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Cohesive devices: 1. To connect sentences [flow of ideas from one sentence to another] 2.

Coordinate (grammatical)conjunctions subordinate(lexical) [1st sem] 3. Grammatical wordslexical


(function) (meaning)

4. Exophoric=ellipses 5. Anaphoric(pronoun article), cataphoric(pronoun)=grammatical devices 6. Consonants(lexical), vowels(grammatical) [in spoken lang.] Cataphoric references: 1. Forward references, as the pronoun is mentioned earlier than the Noun. e.g: When he arrived, John noticed that the door was open. 2. Does not include only pronouns(including anaphoric references) 3. Very seldom in English but can be used to make writing more interesting. Anaphoric references: 1. Pronoun, referring to Noun mentioned earlier. e.g: Jo left early. She was sick. [she is the anaphoric reference as it refers to Jo] 2. Can also include determiner, articles and use of commas. Lexical devices: Grammatical devices: 1. Leaving out repeating words, subjects, objects etc in a sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence and is grammatically correct. 2. Repetitive of words is not necessary. 3. We dont leave out subjects before subordinating conjunctions [exception for coordinating conjunctions]