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MSRSAS - Postgraduate Engineering and Management Programme - PEMP

Module Code Module Name Course Department

MMD 512 Design of Machine Elements and Manufacturing Processes M.Sc. [Engg] in Machinery Design. Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering.

Name of the Student Reg. No Batch Module Leader

Prabhaker.P BAB0911009 Full-Time 2011 Asst. Prof. K.N.Ganapathi

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Postgraduate Engineering and Management Programmes(PEMP)
Design of M/C elem. & Manu.process

#470-P Peenya Industrial Area, 4th Phase, Peenya, Bengaluru-560 058 Tel; 080 4906 5555, website: www.msrsas.org

POSTGRADUATE ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME (PEMP)

ASSIGNMENT

Declaration Sheet Student Name Reg. No Course Batch Module Code Module Title Module Date Module Leader PRABHAKAR.P BAB0911001 MACHINERY DESIGN FT11 MMD 512 Design of Machine Elements and Manufacturing Processes to 06 02 2012 02 2012 Asst. Prof. K.N.Ganapathi Batch Full-Time 2011

Extension requests:
Extensions can only be granted by the Head of the Department in consultation with the module leader. Extensions granted by any other person will not be accepted and hence the assignment will incur a penalty. Extensions MUST be requested by using the Extension Request Form, which is available with the ARO. A copy of the extension approval must be attached to the assignment submitted.

Penalty for late submission


Unless you have submitted proof of mitigating circumstances or have been granted an extension, the penalties for a late submission of an assignment shall be as follows: Up to one week late: Penalty of 5 marks One-Two weeks late: Penalty of 10 marks More than Two weeks late: Fail - 0% recorded (F) All late assignments: must be submitted to Academic Records Office (ARO). It is your responsibility to ensure that the receipt of a late assignment is recorded in the ARO. If an extension was agreed, the authorization should be submitted to ARO during the submission of assignment. To ensure assignment reports are written concisely, the length should be restricted to a limit indicated in the assignment problem statement. Assignment reports greater than this length may incur a penalty of one grade (5 marks). Each delegate is required to retain a copy of the assignment report.

Declaration
The assignment submitted herewith is a result of my own investigations and that I have conformed to the guidelines against plagiarism as laid out in the PEMP Student Handbook. All sections of the text and results, which have been obtained from other sources, are fully referenced. I understand that cheating and plagiarism constitute a breach of University regulations and will be dealt with accordingly.

Signature of the student Submission date stamp


(by ARO)

Date

Signature of the Module Leader and date

Signature of Head of the Department and date

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Abstract
____________________________________________________________________________

For manufacturing any product the design gives the shape meeting its functionality, aesthetic appearance etc, for the product and manufacturing gives the real shape for the product as per the design by converting the raw material into the finished products in this assignment the Part- A is the debate on selection of material depends only on the strength of the material the assignment report shows the various other factors which are to be considered while selecting any material.

The Part-B is based on the Automotive engineering expo conducted in M.S.Ramaiah school of advanced studies, Bengaluru, on 17th & 18Th February 2012. As per the assignment any three components are to be selected from the assembly and it sizes are to be verified for which a hydraulic cylinder is taken in which barrel, piston diameter, piston rod diameter, piston rod length and hydraulic motor output shaft diameter is analyzed and verified with calculations and shown in the report.

The Part-C assignment is based on CES 2009 (Cambridge engineering selector) software were a gear housing of earth mover is to be selected with specification for which by using the CES software by applying various constrains the suitable material and process is identified and justified and the different processes carried out for manufacturing the gearbox housing is presented in the report.

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Contents
____________________________________________________________________________

Contents
Declaration Sheet ......................................................................................................................... ii Abstract ....................................................................................................................................... iii Contents ........................................................................................................................................iv List of Figures ..............................................................................................................................vi List of Symbols ......................................................................................................................... viii 1.0 1.1 Introduction: ....................................................................................................................... 1 Stance taken for the debate:................................................................................................ 1

1.2.2 Grain structure influences in material selection: .................................................................. 2 1.2.3 Thermal property influences in selection of material:.......................................................... 2 1.2.4 Functionality influences the material selection. ................................................................... 3 1.2.5 Weldability & formability Influences the material selection. .............................................. 3 1.3 Conclusion:......................................................................................................................... 3

