtual world as well as a human world. So it is important for companies to communicate with them through both (Job bulletin 2011). Simply advertising open positions using just the company website will not be enough for this generation. Recruiting needs to be driven by a marketing strategy, and technology needs to be one of the tools in the employer's bag of tricks. Some companies are spreading the word about themselves through the "blogosphere" and social networks or trying to lure Gen Yers through Internet-driven games that draw potential applicants into the company website. To lure interested Gen Yers to your internal employment site, your company website had better be a good one, cutting edge not clunky. If you are not visible on the Internet and interesting and cutting edge, you might as well not exist to this generation. Gone are the days of receiving resumes via snail mail. Generation Y is a techno savvy group that likes to apply immediately for a job and wants a response immediately as well. Therefore it is important to have an online application process. Many companies are still offering the same long-term

career opportunities with traditional, old-fashioned rewards such as slow steps up the corporate ladder, six-month reviews, annual raises, and other standard benefits. It is important for employers to create a recruiting message that will attract employees who are looking for a self-building job. Gen Yers look for several things in a job. Tulgan identifies eight of them and suggests to employers to incorporate them sooner rather than later as this generation expects to have these things today rather than waiting for tomorrow. The eight factors, according to Tulgan (2009) that Generation Y looks for in a job are: 1. Performance-based compensation. Generation Y feels very strongly about getting compensated appropriately for their performance. Performance compensation is sometimes more important than actual salary to this group of people. 2. Flexible schedules. Generation Y likes to have control over their schedule and if they are putting in long hours, they want to know that they will be able to take some time off in exchange for those long hours. 3. Flexible location. It is impOliant for these folks to have the flexibility to define their own work space by such ways as arranging their furniture, computers, and art work. 4. Marketable skills. This generation is looking for a job where they can build themselves up with the employer's resources. They are looking for formal and informal training opportunities that build their skills and knowledge faster than they would become obsolete. 5. Access to decision makers. Not only does Generation Y not want to wait to be promoted, but they also do not want to wait to build relationships with important leaders, managers, clients, customers, vendors, or coworkers. 6. Personal credit for results achieved. Generation Y wants to be recognized for the work and results of the work they did. They are not interested in making others look good. They are interested in receiving the accolades they feel they deserve for the work they did. 7. A clear area of responsibility. This generation wants to know that they will have control over something to prove that they can do it. 8. The chance for creative expression. Generation Y wants to know that what they do provides value to the organization, but they also want to have the freedom to do some things their own way. Using these eight points in the recruiting process, employers may find they have a better chance of attracting the Generation Y job seeker. Generation Y also is attracted to ethics.

Retaining Generation Y
There is no doubt that Generation Y is coming. They are well educated, skilled in technology, and very self-confident. They bring with them to the workplace high accomplishments and even higher expectations. This attitude frustrates and irritates the older workers. There is no doubt, however, that organizations cannot afford to waste time and money by not investing in the potential that Gen Y has to offer. In addition, the Baby Boomers are leaving the workplace in increasing numbers. As Boomers leave a workplace that was designed around them, organizations are finding that this current workplace is at odds with the work expectations of Generation Y who are inline to replace those retiring. This clash of culture in the workplace is creating puzzlement, consternation, and havoc at companies that now find

