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Qn. Consider these suggestions and discuss how they can be applied to improve Singapores conservation efforts.

Discuss the challenges faced. Solutions to consider to step up efforts on the conservation front: 1 .Change in attitude Must include change in our stewardship (protective guardianship) of the Earth and life on it: adopt an ecocentric ecological perspective when dealing with the environment ethical choices and consequences ought to be assessed on the scale at the systems level, over the long-term, to non-human as well as to human life and wellbeing

2. Sustainability - transition to a lasting earth: To consider 3 approaches: i) use of science to discover the workings of nature & developing technology for energy & resource conservation, e.g. cheaper thin film solar panels ii) economic systems that are consistent with sustainable living iii) long-term: change in human attitudes to those that are compatible with a sustainable life > Our lifestyle choices, buying decisions and disposal methods have environmental consequences Sustainable development: ecological sustainable development, e.g. sustainable yield development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs includes sustainable planning and sustainable management What does sustainable living involve? i) Dematerialization ii) Corporate social responsibility (CSR), e.g. (as of 2009): o o Walmart - required its suppliers to reduce packaging Mars and Cadbury have plans to increase the amount of cacao they harvest from sustainable sources Marks & Spencer - include minimising air freight by focusing on local produce, reducing packaging waste 1

iii) Social entrepreneurship (SE): o is about innovative, market-oriented, systems-changing approaches underpinned by a passion for social equity and environmental sustainability.

Examples: Muhammad Yunus Grameen Bank which spearheaded microfinance globally Carlo Petrinis slow food movement which currently has 100,000 members in 132 countries committed to rescuing cultural traditions and the preserving biodiversity

iv) Sustainability in the built environment o E.g. Singapores BCA Green Mark Scheme

v) Ethical consumerism: o means buying products which were ethically produced and/or which are not harmful to the environment and society. plastic-bag ban eco-labelling

o o

vi) Fair trade: o is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. E.g.: use production technologies that reduce energy consumption use renewable energy technologies that minimize greenhouse gas emissions seek to minimize the impact of the waste stream on the environment minimize the environmental impacts by using organic or low pesticide production methods wherever possible

o o

vii) Energy use: o minimizing energy use and enhancing energy efficiency and vehicle fuel economy increases in wind and solar power, hydrogen produced from renewable sources 2

o o

biofuels (produced from crops), natural gas, and nuclear power carbon sequestration

viii) Minimizing pollution: o by using clean technology, e.g. green energy alternatives like anaerobic digestion produce renewable energy from waste materials.

ix) Encourage awareness of ecological ethics x) Conservation efforts, directed at communities, habitats, ecosystems and vulnerable biodiversity hotspots