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Scorebuilders Ch. 6 CARDIAC, VASCULAR, AND PULMONARY SYSTEM

A N A T O M Y

Cross section of the anterior of the heart showing the chambers and valves.

&

P H Y S I O L O G Y

O F

T H E

C A R D I O V A S C U L A R

S Y S T E M

O L O G Y O F T H E C A R D I O

Cardiac Conduction System

The cardiac conduction system includes the

(

)

and

(

)

Each cardiac

myocyte has an intrinsic ability to

and

electrical impulses from cell

to cell without nerve stimulation.

The

Innervation of the Heart

The sympathetic influence is achieved by release of

is the normal pacemaker of the heart.

and

Sympathetic nerves stimulate the chambers to beat

and with greater

force of

contraction.

The parasympathetic influence is achieved via

release from the

nerve.

Parasympathetic nerves

the heart rate primarily through their influence on the

Anterior surface of the heart showing the great vessels and coronary arteries.

the heart showing the great vessels and coronary arteries. Coronary Veins  The coronary venous circulation

Coronary Veins

The coronary venous circulation includes:

,

,

and

The great cardiac vein, along with the small and middle cardiac veins, drain into the emptying into the

Neural Reflexes and Circulatory Control

Baroreceptor reflex are mechanoreceptors that detect changes in

What are the reflexes known as that maintain blood pressure?

What type of activation leads to increased blood pressure?

Which type of activation decreases blood pressure?

When signals are sent to the medulla’s cardiovascular center that inhibit parasympathetic activity leading to increased heart rate, what is this reflex known as?

What reflex reacts to changes in pH status and blood oxygen tension?

The

maneuver increases intrathoracic pressure by forced expiration against a closed glottis.

,

Cardiac Cycle Write the correct term or definition.

The contraction of the right and left atria pushing blood into the

Atrial diastole:

Contraction of the right and left ventricles pushing blood into the pulmonary arteries and

Ventricular diastole:

Tension in the ventricular wall at the end of diastole. It reflects the venous filling pressure that fills the left ventricle during diastole:

The forces that impede blood flow out of the heart, especially peripheral vasculature pressure, aorta compliance, and the mass and blood

Stroke Volume (SV):

Normal SV ranges from

to

Cardiac Output (CO):

Normal CO adult male at rest:

Venous return

L/min depending on age, sex, and activity.

L/min. Women produce

CO than males. During exercise, it can to

o

The amount of blood that returns to the

atrium each minute

o

Venous return must be

CO when averaged over time because the cardio system is closed loop.

A. More

B. Less

C. Equal

Blood and Components of Blood Leukocytes Erythrocytes Thrombocytes

Normal blood volume of an adult is between

Blood cells and platelets are suspended in this liquid component:

A. Blood Platelets B. Red Blood Cells C. White Blood Cells

and

L. Woman have

and

than men. It is important in regulating

What enables red blood cells to bind with oxygen and have its red color?

What is the term used to describe a high red blood cell count, increased blood thickness?

o What is a pt in risk of with increased blood cell count?

or

A low number in blood platelets, termed

, increases the risk of

and the risk of

A high number, termed

, which may result in a

or

,

increases

A low number of white blood cells, termed

abnormal amount of white blood cells, termed

, increases the risk of

, can indicate

or

An

What type of WBC protects the body against infection by ingesting bacteria and debris?

Lymphocytes consists of:

o

T-Lymphocytes:

o

B-Lymphocytes:

Monocytes:

What WBC kills parasites, destroy cancer cells, and are involved in allergic responses?

Basophils:

A N A T O M Y

&

P H Y S I O L O G Y

O F

T H E

R E S P I R A T O R Y

S Y S T E M

Ribs 1-7 are called:

;

Ribs 8-10:

;

Ribs 11-12:

What are the three principle muscles of respiration?

o

,

,

The upper respiratory tract consists of the:

o

,

,

The right lung has

There are

The right lung’s main bronchus gives rise to the superior, middle, and inferior

The left lung’s main bronchus divides into the superior

lobes. The left lung has

lobes.

bronchopulmonary segments in the right lung and

segments in the left lung.

corresponding to the upper

and lower lobes.

Oxygen diffuses across the

it combines with

direction Same or Opposite?

into the RBC in lung capillaries where

to be transported back to the heart. Carbon dioxide diffuses in what

The membranous serous sac that covers the lungs is called

circumstances, the pleural space may contain air termed

Under abnormal

, blood termed

, pus or increased amounts of serous fluid, which compress the lung and cause

The pulmonary circulation returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the

Oxygen is physically dissolved in the

atrium via the

, and chemically combines with

RBCs. Carbon dioxide is physically dissolved in

in

Diagram of the human lungs.

