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International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 53 (2010) 43434396

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International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhmt

Review

Heat transferA review of 2004 literature


R.J. Goldstein *, W.E. Ibele, S.V. Patankar, T.W. Simon, T.H. Kuehn, P.J. Strykowski, K.K. Tamma, J.V.R. Heberlein, J.H. Davidson, J. Bischof, F.A. Kulacki, U. Kortshagen, S. Garrick, V. Srinivasan, K. Ghosh, R. Mittal
Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
The present review covers the heat transfer literature published in 2004 in English language, including some translations of foreign language papers. Though extensive, some selection is necessary. Only articles published by a process of peer review in archival journals are reviewed. Papers are grouped into subjectoriented sections and further divided into sub-elds. Many papers deal with the fundamental science of heat transfer, including experimental, numerical and analytical work; others relate to applications or natural systems. In addition to reviewing journal articles, this Review also takes note of important conferences and meetings on heat transfer and related areas, major awards presented in 2004, and relevant books published in 2004. 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Article history: Received 20 March 2010 Received in revised form 26 March 2010 Accepted 26 March 2010 Available online 7 July 2010 Keywords: Conduction Boundary layers Internal ows Porous media Heat transfer Experimental methods Natural convection Rotating ows Mass transfer Bio-heat transfer Melting Freezing Boiling Condensation Radiative heat transfer Numerical methods Transport properties Heat exchangers Solar energy Thermal plasmas

Contents Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Boundary layers and external flows. C. Channel flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Separated flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DP. Heat transfer in porous media . . . . E. Experimental methods . . . . . . . . . . . F. Natural convectioninternal flows . FF. Natural convectionexternal flows G. Rotating flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. Combined heat and mass transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4344 4344 4345 4345 4346 4347 4347 4348 4348 4349 4349 4349

* Corresponding author. E-mail address: rjg@me.umn.edu (R.J. Goldstein). 0017-9310/$ - see front matter 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2010.05.004

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I. Bioheat transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J. Change of phaseboiling and evaporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JJ. Change of phasecondensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JM. Change of phasefreezing and melting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K. Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N. Numerical methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P. Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q. Heat transfer applicationsheat exchangers and thermosyphons S. Heat transfer applicationsgeneral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T. Solar energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U. Plasma heat transfer and MHD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Foreword The 2004 Heat Transfer Review is considerably different from those of previous years. This year, the key focus is to provide direct access to the heat transfer related articles which have appeared in peer-reviewed journals. This transition is being done to make this Review more helpful to readers. We apologize for the delay in this publication and the inconvenience this might have caused. It required a considerable effort from everybody associated with this review to plan and execute the transition seamlessly and to make up for this delay, we are publishing the 2005 heat transfer review along with the 2004 review. Instead of being a detailed treatise of individual articles, our focus from this year is to provide our readers with a readily available bibliography pertaining to individual areas of heat transfer. These categories have been kept unchanged from the previous years. However, we are seriously considering to include other upcoming and exciting areas which can have their own category in the coming reviews. The electronic version of the bibliography will be particularly useful to those who have access to Scopus, which we expect will include most academic, engineering and research institutions (Citation no. 1 in Section A is denoted by [A1] in the bibliography). As in the previous years, considerable effort has been devoted to research in traditional applications such as chemical processing, general manufacturing, energy devices, including general power systems, heat exchangers, and high performance gas turbines. In addition, a signicant number of papers address topics that are at the frontiers of both fundamental research and important emerging applications, such as nanoscale structures, microchannel ows, bio-heat transfer, and a number of natural phenomena ranging from upwelling currents in the oceans to heat transport in stellar atmospheres.

1. Introduction The present review is intended to encompass the heat transfer literature published in 2004. While every attempt has been made to be exhaustive, some selection is inevitable. We restrict ourselves to papers published in English through a peer-review process, with selected translations from journals published in other languages. A signicant fraction of the papers reviewed herein relate to the science of heat transfer, comprising experimental, numerical and analytical studies. Others relate to applications where heat transfer plays a major role, not only in man-made devices but in natural systems as well. The papers are grouped into subject-related categories and then into subelds within these categories. In addition to reviewing the literature, we list major conferences held in 2004, major awards related to heat transfer

presented in 2004, and books on heat transfer published during the year. An International Symposium on Advances in Computational Heat Transfer was held on a ship off the coast of Norway, 19-24 April. The sessions covered turbulence and combustion, LES, natural and mixed convection, and micro- and nanoscale heat transfer. The International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer organized the Fourth Internal Symposium on Radiative Heat Transfer on 20-25 June in Istanbul, Turkey. Topics included novel numerical, analytical and hybrid techniques for handling complex geometries, radiative properties of gases and particulate ows, and interaction of radiation with conduction, convection and turbulence. The 2nd International Symposium on Micro/Nanoscale Energy Conversion and Transport was held on 8-13 August, 2004, in Seoul, South Korea. The 2nd International Conference on Microchannels and Minichannels held in Rochester, NY from 17 to 19 June included sessions on boiling, electronics cooling, condensation, biological systems and heat pipes. The ASME and AIChE jointly organized the Heat Transfer and Fluids Engineering Conference on 11-15 July. Sessions focused on thermal dynamics, instrumentation, and gas turbines. The International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IMECE) was held in Anaheim, CA from 13 to 19 November. The International Gas Turbine Institute organized the ASME Turbo Expo from 14 to 17 June in Vienna, Austria. Sessions on heat transfer included papers on lm cooling, vane external heat transfer, rotating heat pipes and combustor liner cooling. The 3rd International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics (HEFAT04) The Eighth International Conference on Advanced Computational Methods in Heat Transfer on 24-26 March in Lisbon, Portugal, covered natural and forced convection, microheat transfer, and atmospheric studies. The Sixth ISHMT/ ASME Heat and Mass Transfer Conference from 5 to 7 January in Kalpakkam, India, included papers on thermo-hydraulics and nano-scale heat transfer. An International Conference on Multiphase Flow organized from May 30th to June 4 in Yokohama, Japan included sessions on droplet and bubble dynamics, heat transfer in particle-laden ows, and instrumentation. The 2003 Max Jakob Award, given jointly by the ASME and AIChE, was conferred on Dr. Kenneth Bell for his contributions to development, selection, application, design, and trouble-shooting of heat exchangers for the process, energy, and environmental control industries. The 2004 Heat Transfer Memorial Awards were presented to Mohammed Faghri (Science) and Dr. Yildiz Bayazitoglu (Art). The Donald Q. Kern award was awarded to Dr. Ralph Webb for his career contributions to industrial heat transfer technology, particularly in the area of enhanced heat transfer surfaces. The 2004 Luikov medal for outstanding research in heat and mass transfer and for furthering international scientic cooperation was awarded to Dr. Masaru Hirata of the University of Tokyo.

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Books published on heat transfer in 2004 include: Heat Transfer P.S. Ghoshdastidar Oxford University Press Introduction to Thermal Fluids Engineering D. Kaminski, M.K. Jensen Wiley Interscience Thermal Engineering S. Kumar, G.N. Sah Alpha Science International Analytical Methods for Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Problems B. Weigand Springer-Verlag, New York Thermodynamic Optimization of Complex Energy Systems A. Bejan, E. Mamut Springer-Verlag, New York Thermodynamics and Heat power, 6th edn. Rolle Prentice-Hall, New York Computer Modeling of Heat and Fluid Flow in Materials Processing C.P. Hong Taylor & Francis, New York Fundamentals of the Finite Element Method for Heat and Fluid Flow R.W. Lewis, P. Nithiarasu, K. Seetharamu John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 3rd edn. W. Kays, M.E. Crawford, B. Weigand McGraw-Hill Inc. Fundamentals of Thermal-Fluid Sciences, 2nd edn. Y.A. Cengel, R.H. Turner McGraw-Hill, Inc. Building Heat Transfer M. Davies John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Applied Thermosciences Agrawal Anshan Publishing Design and Analysis of Heat Sinks A.D. Kraus, A. Bar-Cohen John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Combustion of Two-Phase Reactive Media L.P. Yarin, G. Hetsroni Springer-Verlag, New York