Part-B ........................................................................................................................................... 4 2.0 Introduction: ............................................................................................................................ 4 Selection of the assembly of the machine: .................................................................................... 4 2.1 Specification: ........................................................................................................................... 6 2.2 Possible failures in cylinders: .................................................................................................. 7 2.2.1 Failure due to buckling: ........................................................................................................ 7 2.3 Piston & Piston rod design: ..................................................................................................... 7 2.4 Calculation based on data given by manufacturer: ................................................................. 8 2.4.1Calculation: ........................................................................................................................... 8 2.4.2Calculation: 1 ........................................................................................................................ 8 2.5 Conclusion:[6] ......................................................................................................................... 9 2.6 Calculation: 2 ........................................................................................................................ 10 2.7 Conclusion:[6] ....................................................................................................................... 11 2.8 Calculation: 3 ........................................................................................................................ 11 2.9 Conclusion:[6] ....................................................................................................................... 12 2.10 Component: Barrel design ................................................................................................... 13

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2.11Calculation:1 ........................................................................................................................ 13 2.12 Conclusion:.......................................................................................................................... 14 2.13 Component: Hydraulic motor:[7] ........................................................................................ 14 2.14 Introduction: ........................................................................................................................ 15 Calculation to check the output shaft diameter: .......................................................................... 15 2.15 Conclusion:.......................................................................................................................... 16 Part-C ......................................................................................................................................... 17 3.1 Introduction: .......................................................................................................................... 17 3.2 Introduction to gearbox housing in earth movers:................................................................. 17 3.3 Specification of gear box:...................................................................................................... 18 3.4 Introduction to CES software: ............................................................................................... 18 3.5 Selecting the suitable material for gear housing using CES 2009: ....................................... 19 3.5.1 Limit stage: ......................................................................................................................... 19 3.5.2 Tree stage: .......................................................................................................................... 20 3.5.3 Graph stage:........................................................................................................................ 21 3.5.4 Graph constrain-2: .............................................................................................................. 23 3.6 Selecting the suitable processes for gear box housing: ......................................................... 24 3.6.1 Limit stage: ......................................................................................................................... 24 In the limit stage the following constrains are applied. ............................................................... 24 3.6.2 Tree stage: .......................................................................................................................... 24 3.6.3 Limit stage: ......................................................................................................................... 26 3.6.4 Graph stage:........................................................................................................................ 27 3.6.5 Graph constrain-2: .............................................................................................................. 27 3.6.6 Graph constrain-3: .............................................................................................................. 28 3.7 Conclusion: ............................................................................................................................ 29 3.8Write up on processing method used to manufacture the part: .............................................. 29 3.8.1 Creating the impression in sand: ........................................................................................ 29 3.8.2 Process parameters and limitation of castings:................................................................... 32 3.8.3 The following machining operations are carried out: ........................................................ 33 Learning outcome: .................................................................................................................... 34 References .................................................................................................................................. 35

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List of Figures
____________________________________________________________________________ Figno. Title of the figure Page no.

Fig 1. 1 Compression molding & FRP molding of helmets[1] & [2] .......................................... 1 Fig 1. 2 Grain structure in turbine blades[3]................................................................................. 2 Fig 1. 3 Shows ceramic coating on turbine blades[4] ................................................................... 2 Fig 1. 4 Shows formability of different materials[5] .................................................................... 3

Fig2. 1 Catalogue obtained in Expo[6] ......................................................................................... 4 Fig2. 2 Hydraulic cylinder with parts ........................................................................................... 4 Fig2. 3 Specification mentioned in catalogue[6] .......................................................................... 6 Fig2. 4 Hydraulic cylinder failure due to buckling....................................................................... 7 Fig2. 5 Hydraulic cylinder -compression & tension failures ........................................................ 7 Fig2. 6 Cylinder function obtained from catalogue ...................................................................... 9 Fig2. 7 Cylinder function obtained from catalogue .................................................................... 10 Fig2. 8 Hydraulic cylinder - Barrel............................................................................................. 13 Fig2. 9 Hydraulic cylinder motor ............................................................................................... 14

Fig3. 1Gear box selected with application[8] ............................................................................. 17 Fig3. 2 Specification of gear box[8] ........................................................................................... 18 Fig3. 3Material identification - limit stage ................................................................................. 19 Fig3. 4Material identification - tree stage ................................................................................... 20 Fig3. 5 Material identification - tree stage result ........................................................................ 21 Fig3. 6 Material identification - graph stage............................................................................... 22 Fig3. 7 Material identification - Graph stage.............................................................................. 23 Fig3. 8 Process identification ..................................................................................................... 24 Fig3. 9 Process identification-Tree stage................................................................................... 25 Fig3. 10 Process identification - tree stage result ....................................................................... 25 Fig3. 11 Process identification - limit stage .............................................................................. 26 Fig3. 12 Process identification - graph stage ............................................................................. 27 Fig3. 13 Process identification - Graph stage ............................................................................ 28 Fig3. 14 Process identification - Graph stage ............................................................................ 29