themselves faced with the need to adapt their cultures to the work styles of Generation Y. Grab a hold of Generation Y the moment they accept a job offer. As mentioned earlier, mentoring is important for this generation. A well prepared employer will assign the new hire to experienced employees from day one to work with and mentor the Gen Y employee. The mentors are expected to take responsibility for orientation and initial training of the new hire. The mistake employers often make after investing so much time and energy into a new hire, is immediately dropping them into a demoralizing non-supportive workplace. Some employers break down the size of a task or project into small sizes and train the new hires one tiny piece at a time until they have built a fairly big repertoire. For ambitious new hires, this could happen within a few months and since Generation Y does not want to wait years to do important work and to be taken seriously, this style of training can serve both the employer and the employee very well. Organizations who are accustomed to the work-life imbalance of the Baby Boomers are in for a surprise when trying to retain Gen Y employees. This younger generation is more interested in a work-life balance to the extent that they will leave their jobs if they feel there is an imbalance. Companies that are creative with the work schedules of this generation will undoubtedly have an advantage over those that are not. If your company can offer such scheduling options as telecommuting, taking Fridays off after working four ten-hour shifts, or arriving early on Friday to leave early on Fridays, then these options need to be heavily promoted to Generation Y employees. Having a flexible work schedule allows Generation Y to meet their workplace ambitions and meet their lifestyle priorities. It will also keep them happy and secure their longevity at their place of employment . Companies that want to be the best in the eyes of Generation Y, will need to communicate corporate vision. This generation is attracted to companies that value a commitment to quality products, the environment, and customers. Generation Y likes to feel that their work contributes to the greater good of society. Companies will also need to emphasize respect for diversity.. With the use of the Internet, they have been able to communicate and befriend people from all over the globe. As a result, this is a very diverse generation with an open mind and acceptance for differences in race, gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Generation Y wants to work for a company that involves itself in the community and one that values volunteerism. In middle school and high school most of this generation was required to provide some form of service to the community. These young people want to align themselves with a company that makes them feel proud. A total compensation package is important to attracting a member of this generation. Generation Y expects strong base pay packages, a management style that promotes honesty and integrity, opportunities to work with diverse groups in team settings, and continuous training. They want an organization that will keep them marketable. Often times it has been said that this group needs immediate feedback. They are not willing to wait for an annual review to find out how they are performing. This generation is hungry for mentoring and coaching and responds very well to spontaneous feedback in real time according to. Gen Y wants to be the best. They are interested in knowing how they are doing right away so they can make corrections and improve. They are not interested in waiting several months to find out how they are performing . In addition to providing immediate feedback, successful companies will engage this generation if they create what call "career pathing" or "career laddering." This is defined as a formal process that shows employees what their career progression can look like. Generation Y is more likely to be loyal to a company if they are allowed to be involved in developing their career path within that company, especially if it relates to the visions of the company.

Chapter III Methodology Introduction


It is true that Generation Y will continue the push that began with Gen Xers for cutting edge technology in the workplace. This generation will also continue to encourage their employer for more paid time off to become active in community projects. They will request a flexible work schedule allowing them opportunities to telecommute and to exchange overtimefor Friday afternoons off. Generation Y will expect to be respected and recognized as the unique individuals they are. They will continue to look for new ways within the organization to develop their professional skills. Their aim is to develop as many marketable skills as possible, expecting companies to help them build their resumes. Generation Y wants their dream job as early as possible. They become quickly disillusioned as the realities of the workaday world sets in. This generation only feels a sense of loyalty to the people they work with and are prepared to change career paths several times throughout their lives. Understanding what Generation Y wants will help employers create better marketing strategies when trying to attract and recruit this population. Knowing the background and characteristics of Generation Y will also help companies design programs to explore career path advancement, revaluate policies regarding work/life balance with flexibility while maintaining a productive structure. Employers will need to be prepared to explain how their company is a cool place to work. So are companies making the changes necessary to successfully recruit and retain Generation Y employees? Because of the changing demographics in new hires, the researcher thought it important for Human Resource (RR) Managers to understand what Generation Y wants and needs in the workplace to ensure recruiting efforts are designed to meet those needs and to ensure retention. The researcher studied how well employers are changing their recruiting and retention strategies to meet the demands of todays youngest workforce - Generation Y.

Purpose of the Study


The purpose of this study is to determine whether Human Resource Managers recognize the workplace motivations of the different generations and if or to what extent companies are changing their recruiting and retention practices to attract and retain Generation Y into the workplace.

Research objectives
1. To identify what recruiting and retention efforts employers are currently using to attract and retain Generation Y. 2. To identify what type of recruiting and retention efforts employers should be using to successfully recruit and retain Generation Y to their company.