A. Conduction In the category of heat conduction in solids structures, and materials, various papers dealing with a wide variety of subcategories appear. In this context, the papers are categorized into: (1) contact conduction/contact resistance, (2) microscale/nanoscale heat transport, and wave propagation, (3) heat transfer in ns, composites, and complex geometries, (4) analytical and numerical methods and analysis, (5) experimental and/or comparative studies, (6) thermal stress and thermomechanical problems, and (7) miscellaneous applications. These are briey highlighted as follows: 1. Contact conduction/contact resistance Papers in this subcategory deal with thermoelastic contact [A1], nonconforming rough surfaces [A2,A3], contact with liquid [A4], liquidmold interface [A5], solid interfaces [A6] and methods [A7]. 2. Microscale/nanoscale heat transport and wave propagation Various papers appear dealing with fast transient heat conduction, hyperbolic heat conduction, lasers, non-equilibrium phenomena, microscale/nanoscale mechanisims of heat transport, nanocomposites/nanowires, modeling and simulation and experimental techniques and the like [A8A30]. 3. Heat transfer in ns, composites, and complex geometries The studies in this subcategory deal with layered materials and slabs and/or composites [A31A46], ns and different geometries [A47A53], methods and models [A54] and other applications [A55]. 4. Analytical and numerical methods and analysis In this subcategory, papers appear dealing with various types of solution methods [A31,A56A63], numerical simulations [A58,A64A77], and various specialized applications [A63,A78 A83]. 5. Experimental and/or comparative studies Experimental and/or comparative studies appear in selected applications such as thermal contact resistance between polymer and mold [A84], spray cooling [A85], thermophysical properties [A86], solid spot conductance [A87], and friction-wear characteristics [A88]. 6. Thermal stress and thermomechanical problems Thermal and/or thermomechanical studies in bonded composites [A89], arc crack [A90], hot rolling [A91], multi-layer spheres [A92], and others [A93A95] appear in this subcategory. 7. Miscellaneous applications Various miscellaneous and specialized applications and studies dealing with a wide variety of issues in heat conduction appear in [A79,A96A119]. B. Boundary layers and external ows Papers on boundary layers and external ows for 2004 have been categorized as follows: ows inuenced externally, ows with special geometric effects, compressible and high-speed ows, analysis and modeling techniques, unsteady ow effects, ows with lm and interfacial effects, ows with special uid types or property effects, and ows with combustion and other reactions. 1. External effects External effects on boundary layers addressed in the 2004 literature include swirl, oscillation, and unsteadiness imposed by forcing the ow; elevated external turbulence levels, including atmospheric turbulence in atmospheric boundary layers; magnetic and electrical inuences; in atmospheric boundary layers, passing

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of clouds and its effects on radiation and moisture exchange; and various forms of gravitational effects. Boundary condition effects include asymmetric heating; jumps in surface temperature; wall heating effects on turbulent boundary layer heat transfer; and, effects of patches of moisture, such as lakes, on the atmospheric boundary layer [B1B17]. 2. Geometric effects As in previous years, many papers deal with variations in geometry. Such geometric features include surface roughness elements, embedded microchannels or grooves, porous heat transfer walls (with suction or injection); bafes, solid and porous; vortex generators; turbulators; twisted tape; corrugations; ns of various shapes; cylinders of various shapes; spheres; blocks representing electronic modules; rod bundles and rod bundle support structures; shapes of foods; surface curvature; and geometric features that affect approach ow direction. Moving surface geometries include stretching sheets and tips over turbine blades [B18B53]. 3. Compressibility and high-speed ow effects Compressibility effects were documented in wind tunnel tests of the X-38 vehicle; in hypersonic ow over spheres, cones, and scramjet forebodies; and in choked nozzles. One study discussed recovery factors in high-speed laminar boundary layers [B54B61]. 4. Analysis and modeling Numerous papers addressed developments in modeling. These include homogenization of a degenerate parabolic problem in a heterogeneous medium; integral methods for transient convection with a variable heat ux; a stochastic model for analysis of evaporating droplets; an extension of the thermal quadrupole method for stratied media; wavelet analysis for water vapor transfer in the atmosphere; asymptotic approximation methods for cooling of viscoplastic domes; perturbation methods for plates with suction; similarity solutions for asymmetric jets; similarity transformations for compressible boundary layer ows; and a selfsimilar model for heat transfer in power law uids. Optimization methods were applied for locating heated elements in a cooling ow and for optimizing n shape. Optimization by reverse computation was discussed. Inverse techniques were applied to pin n performance. Models for drying of food were reviewed. Modeling of two-uid interfacial ows was discussed. Several papers dealt with turbulence modeling. Multi-block computational techniques were applied to heat exchanger tube banks. A Fourier transferbased data reduction method was applied to heat transfer coefcient measurements [B62B83]. 5. Unsteady effects Papers on unsteady effects include visualization of weld droplet transfer; measurements of temperature on in-ight water droplets; measurements in boundary layers under unsteady wakes; boundary layer development on an accelerating plate normal to a stationary wall; effects of upstream disturbances; unsteady heat transfer with cylinders in cross-ow; cylinders in oscillatory cross-ow; unsteady stretching surfaces; accelerating surfaces with blowing or suction; thermal transients during injection into oil reservoirs; and transients due to injection of hot liquid sprays. For microows, the inuence of thermal accommodation was discussed [B84B97]. 6. Films and interfacial effects Papers in this category on droplets discuss droplets impinging on heated surfaces, spray evaporation; spray jets in gassolid ows; heat transfer of deforming droplets; hanging evaporating droplets; Marangoni instability in evaporating droplets; small droplets on horizontal surfaces; interaction with turbulence, optimum spray characteristics; inlet fogging of gas turbine engines; centrifugal spray deposition; water spray for re suppression; and fuel droplets. One paper discusses the growth and collapse of

bubbles induced by pulsed heating, another discusses transient heat transfer in an inclined wavy lm, and a third simulates adsorption of ammonia vapor into a liquid lm [B98B118]. 7. Effects of uid type or uid properties Papers on the effects of uid types discuss boundary layers driven by power-law shear, surfactant solution ows, liquid metal heat transfer, heat transfer in micropolar uids, water vapor mass transfer over frost layers, drop ows induced by internal secretion of surfactants, high Prandtl number uids, and transport in foodstuff. Several papers were on variable viscosity or other uid properties effects. One paper addressed convection with thermo-diffusion and diffusion-thermo cross-diffusion effects [B119B128]. 8. Flows with reactions Flows with reactions include direct injection diesel combustion, n-octane droplet burning, ignition of fuel issuing from a porous cylinder, combustion of droplets of a propanol-glycerol mixture, and effects of cooled walls on droplet stream combustion [B129 B133].