Diagram of the human lungs. Total Volume Total Volume ERV = RV = IRV = IC

Total Volume

Total Volume

ERV

=

RV

=

IRV

=

IC

=

FRC

=

TV

=

VC

=

TLC

=

Total Volume Total Volume ERV = RV = IRV = IC = FRC = TV =

Lung Volumes and Capacities

Anatomic dead space volume (VD)

Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

Forced expiratory volume (FEV)

Forced vital capacity (FVC)

Functional residual capacity (FRC)

Inspiratory capacity (IC)

Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

Minute volume ventilation (VE)

Peak expiratory flow (PEF)

Residual volume (RV)

Tidal volume (TV)

Total lung capacity (TLC)

Vital capcity (VC)

CLASSIFICATION OF HTN IN ADULTS

* Classification determined by higher BP category

BP Classification

SBP mm Hg*

DBP mm Hg*

Normal

   

Prehypertensive

   

Stage 1 HTN

   

Srage 2 HTN

   

Arterial Blood Gas (ABG)

Mean range of adult normal ABG values:

pH

PaCO 2

PaO 2

HCO 3

SaO 2

Acidemia

Alkalemia

Hypoxemia

Hypoxia

Angina Pain Scale

Rating

Description

1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) Interpretation

> 1.30

1.0

1.30

0.8

0.99

0.4

0.79

< 0.4

This chart and the following chart is on page 218 of Scorebuilders.

HEMATOCRIT REFERENCE VALUES IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY Conventional Units SI Units Serum Cholesterol Total LDL Cholesterol
HEMATOCRIT REFERENCE VALUES IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
Conventional Units
SI Units
Serum Cholesterol
Total
LDL Cholesterol
HDL Cholesterol
Triglyceride

REFERENCE VALUES IN HEMATOLOGY

 

Conventional Units

SI units

Erythrocytes

Adult Males

   

Adult Females

   

Leukocytes

Total

   

Platelet count

   

Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)

   

Hematocrit

Adult Males

   

Adult Females

   

Hemoglobin

Adult Males

   

Adult Females

   

ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE

Korotkoff Sounds

 

Phase I

 

Phase II

 

Phase III

 

Phase IV

 

Phase V

 

ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE INTERPRETATION

 

Children (ages 3-17)

 

Normal BP

   

Prehypertension

   

Stage 1 HTN

   

Stage 2 HTN

   

Adults

 

SBP

DBP

Normal BP

   

Prehypertension

   

Stage 1 HTN

   

Stage 2 HTN

   

Auscultation of Heart Sounds

Area

Ausculatory area

Aortic Area

 

Pulmonic Area

 

Mitral Area

 

Tricuspid Area

 

Auscultation of Heart Sounds Interpretation

S1 (lub)

 

S2 (dub)

 

S3

 

S4

 
Adult BMI Classification
Adult BMI
Classification

Borg Dyspnea Scale

0

 

0.5

 

1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

5

 

6

 

7

 

8

 

9

 

10

 

ECG Waveforms and Intervals

P

wave

 

PR interval

 

QRS Complex

 

QT interval

 

ST segment

 

T

wave

 

Sinus Node Rhythms

Normal sinus rhythm

Sinus bradycardia

Sinus tachycardia

Sinus arrhythmia

Sinus arrest

Pulse Points of Selected Peripheral Arteries

Artery

Pulse Point

Carotid

 

Brachial

 

Radial

 

Ulnar

 

Femoral

 

Popliteal

 

Posterior tibial

 

Dorsalis pedis

 

PULSE CHARACTERIZATION

Characterize the heart rate

Normal infant

 

Normal child

 

Normal adult

 

Bradycardia

 

Tachycardia

 

Characterize the volume or amplitude of the pulse

3+

 

2+

 

1

 

0

 
Original RPE Scale Revised RPE Scale
Original RPE Scale
Revised RPE Scale

Respiratory Rate

Newborn

1 year

10 years

Adult

Respiratory Rhytm

Normal

COPD

Common Breathing Patterns

Apnea

Biots

Bradypnea

Cheyne-Stokes (periodic)

Eupnea

Hyperpnea

Hypopnea

Tachypnea

TARGET HEART RATE

Method 1 Percent of maximum heart rate (HRmax)

Lower THR =

Upper THR =

Method 2 Heart rate reserve (HRR) or Karvonen formula

Lower THR =

Upper THR =

HRmax=

HRest=

Postural Drainage Positioning

Apical segments Right and Left upper lobes

Posterior segment Right Upper Lobe

Posterior segment Left Upper Lobe

Lingula Left Upper Lobe

Anterior segments Right and Left Upper Lobes

Right middle lobe

Superior segments Left and Right Lower Lobes

Anterior basal segments Left and Right Lower Lobes

Posterior basal segments Left and Right Lower Lobes

Lateral basal segments Lower Lobes