Subject Selection
The target population of this research is Human Resources (HR) Managers and hiring managers whose primary focus is to recruit and retain employees, primarily Generation Y employees. These were HR Managers in a select group of companies in Baroda. The systematic sampling methodology was structured to obtain a representative sample of the respondents.

Instrumentation
An online survey was set up, investigating the recruitment and retention practices of select companies in Baroda. In order to obtain the largest sampling possible the survey was emailed to 15 Human Resource Managers and hiring managers in select companies in Baroda asking for their participation in the study. Each email contained a URL to the online survey. Furthermore, participants were informed of the fact that this study sought to collect data about the company's recruitment and retention practices of Generation Y. Each recipient was requested to forward the email to other Human Resource Managers or hiring managers whom they felt would be appropriate candidates to participate in this study. As the primary datagathering instrument for this study, the online survey questions were based on the data the researcher discovered during the literature review. The information in the literature review was used to meet the objectives ofthis study. The survey (Appendix A) has five sections that include: Section I: The recruitment strategies the company uses to attract Generation Y (4 points on a Likert Scale). Section II: The retention strategies the company uses to retain Generation Y (4 points on a Likert Scale). SectionIII: The demographics of the Human Resource Manager or hiring manager including age and size of the company (checklist).

Data analysis
The total sample comprised of 15 completed surveys.. Frequency counts, mean, variance, and standard deviation were calculated as well as minimum and maximum values. The results of those analyses were used to assess the recruitment and retention practices companies in Baroda were using to attract and retain Generation Y, from the perspective of the Human Resources Managers and hiring managers who completed the surveys.

Limitations
The limitations of this study might affect directly or indirectly the obtained results. These limitations include: The total completed surveys are a small number of the population. Therefore, the results of the study might not apply to all companies in Baroda. The results might be biased depending on the background of the respondents. The majority of the respondents work at companies with 100 or fewer employees. What may apply to smaller companies may not apply to larger companies and vice versa. The survey did not identify the responses based on the respondent's age, gender and background.

Chapter IV Results
This study focused on the Recruitment and Retention of Generation Y. A survey was emailed to 15 Human Resources Managers and hiring managers in Baroda. The survey was used to address the objectives of this study. In this chapter the objectives will be addressed and compared with the results of the survey. The objectives of the survey include identifying the following: To identify the workplace motivations of older generations (those born before 1980). To identify the workplace motivations of Generation Y (those born 1980 and 2000). To identify the methods companies use to advertise employment opportunities. To identify the recruitment strategies companies use to attract Generation Y. To identify the retention strategies companies use to retain Generation Y.

The results of the data were determined in the following order:. The standard and Internet methods of advertising the respondent's company uses to advertise employment opportunities. The recruitment strategies the respondent's company uses to attract Generation Y. The retention strategies the respondent's company uses to retain Generation Y. The age range of the respondent.

The Recruitment Strategies to Attract Generation Y


The highest number of responses for this topic was 8, the lowest was 5. To assess the data, a Likert Scale or five-point scale, ranging from not relevant to always relevant, was used. The respondents were asked to identify which of the 28 recruitment strategies their company uses in its promotions or advertisements to attract Generation Y. The results of Question 4, in Section III of the survey (Appendix A), are depicted in Table 5. The mean and standard deviation is tabulated in this chart.

Sr.no

Questions

Least Often We advertise 1 our company core values are honesty and integrity We advertise 1 they will be treated with respect & their opinions matter We promote 1 that we support & encourage advancement We offer a 1 collaborative work culture

Somewhat Most Often 1 5

Always Often 5

Response Mean 12 3.04

SD 0.84

14

3.21

0.99

12

3.04

0.84

14

2.87

0.94

We promote that we provide new experiences & exciting opportunities We promote that they will be challenged quickly We promote that we employ fun & friendly people We offer rewards for hard work or have reward programs We provide a very structured path for advancement We offer a solid mentoring program & strong leadership We offer a flexible work environment We offer fun social events We offer home office allowance