C. Channel ows Heat transfer in channels continues to see considerable attention in the literature both through experimental and computational studies. The largest growth in papers from previous years was in the area of microchannel heat transfer. The review of articles was subcategorized into the following areas: straight-wall channels and ducts; ducts having ns or proling for heat transfer enhancement; ow and heat transfer in channels in complex geometries; unsteady and transient ow and heat transfer in channels; microchannel heat transfer; and channel ows with multiphase and non-Newtonian ow. 1. Straight-walled ducts The straight-walled duct provides a convenient environment to validate numerical schemes and explore the role of boundary and initial conditions on uid ow and heat transfer. The literature explored a variety of computational approaches including LES and hybrid LES/RANS, the use of a probability density function, DNS of both compressible and incompressible ow and heat transfer, a thermal quadrupole method, the discrete-ordinates methods, as well as a variety of turbulence models; Lagrangian scalar tracking was also employed as a ow marker. Research was also conducted in the broad areas involving low-temperature gases, extended Graetz problems, asymmetric boundary conditions, in the presence of a magnetic eld, multiple-pass arrangements in straight ducts, and at supercritical conditions [C1C48]. 2. Finned and proled ducts The geometrical possibilities for enhancing heat transfer using proling, ns, protuberances, and the like, are usually offset by the challenges of reducing system pressure loss by their addition. The literature considered a rather comprehensive array of heat transfer augmentation strategies including inner corrugations, rib-roughened tubes, slits and solid ribs, coiled and spiraled inserts, pin ns, dimpling, v-shaped broken ribs, traverse-rib roughness, and various strategies of simulating disturbances using jet ejection. Many studies included the concomitant issues of pressure loss; both computational and experimental work was presented covering fully laminar to turbulent ow conditions [C49C77]. 3. Irregular geometries Many practical heat transfer internal single-phase ow problems are generally conducted in complex geometries. Geometries considered in the 2004 literature included helical square ducts, concentric annuli, polygonal pipes, inclined elliptic pipes, twisted

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ducts of various geometries, and geometries where one or more walls are undulating. Other complex congurations that were studied involved ow in a packed bed, in an air gap and seals of electric motors, and in fuel cell geometries [C10,C78C100]. 4. Periodic and unsteady channel ows Time-dependent boundary and initial conditions provide a substantive analytical challenge for obtaining accurate heat transfer solutions; much of the literature tackled this problem from a computational perspective. The literature examined transient heat transfer in turbulent pipe ow; imposed oscillations in ducts with and without temperature gradients; the turbulent ow and heat transfer in a channel with reciprocating motion; and secondary motion imposed by external forcing or due to nature instability such as helically oriented ows. A variety of uids were considered including liquid metals, supercritical uids, and high-pressure gases [C101C122]. 5. Microchannel ow and heat transfer Very small-scale systems are becoming increasingly viable and documenting their heat transfer characteristics is vital for thermal performance and to avoid thermal failure. Micro- or minichannels ow congurations included axial conduction in micronned geometries; thermalhydraulic conditions in capillary tubes; microchannel networks and lattices; using Monte Carlo methods for micro- and nanoscale channels; and the role of wettability in heat transfer performance in microchannels. Cross sections included square, rectangular, and circular, as well as other complex three-dimensional congurations. A review also appeared considering heat transfer enhancement in single-phase ow in microchannels, minichannels, and microdevices [C123C163]. 6. Non-Newtonian and multiphase heat transfer in channels Complex uids add another dimension to the complexion of the thermal behavior of duct ows. Viscoelastic uid was studied between parallel plates and in ducts. Power-law uids were investigated in triangular ducts and general non-Newtonian uids were considered in elliptic ducts. Two-phase ow included gasliquid ows, solid-particulate ow, the introduction of nano-particles, and the role of aqueous solutions in drag reduction and heat transfer [C164C176]. D. Separated ows This section deals with papers addressing heat transfer characteristics in ows experiencing separation, either by rapid changes in geometry or strong adverse pressure gradient. This section also includes the thermal behavior of ow past bluff objects, jets, and reattachment. 1. A numerical study examined the ow over staggered oval tubes. Heat transfer control was employed in a backward-facing step ow using miniature electromagnetic actuators. Laminar ow past a cylinder was studied where jet efux was introduced into the near wake. A number of studies considered the ow and heat transfer in tube and rod bundles; a bank of yawed cylinders was also studied. Driven cavity congurations were investigated with and without ow control to augment heat transfer. A sudden expansion in a pipe was studied when driven by a piston. LES was used to investigate the turbulence and chemistry in a bluffbody ame holder. A numerical study was conducted on a supersonic combustor with cavity-based fuel injection [D1D47]. DP. Heat transfer in porous media Fundamental and applied research on heat and mass transfer in porous media span a very wide range of technologies and physical

phenomena. This eld of research has grown dramatically over the past 25 years, and there appears to be no decrease in the level of interest. Measurement and analysis of single phase free and forced convection for a variety of ows and geometries that mimic systems found in nature and technology are the focus of a large portion of the literature reviewed. Multi-phase transport and porous combustion systems attracted a good deal of interest. The effective transport properties of natural and ideal uid-porous systems continue to receive attention as well. Review articles have appeared in 2004 on heat and mass transfer in the vacuum membrane distillation process [DP1]. A comprehensive comparison of heat transfer correlations is presented for vacuum membrane distillation, and the modeling framework for handling extractive metallurgy is described as the focal point of modeling reactive multi-phase ows. The major categories of the porous media literature for 2004 are: 1. Combined heat and mass transfer Hygroscopic materials, insulation systems, solid fuels, desiccant materials, and frost layers provided the framework for a wide variety of analytical and experimental papers on combined heat and mass transfer in porous media. Drying technologies, including uidized beds, provided the technical impetus for much of the published research. Fundamental studies also appeared for deformable porous materials, anisotropic porous materials, porous materials and aggregates supporting re, and freezing and thawing problems such as those encountered in soils [DP2DP33]. 2. Combustion systems Porous media as found in combustion systems ranging from porous burners to diffusion controlled res on a porous surface have been the subject of analysis and well-dened experiments. Models of porous burners including radiation and complete combustion chemistry have appeared, and convective transport in a range of matrix materials continues to be of interest [DP34DP42]. 3. Fluidized beds Heat and mass transfer problems that arise in the design and operation of uidized beds continue to receive substantial attention. Theoretical studies have been published on radiative heat transfer within gas uidized beds and bed-to-wall radiative transport. Non-Newtonian effects and circulation in the uid phase were the subjects of analysis. Experiments were reported on bedto-wall heat transfer, particle motion and effects of particle properties. Some work on spray granulation and heat transfer to a single rising bubble also appeared [DP43DP59]. 4. Foams Metal and ceramic foams were the primary focus of research, but heat transfer by convection and radiation in lattice structures has begun to receive attention. Most studies on open cell type foams concerned the determination of their effective properties and measurement of convective heat transfer coefcient under various ow conditions. Theoretical and experimental studies address heat transfer augmentation and optimization of radiative transport [DP60DP66]. 5. Forced and mixed convection Forced and mixed convection in porous media were extensively studied, largely via analysis and computation. Among the problem types considered for forced convection were: convection with radiation in channel ow, multi-uid systems with parallel ow, external ow and heat transfer from embedded objects, forced ow in structure porous media, wall effects, variable properties, NonNewtonian effects, non-Darcy effects, and forced ow over porous structures. Application topics included porous heat exchangers,

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mold lling with a ber structure, modeling of microchannel heat sinks as a porous system, modeling a nned heat sink as a porous medium, and a porous medium as the model for a nuclear reactor core [DP67DP106]. Mixed convection problems included studies of ow stability, power law uid effects, effects of matrix variability, coupled convective and radiative transport, and non-equilibrium descriptions of heat transport [DP107DP114]. 6. Free convection Variations of the classical external surface ows and cavity ows were the subject of numerical and analytical research. Applications span geophysics, environmental science, and manufacturing. One study demonstrated that the CPU time for numerical solutions can be reduced with loss of accuracy by rst solving the transport equation in the solution algorithm. Flow and heat transfer from external surfaces, including wedge shapes and bodies of revolution, were considered in the context of variable viscosity effects, stratied ows, double diffusion, dispersion effects, oscillatory and transient ows, and magnetic eld effects. Cavity problems were extensively considered as well. Numerical solutions for differentially heated cavities have been published for layered cavities, double diffusive free convection where in there are cross gradients of concentration and temperature, heat generating porous media, partially open enclosures, and inclined layers. A few studies considered convection irregular cavities such as those with wavy walls [DP115DP147]. 7. Packed beds Convective heat transfer and combined mode transport in stationary packed beds continued to receive some attention this year. Packed beds with regular and irregular packing were the subject of analytical and numerical studies of steady and transient operation. Wall effects on heat transfer and bed performance were also considered. Experimental data generally included temperature proles in the bed and on the wall for a variety of packing morphology, ow rates, and ow regimes [DP148DP154]. 8. Phase change The literature on phase change in porous media spans problems from condensation to freezing in particulate and capillary brous porous media. Normal freezing processes as well as freeze drying are experimentally and analytically studied. A good effort has gone into developing the appropriate three-phase equations that describe the heat and mass transfer across the system [DP155 DP161]. 9. Property determination The determination of transport properties of uidporous matrix combinations has seen an increase in activity In the past year. Several studies were aimed at determining the effective conductivity of inert particle beds, stacked food particles, and other natural materials. In owing systems, permeability and dispersion coefcients were of interest, as well as wall effects on transport. Similar quantities were sought for sintered and laminated porous-like matrices made with a variety of materials [DP162DP188].

