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Biology Guidelines For Report Writing

Follow the guidelines given below to prepare the lab report: Name of student: ____________________ ID #: ________________ Title: Introduction: about 150words Material and Methods: As per the lab handout Results: Write your contribution to the lab (active participation) Results in the form of table(s) and graphs in proper order/sequence Discussion of resultsIt should include the observation trend with its reasoning. Make use of the table values and graphs (such as fig 3) for physiological reasoning and interpretation. Include two research observations that are relevant to that lab. For this, use the abstracting services like Biological Abstracts or physiological/pharmacological journals or web resources like www.google.com; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ and other. Do not write whole abstract. Read the abstract or article (if full text is available) and write about 2-3 sentences which are relevant to your results. The example is given belowConclusion: What did you learn from this lab? References: arrange all cited references in alphabetical order. Follow this exampleExampleKossler, F., Lange, F. and Kuchler, G. (1987). Isometric twitch and tetanic contraction of frog skeletal muscles at temperatures between 0 to 30 degrees C. BiomedBiocim Acta 46: 809-813. (cited from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3502248 (accessed on 9th March, 2011)

Research article citation for your lab reportTitle: Isometric twitch and tetanic contraction of frog skeletal muscles at temperatures between 0 to 30 degrees C. Authors: Kossler, F., Lange, F. and Kuchler, G. Year of publication: 1987 Name of Journal: BiomedBiocim Acta Volume number: 46 (bold face or underlined) Page number: 809-813. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3502248 (accessed on 9th March, 2011) Abstract (original) Maximum twitch and tetanic tension development, time to peak, and half relaxation time were studied on isolated frog sartorius muscles stimulated directly in Ringer's solution at different temperatures. Cooling from 20 degrees C to 10 degrees C decreased the tetanic tension (Q10 = 1.3-1.4). At temperatures above 25 (30) degrees C the tension output was reduced. The response to cooling of the twitch contraction was a prolongation of the time to peak (Q10 = 2.4) and of the relaxation time (Q10 = 2.7) independently of the amplitude which increased in most muscles. Between 20 and 10 degrees C the tension output rose by a factor of 1.2-1.3. The failure of this response showed no relation to season. The increase of the twitch tension but the decrease of tetanic tension in parallel with the temperature drop shifted the ratio twitch/tetanus to higher values (0.5 to 0.8). The results suggest that cooling effects both the Ca2+ release and the Ca2+ re-uptake but the latter one with a higher Q10. This causes a prolongation of the active state and a cold potentiation if further facilitating conditions are present. In contrast, the response to temperature of the tetanic tension seems to be due to the temperature dependent force generation per cross-bridge. DO NOT WRITE everything from the abstract in you lab report. Read and extract out 3-4 sentences to include in your report. See example below Required information to be written, for example from the above abstract in lab reportKossler, et al (1987) studied maximum twitch and tetanic tension development, time to peak, and half relaxation time on isolated frog sartorius muscles stimulated directly in Ringer's solution at different temperatures. Cooling from 20 degrees C to 10 degrees C decreased the tetanic tension. The results suggest that cooling affects both the Ca2+ release and the Ca2+ re-uptake. This causes a prolongation of the active state and a cold potentiation if further facilitating conditions are present.