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Power System Planning Tehran 2008

4.4

Travelling Waves, Transients, Rush Currents, Surge Arrester


Overvoltages on transmission lines
operational AC voltage lightning surges switching surges transient surges surge shape wave front time span polarity

operational
load shedding, quick unburden earth fault (in compensated networks long time, generally short time) Ferranti effect on long unloaded lines sweep oscillations (cable + transformer, inductive pt)

lightning
- strokes directly to a phase conductor -> highest overvoltage - induced by strokes to ground in the vicinity of a line -> harmful clouds are bipolar positive charges on the earth side pre-discharges are growing stepwise to the earth (negative) a catching discharging channel comes to meet the leader when channels meet, return stroke with high current starts

4. Operation - 4.4 Travelling Waves, Transients, Rush Current, Surge Arrester

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Power System Planning Tehran 2008

positive and negative strokes polarity + : : : ~ 80% ~ 14% ~ 6%

upward and downward lightning strokes amplitude ~ 30 kA; 1%- value front slope max. 50% value charge maximum 50% value

~ 150 kA 100 kA/s 30 kA/s 200 As 30 As

U = i ZW / 2 = 225 .. 150 kV / kA = 7 .. 4,5 MV

fr ZW = 450 ... 300 fr 30 kA

Travelling waves on a line - backward flashover - spark-over to earth - transformer input - reflection at the open end - meeting a short-circuiting end - meeting a wave impedance - damping by corona * protection against lightning - earth conductor - surge arrester conventional MO - spark gap

-> doubling of voltage amplitude -> voltage zero, current increasing -> waves without reflections

Switching overvoltages
switching on capacitors lines transformers
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4. Operation - 4.4 Travelling Waves, Transients, Rush Current, Surge Arrester

Power System Planning Tehran 2008

switching off coils motors capacitors power stations transformers

E = swinging-over factor K = overvoltage factor = E

4. Operation - 4.4 Travelling Waves, Transients, Rush Current, Surge Arrester

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Power System Planning Tehran 2008

Transients
50 Hz or near by earth circuit load rejection Ferranti effect f > 50 Hz switching off only one transformer phase with connected cable (parallel and series resonance) sweep oscillations by overloaded pt

4. Operation - 4.4 Travelling Waves, Transients, Rush Current, Surge Arrester

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Power System Planning Tehran 2008

d) Switching off a no-loaded transformer

4. Operation - 4.4 Travelling Waves, Transients, Rush Current, Surge Arrester

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Power System Planning Tehran 2008

4. Operation - 4.4 Travelling Waves, Transients, Rush Current, Surge Arrester

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Power System Planning Tehran 2008

Rush currents
magnetic flux in closed iron circuit switching-on for u ~ 0 ; d / dt -> max ~ 2 -> im = 10...15 ir have to be considered when several transformers are switched on together in the same moment (MV line with transformer stations) stabilisation of the protection (2. harmonic wave)

4. Operation - 4.4 Travelling Waves, Transients, Rush Current, Surge Arrester

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Power System Planning Tehran 2008

Surge arrester
Careful dimensioning; for installation considering the rules of travelling waves; external protection of critical internal insulation or prevention of electric arcs. * air gap arrester - no current in normal network operation - current dependent resistors - time delay of ignition - current marks on the copper plate of the earth contact * metal oxide arrester - very small current already in normal operation - non-linear resistor characteristic - no time delay of ignition -

4. Operation - 4.4 Travelling Waves, Transients, Rush Current, Surge Arrester

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Power System Planning Tehran 2008

HF noise influences TV, radio, secondary equipment

4. Operation - 4.4 Travelling Waves, Transients, Rush Current, Surge Arrester

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