important developments in these areas in the current year. We divide the section into several subcategories covering different types of measurements. (1) Direct heat transfer or heat ux measurementthis includes local heat ux gages, surface area transfer, and overall heat ow measurements; (2) Temperature measurementthis includes individual sensors, optical techniques, improved data acquisition systems for instantaneous or steady state, local or average measurement; (3) Velocity and ow measurementonly such measurements that are important to heat transfer studies are covered. These include measurement of local and average velocity, steady and time varying, as well as volume and mass ow rates; (4) Thermal property measurementproperties important in heat transfer systems are covered. These would include thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, some thermodynamic properties and other heat transfer related properties including mass diffusion coefcients; (5) Miscellaneous measurements these could include items from integrated measurements to bubble and, droplet size or moisture content measurements important to heat transfer phenomena. Contributions in the current year, 2004. 1. Direct measurement of heat transfer Studies this year include improvements in thermopile heat ux gages, a transient liquid crystal technique, and several special systems. Characterization of techniques for applications to cooling of lava ow and optimizing thermal barrier coatings are reported [E1E12]. 2. Temperature measurement Studies cover analysis of radiation errors occurring when studying pre-ashover and post-ashover compartment res and applications in the freezing of foods. Other studies include interferometric techniques for measuring temperature in microuid ows and study of the temperature distribution in silicon MEMS devices during and after laser radiation [E13E21]. 3. Flow velocity measurement Studies include an electrostatic probe to determine gas velocity distribution, a sensor for studying multiphase ow in microchannels, development of thermal sensors for measuring wall stress, a measuring system for determining liquid frost penetration, and a visualization technique for a two-phase ow [E22E31]. 4. Thermal properties Relevant studies include determination of thermal diffusivity by a laser-ash technique, use of a thermal resistance to measure the ow conductivity of microporous materials, measurement of thermal conductivity of transparent solids, optimization of measurements with a calorimeter, a transient method for studying properties of porous materials and a capillary-Coriolis instrument for determining thermal properties [E32E38]. 5. Miscellaneous measurement techniques These include a thermal probe to determine moisture content, analysis of the sensitivity of thermocouples in differential scanning calorimeters, analysis of conduction and radiation heat transfer in porous media, determination of local properties from integrated measurements in gas dynamic ows and new methods for measuring thermal contact conductance, and properties in microchannels [E39E47].

E. Experimental methods Fundamental and applied experimental heat transfer studies, as well as testing of heat transfer equipment and measurements in a number of natural phenomena, require good experimental methods and equipment including sensors and data acquisition systems. New and improved instrumentation for various parameters of importance to heat transfer studies is continually being developed and modied to provide more accurate, sturdier, more convenient, faster, and more exible systems. The present section covers

F. Natural convectioninternal ows 1. As in previous years, many publications focused on classical Rayleigh Benard ows, the horizontal plate geometry and turbulence models [F1F12].

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2. Thermocapillary ows were investigated primarily using numerical methods under evaporation conditions. Transient and oscillatory conditions were also considered [F13F22]. 3. Many papers covered numerous enclosure geometries including vented side walls and internal blockages. Numerical solutions predominate a few experimental studies using air, water and an electrochemical mass transfer method [F8,F23F58]. 4. Several vertical channel ow conditions were considered with oscillating walls, water evaporation, convergingdiverging geometry and multiple heat sources [F59F65]. 5. Heat transfer in horizontal cylindrical annuli continues to receive attention with spherical annuli and ows in vertical and inclined cylinders are also considered [F66F75]. 6. Mixed convection was studied using a moving lid, moving side walls or the use of a propeller for stirring the uid [F76F80]. 7. The paper that considers the most complex geometry reports on a study to simulate the diurnal heating/cooling cycle in lakes and reservoirs [F81]. 8. The majority of studies on res focus on buildings including single rooms and large atriums [F82F92]. 9. Other situations include jet res near liqueed petroleum tanks, garment combustion and coal bank res. Correlations have been provided to predict the growth rates of cells near a cooled side wall in the presence of a double-diffusive stratied environment [F93]. 10. Thermal convection in an underground LNG tank heated from below and on the sidewalls was studied experimentally and large-eddy simulations were performed to study the daytime Mars atmospheric boundary layer [F94F97].

6. Miscellaneous (marked #7 on sheets) Two papers that use experimental methods to study the heat transfer from vertical helical tubes in water and in a glycerol-water mixture were presented [FF50,FF51].

G. Rotating ows 1. Rotating disks Temperature distribution is studied for the cases of a rotating disk subjected to an eccentric heat source and surface cooling [G1], wakes behind a disk in a planar stream [G2], sudden subjection to natural convection [G3], in a thin liquid lm on a rotating disk [G4], co-rotating disks found in computer disk-drive systems [G5], and in a thermally and mechanically inhomogeneous disk with intermittent heating [G6]. Heat transfer for a disk rotating in a uid rotating as a rigid body is studied [G7]. 2. Rotating channels Motivated by the internal cooling systems of gas turbine blades, a large number of papers study heat transfer in rotating channels. Papers study various aspects of centrifugal buoyancy, Coriolis forces, periodic ribs, twisted tapes, and jet impingement in ribbed channels [G8G22]. Laminar convection in radially rotating circular channels in regenerators is studied using an electrolytic technique [G23] as well as in rotating elliptic ducts [G24]. The effect of axial rotation is studied for inner wall rotation in annular ow [G25,G26], heat pipes [G27], and heat transfer in channels with imposed arbitrarily oriented rotation is studied numerically [G28]. 3. Enclosures Heat transfer in rotating enclosures, including the formation of kidney vortices, is studied. Rotating granular beds [G29], interaction of Coriolis and electromagnetic effects [G30G32], dynamical behavior under articial gravity [G33], enclosures with a rotating lid [G34,G35], thermocapillary convection in the presence of a rotating magnetic eld [G36] and inclination [G37] in crystal growth processes, and chemical vapor deposition in a rotating-disk reactor [G38] are studied. Variational methods are used to estimate upper bounds on convective heat transfer in a rotating porous layer [G39]. 4. Cylinders and bodies of revolution The work presented includes self-similar solutions and numerical solutions for unsteady mixed convection on rotating spheres [G40G42], rotating cylinders [G43G45], rotating cone [G46] and solidication in the Czochralski crystal growth method [G47].

FF. Natural convectionexternal ows 1. Vertical, horizontal and inclined plates The majority of papers in this section consider a vertical at plate with various uid and thermal boundary conditions. Wavy vertical plates and plates with ribs are also considered as are heated horizontal plates facing up and down [FF1FF13]. 2. Channels, n arrays and electronic cooling (marked #3 on sheets) A fundamental study of secondary ows in inclined channels was presented as was the study of heat transfer enhancement including the use of pin ns and delta-winglet vortex generators [FF14FF18]. 3. Bodies of revolution (marked #4 on sheets) Experimental and numerical studies were performed on a variety of geometries including horizontal nned cylinders and ellipsoidal cylinders, vertical cylinders, vertical and horizontal cones and spheres [FF19FF26]. 4. Buoyant plumes (marked #5 on sheets) Applications of thermal plumes include upwelling of deep seawater, ows in the earths mantle and clustering of turbulent plumes [FF27FF31]. 5. Mixed convection (marked #6 on sheets) An ultrasound method was developed to measure the temperature spectra in turbulent thermal plumes. Studies of mixed convection include ows in vertical tubes and ducts, ows adjacent to vertical at plates with various boundary conditions, forward and backward facing steps, and ows in horizontal layers and ducts heated from above and below [FF32FF49].