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Fig3. 15 Showing cope & Drag[9] ............................................................................................. 30 Fig3. 16 Showing binding of sand[9] ......................................................................................... 30 Fig3. 17 Showing creating impression with pattern[9] .............................................................. 30 Fig3. 18 Creating impressions of raisers and sprue[9] ............................................................... 31 Fig3. 19 Showing Pouring cup preparation[9] ........................................................................... 31 Fig3. 20 Sand casting process[9] ................................................................................................ 31 Fig3. 21Casted part with raiser & sprue[9] ................................................................................ 32 Fig3. 22 Heat flow in casting ...................................................................................................... 32 Fig3. 23 Cycle time in casting .................................................................................................... 33 Fig3. 24 Spot facing of casting[10] ............................................................................................ 33 Fig3. 25 Drilling of casting ........................................................................................................ 33 Fig3. 26 Slitting large diameter hole in casting .......................................................................... 34

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List of Symbols
____________________________________________________________________________

Symbol F P A E S M I

Description Force Stress Pressure Area Youngs modulus Factor of safety Bending moment Moment of inertia N

Units MPa MPa mm2 MPa

N-mm N-mm

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PART-A CHAPTER 1

1.0

Introduction:
In the present condition there are tremendous development in the field of materials were the

design engineer has very wide choices in selection of materials. Generally the materials are classified into various families, classes, subclasses, members and attributes. If we consider metals as the family and the classes are steel, copper alloys etc, the sub classes are the series of materials comes under the class, Eg: under the class of steel EN (emergency number) series, D (die steel) series are subclasses. The members comes under the subclass which are EN series has EN01, EN02 etc, The attributes such as modulus, strength, toughness, cost etc, varies for each and every member so the designer should be very careful and do proper justification in selection of material.

1.1

Stance taken for the debate:


The debate statement is Strength of the material is the criteria for design of machine

components But in reality the strength is one among the many factors which is to be considered

while selection of material and it is not the only factor. After the material selection processing of material is carried like forming, machining, casting etc. were the processes will differ for material to material and by some processes strength of material can be improved like hardening, hard plating etc. The cost also plays the important role in selection of materials.

1.2 The factors considered other than the strength are: 1.2.1 Manufacturing processes:
The manufacturing process plays an important role in material selection, were the different material with the same strength is available but the processing is different for those different materials. Initially the safety helmets were manufactured using thermosetting material like phenol formaldehyde and by the compression molding process for this process the cycle time was about 30 minutes. But presently the thermoset material replaced by the thermoplastic material like Poly carbonate and ABS were the process is changed from compression molding to Fiber reinforcement molding and the cycle time is reduced to 3 minutes with compromising the strength.

Fig 1. 1 Compression molding & FRP molding of helmets[1] & [2]


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1.2.2 Grain structure influences in material selection:


The grain structure is also one of the important factors which is to be considered for material selecting for example white cast iron has dense hard cementite structure which is difficult to process and can be processed only after converting the cementite in to small globular structure by spherodising process by converting white cast iron into nodular cast iron. Generally in turbine blades to avoid the creep failure, the entire turbine blade is made up of a single grain structure were nickel based super alloy is used. The Fig1.2 shows the influence of the grain boundary increases the life of the turbine blades the single crystal blades are used in present turbines.

Fig 1. 2 Grain structure in turbine blades[3]

1.2.3 Thermal property influences in selection of material:


Some material has same strength in room temperature and while the temperature is raised starts losing its hardness. For example HSS (High speed steel) material has the hardness of 67HRC and similarly the tool steel material HCHCr (High carbon high chromium steel) can be heat treated and hardened to the hardness of 64HRC while comparing at the room temperature the hardness of the material is similar but when the material is heated the HCHCr material loose its hardness. The HSS material is used as cutting tool material in machine tools like lathe, milling machine etc. as this material has hot hardness property. Generally ceramics has very high hardness but in gas turbines blades made of ceramics cannot be used due to the brittleness property therefore the super alloy is coated with the ceramics and used to obtain high thermal resistance as shown in Fig1.3

Fig 1. 3 Shows ceramic coating on turbine blades[4]


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1.2.4 Functionality influences the material selection.