2.76

1.00

2.66

1.05

2.66

1.06

2.61

1.10

2.40

1.07

22

2.40

1.00

80

2.29

1.06

1.82

0.86

56

1.43

0.76

With regards to the recruitment strategies the respondent's company uses in its promotions or advertisements to attract Generation Y, the respondents agree that they most often advertise that their company's core values are honesty and integrity (Mean score = 3.34), they advertise that Gen Y will be treated with respect and their opinions matter (Mean = 3.21), they advertise that they support diversity (Mean score = 3.19), and they promote that they support and encourage advancement (Mean score = 3.04). The line items above with standard deviations greater than 1.0 means the standard error of the mean is large indicating that there is considerable variation in the respondent population that

was sampled or that they disagreed with each other. As a result, one can expect a proportionally large number of differing responses in the target population for these same items.

The Retention Strategies to Retain Generation Y


The highest number of responses for this topic was 81, the lowest was 53. To assess the data, a Likert Scale or five-point scale, ranging from not relevant to always relevant, was used. The respondents were asked to identify which of the 18 retention strategies their company uses in its efforts to retain Generation Y. The results of Question 5, in Section IV of the survey (Appendix A) are depicted in Table 6. The mean and standard deviation is tabulated in this chart.

Sr.no

Question Provide feedback & recognition Security & safety from employer Encourage them to recruit their friends Have work environment for idea sharing Challenging career development opportunities sooner rather than later Mentoring

Least Often 1

Somewhat Most Often 1 2

Always 4

Response Mean 8 3.15

SD 0.88

3.10

0.87

2.93

1.03

2.71

0.98

2.68

0.88

2.59

0.91

Provide supporting role on a project

2.57

0.92

Offer a fun 1 & family like work environment Have an 1 established training & reverse training program Career coaching Flexible work environment Strong Internet presence Job rotation Opportunity to telecommute for certain positions 1 1

2.54

1.08

2.51

1.03

2 3

2 3

2 1

7 8

2.49 2.45

1.08 0.93

2.44

1.11

3 3

2 1

1 1

1 1

6 6

1.93 1.94

0.94 1.12

n=10

With regards to the retention strategies the respondent's company uses to retain Generation Y, the respondents agree that they most often use the following strategies to retain Generation Y: they provide feedback and recognition (Mean score = 3.15), they offer security and safety (Mean score = 3.10), they have an established on-boarding process the first day (Mean score 2.93), and these companies encourage Generation Y to recruit their friends (Mean = score 2.93). On the other hand, most respondents' agree that the retention strategies their company uses the least are offering job rotation (Mean = 1.93), and the opportunity to telecommute for certain positions (Mean = 1.94). The line items above with standard deviations greater than 1.0 means the standard en-or of the mean is large indicating that there is considerable variation in the respondent population that was sampled or that they disagreed with each other. As a result, one can expect a proportionally large number of differing responses in the target population.

Respondents Profile
The total of respondents who answered the question on age was 86. Table 8 outlines the demographics ofthe age ranges of the respondents. The majority of the respondents were within the 47 - 67 year age range (40%).