H. Combined heat and mass transfer Heat transfer and mass transfer are tightly coupled in many scientic and engineering problems. The coupling of the twooften with the uid dynamicsmakes themselves present in a wide variety of physical phenomena. Additionally, isolating the dynamics of heat transfer from mass transfer, or vice versa, is often difcult but considerable attention is given to the area. This subject matter of this section covers the spectrum of combined heat and mass transfer for the current year. The section is divided into eight subsections, with each one focusing on a specic physical phenomenon. 1. Ablation This includes the modeling and simulation of heat and mass transport during laser ablation of porous and metallic materials, the effect of ablation on friction drag, and the ablation of bio-materials [H1H5].

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2. Transpiration This includes the modeling of water transfer from soil, transpiration cooling in turbulent ows, the effects of transpiration with regard to turbulence/ow modication [H6H11]. 3. Film cooling This includes reactive lms, the thermo-aerodynamics of separated ows, the effect of injection-hole shape and conguration, pressure gradients, and blowing ratios on heat and mass transfer [H12H22]. 4. Jet impingementsubmerged jets This includes the effects of ow dynamics, including spatial and temporal structures, turbulence, jet and jet-array conguration and uid structure interactions on heat and mass transfer [H23 H71]. 5. Jet impingementliquid jets This includes the effect of nozzle/ow conguration, numerical simulation and the accuracy of k-epsilon models, and the use of new sensors in characterizing heat transfer via liquid jets [H72H77]. 6. Sprays This includes the use of atomizers, droplet velocity distributions, dropletsurface interactions, their effect on lm spreading and the resultant effect on heat transfer [H78,H79]. 7. Drying This includes drying of biomass, the development of heat transfer correlations, the use of microwaves, and the dehumidication of multiphase and multicomponent mixtures [H80H89]. 8. Modeling This includes the use of direct numerical simulation, the development and application of k-epsilon turbulence models, as well as the development of improved analytical models that exhibit greater delity to physical measurements [H22,H74,H81,H90H114]. 9. Mixing Mixing between hot and cold gases in cooling processes was investigated [H115]. I. Bioheat transfer The present review is only a small portion of the overall literature in this area. This represents work predominantly in engineering journals with occasional basic science and biomedical journals included. This is a very dynamic and cross disciplinary area of research, and thus, this review should be taken as more of an overview, particularly from an engineering point of view, rather than an exhaustive list of all work in this area for this year. Subsections include work in (1) biopreservation, (2) thermal therapies, (3) thermoregulation (thermal comfort and physiology), (4) thermal measurement, modeling and properties, (5) food technology and (6) general/miscellaneous. 1. Biopreservation Articles in this section include optimal control of cryopreservation processes [I1,I2]. 2. Thermal therapies In this subsection, various thermal therapies have been discussed. These include freezing problems in cryosurgery, laser treatment, hyperthermia probes, and high intensity focused ultrasound [I3I13]. 3. Thermoregulation Work in thermoregulation comprised of several subareas including climate control design, clothing and thermal comfort, and physiological processes [I14I21].

4. Thermal measurement, modeling and properties Articles related to thermal measurements include determination of absorption coefcients of tissues based on temperature measurements, in vivo measurement of swine endocardial convective heat transfer coefcients and a noninvasive technique to determine heat generation in human limb. A nite difference scheme for modeling the Pennes bioheat transfer equation was studied. Other articles in this subsection include modeling of heat transport in skin, intubated airways and limbs [I5,I22I30]. 5. Food technology Articles in this subsection study the effect of storage conditions on the quality of frozen products, thawing and freezing of meat products and microwave heating of chilled products [I26,I31I33] 6. General/Miscellaneous This subsection lists articles in the eld of bioheat transfer which could not be classied in any of the above sections. These include a review of fractional calculus used to model biological systems and a review of transcutaneous energy transformer systems [I34I39].

J. Change of phaseboiling and evaporation Papers on boiling change of phase for 2004 have been categorized as follows: Those that focus on droplet and lm evaporation, bubble characteristics and boiling incipience, pool boiling, lm boiling, ow or forced convection boiling, and two-phase thermohydrodynamic effects. 1. Droplet and lm evaporation These papers focus on evaporation of droplets, lms, and interfaces. Many of them address evaporators for refrigeration or evaporation of falling lms or attached drops. Some look at effects of emulsied oils or fuels, or additives. Evaporation of various uids such as refrigerants, mixtures with salts, foods, or uids with suspensions is addressed. Some discuss surface geometry effects, such as microporous coatings, microns, or tube inserts. Some deal with interface characteristics, such as contact angle, static and dynamic. Many relate to evaporation in microchannels or membranes. Some look at external inuences such as electric elds [J1J38]. 2. Bubble characteristics and boiling incipience Many of the papers specically address the effects of bubble dynamics, including initial growth, interactions with neighboring bubbles, or subsequent coalescence. Some include surface tension-driven motion. Many discuss surface geometry effects such as microgrooves, cable (superconducting) strands, porous coatings, or designed reentrant cavities. Some include global geometric effects, such as microchannels. The effects of additives, such as nanoparticles (coined nanouids) are addressed by some. The effects of uid types, pure or mixtures, are foci of some. Others discuss external inuences, such are acoustic excitation, or boundary conditions such as pulsed heating [J7,J39J75]. 3. Pool boiling Nucleate pool boiling and critical heat ux in pool boiling are addressed in this section. Incipience, transition boiling, or lm boiling papers have been put in other sections. Many papers discuss performance with various uids, such as refrigerants, uid mixtures, foods, or uids with additives, including nanoparticles or dissolved salts. Various macro-scale geometries, such as downward facing surfaces or horizontal cylinders, are discussed. Some discuss small-scale geometric features, like boiling within porous media or on coated surfaces, ns, computer chip materials, or composites. Some focus on transient processes like quenching. Some address external inuences, such as electric elds, magnetic elds,

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non-standard gravitational elds, vibration, or agitation. Many of the papers present modeling concepts [J76J139]. 4. Film boiling Film boiling papers in this section address either pool or forced convection boiling. They apply to internal or external lms on smooth or wavy surfaces or lms under impinging droplets. Some discuss various uid types such as mixtures; surface characteristics such as oxidation layers; or external inuences such as electric elds. Some focus on transient effects such as quenching, droplet or lm evaporation, or nuclear reactor transients. Several of the lm boiling papers present modeling ideas and some present experimental methods. Several papers in this section discuss transition boiling, the portion of the boiling curve between nucleate boiling and lm boiling [J97,J140J157]. 5. Flow boiling There were numerous papers in this years review on ow boiling. Forced convection was through straight and spiral channels (including narrow channels, microchannels, and gaps) or over tube bundles or other external surfaces, or with impinging jets. Many discussed boiling performance in various uids such as carbondioxide; various refrigerants and refrigerant mixtures; various solutions, including surfactant solutions; or uids with non-condensables or with particles. Some discussed surface feature effects such as ns, ribs, microns, dimples, and highly-wettable surfaces. Some addressed external inuences such as orientation with respect to gravity or a degree of vibration. Many discussed modeling and some others discussed experimental techniques [J158J196]. 6. Two-phase thermohydrodynamic effects Emphasis in this section was on hydrodynamic effects during boiling. Some papers dealt with ow boiling, tying behavior to the operative two-phase ow regimes and others dealt with pool boiling and vapor removal patterns. Many addressed modeling and tied the model formulation to the ow regime. Some of the hydrodynamic effects studied were tied to channel geometryparticularly popular topics were small- and microchannels. Many of the papers addressed unsteady or unstable effects tied to thermohydrodynamics. Much of the work documented was supported with high-speed photographs [J197J219].