The other aspect to be considered is functionality, based on the function the material should be selected for example for selecting the material for helmet glass when we compare the hardness of nylon 6 and polycarbonate material the nylon 6 has the hardness of R120 and poly carbonate has the hardness of R118 in the strength nylon is better but it is not suitable as the material is not transparent and has high water absorption but in case of polycarbonate the material has good transparent property and less water absorption and high ultra violet rays stability as this material meets the following functionality requirements poly carbonate is selected for helmet glass.

1.2.5 Weldability & formability Influences the material selection.


The weldability and formability is the other aspects to be considered while material selection as entire engineering product is not manufactured with a single piece many parts are assembled by welding and other joining process. The weldability and formability property differs from material to material for example the material used for many of the car bodies is made of steel and not of aluminum as the steel has better weldability and formability property than aluminumas shown in the Fig() and also generally for high speed welding resistance welding is carried out in car bodies the materials with high electrical resistance can be welded easily as the steel has high electrical resistance than aluminum the steel sheets are formed and used in car bodies.

Fig 1. 4 Shows formability of different materials[5]

1.3 Conclusion:
The following factors are considered other than the strength and still many factors like density, cost, flexibility etc. are considered while material selection strength can be one of the criteria for the material selection but strength alone is not the criteria for the material selection.

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Part-B 2.0 Introduction:


Automation engineering expo 2012 was arranged in M.S.Ramaiah school of advanced studies college campus on 17th and 18th February 2012. In which many of the industries in and around Peena has participated. The Part-B assignment is based on selecting an assembly or subassembly exhibited in stalls finding out the dimension and specification of any three component in the assembly and justifying that the dimension of the part is within the safe limit by calculations etc,.

Selection of the assembly of the machine:

Fig2. 1 Catalogue obtained in Expo[6] In the stall number A11 Bhavana Fluid power Peenya, Bengaluru. Has exhibited hydraulic cylinders from which the components of barrel, and piston is selected for analysis.

Fig2. 2 Hydraulic cylinder with parts


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Hydraulic cylinders are linear mechanical actuator which is operated by the hydraulic oil, hydraulic cylinders are used for power transmission the Operating specifications, mounting, materials of construction, and features are the important parameters to be considered while selecting the hydraulic cylinders. The two common types of the hydraulic cylinder are: i) Single acting cylinder. The forward movement of the piston is achieved by the supply of hydraulic fluid and the return movement is by the spring. ii) Double acting cylinder. Both the forward and the return movement of the piston is achieved by the supply of hydraulic oil. The important specifications of the hydraulic cylinder are. Cylinder type Stoke Maximum operating pressure Bore diameter Rod diameter

i) Cylinder type. Generally the cylinders are classified into 3 types. Tie rod cylinder Welded cylinder Ram cylinder

ii) Stroke. Stroke is the distance that piston travels through the cylinder so as the piston projects out from the cylinder. iii) Maximum operating pressure. The maximum operating pressure the maximum pressure the cylinder can withstand. iv) Bore diameter. The bore diameter refers to the internal bore diameter of the cylinder. v) Rod diameter. The rod diameter refers to the diameter of rod used in the cylinder.

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2.1 Specification:

Fig2. 3 Specification mentioned in catalogue[6]

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2.2 Possible failures in cylinders: 2.2.1 Failure due to buckling:


This failure occurs due to the excessive length of the piston rod as shown in Fig().

Fig2. 4 Hydraulic cylinder failure due to buckling Compression and tension failures: This failure occurs when the cylinder exceeds the load which is prescribed by the manufacturer as shown in the Fig().

Fig2. 5 Hydraulic cylinder -compression & tension failures

2.3 Piston & Piston rod design:


The piston rod should be capable to withstand Compressive loads Tensile loads and Bending loads.

Generally pistons are made of high tensile material, stainless steel() hardened and finished with chrome plating to have corrosion resistance. The cross section to be calculated after considering whether it is a stressed rod or a column. For column: As a thumb rule if the length of the rod exceeds 10 times in diameter it can be considered as the column under the compressive loads and may buckle under the pressure of the load. For stressed rod:
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If the piston is the stressed rod the cross sectional area can be calculated from the formula. F = A Were, F = compressive or tensile load. =Stress. A= Cross sectional area. For column: In case when the cylinder behaves like a column the maximum piston rod load is given by

Were, F = Critical buckling load. L = Free buckling length. E = Modulus of elasticity. I = Moment of inertia. S = Factor of safety can be taken as 2 to 10.