Sr.no

Age 31 years old & younger 32 - 46 years old 47 - 67 years old 68 years & older

Response 3 5 6 1

% 23% 36% 40% 1%

Total

Objective 4: To identify what recruiting and retention efforts employers are currently using to attract and retain Generation Y.
Section II Advertising for employment opportunities included two parts. The first part addressed six standard advertising methods such as the Internet, newsprint, billboard, radio, job fairs, and referrals. The second part of Section II addressed nine different online methods of advertising for employment opportunities such as: Careerbuilder website, Monster.com, LinkedIn, Facebook, Craigslist, eBay, company website, and Blog/Twitter. The top three standard advertising methods used according the Human Resources Managers were Internet, referrals, and job fairs. Newsprint, billboard, and radio scored lowest indicating that these methods are not used often by the companies surveyed. The standard deviation for the Internet and referral options, .74 and .99 respectively, shows that the data are tightly clustered, indicating that there was much agreement between the respondents with their scoring. On the other hand, the standard deviation for newsprint, billboard, radio, and job fairs, 1.26, 1.75, 1.63, 1.26 respectively, tells us that the scoring is widely scattered and the respondents were not in as much agreement. The areas that had the highest scores were company website and Careerbuilder.com. The "Other" option received a higher number as well, but the respondents did not have an opportunity to identify what those other means of advertising were. The lowest scores were assigned to the following options: Monster.com, LinkedIn, Craigslist, BIog/Twitter, Facebook and eBay in order of frequency used. The standard deviation of 0.91 for company website indicates that there was much agreement between the respondents in answering this question. The standard deviation for the other eight options was higher or greater than 1.0 indicating that the respondents varied greatly in their answers. From the survey results, it appears as though most companies are using the following advertising methods to promote employment opportunities: the Internet, referrals, job fairs, the company website, and Careerbuilder.com. In all the research about Generation Y, we have learned that this generation was raised with the birth of the Internet and knows that any company can be found on the World Wide Web. It might be safe to say, that if a company is not using technology its chances to attract Generation Y employees will be difficult. Recruitment addressed the recruitment strategies that companies use in its promotions or advertisements to attract Generation Y. The Human Resource Managers and hiring managers were given different recruitment strategies to rank on a four-point Likert Scale with one occurring least often and four occurring always. The top strategies the HR Managers reported occur the most often are listed as follows in order of frequency determined by the Mean score: 1. We advertise that our company core values are honesty and integrity (Mean = 3.34). 2. We advertise that they will be treated with respect and their opinions matter (Mean 3.21). 3. We advertise that we support diversity (Mean = 3.19). 4. We promote that we support and encourage advancement (Mean = 3.04). 5. We offer a collaborative work culture (Mean = 2.87). 6. We promote that we provide new experiences and exciting opportunities (Mean = 2.76). 7. We have a company presence on MySpace andlor Facebook (Mean = 2.69).

8. We promote that they will be challenged quickly (Mean = 2.66). 9. We promote that we employ fun and friendly people (Mean = 2.66). 10. We promote that we will respect their personal life (Mean = 2.65).

The results agree with the findings that Generation Y will join an organization and stay with it if there is a management style that promotes honesty and integrity and has continuous training and opportunities to work with a diverse group in a team setting. Generation Y is looking for creative, innovative, and meaningful work aligned with their interests. They are also attracted to companies that promote a strong sense of mission, positive corporate culture, and a feeling of corporate social responsibility. This generation is also looking for meaningful work where they can have an effect; however, they are also known to gravitate towards jobs that offer a more balanced work/life schedule. The higher rankings indicate that companies are promoting core values of honesty and integrity, that employees are treated with respect and their opinions matter, that companies support diversity and encourage advancement as well as offer a collaborative work culture. According to the literature review, these qualities are some of the many that Generation Y looks for in an employer. The following ten items were least often used according to the HR Managers from the companies surveyed: 1. We use CareerTV.com (Mean = 1.12). 2. We have a company videogame and/or online business/task simulation (Mean = 1.13). 3. We use text message campaigns (Mean = 1.22). 4. We accept video resumes (Mean = 1.28). 5. We hand out company information on a flash drive (Mean = 1.32). 6. We offer webinars for Q & A (Mean = 1.38). 7. We offer home office allowance (Mean = 1.43). 8. We incorporate family day (Mean = 1.78). The data collected on the topic of recruitment, demonstrates that the least used recruiting methods are those involving technology. Research tells us that in order to attract the best and brightest Gen Y professionals, employers must look to unique and innovative ways. Simply adding a career section to your current company website is not enough. Setting up a Q&A webinar allows candidates to view and participate from all over the world. This allows them to talk to managers and employees their own age to learn about the company culture and the region the company is located. In addition to high tech recruiting strategies, companies should also consider a few low tech strategies such as incorporating family day or offering a home office allowance and adding fun social events. Again, this research demonstrates that those strategies do not play a large role in the companies surveyed. The literature review from Chapter II tells us that the parents of Generation Y still play a major role in their lives. When it comes to job selection, parents of this generation often play a big role in the decision process .So much so, that some employers are inviting prospects as well as their parents to dinner or lunch in an effort to recruit that candidate. Family days allow parents as well as the candidate to tour the company and talk to the managers.