niques, and presents a heat transfer model including the interface resistance in low-nned tubes [JJ13] and for square microchannels [JJ14]. Numerical work investigates the performance of double pipe evaporators and condensers [JJ15], non-equilibrium condensation in transonic steam ow [JJ16], condensation in a forced external boundary layer [JJ17], condensation in a desiccant wheel [JJ18] and the effects of gravity, shear and surface tension [JJ19] and noise sensitivity [JJ20] in internal condensing ows. 2. Global geometry Papers present condensation heat transfer data for vertical tubes [JJ21], micron tubes [JJ22JJ24], droplet entrainment in drowse condensation, inclined tubes and surfaces [JJ25,JJ26], microchannels [JJ27,JJ28], helical pipes [JJ29], CO2 condensation in mini channels [JJ30], corrugated plates [JJ31], various refrigerants inside plain and micron tubes [JJ22,JJ32], aerosols in respiratory pathways [JJ33], tube-bundles [JJ34], inclined tubes [JJ25,JJ35], integral-n tubes [JJ36], U-type bends [JJ37], direct-contact jet condensers [JJ38] and the effects of non-condensable gases over a wide range of Reynolds number [JJ39]. The thickness of a falling lm on horizontal tubes is measured using a laser technique [JJ40]. 3. Surface effects Papers in this section present the effect of substrate wettability variation and the resulting non-uniform drainage on frost formation [JJ41], dropwise condensation enhanced by round and crossgrooves [JJ42,JJ43], a review of surface tension effects [JJ44], and surface corrugation inclined to the ow [JJ45]. 4. Mixtures Marangoni effects in condensation heat transfer were studied for water/ethanol [JJ46JJ48], ammonia/steam [JJ49,JJ50], zeotropes [JJ51], mixtures of vapors of immiscible liquids [JJ52] and other multi-component mixtures [JJ53] and in shell-and-tube condensers [JJ54,JJ55].

JM. Change of phasefreezing and melting In this section, freezing and melting problems in the heat transfer literature are reviewed. The problems are broken into various further subdivisions as given in the subheadings below. 1. Melting and freezing of sphere, cylinders and slabs Work in this area included thawing and freezing of meat products, and vacuum freeze drying of various solid geometries [JM1,JM2]. 2. Stefan problems, analytical solutions/special solutions Work in this subsection studied moving boundary problems from freezing during cryosurgery [JM3]; and non-stationary heat conduction with non-linear boundary conditions [JM4]. Solutions to Stefan problems using a xed grid method and with variable latent heat were discussed [JM5,JM6]. 3. Ice formation/melting Investigations included freezing of grounds [JM7]; rate of frost heave versus heat extraction [JM8]; ice formation and removal from vertical plates [JM9]; and cool-thermal discharge systems from ice melting [JM10,JM11]. Ice melting patterns were studied [JM12,JM13]. Aircraft icing was discussed [JM14]. Other studies included: de-icing in concrete [JM15], melting of ocean ice [JM16] and ice slurry production [JM17]. 4. Melting and melt ows Articles in this area discuss: heat transfer in a liquidmetal pool [JM18]; melting in metallurgical processes [JM19JM22]; heat transport associated with simultaneous growth of solidliquid

JJ. Change of phasecondensation Papers on condensation are categorized into those dealing with the analysis and modeling of all aspects of condensation heat transfer, surface modications to enhance heat transfer, experimental and analytical papers dealing with global geometrical modications, and the heat transfer behavior of condensing mixtures. 1. Modeling and analysis Papers in this section examine a variety of situations analytically as well as numerically. Three correlations for condensation on micron tubes [JJ1] and inside vertical tubes [JJ2] are reviewed. Models for condensation on a vertical wedge [JJ3], contact condensation in adjacent stagnation-ow boundary layers [JJ4], on noncircular tubes [JJ5], elliptical tubes with variable wall temperature [JJ6], a variable-conductivity n [JJ7] and steam condensation in a vertical tube in the presence of non-condensables [JJ8] are presented. The mass and heat transfer through a phase interface are described by a Van der Waals square gradient model and compared with molecular dynamics simulations and kinetic theory [JJ9]. Heat transfer enhancement is explained through critical values of the surface free energy difference between lm, mixing and dropwise modes [JJ10]. The mass accommodation coefcient at the interphase is calculated [JJ11]. Rose [JJ12] reviews calculation methods and accuracy of condensation heat transfer measurement tech-

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melt layers [JM23]; melt ow in directionally solidied alloys [JM24,JM25]; polymer melt ow [JM26], melt furnace [JM27] and material interaction [JM28]; optical ber manufacturing [JM29]; and food (cheese) processing [JM30]. A few studies were related to numerical modeling of the melting process [JM31JM36]. Other studies involved: heat transfer during laser melting processes [JM37JM41]; oscillatory ow in silicon melt [JM42,JM43], melting of alkali halides [JM44], two phase ow [JM45], buoyancy-driven effects in melt during melting and freezing [JM46]. 5. Powders, lms, emulsions, polymers and particles in a melt Topics included laser forming from metal and ceramic powders, and heat transfer in micro- and nano-sized powders [JM47JM49]. 6. Glass technology Several studies presented heat transfer in glass-melting furnaces and solidication of glass in molding [JM50JM53]. 7. Weldinglaser ablation This subsection contains articles which study weld pools [JM54], ultrasonic welding [JM55], laser welding [JM56], arc welding [JM57] and laser ablation [JM34,JM58]. 8. Energy storagePCM Articles in this area are related to the study of heat transfer characteristics of phase change energy storage processes. Individual topics discussed were: melting and solidication [JM59 JM62]; numerical and analytical models [JM63JM67]; thermal management system for an electric scooter [JM68]. Phase change processes in enclosures were also investigated [JM69JM71]. 9. Casting, moulding and extrusion Work in these areas are presented below: Casting: This area covers articles related to heat transfer in casting processes [JM22,JM72JM94]. Two papers investigated wire casting [JM95] and sand casting [JM96]. Moulding: Heating and cooling during moulding processes were analyzed [JM81,JM97JM101]. Polymer melting in single screw extruders was discussed [JM102]. 10. Mushy zonedendritic growth and segregation Fractal characteristics and thermal strain during solidication were addressed [JM103JM105]. 11. Solidication Quite a few studies discussed heat transfer and morphological changes during solidication processes [JM106JM124]. 12. Crystal growth This subsection includes articles on stability analysis, crystallization and thermally induced effects [JM125JM134]. Other studies involve microgravity [JM135], crystal interface [JM136], Bridgman growth [JM137], Czochralski growth [JM67,JM138 JM142], FZ growth [JM143], oating crystal growth [JM144], traveling solvent method (TSM) [JM145], modied Markov method [JM146] and LEC growth [JM147]. Heat transfer in scraped eutectic crystallizers was also studied [JM148]. 13. Droplets, spray and splat cooling A computational study of structures formed by the solidication of impinging molten metal drops was conducted [JM149]. Studies investigated microstructure development in alloy splats [JM150] and effect of droplet sizes on nucleation processes [JM151]. Other studies involve droplets [JM152JM154], spraying [JM155] and splat cooling [JM156,JM157]. 14. Oceanic, geological, and astronomical phase change An article in this area investigated the inuence of the transition zone water lter on convective circulation in the mantle [JM158].