2.4 Calculation based on data given by manufacturer:


The calculation to determine the safe working loads in hydraulic cylinders

2.4.1Calculation:
Component: Piston rod Size to be analyzed: 16 Data relevant to selected series: Barrel bore size: Piston velocity in m/s at flow of 1ltr/min : Requisite flow in m/s to get velocity of 0.1m/s: Force acting at the pressure 100Kg/cm2: Force acting at the pressure 100Kg/cm2: 25mm. 0.034 m/s. 2.94ltr/min. 490 kg (Forward stroke). 290 kg (Return stroke).

2.4.2Calculation: 1
Verifying the piston diameter taking the first series from the catalogue and substituting the relevant data of the series as mentioned above.

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Forward stroke: Verifying the piston diameter

Fig2. 6 Cylinder function obtained from catalogue

Pressure Area 100 d 4

Thrust Area

F x 2.5 4 100 x x 2.5 Force 4


(25 mm = 2.5 cm) Force = 490.87 Kg.

2.5 Conclusion:[6]

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As in catalogue it was mentioned that the piston diameter of 25mm and by applying the pressure of 100 Kg/cm2 can able to lift the weight of 490 Kg this is proved by the above calculation the piston diameter of 25 mm is possible to lift the 490kg of load.

2.6 Calculation: 2
Verifying the diameter of rod connected to the piston taking the first series from the catalogue and substituting the relevant data of the series as mentioned above. Return stroke: Verifying the rod diameter connected to the cylinder weather 16 mm is suitable for lifting the load of 290 Kg downwards in return stroke.

Fig2. 7 Cylinder function obtained from catalogue

Pressure Area 100 Force

Thrust Area

D d 4 4 x 2.5 x 1.6 4 4 100 x (4.908 2.010) F

(25 mm = 2.5 cm & 16 mm = 1.6 cm) Force = 289.73 Kg.

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2.7 Conclusion:[6]

As in catalogue it was mentioned that the piston diameter of 25mm and the rod diameter is 16mm by applying the pressure of 100 Kg/cm2 can able to lift the weight of 290 Kg for this by the above calculation the result obtained was 289.73 Kg as there will be some fluid which will be present in the other side counter balances the pressure applied it can be considered as operated safely.

2.8 Calculation: 3
Calculating and cross checking the length of the piston rod as for the first series the length of the piston rod is given as 145 mm in this calculation it was cross checked weather there is any possibilities for buckling by applying the prescribed load on the piston rod. Depending on data obtained from the first series the double acting cylinder with piston diameter 25mm and rod diameter 16 mm stroke length is 145mm considering the Youngs modulus as 21 x 105 N/cm2 and factor of safety as 3. Considering the end conditions L = l for doth ends are fixed. Finding weather long or short column by slenderness ratio = 99.82 N/cm2 E = 21 x 105 N/cm2 99.82 1 x x 21 x 10 L k Cx xE L k

L/k = 455.67 as the value is more than 80 it is considered as long column. The Buckling load:
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Moment of inertia can be found by; F d 64

x 21 x 10 x x 1.6 145 F = 49.55 x 106 N Thrust load on the rod is calculated by: W F = Buckling load S = Factor of safety W 49.55 x 10 3 F S

W = 16.5 x106N W =16.8 x105Kg

2.9 Conclusion:[6]

Stroke length

The for the standard diameter and length of the piston rod, it will buckle only when the load applied is 16.8 x105Kg as the maximum recommended load is 490 Kg we can know that the rod fail due to buckling.

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2.10 Component: Barrel design

Fig2. 8 Hydraulic cylinder - Barrel

2.11Calculation:1
For same series and data substituted for the piston & piston rod calculation this problem is solved. The problem is finding the suitable thickness of the barrel used in the hydraulic cylinder. Data obtained from palm let:[6] Cylinder bore = 25mm System pressure = 100 Kg/cm2 = 180 Kgf For the material cold drawn seamless tube the tensile strength = 7350 Kgf/cm2 Factor of safety is considered as 6 Solution: working stress Tensile strength factor of safety 7350 6

working stress

Working stress = 1225 Kgf/cm2 As the pressure is equally distributed on the walls of the cylinder by using the Hoop stress formula thickness can be determined. Hoop stress() P do + 2.5 do 2.5 2 2 1225(do - 2.5 ) = 180(do2 +2.52) 1225 180

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do2 = 8.40 cm do =2.9cm Therefore the outer diameter is 2.90 cm = 29.0 mm the wall thickness can be calculated by:

Wall thickness
Wall thickness 29.0 25 2

Wall thickness = 2.0 mm.

2.12 Conclusion:
As per the calculation it can be concluded that the minimum wall thickness required for the cold drawn seamless steel with the factor of safety as 6 we get minimum wall thickness required for the barrel is 2 mm. As the wall thickness is usually more than the calculated thickness the barrel in safe operating condition.