Generation Y is interested in flexible scheduling that could potentially include a home office allowance. Many of these candidates have seen their parents work from home and want the same thing. It may not be feasible for every company to allow its candidates to work virtually, but companies should be prepared to consider it even on a part-time basis. Section II Retention addressed the retention strategies that companies use to retain Generation Y. The Human Resource Managers and hiring managers were given 18 different retention strategies to rank on a four-point Likert Scale with one occurring least often and four occurring always. The top five strategies the HR Managers reported occur the most often are listed below in order of frequency detelmined by the Mean score: 1. We provide feedback and recognition (Mean = 3.15), 2. We provide security and safety from employer (Mean = 3.10), 3. We have an established on-boarding process the first day (Mean = 2.93), 4. We encourage them to recruit their friends (Mean = 2.93), 5. We have a work environment for idea sharing (Mean 2.71). According to the Mean scores, the HR Managers indicate that the above five practices are occurring somewhat often to most often in the companies surveyed. The findings concur with these results.Younger employees have been raised in an era of on demand technology and the instant feedback it provides. These people seek the same type of ongoing performance feedback at their jobs. Managers would do well to keep these expectations in mind as they continue to manage Generation Y employees.

Conclusion
Each day we read the headlines about more and more Baby Boomers retiring at an increasing rate and about companies concerned about their succession plans, wondering if they will have the workforce to fill vacant spots. As employers continue their search for good talent, more and more Generation Y youth are entering the workforce and moving up the corporate ladder. With an estimated 80 million people in this cohort, companies that recognize this incredible opportunity and tap into it early will have the competitive advantage. This research could provide the framework for employers to recognize how they can Y -size their organizations by incorporating the key strategies outlined in this study or where they are falling short of implementing the critical components necessary to attract and retain this large generation of future workers. For many employers, the goal of attracting, hiring, and retaining Generation Y is going to take a complete rethinking of how the organization maximizes its human resources. This rethinking quite often has to come from senior management. These are the people who will need to be onboard and establish clear policies for attracting, selecting, develop, evaluating, and promoting Generation Y. Without senior leadership, it will be difficult to enforce a culture shift. Another important partnership is between senior management and Human Resources. This partnership can work together to consider workplace policies that incorporate a lot of flexibility while maintaining a productive structure. As employers continue to look to Generation Y as the workforce of the future, it will be increasingly important for these employers to understand and appreciate the qualities and values of this cohort. As learned in this research, this generation is technologically savvy; they are career-minded in the fact that they want their work to mean something and have importance to them personally as well as to their company. Plus they will bring confidence to the workplace and the belief that they can do it all. This generation will challenge the workplace like no other. Current people practices were designed during and for a different era. This generation will bring new ideas and values into the workplace. They are motivated and willing to learn, perhaps at a faster rate than one is accustomed to, but they are motivated. So understanding them and being sensitive to their needs will be the key factor in recruiting and retaining them. If you want them to care about your company, show them that you care about them.

Recommendations
The findings of this study resulted in future recommendations for Human Resource Managers or hiring managers. They are as follows: 1. There is much written and talked about the multi generations working together in the workplace. It would be beneficial for HR Managers to understand the different characteristics of each of the generations, their background, the economic influences of their time, their work style, etc. 2. For one to understand the influences and interests of another generation it is also important to understand one's own generation and how one reacts to other generations. 3. It is important for HR Managers to research and learn about Generation Y to better understand their needs and preferred working style. This understanding could minimize the disparity experienced in the workplace. 4. It is of value for HR Managers to understand the different workplace motivations of each of the different generations in the workplace, especially Generation Y. With this understanding, HR Managers can direct and lead change within the organization to move towards creating a culture that will attract and retain the best and brightest Generation Y workers. 5. The findings list multiple strategies to attract and retain Generation Y. It would be beneficial for HR Managers to work with other senior leaders to develop and implement some of the strategies in the study to attract Generation Y and to retain them even if it means stepping outside their comfort zone.

References
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