K. Radiation Papers on radiation focus on the radiative heat transfer calculations and the inuence of geometry, the role of radiation in combustion processes, the effect of participating media, radiation combined with other modes of heat transfer, radiative transfer in microscale systems, and experimental methods to assess radiative transfer and materials properties. The papers here are divided into these subcategories that focus on the different impacts of radiation. Most of the papers report the results of modeling studies. Papers describing the development of new numerical methods themselves are reviewed in the numerical methods section under the subcategory radiation. 1. Radiative transfer calculations and inuence of the geometry Papers in this category focus on view factors [K1K3] and the modeling of radiative heat transfers in two-dimensional [K4K6] and three-dimensional systems [K7,K8]. Cylindrical geometries are studied in [K9K13]. Papers [K14K22] focus on improved numerical methods for radiative transfer. 2. Participating media In the category of participating media, studies concentrate on the absorptive, emissive, refractive and scattering properties of media. Absorbing/emitting media are investigated in [K23K27]. Both solids and liquids [K28K30] as well as gases [K31K35] are discussed. Spatially nonuniform refraction is considered in [K36,K37]. A signicant number of papers concentrate on scattering media [K38K42]. While isotropic scattering is investigated [K43], most papers focus on anisotropic scattering [K44K50]. Scattering is important in systems containing droplets and particles [K51K55] and in porous media [K56K59]. General methods for participating media are discussed in [K60K63]. 3. Radiation and combustion Radiative heat transfer is an important factor in combustion processes. Studies in this category revolve around radiation in the combustion of carbon-based [K64K67] and non-carbon-based fuels [K68,K69]. Radiation is important for the spread of res [K70 K77]. It also determines the properties of ames in a wide range of combustion studies [K22,K78K84]. 4. Combined heat transfer Papers in this subcategory consider the combined effect of radiation with conduction and/or convection. A large number of papers consider radiative heat transfer combined with heat conduction [K85K98]. Radiation combined with convection is treated in [K99K118]. The combination of all three modes of heat transfer is studied in [K118K122]. 5. Microscale radiative transfer Studies on microscale radiative heat transfer include radiation in thin lms [K123K126], in nanober synthesis [K127], and during nanoscale machining [K128]. 6. Intensely irradiated systems Studies in this section investigate the interaction of systems with intense radiation. Laser irradiation is considered in [K129 K139], microwave and infrared radiation in [K140], and direct irradiation for thermochemistry in [K141]. 7. Experimental methods and systems Several studies focus on experimental studies of radiative heat transfer, often in combination with models [K142K144]. N. Numerical methods A relatively new capability available to the researchers and practitioners of heat transfer is the ability to simulate physical

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phenomena on a computer. The simulation of heat transfer, uid ow, and related processes is achieved via numerical solution of the governing equations. Such computational simulation is now widely used in fundamental research and in industrial applications. New and improved numerical methods are being developed to improve their accuracy, efciency, and range of applicability. Contributions in the current year are subdivided here into the following categories: (1) Heat conductionthis includes direct and inverse problems in heat conduction, boundary element methods, as well as nite-difference and nite-element methods; (2) Phase changeheat conduction is sometimes accompanied by solidliquid phase change with the associated complexity; (3) Convection and diffusionan important aspect of calculating scalar variables (such as temperature and velocity components) in the presence of uid ow is the proper treatment of convection and diffusion over the whole range of ow rates; (4) Fluid owa very large number of heat transfer applications involve uid ow. Numerical methods need to address the complex task of calculating uid ow under the conditions of multi-dimensionality, irregular geometry, compressibility, body forces, and turbulence; (5) Other StudiesThis subcategory includes complex industrial applications, non-standard techniques, simulation of radiation, and other studies. 1. Heat conduction Studies cover improved techniques for steady and unsteady heat conduction, boundary element methods and inverse problems, and treatment of special boundary conditions [N1N22]. 2. Phase change Melting/freezing problems in heat conduction are considered [N23N28]. 3. Convection and diffusion The use of various upwinding techniques is studied in the context of nite-volume and nite-element methods [N29N34]. 4. Fluid ow The studies in this subcategory include improvements in owcalculation techniques, turbulence models, and multi-phase ows [N35N58]. 5. Other studies These include a variety of applications involving IC engines, MEMS devices, porous media, combustion and machine tools [N59N77]. P. Properties This section deals with the studies undertaken to determine various thermophysical and thermodynamic properties. This years summary has been categorized as follows: 1. Thermal conductivity, diffusivity and effusivity Various well-established experimental and numerical techniques were used to estimate the thermal conductivity and diffusivity for a wide variety of materials [P1P38]. These methods include transient plane source (TPS) [P1,P2], laser ash [P3P6], dynamic light scattering (DLS) [P7], photoacoustic spectroscopy [P8,P9], 3-x [P9,P10], transient wire [P11], Boltzmann transformation [P12] and molecular dynamics simulations [P13P15]. Some new methods, setups and models were also developed to estimate thermal conductivity and diffusivity or to extend the applicability of the already existing techniques [P31P33,P39 P46]. In addition, the effects of various parameters (such as molecular weight, phonon dispersion, moisture, composition, particle con-

centration) on thermal conductivity and diffusivity were also determined [P9,P10,P34P38,P47,P48]. 2. Diffusion Articles in this section introduced new analytical models to estimate diffusion/partition coefcients [P49], heat/momentum uxes [P50] and study the coupling between thermal diffusion and molecular interaction energy [P51]. Experimental studies include measurements in liquid metals [P52] and determination of Soret coefcient [P53]. 3. Heat capacity In this sub-section, articles related to the measurement of heat capacity of various substances have been discussed [P38,P54P60]. Experimental techniques included relaxation calorimetry [P59], TPS [P2] and differential uxmetric calorimetry [P60]. 4. Viscosity Viscosity measurements were made using techniques like vibrating wire viscometry [P61], surface light scattering (SLS) [P62] and oscillating disk viscometry [P63P65]. New correlations for viscosity of liquid cyclopentane [P66], nitrogen, oxygen, argon and air [P36] were proposed. Steady state periodic perturbation with molecular dynamics simulation was used for fast calculation of viscosity [P67]. Viscosity of weld pool was estimated using smart model [P23]. 5. Thermophysical properties Measurements were made to estimate the thermophysical properties, transport properties and radiative properties of various materials [P68P73]. Novel methods & models to calculate various thermophysical and thermodynamic properties and equations of state were developed [P74P80].

Q. Heat transfer applicationsheat exchangers and thermosyphons The papers in this category relate to heat exchanger theory, operation, fouling, and heat-pipes. Like the previous years, a major effort is directed toward the design, modeling, analysis, and correlation of existing data on heat exchangers. 1. Heat exchangers Non-uniformity in ow distribution was studied [Q1Q3]. Effect of design parameters on effectiveness of heat exchangers was studied [Q4Q6]. LMTD and NTU studies were conducted [Q7,Q8]. Some studies were devoted to the development of numerical and analytical algorithms [Q9Q19]. Various types of heat-exchangers were investigated. These include shell-and-tube [Q20Q27], concentric-tube [Q28Q30], parallel-plate [Q31Q37], polymeric hollow ber [Q38], plate-n/n-tube [Q39Q54], scraped surface [Q55], louvers [Q56], microchannels [Q57,Q58] and helical bafes [Q59] heat exchangers. Some novel heat-exchanger concepts include gassolid direct contact using cyclones [Q60], porous media [Q61], gas-to-gas energy transport [Q62], multiuid heat-exchangers [Q5,Q6,Q63], lattice-frame materials [Q64] and pin n microheat exchangers [Q65]. Other studies involved cooling towers [Q66Q71], thermoacoustic devices [Q72Q75] and distillation processes [Q76]. 2. Heat transfer enhancement A variety of approaches have been explored to enhance heat transfer. These include internally and externally nned tubes [Q77Q81], tubes with wire coil and tape inserts [Q82Q84], heat transfer additives (including nanouids) [Q85Q88], metal foams [Q89], vortex generators [Q90,Q91], winding tubes [Q92], shaped polymer tubes [Q93], corrugated surfaces [Q94Q97], slotted ns