2.13 Component: Hydraulic motor:[7]

Fig2. 9 Hydraulic cylinder motor

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In automotive engineering expo the third component is selected from the hydraulic motor which was exhibited by the FAR HYDRAULICS, Jhallali west, Bengaluru in B- block stall number-39 in which the output shaft diameter is calculated and verified.

2.14 Introduction:
Hydraulic motor is generally used in most of the machines like concrete mixtures, feed screw drives in machine tools, conveyors etc. these motors converts fluid energy into mechanical energy these motor produces the continuous rotary output. In this hydraulic motors are designated in the series for the calculation purpose the motor selected is FMP 50 which represents the motor has the capacity to displace the fluid of 50cc/rev. For this motor the output shaft is designed to the diameter of 25mm this is verified. The data obtained from the palm let: Displacement = Maximum rpm= Maximum torque = Maximum Flow = 50 cc/rev 800 6 Kg.m 40 lpm.

Maximum pressure = 100 Kg/cm2 Maximum output = Length = Weight = 4.5 H.P 129mm. 5.8 Kg d 16

Calculation to check the output shaft diameter:


Torque 6 6 x 10

2.5 16

2.5 16 = 195.56 kg/cm2

Shear stress ( ) = 488.92 Kg/cm2 M I M I


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y y

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M M M

I y

100 x x 2.5 32

M = 383.49 Kg.cm Analyzing the diameter using the von micas theory of failure Considering the factor of safety as 6 Yield strength of steel = 3775 Kg/cm2
16 4 M 2 + 3T 2

12

d 3 y
N

16 (4M + 3T )

d N d x3775 6

16 (4 x 383.49 + 3 x195.56 )
d3=6.78 cm d = 1.8 cm = 18mm

2.15 Conclusion:
As in the FMP series 7 types of hydraulic motors end shaft has the same diameter of 25mm by manufacturing consideration for all the series the shaft diameter used is 25mm as per the calculation the result obtained is 18mm therefore the shaft is designer in safe condition.

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Part-C 3.1 Introduction:


The Part-C assignment is of selecting the gear box housing of the earth mover and using the CES 2009 (Cambridge engineering selection) software the suitable material has to be identified and suitable processes has to be identified with the proper justification for the result obtained has to be presented and also the steps involved in processing while manufacturing the gear box has to be presented.

3.2 Introduction to gearbox housing in earth movers:


Generally any earthmovers will have gear box to transmit power. The gearbox housing is the protective shells were the gears are enclosed within it and it provides mechanical support generally filled with lubrication oil for the splash lubrication of the gears.

Fig3. 1Gear box selected with application[8]

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3.3 Specification of gear box:

Fig3. 2 Specification of gear box[8]

3.4 Introduction to CES software:


CES 2009 (Cambridge engineering selector) is the dedicated software for the selection of material for various applications and selection of suitable process for any particular material. The software consist of material and process database which is classified into 3 levels out of which Level-1 has 64 materials and 75 processes; level-2 has 94 materials and 107 processes and Level-3 has 2916 materials and 233 processes. Based on the required accuracy and the inputs we have we can select one of the level to get the proper results.

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3.5 Selecting the suitable material for gear housing using CES 2009: 3.5.1 Limit stage:
For selecting the suitable material for gear housing in CES2009 following steps are followed: i) In select from: Edu level 2: material with durable & eco properties are selected The Edu Level 2: material with durable & eco properties is selected as this database has 98 different materials and 108 processes and also all of these has durability property and eco friendly characteristic. ii) The limit stage good thermal conductor is selected to apply constrains. Thermal property Thermal conductor or insulator? Good conductor is selected.

Justification: As the gear box is filled with the lubrication oil while gears are in motion splash lubrication takes place which results in raise in temperature. These raise in temperature has to be dissipated by the walls of the gear housing for this for this the material should be the good conductor of heat.

Fig3. 3Material identification - limit stage


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Result obtained: For the applied constrain only the 30 material has pass through out of 98 materials.

3.5.2 Tree stage:


The second constrain is applied in tree stage for the further refinement of materials, the constrain applied is: Process universe Shaping Casting is inserted as a constrain.

Justification: The gear housing has very complicated profile. It has hallowed 3D shape with thickness. The size of the housing is large. The weight of the component is more.

Fig3. 4Material identification - tree stage

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Fig3. 5 Material identification - tree stage result Result obtained: After applying the tree constrain the result obtained is only the 21 of 98 material is passed as shown in the Fig 3.5.

