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Reformer TubeLifeAssessment

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Preparedby:Eitzaz Hussain

Contents
Primaryreformerintroduction F2501history Tubedesignparameters Tubedamage&assessment Methodsoftubelifeassessment ScopeofLMMethod LarsonMillerMethod AnexampleofLMMethod UncertaintiesinLMMethod LimitationsofLMMethod

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PrimaryReformer Primary Reformer


Primary reformers are used to convert a process gas mixture of hydro carbons & steam into hydrogenrich gases which can be used in the manufacture of ammonia. The process gas is passed under pressure through vertical tubes filled with catalyst and, since high temperature(900950 OC) is required to maintain the required chemical reaction, the y g outside of the tubes are heated by burners in a large furnace. H2O + CH4 CO2 + 4H2

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F 2501(History) F2501(History)
FosterWheelerdesignedTerracetype Operated19years(19671986)inPascagoula(USA) Mothballedfor5years(19861991) Reconstructedwithnewradianttubes,archroofsealing,roof &wallrefractory,outletpigtailsandheader(incoloy & wall refractory outlet pigtails and header (incoloy 800H)

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TubeDesignParameters Tube Design Parameters


Designpressure g p 500psig Designtemperature 17800F Theoreticaldesignlife 100,000hours Q Quantity y Material O.D I.D Length MSW 392 Abex TX63 4.7inch 3.7inch 42ft 0.465inch

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TubeDamages&Assessment Tube Damages & Assessment


Damages g Creepdamage Thermalcycling/shock Externaloxidation Internalcarburization Damageassessment g Ultrasonictechnique Eddycurrenttesting Radiography Dyepenetrant test Leaktest(soapsolution) ( ) Thermography Refractory inspection Refractoryinspection

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MethodsofLifeAssessment Methods of Life Assessment


1. Destructivestressrupturetesting 2. LarsonMillerEquation(Paperstudy) 2 Larson Miller Equation (Paper study)

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ScopeofLMMethod Scope of LM Method


1. Estimationoftubelifeatgiventemperature,pressure, corrosionrate?? corrosion rate ?? 2. Estimationoftemperatureforspecifiedlifeatgivenpressure &corrosionrate?? 3. Operatingpressure&TMTreductionfortheextendedtube life??

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Larson MillerMethod LarsonMiller Method


Tabulationofrequireddata Calculationofaveragestress Calculation of average stress EvaluationofLarsonMillerparameter&constant Rupturetimecalculation Rupture time calculation Remainingtubelife

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RequiredData Required Data


Tubematerial Tubemetaltemperature(TMT) Tube metal temperature (TMT) Operatinggaugepressure(P) TubeO.D(D Tube O.D (D0 ) Initialminimumtubethickness()

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AverageStressCalculation Average Stress Calculation


Meandiameterequation
beginning

=P/2{(D0/

beginning

)1}

=P/2{(D0/ end)1}
end

=Stress P=Pressure =Thickness

AVG

=(

beginning

+ )/2
end

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Larson MillerParameter LarsonMiller Parameter


LarsonMillerParameterCurves (LMvaluesaretakenagainstaveragestressfromcurves) (S.Iunits) 3 LMP=(T+273)(C +logt LMP= (T+273)(CLM+log tr)x103 (UScustomaryunits) (US customary units) LMP=(T+460)(CLM+logtr)x103
LMP=LarsonMillerParameter CLM =LarsonMillerConstant tr = RuptureTime p

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LM PARAMETER

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GraphGuide Graph Guide


1. Specified minimum tensile strength 2. Tensile strength g 3. Specified minimum yield strength 4. Yield strength 5. Elastic allowable stress 6. 6 Rupture allowable stress 7. Limiting design metal temperature 8. Minimum rupture strength 9. Average rupture strength 10. Elastic design governs above this stress Graph----Stress curves (SI units) for ASTM A 213, ASTM A 271, ASTM A 312 and ASTM A 376 types 347 and 347 H(18 Cr-10 Ni Cr 10 NiNb)stainless steel

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RuptureTime p
Calculated from LM parameters Minimum strength rupture time Average strength rupture time t r(avg) > t r(min)

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RemainingTubeLife Remaining Tube Life


Life fraction = operating period rupture time Life accumulated = life fractions Remaining fraction = 1 - ( life fractions) Remaining tube life = Remaining fraction x rupture life

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An Example

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UncertaintiesinLMMethod Uncertainties in LM Method


Tube damage (uncertain TMT, Operating pressure, Corrosion rate etc ) TMT pressure etc.) Actual rupture strength is no precise Tube damage rule {t r =t r (,T)} t (it asserts that creep rupture will occur when the life fraction totals unity)

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LimitationsofLMMethod Limitations of LM Method


Apply to thin tubes N consideration f graphitization, carburization, No id ti for hiti ti b i ti oxidation & hydrogen attack Apply to seamless tubes

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