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[Q98,Q99], liquid metal ns [Q100], acoustic streaming [Q101] and turbulators [Q102,Q103]. 3. Fouling Fouling of heat exchangers can signicantly hinder the performance of a plant and its elements. Efforts continue to understand, prevent or mitigate the phenomenon. Articles in this section include fouling in plate heat-exchangers [Q104], shell-and-tube heat exchangers [Q105], corrugated tubes [Q106]. Some general studies involved deposition models [Q107Q111] and erosion models [Q112,Q113]. 4. Thermosyphons (heat-pipes) In this sub-section, design, modeling and analysis of a number of heat-pipe applications are included. Thermal transport models [Q114Q119] as well as optimization algorithms were investigated [Q120,Q121]. The articles also studied various wick designs [Q122], wick materials [Q123] and working media [Q124]. Other studies were related to miniature heat-pipes [Q122,Q125Q127], closedloop oscillating heat-pipes [Q128Q131], heat-pipe arrays [Q132] and loop heat pipes for space applications [Q133Q135]. Thermal characteristics of two-phase thermosyphons were studied [Q136Q142]. Some general thermosyphon studies were also undertaken [Q143Q145]. S. Heat transfer applicationsgeneral This section includes the articles related to heat transfer studies in general applications, which include nuclear reactors, buildings, thermodynamic cycles, electronics cooling, manufacturing, fuel cells and gas turbines. This years summary is divided into the following sub-categories. 1. Nuclear reactors Heat and mass transfer during accidental conditions was studied [S1]. Other studies include a pulsed ssion material assembly [S2], fuel pins [S3], glass-lined reactors [S4], stirred-tank and fedbatch reactors [S5S7], water reactors [S8], fast-breeder reactors [S9]. Thermal transport in clay barriers for nuclear waste has been studied [S10,S11]. 2. Buildings Topics covered in this segment include cooling of buildings [S12,S13], energy consumption and thermal loads [S13S16], heat transfer in building components [S14S18], building envelopes [S19S21], moisture transfer [S22], thermal comfort [S23]. 3. Refrigeration This sub-category includes articles related to thermodynamic refrigeration cycles [S24,S25]. Some optimization studies were conducted [S26,S27]. Other studies were related to sorption systems [S28S31], evaporative coolers [S32S36], air conditioning plants [S37,S38], cooling coils [S39], Peltier cooling [S40], ice tanks [S41]. 4. Heat engines Thermodynamic cycles were studied [S42S47]. Heat ow in diesel and small air-cooled engines was investigated [S48S50]. A scroll-compressor was studied [S51]. Cycle work from quantum heat engines was analyzed [S52S54]. 5. Heat pumps Various thermodynamic cycles have been discussed [S55S58]. Ground-source heat pump systems have been discussed [S59]. Sorption heat pumps were studied [S60,S61]. 6. Electronic packaging In this sub-category, papers related to electronics cooling have been included. These studies can be broadly subdivided into air-

cooled [S65S67] and liquid-cooled systems [S68S72]. Other studies cover: heat spreaders [S62S64], heat sinks (ns) [S65S72], ball grid array (BGA) packages [S73,S74], piezoelectric fans [S75] and thermoacoustic engines [S76]. Numerical studies were conducted to model the behavior of electronic components [S77S80]. 7. Geophysics Papers in this area include geothermal systems [S81], ground/ soil heat transfer [S82,S83], atmospheric boundary layers [S84]. 8. Manufacturing and processing This section contains papers which studied heat transfer in a wide variety of manufacturing processes, which include metal forming [S85], annealing [S86], cooling (quenching) [S87S91], drying [S92S98], machining [S99,S100], casting [S101S104], welding [S105S107], hot-rolling [S108]. Heat transfer in furnaces was studied [S109S112]. A few optimization studies were performed [S113,S114]. 9. Food processing This section contains articles on thawing [S115], food drying [S116], sorption [S117] and packaged products [S118]. Heat transfer in eggs [S119] and sucrose solution [S120] was studied. 10. Fuel cells Heat transfer in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) [S121,S122], polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) [S123] and proton exchange membrane fuel cells [S124] were studied. A performance study of fuel cells was studied [S125]. 11. Gas-turbines Heat transfer articles in this topic cover ow and heat transfer in passages [S126S131], blade-cooling schemes [S132S136], ow-structures [S137,S138], transient temperature distribution [S139] and tip ows [S140S144]. 12. Miscellaneous Articles in this segment include those which do not t into any of the above categories/sub-categories. Heat transfer aspects in various combustion applications [S145S153], steam generation [S154S157] and energy storage systems [S158S164] were studied. Snow/ice/frost formation was investigated [S165S167]. Other heat transfer studies involve: distillation columns [S168], particulate ows [S169,S170], piston expansion machines [S171], display cabinets [S172], insulated tanks [S173], chemical reactors [S4,S174,S175], thermal comfort [S176S179], nano-scale systems [S180,S181], calorimetry studies [S182,S183], 2nd law effects [S184S186], space vehicles [S187], brush seals [S188], wax-deposition [S189], thermal waves [S190] and power plants [S191,S192].

T. Solar energy Heat transfer studies in the eld of solar energy address a broad range of topics covering a variety of applications for buildings to power plants. Papers are broadly divided into solar radiation fundamentals and measurement, low-temperature applications, high-temperature applications, building components, and storage technologies. Papers on solar energy that do not focus on heat transfer, for example, papers on photovoltaics (except for those that deal with combined thermal systems), wind energy, architectural aspects of buildings, and control of space heating or cooling systems are not included. Subcategories are summarized below. 1. Measurements and models of solar radiation Most papers in this category present modeling approaches to simulate, evaluate or use measured solar data [T1T11]. Others present model or data analysis for specic sites [T12T15]. Instrumentation is presented in [T16].

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2. Low temperature applications Low temperature solar applications include solar water heating [T17T25], space cooling [T26T35], desalination [T36T41], solar ponds [T42T46], water and waste treatment [T47T52], cooking [T53,T54], and agricultural applications [T55T63]. Papers on at plate and low concentration solar collectors include heat transfer modeling and experiments of innovative concepts to improve efciency [T64T73]. 3. High temperature applications These applications use concentrated solar thermal energy developed in parabolic trough, parabolic dish and heliostat elds combined with a central receiver to drive endothermic reactions or power systems. Heat transfer investigations encompass thermal design and analysis of heat transfer and chemical conversion in solar thermo-chemical reactors [T74T89], electric power systems with steam generation in a variety of congurations including volumetric receivers and linear absorbers [T90T99], a dish Stirling engine [T100], a solar chimney [T101], and concentrating optics and properties of reector materials [T102T108]. Temperature measurement techniques in concentrating systems are addressed in [T109]. Overview papers compare technical and economic performance of solar thermal electricity technologies [T110,T111]. 4. Building components This section is restricted to modeling and measurement of heat transfer and moisture transport in building components (walls [T112], windows and daylighting [T113T121], oors and foundation [T122T124], and building integrated solar thermal and PV collectors [T125T130]) as well as building energy models [T131T137]. Other miscellaneous papers in the sub-category are included in [T138T144]. 5. Storage Papers in this section address both capacity and power of a variety of storage media and storage devices for low and high temperature solar thermal applications. Thermal processes during charging and discharge of phase change materials are evaluated for encapsulated organic and inorganic materials, slurries and beds [T145T150]. Other efforts for low temperature storage consider longer term storage in adsorption materials (zeolites) [T151], epoxy composites [T152], in-ground storage [T153T157] as well as more conventional sensible heat water storage [T158,T159]. High temperature storage studies consider molten salt, solid media and regenerative heating [T160T162].

This includes determination of plasma transport properties [U1], radiation transport [U2U4], simulation of plasma jets in different ow regimes [U5U7] and inductively coupled plasma generators (ICP) [U8U11]. Models of specic plasma processes include welding [U12], metal production in arc furnaces [U13 U15], or arc stabilization by ablation cooling [U16]. 2. Fundamentals of plasmasolid interaction This topic includes electrode effects or surface bias effects [U17,U18] and plasma particle interaction [U11,U19,U20], and stagnation ow in CO2 as encountered during a space crafts entry into the Mars atmosphere [U21]. 3. Plasma process characterization This section includes characterization of the plasma spray process including the characterization of the coatings [U22], the effect of plasma jet uid dynamics disturbances [U23U26], and diagnostics applied to the welding [U27] and EDM processes [U28], and to plasma diamond deposition [U29]. 4. Magneto hydro dynamics (MHD) This section contains a number of modeling approach descriptions for heat and mass transfer with non-Newtonian uids [U30U36]. Different geometries and different accelerating forces, e.g. ow inside porous media, with free convection or with suction or mass addition through porous boundaries are considered by numerous authors [U37U52]. Some discussion of MHD effects in specic applications is also presented [U53U57].

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