3.5.3 Graph stage:


In this stage we can plot the graph by assigning the variables in X & Y axis and the graph can be plotted and the material which all passes the limit stage and tree stage will be plotted in graph based on its values. The first graph plotted is machinability and castability. Justification: In gear box housing the material should have good castability so that the material fills all the intricate profiles in the die. After casting many machining process is carried out such as drilling and boring for fitting the axle shaft and drilling holes for bolts for clamping and spot facing in the butting area is carried out so the material should have both castability and machinability property.

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Fig3. 6 Material identification - graph stage Result obtained: The result obtained from the graph is the materials with the high castability and machinability property are listed below which are all suitable for manufacturing gear box as per this graph are listed below. Cast magnesium alloys Lead alloys Gray cast Iron Copper The rest of the materials can be removed from the list as those material fails to have either castability or machinability property.

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3.5.4 Graph constrain-2:


The second graph plotted is for cost to refine and find out the economic material suitable for the manufacturing the gearbox housing shown in Fig 3.7.

Fig3. 7 Material identification - Graph stage Result obtained: The result obtained from the graph are from the previous constrain of castability and weldability only the two material passes through are. Grey cast iron Nodular cast iron As we compare the grey cast iron the cost is less compared to nodular cast iron due to as nodular cast iron is not possible to manufacture directly as grey cast iron, white cast iron has to be spherodised and converted into nodular cast iron. It can be concluded that grey cast iron is suitable material for gearbox housing.

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3.6 Selecting the suitable processes for gear box housing:


From the above method it was shown that the suitable material for the gearbox housing is cast iron. For manufacturing the gearbox the material has to be processed the suitable process for this material is selected and justified below.

3.6.1 Limit stage:


In the limit stage the following constrains are applied. In the select from -Edu level-2 Process shaping is selected.

Justification: As we know that the housing is made up of the cast iron as justified above for which the suitable process has to be found from the database therefore Edu level-2 Process shaping is selected.

Fig3. 8 Process identification

3.6.2 Tree stage:


As the material to be processed is known as cast iron the constrain is directly applied in tree stage as Trees: Material universe Metals and alloys grey cast iron is inserted as the constrain. Justification: As the material to be processed is cast iron is found out.

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Fig3. 9 Process identification-Tree stage Result obtained: For this tree constrain the result obtained is the seven process is passed out of 30 processes which are listed in the Fig3.10 below.

Fig3. 10 Process identification - tree stage result

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3.6.3 Limit stage:


In the limit stage the constrain applied is Shape - Hallow 3-D. Justification: As the shape of the gear housing has to enclose the gear with in generally it is manufactured as a 3D hallow part therefore the constrain is applied.

Fig3. 11 Process identification - limit stage Result obtained: For the constrain applied in the tree stage and the limit stage only the 4 processes has passed as listed below. Sand casting Machining 3-D printing Investment casting

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3.6.4 Graph stage:


In the graph stage the first graph plotted is Mass range in Kg Justification: As the gear box housing is of very large in size as it has to enclose the gears within it occupies large volume and this requires large amount material to be processed so mass range graph is plotted.

Fig3. 12 Process identification - graph stage Result obtained: As the by 3-D printing it is possible to process the material only up to 30 Kg. the process can be eliminated as the gear box weight will not be of so less and rest 3 process is carried forward.

3.6.5 Graph constrain-2:


The second graph plotted is the Range of thickness is plotted. Justification: To identify the minimum and maximum thickness that can be produced using the processes the graph is plotted as shown in the Fig3.13.

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Fig3. 13 Process identification - Graph stage Result obtained: From the graph we can identify that all these processes are suitable to manufacture the gearbox thickness as the 3-D printing is already eliminated the rest 3 processes is carried forward.

3.6.6 Graph constrain-3:


The third graph plotted is the Relative equipment cost is plotted. Justification: The graph is plotted to identify the economic method of manufacturing the investment to be made on the die or machine or equipment is identified.

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Fig3. 14 Process identification - Graph stage Justification: This result obtained from this graph is the investment on the processes is very less for sand casting while compared to other two processes.

3.7 Conclusion:
By applying various suitable constrains which is required for material selection such as the characteristics of the materials are given as constrains and selected grey cast iron as the suitable material for gear box housing in CES. Similarly by applying the constrains in process parameters and the result obtained was sand casting is the suitable process for the gear box housing manufacturing.

3.8Write up on processing method used to manufacture the part:


The gear box housings are generally manufactured by the process of sand casting and finished by the secondary operations by machining the process is explained in various stages below.

3.8.1 Creating the impression in sand:


For creating the impression in sand a wooden frame cope and drag is used which is filled with sand as shown in the Fig 3.15

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Fig3. 15 Showing cope & Drag[9] The sand is forced for binding to get proper stability in impression when the pattern is pressed in sand as shown in the Fig 3.16

Fig3. 16 Showing binding of sand[9] Impression is created by pressing the pattern in the sand in both the half of the die as shown in Fig 3.17.

Fig3. 17 Showing creating impression with pattern[9] Fixing the raisers and sprue in the die to create the provision for material flow in die.

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Fig3. 18 Creating impressions of raisers and sprue[9] Pouring cup is prepared to pore material in to the die as shown in Fig3.19.

Fig3. 19 Showing Pouring cup preparation[9] Molten metal is poured in the die and allowed to cool as shown in Fig3.20.

Fig3. 20 Sand casting process[9] After cooling by breaking the die component is removed along with the raiser and sprue as shown in Fig 3.21.
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Fig3. 21Casted part with raiser & sprue[9] By fettling operation the raisers, runners and sprue is removed from the component.

3.8.2 Process parameters and limitation of castings:


Casting parameter influence fluidity and flow, heat transfer 1. Mold design, 2. Mold material and its surface characteristics 3. Degree of superheat, 4. Rate of pouring, 5. Heat transfer. Heat flow depends on casting material (molten metal) and the mold materials and process parameters.

Fig3. 22 Heat flow in casting Solidification time is a function of the volume of a casting and surface area.

Effects of mold geometry depends on the thickness and its shape are shown when the section time increases the cycle time increases.

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Fig3. 23 Cycle time in casting

3.8.3 The following machining operations are carried out:


Generally the gear box is bade into two halves and clamped using bolts and nuts as in casting the surface finish and flatness is not so good therefore spot facing is done as shown in Fig3.24.

Fig3. 24 Spot facing of casting[10] After spot facing the holes for clamping and the holes for axle shaft are drilled as shown in fig3.25.

Fig3. 25 Drilling of casting When the diameter of hole is too large the holes are slitted as shown in the Fig3.26.

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Fig3. 26 Slitting large diameter hole in casting Finally using the gaskets to avoid oil leakage and bolts and nuts two halves are assembled by enclosing the gear.

1.0

Learning outcome:
In the module design of machine elements and the manufacturing processes the concept of categorization of materials into different groups and their application and the ferrous materials and their processing. The effect of FeC3 diagram in processing of steels and cast iron by varying the carbon content in material was clearly explained and heat treatment processes carried on the steel and the effect of TTT diagram in cooling of steel with structures was explained clearly. Non ferrous materials and its applications and precipitation hardening of non ferrous material was explained and different forming operations like forging, extrusion, bending & deep drawing was explained. The casting and various casting processes and their process parameters and their limitations were explained. The various sheet metal operations and their applications and nontraditional machining processes like USM, EBM, EDM abrasive jet, water jet machining processes and their limitation was explained. In the design of machine elements part gives the idea on what is design? How to start with the design? Steps involved in design in which the various calculations was solved for design of shafts, bending calculation, design of gears, design of key ways and design of couplings etc. for which various consideration to be taken and obtaining data from hand book for calculation was learned. In Lab session CES 2009 was explained by using this how to identify the material for various products and how to identify the processes for various product was learned.

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References
[1] Unknown, Short film showing men and women manufacturing steel army helmets for the U.S. World War II war effort. 1940's, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tz1VYxSFyMQ. [2] Unknown, Discovery Channel's How To series on making a crash helmet,

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xK_hrdjqE48. [3] Mhwong, https://my.ece.illinois.edu/er/mhwong/documents/turbine_blades.pdf. Retrieved on 02/02/2012. [4]Image courtesy Michael cervenka, Rolls-Royse plc, http://msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-

trans/2003/superalloys/coating/ index.html. Retrieved on 02/03/2012. [5] Module notes, M.S.Ramaiah school of advanced studies, Bengaluru. [6] Catalogue, Bhavana fluid power, Bengaluru. [7] Catalogue, FAR hydraulics, Bengaluru. [8] Wheel and trac drives and pump drives,

http://www.twindisc.com/IndustrialProducts/IndustrialPumpDrives.html Retrieved on 02/03/2012 [9] Unknown, http://www.flamingfurnace.com/p/sand-casting-terminology.html Retrieved on 01/03/2012. [10] Unknown, http://www.etotheipiplusone.net/?p=547 retrieved on 02/03/2012.

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